Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Constriction: The act of constricting.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neointima: The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Embolic Protection Devices: Vascular filters or occlusive devices that provide mechanical protection of the distal end organ from blood clots or EMBOLISM-causing debri dislodged during ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
Relationship between periodontal disease, tooth loss, and carotid artery plaque". Stroke. 34 (9): 2120-5. doi:10.1161/01.STR. ... Diseases may cause periodontal disease or bone loss to prompt tooth loss. Consequently, periodontal disease may cause increased ... Plaque retention and bacterial presence also affect the gums and bone and their ability to hold the teeth in place. Disease of ... Tooth loss can be due to tooth decay and gum disease. Tooth decay is caused by increased plaque retention. Bacteria can then ...
... for research and for management of patients with carotid artery disease. (.). This has evolved to the use of 3-D plaque volume ... With Maria Dicicco, RVT, he pioneered the measurement of total plaque area (TPA) in a patient's carotid artery using ultrasound ... Ultrasound measurement of plaque: Beginning in 1990, Dr. Spence pioneered the use of carotid plaque measurement (as opposed to ... Carotid Plaque Area: A Tool for Targeting and Evaluating Vascular Preventive Therapy Stroke. 2002;33:2916-2922 Stroke 1986; 17( ...
Relationship between periodontal disease, tooth loss, and carotid artery plaque". Stroke. 34 (9): 2120-5. doi:10.1161/01.STR. ... Secondary to diseaseEdit. Tooth loss can occur secondary or concomitantly to many diseases. Diseases may cause periodontal ... Consequently, periodontal disease may cause increased infection, which may predispose a person to other diseases. Diseases ... Tooth loss can be due to tooth decay and gum disease. Tooth decay is caused by increased plaque retention. Bacteria can then ...
Peripheral vascular disease; femoral artery stenosis Renal artery stenosis Stroke, carotid artery stenosis Aortic aneurysm ... atheroma or plaque) (cholesterol deposition in artery wall) Median arcuate ligament syndrome, celiac artery stenosis - external ... goitre Paget's disease Polymyalgia rheumatica Giant cell arteritis Fibromuscular dysplasia IgG4-related disease Carotid bruit " ... is the abnormal sound generated by turbulent flow of blood in an artery due to either an area of partial obstruction; or a ...
... homocysteine and that reduce neck carotid artery plaque volume and thickness, and stroke, even in late-stage disease.[citation ... prospectively followed-up 152 patients with coronary artery disease for 6-11 months by carotid artery ultrasonography and noted ... Arterial ultrasound, especially of the carotid arteries, with measurement of the thickness of the artery wall, offers a way to ... Less frequently, the artery enlarges so much that a gross aneurysmal enlargement of the artery results. All three results are ...
... tightening of the artery), aortic, carotid or vertebral artery dissection, various inflammatory diseases of the blood vessel ... In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus (blood clot) usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is ... Large vessel disease involves the common and internal carotid arteries, the vertebral artery, and the Circle of Willis. ... middle cerebral artery, stem, and arteries arising from the distal vertebral and basilar artery. Diseases that may form thrombi ...
... where ultrasound is used for assessing blood flow and stenoses in the carotid arteries (Carotid Ultrasonography) and ... Its aim is often to find a source of a disease or to exclude pathology. The practice of examining pregnant women using ... and the atherosclerotic plaque burden (green). ... Intravascular ultrasound image of a coronary artery (left), ... By calculating the frequency shift of a particular sample volume, for example flow in an artery or a jet of blood flow over a ...
Fungal plaque is usually located in the medial guttural pouch, near the internal carotid artery. Clinical signs include ... Guttural pouch mycosis (GPM) is a fungal disease that is rare but potentially life-threatening. GPM is of unknown pathogenesis ... Odd-toed perrisodactyls such as horses lack a carotid rete, but since the internal carotid artery passes through the guttural ... The external carotid artery passes ventral to the medial compartment before crossing to the lateral wall of the lateral ...
... prior ipsilateral carotid artery surgery, intra-thoracic or intracranial carotid disease) that make surgery difficult or risky ... Lesion Characteristics: Patients with evidence of intraluminal thrombus thought to increase the risk of plaque fragmentation ... stenosis of the carotid artery, or are asymptomatic with >80% stenosis of the internal carotid artery. Carotid stenting may be ... Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is an endovascular procedure where a stent is deployed within the lumen of the carotid artery to ...
Vibration of the carotid artery with snoring also lends itself as a potential mechanism for atherosclerotic plaque rupture and ... there is plausibility and initial evidence to support snoring as an independent source of carotid artery/cardiovascular disease ... identifying a possible mechanism for snoring-associated carotid artery damage and atherosclerotic plaque development. These ... New studies associate loud "snoring" with the development of carotid artery atherosclerosis.[7] Amatoury et al.[8] demonstrated ...
Madan SA, John F, Pyrsopoulos N, Pitchumoni CS (2015). "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and carotid artery atherosclerosis in ... Bartels, Susanne; Franco, Angelica Ruiz; Rundek, Tatjana (2012). "Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque from risk ... Variations in IMT between different locations (e.g. the common carotid artery, the carotid bulb and the internal carotid artery ... The carotid artery is the usual site of measurement of IMT and consensus statements for carotid IMT have been published for ...
Plaque autofluