Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.HomocystineMethylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Cystathionine beta-Synthase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the second stage of cysteine biosynthesis it catalyzes the reaction of homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine with the elimination of water. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA and HOMOCYSTINURIA. EC 4.2.1.22.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors: Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Vitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of methionine by transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine. It requires a cobamide coenzyme. The enzyme can act on mono- or triglutamate derivatives. EC 2.1.1.13.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Homocystinuria: Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.CystathionineCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Vitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Methylmalonic Acid: A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (FADH2): An FAD-dependent oxidoreductase found primarily in BACTERIA. It is specific for the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.1.1.68 and 1.1.99.15.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Tetrahydrofolates: Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Glycine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP): An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Sarcosine Dehydrogenase: A LIVER mitochondrial matrix flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of SARCOSINE to GLYCINE and FORMALDEHYDE. Mutation in the enzyme causes sarcosinemia, a rare autosomal metabolic defect characterized by elevated levels of SARCOSINE in BLOOD and URINE.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme found primarily in the LIVER that catalyzes the N-methylation of NICOTINAMIDE and other structurally related compounds.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.CreatininePyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Guanidinoacetate N-Methyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.TriglyceridesRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.XanthurenatesCoronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.HLA-B51 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*51 allele family.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.gamma-Glutamyl Hydrolase: Catalyzes the hydrolysis of pteroylpolyglutamic acids in gamma linkage to pterolylmonoglutamic acid and free glutamic acid. EC 3.4.19.9.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the demethylation of L-homocysteine to L-METHIONINE.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Formate-Tetrahydrofolate Ligase: A carbon-nitrogen ligase that catalyzes the formation of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate from formate and tetrahydrofolate in the presence of ATP. In higher eukaryotes the enzyme also contains METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE (NADP+) and METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE activity.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.JapanPeripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).SingaporeAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Adenosylhomocysteinase: An enzyme which catalyzes the catabolism of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE to ADENOSINE and HOMOCYSTEINE. It may play a role in regulating the concentration of intracellular adenosylhomocysteine.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Transcobalamins: A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.United StatesCystathionine gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Plasma Exchange: Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Venous thrombosis; increased plasma homocysteine levels *PAI-1 gene mutation. Independent risk factor for coronary artery ... Risks and limitations[edit]. The physical risks associated with most genetic tests are very small, particularly for those tests ... Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer as... *^ a b "Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes". National Cancer ... For example, an individual with a mutation in BRCA1 has a 65% cumulative risk of breast cancer.[13] Hereditary breast cancer ...
... a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. High plasma levels of homocysteine inhibit DNA methyltransferases, which causes ... Abbreviations: S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH), S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase), Uracil-DNA ... One proposed mechanism behind this global hypomethylation is elevated homocysteine levels causing hyperhomocysteinemia, ... "DNA-binding factors shape the mouse methylome at distal regulatory regions". Nature. 480 (7378): 490-5. doi:10.1038/nature11086 ...
... a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. High plasma levels of homocysteine inhibit DNA methyltransferases, which causes ... High levels of homocysteine also result in hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of the estrogen receptor ... Choy MK, Movassagh M, Goh HG, Bennett M, Down T, Foo R (2010). "Genome-wide conserved consensus transcription factor binding ... One proposed mechanism behind this global hypomethylation is elevated homocysteine levels causing hyperhomocysteinemia, ...
Homocysteine (a putative cardiovascular risk factor) mounts an oxidative attack on DDAH to form a mixed disulfide, inactivating ... In this animal, the activity of DDAH is increased, and plasma ADMA levels are reduced by 50%. The reduction in plasma ADMA is ... By oxidizing a sulfhydryl moiety critical for DDAH activity, homocysteine and other risk factors cause ADMA to accumulate and ... and impairment of vascular relaxation observed in humans with cardiovascular disease or risk factors (such as ...
Scientists believe that elevated levels of plasma homocysteine are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and two studies ... Vessani RM, Ritch R, Liebmann JM, Jofe M (2003). "Plasma homocysteine is elevated in patients with exfoliation syndrome". Am J ... have found higher levels of plasma homocysteine in PEX patients, or elevated homocysteine concentrations in tear fluids ... They have found associations with different groups but it is not yet clear what the underlying factors are and how they affect ...
Elevated homocysteine is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and inversely correlated to consumed vitamin B12 ... G polymorphism is associated with increased plasma homocysteine concentration when combined with the homozygous ... "Genetic polymorphisms in folate and homocysteine metabolism as risk factors for DNA damage". European Journal of Human Genetics ... Wang SS, Qiao FY, Feng L, Lv JJ (February 2008). "Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism as maternal risk factors ...
The role of homocysteine as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is suggested to be mediated by homocysteine down- ... Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a naturally occurring chemical found in blood plasma. It is a metabolic by-product of ... an intermediate in the metabolism of homocysteine. (Homocysteine is an important blood chemical because it is also a marker of ... 2006). "Homocysteine Lowering with Folic Acid and B Vitamins in Vascular Disease". N Engl J Med. 354 (15): 1567-77. doi:10.1056 ...
677TT (but not 677CC/CT) individuals with lower plasma folate levels are at risk for elevated plasma homocysteine levels. In ... Mutations in the MTHFR gene could be one of the factors leading to increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Schizophrenic ... Subgroup and sensitivity analysis results showed that this polymorphism is a risk factor for Down syndrome pregnancy in Asian ... Muntjewerff JW, Kahn RS, Blom HJ, den Heijer M (Feb 2006). "Homocysteine, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and risk of ...
Elevated homocysteine is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. It has also been shown to be associated ... Chronic consumption of alcohol may also result in increased plasma levels of homocysteine. Homocysteine is a non-protein amino ... There is also evidence that elevated homocysteine levels and low levels of vitamin B6 and B12 are risk factors for mild ... The remaining homocysteine is transsulfurated to cysteine, with vitamin B6 as the co-factor. Genetic defects in 5-MTHF ...
Low plasma concentrations of folic acid were found to be associated with high plasma homocysteine concentrations.[47] In ... Non-modifiable risk factors of diabetic complications are type of diabetes, age of onset, and genetic factors, both protective ... December 2007). "Familial risk factors for microvascular complications and differential male-female risk in a large cohort of ... Risk factors[edit]. Age[edit]. Type 2 diabetes in youth brings a much higher prevalence of complications like diabetic kidney ...
... and that maternal glutathione deficiency may also be a risk factor for autism. She has also found that administering these ... found that autistic children exhibit abnormal folate metabolism that is detectable by higher levels of plasma homocysteine, ... adenosine, and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine in the mothers of these children. Her glutathione-related research has been cited by ...
"Total plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk profile. The Hordaland Homocysteine Study". JAMA: The Journal of the American ... "Homocysteine and folate levels as risk factors for recurrent early pregnancy loss". Obstet Gynecol. 95: 519-24. doi:10.1016/ ... Homocysteine MS Spectrum Homocysteine at Lab Tests Online Homocysteine: analyte monograph - The Association for Clinical ... This has been claimed to be a significant risk factor for the development of a wide range of diseases, including thrombosis, ...
1: Phenomenology and risk factors. Br J Psychiatry 1999; 175: 410-415; Sachdev P, Brodaty H, Rose N, Cathcart S. Schizophrenia ... Relationship between plasma homocysteine levels and brain atrophy in healthy elderly individuals. Neurology 2002; 58:1539-1541 ... Risk factors of transition from normal cognition to mild cognitive disorder: The PATH through life study. Dementia & Geriatric ... Risk factors for tardive dystonia: A case control comparison with tardive dyskinesia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1993; 88:98 103; ...
A lower BMD value indicates an increased risk of a osteoporosis or a fracture. There is a large range of factors influencing ... and direct action of homocysteine on bone matrix. Homocysteine inhibits lysyl oxidase which is responsible for post- ... The bicarbonate buffering system of blood plasma effectively holds a steady pH and helps to hold extracellular pH around 7.35. ... Homocysteine, a non-protein amino acid and analogue to the protein amino acid cystine, has been shown to have negative effects ...
... are major risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Hence, taurine supplementation is possibly beneficial for ... Plasma taurine was 78% of control values, and urinary taurine was 29%. In cells, taurine keeps potassium and magnesium inside ... Taurine is also produced by the transsulfuration pathway, which converts homocysteine into cystathionine. The cystathionine is ... The OSL risk assessments indicate that based on the available published human clinical trial data, the evidence for the absence ...
2010). "Assessing oxidative pathway genes as risk factors for bipolar disorder". Bipolar Disord. 12 (5): 550-6. doi:10.1111/j. ... plasma)". Takahashi K, Avissar N, Whitin J, Cohen H (August 1987). "Purification and characterization of human plasma ... "The role of low levels of the serum glutathione-dependent peroxidase and glutathione and high levels of serum homocysteine in ... 2009). "PTEN identified as important risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Respir Med. 103 (12): 1866-70. doi: ...
Homocysteine: elevated levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) an amino acid are an independent risk factor for silent stroke, even ... 2001). "Elevated plasma homocysteine levels and risk of silent brain infarction in elderly people". Stroke: A Journal of ... There are various individual risk factors associated with having a silent stroke. Many of these risk factors are the same as ... Metabolic syndrome (MetS):Metabolic syndrome is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk ...
Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for vascular dementia, and is thus the risk is lowered with anti-diabetic drugs. Besides, ... In particular, deficiency of vitamin B12 and/or of folate can cause an increase in Hcy plasma levels, which in turn leads to ... There is evidence for an association between cognitive decline, homocysteine (Hcy) status, and vitamin B status relating ... Chen JH, Lin KP, Chen YC (October 2009). "Risk factors for dementia". J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 108 (10): 754-64. doi:10.1016/ ...
Consequently, the plasma concentration of homocysteine falls as the intracellular concentration of vitamin B12 rises. The ... "an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially among individuals with type 2 diabetes". There are also rare ... The intracellular concentrations of vitamin B12 can be inferred through the total plasma concentration of homocysteine, which ... may overwhelm the complex R-factor and IGF-factor dependent absorption, when oral doses of B12 are very large (a thousand or ...
... plasma riboflavin, and the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase G5465A genotype predict plasma homocysteine in folate- ... PEMT gene expression is regulated by transcription factors including activator protein 1 (AP-1) and Sp1. Sp1 is a negative ... Ablation of the estrogen binding site in the PEMT promoter region may increase risk of hepatic steatosis from choline ... PEMT is also a significant source and regulator of plasma homocysteine, which can be secreted or converted to methionine or ...
... and depend on adequate levels of folate within blood plasma. Concentrations of blood plasma folate and homocysteine ... One kind of Dementia is Vascular dementia, which has risk factor for strokes that are related to nutrition such has diabetes ... Elevated homocysteine has been associated with increased risk of vascular events, as well as dementia. Differences lie in the ... In a 3-year longitudinal study of men and women aged 50-70 years with elevated homocysteine plasma concentration, researchers ...
... and other factors), but decreases the risk of death for individuals ages 55+ (due to decreased risk of ischemic heart disease ... Bleich S, Degner D, Bandelow B, von Ahsen N, Rüther E, Kornhuber J (August 2000). "Plasma homocysteine is a predictor of ... due to increased risk of cancers, accidents, liver disease, and other factors), but a decreased risk for individuals ages 55+ ( ... is not associated with higher risk of duodenal ulcer. Excessive alcohol consumption seen in alcoholics is a known risk factor ...
"Is low folate a risk factor for depression? A meta-analysis and exploration of heterogeneity". J Epidemiol Community Health. 61 ... which may be due to the role folate plays in regulating homocysteine concentration.[13] The reviews indicate the risk of stroke ... April 1998). "Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary ... since hypertension is a key risk factor for stroke. Folic supplements are inexpensive and relatively safe to use, which is why ...
"Is low folate a risk factor for depression? A meta-analysis and exploration of heterogeneity". J Epidemiol Community Health. 61 ... Increased homocysteine levels suggest tissue folate deficiency, but homocysteine is also affected by vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 ... 1998). "Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart ... which may be due to the role folate plays in regulating homocysteine concentration.[11] A meta-analysis indicated the risk of ...
RFC-1 and TC polymorphisms as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome". Disease Markers. 26 (4): 155-61. doi:10.3233/DMA-2009- ... "Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry". Journal of ... and homocysteine blood concentrations". American Journal of Human Genetics. 84 (4): 477-82. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.02.011. PMC ... Intrinsic factor (IF) is a glycoprotein, with a molecular weight of 45 kDa. In the duodenum, the free vitamin B12 attaches to ...
"Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a ... homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial". Circulation. 106 (11): 1327-32. doi: ... "Nuts and plasma lipids: an almond-based diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C". J Am Coll Nutr. 17 (3): 285-90. PMID ...
17.) Ashjazadeh N, Fathi M, Shariat A (2013) Evaluation of homocysteine level as a risk factor among patients with ischemic ... 2000) Plasma total homocysteine, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcomes: The hordaland homocysteine study. Am ... 1996) Hyperhomocysteinemia: A risk factor for placental abruption or infarction. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 66: 23-29. ( ... in the programming of genes regarded as risk factors for AD development in offspring. Materials and Methods Animal treatment ...
... but they werent the main determinant of the plasma Hcy levels, because other factors were involved: age, sex, plasma folate ... S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine is converted into homocysteine by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase. N1-methylnicotinamide is ... Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for Neural Tube Defects (NTDs). Several SNPs of NNMT gene have been analysed in ... NNMT and its genetic variants are candidate risk factors for AAA.. Giusti and co-workers, using a multiplex PCR oligonucleotide ...
... brewed coffee increased homocysteine levels within hours of consumption and seemed to have a particularly strong effect when ... In a study of the effects of caffeine alone and in brewed coffee on homocysteine concentrations, ... Coffee drinking elevates plasma homocysteine and risk factors for coronary heart disease. American Journal of Clinical ... Coffee drinking elevates plasma homocysteine and risk factors for coronary heart disease ...
Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for atheroembolic events in systemic lupus erythematosus Lancet (Oct) 348:1120-1123 1996 ... The increased risk persisted after adjusting for comorbid conditions. The risk of venous thrombosis was not increased. Comment: ... Whether correction or improvement of plasma homocysteine levels with supplemental folate is of benefit in such patients remains ... there is mounting evidence that mildly elevated homocysteine levels are associated with incresed risk of coronary artery ...
Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease J Am Med Assoc (Jun) 277:1775-1781 1997 ...
Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimers disease. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 14;346:476-83. [PubMed ID: ... such as at different levels of other risk factors and at different times in the evolution of risk). Analogy with plasma risk ... Assessment of risk factors. Baseline data were collected on the plasma total homocysteine level. Analyses were adjusted for ... Is an elevated plasma total homocysteine level a risk factor for dementia in the elderly? ...
Elevated plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. Comparability of plasma homocysteine data ... Plasma Homocysteine as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor - United States, July -September, 1998. Reference materials are needed to ... Plasma Homocysteine as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor - United States, July -September, 1998 ... laboratories and methods analyzing plasma homocysteine. Further, there is a need for a standardization program, where properly ...
... with plasma homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Sixty-five ... Next Document: Atherosclerotic and thrombophilic risk factors in patients with recurrent central retinal vein occlu.... ... Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and folate levels were determined after 8-hour of fasting for all subjects. The ... PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the association of macular edema (ME) with plasma homocysteine, vitamin B6, ...
... is an established risk factor for various pathologies including arterial vascular disease and venous thrombosis, congenital ... Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is an established risk factor for various pathologies including arterial vascular disease and ... Homocysteine remethylation, transsulfuration, and export to the blood/extracellular compartment determine homocysteine ... Any disturbance in these routes may lead to Hhcy and potentially increase risk of disease. In this report, we aim to review all ...
... association with plasma homocysteine, folate and cholesterol concentrations.. Lee EJ1, Cho YJ, Yoon YJ. ... Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene mutation as risk factor for sudden sensorineural hearing loss: ... Mean homocysteine and cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Mean folate levels ... Amongst patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss, no significant differences in mean cholesterol, homocysteine or folate ...
... total plasma homocysteine concentration and cardiovascular function in middle-aged men with coronary heart disease risk factors ... total plasma homocysteine concentration and cardiovascular function in middle-aged men with coronary heart disease risk factors ... The importance of exercise in the lowering of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as its favourable influence on ... fitness levels and cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups (Group A = exercise training programme ...
The relationships between plasma total homocysteine and selected atherosclerotic risk factors according to the C677T ... Variation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels among individuals is modified by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ... The relationship between serum uric acid and plasma tHcy was the strongest in those with the mutant homozygote (VV), but the ... Serum uric acid, hematocrit, hemoglobin, creatinine, and men were determinants of plasma tHcy levels. Further investigations ...
... is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Since Creatine synthesis in the liver accounts for ... nearly 70% of daily homocysteine formation, creatine supplementation might inhibit Hcy production. The present study ... Effect of creatine supplementation in endurance swimming training on plasma homocysteine levels and lipid risk factors in rats ... Effect of creatine supplementation in endurance swimming training on plasma homocysteine levels and lipid risk factors in rats ...
Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimers disease. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(7):476-83. PMID 11844848 ... an accepted risk factor for Alzheimers disease. Alzheimers disease and cardiovascular diseases share a common risk factor, ... homocysteine and the B vitamins that influence the level of homocysteine are potentially causal and modifiable risk factors. ... The authors of the Framingham Study concluded that homocysteine is "a strong, independent risk factor for the development of ...
Elevated plasma total homocysteine levels are a strong, graded independent risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction.1,2 ... Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. JAMA 1997;277:1775-81. ... Plasma homocysteine levels were higher at lower levels of vitamin B12 for all age groups (p , 0.001). There was no difference ... Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1997;337:230-6. ...
Venous thrombosis; increased plasma homocysteine levels *PAI-1 gene mutation. Independent risk factor for coronary artery ... Risks and limitations[edit]. The physical risks associated with most genetic tests are very small, particularly for those tests ... Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer as... *^ a b "Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes". National Cancer ... For example, an individual with a mutation in BRCA1 has a 65% cumulative risk of breast cancer.[13] Hereditary breast cancer ...
Background Elevated plasma homocysteine and amyloid β (Aβ) have been associated with Alzheimers disease (AD). We investigated ... Seshadri S, Beiser A, Selhub J et al (2002) Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimers disease. N Engl J ... Seshadri S, Wolf PA (2003) Homocysteine and the brain: vascular risk factor or neurotoxin? Lancet Neurol 2:11PubMedCrossRef ... Luchsinger JA, Tang M-X, Shea S, Miller J, Green R, Mayeux R (2004) Plasma homocysteine levels and risk of Alzheimer disease. ...
Influence of dietary and cardiovascular risk factors on components of one-carbon metabolism. A study on predictors of plasma ... Homocysteine (2)Malaria (2)Matoverfølsomhet (2)Myocardial infarction (2)Quality improvement (2)... View MoreNorwegian Science ... Background: The space and time distribution of risk factors for allergic diseases may provide insights into disease mechanisms ... Genetic biomarkers as prognostic and predictive factors in metastatic malignant melanoma Busch, Christian (The University of ...
A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. JAMA 1995;274:1049-57. ... LB2HCY - Homocysteine (umol/L). Variable Name: LB2HCY. SAS Label: Homocysteine (umol/L). English Text: Homocysteine(umol/L). ... Abbott Homocysteine IMX (HCY) assay (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL) Total homocysteine (tHcy) in plasma is measured by ... There were two methods used to measure homocysteine in 2001-2002. For NHANES 2001, total homocysteine (tHcy) in plasma was ...
A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. JAMA 1995;274:1049-57. ... LBXHCY - Homocysteine (umol/L). Variable Name: LBXHCY. SAS Label: Homocysteine (umol/L). English Text: Homocysteine (umol/L). ... Total homocysteine (tHcy) in plasma is measured by the "Abbott Homocysteine (HCY) assay", a fully automated fluorescence ... the Abbott Homocysteine (HCY) assay will be used as primary method for the determination of plasma total homocysteine in NHANES ...
A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. JAMA 1995; 274: 1049-1057. ... Homocysteine, a risk factor for coronary artery disease or not? A meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 86: 1005-1009. ... Plasma homocysteine and coronary heart disease. Systematic review of published epidemiological studies. J Cardiovasc Risk 1998 ... Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. . Homocysteine and risk of ischaemic heart disease and stroke. A meta-analysis. JAMA 2002; ...
Ward, M., McNulty, H., McPartlin, J., Strain, J. J., Weir, D. G., and Scott, J. M. Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for ... A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic ... Meleady, R. and Graham, I. Plasma homocysteine as a cardiovascular risk factor: causal, consequential, or of no consequence? ... Heinz, J., Kropf, S., Luley, C., and Dierkes, J. Homocysteine as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients treated ...
Ward, M., McNulty, H., McPartlin, J., Strain, J. J., Weir, D. G., and Scott, J. M. Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for ... A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic ... Meleady, R. and Graham, I. Plasma homocysteine as a cardiovascular risk factor: causal, consequential, or of no consequence? ... Weir, D. G. and Scott, J. M. Homocysteine as a risk factor for cardiovascular and related disease: nutritional implications. ...
... is an inherited metabolic disease characterized biochemically by increased blood and brain levels of homocysteine caused by ... Ueland, P.M., and Refsum, H. (1989). Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease: Plasma levels in health, disease ... Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimers disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 346:476-483.Google Scholar ... Temple, M.E., Luzier, A.B., and Kaazierad, D.J. (2000). Homocysteine as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Ann. Pharmacother. ...
... are associated with an increased risk of developing occlusive vascular diseases. To better illustrate the relationship between ... Patients with CAD and high plasma tHcy levels had elevated plasma levels of Iso-P. The increase remained unaffected by plasma ... Levels of plasma ICAM-1 and S-AA were increased in patients with high plasma tHcy, suggesting an association between ... Of these, 34 had plasma tHcy ≤8μmol/L, while 59 had plasma tHcy ≥15.0 μmol/L. The 59 patients were randomized to open therapy ...
  • Disorders in the maternal-fetal homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism due to folate and/or cobalamin deficiencies are related to a wide array of pathological conditions, such as recurrent miscarriages, placental abruption, preeclampsia, neural tube closure defects and intrauterine growth retardation [9- (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This study, for the first time, demonstrated a correlation between increased homocysteine with a decrease in RNFL thickness and increased severity of diabetic retinopathy. (molvis.org)
  • Plasma total homocysteine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, which had been standardized against reference methods in both Oregon and Cleveland. (cmaj.ca)
  • There is some disagreement among scientists about what constitutes an elevated homocysteine level. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It was reported that elevated homocysteine level was independently associated with increased arterial stiffness in prehypertensives. (jove.com)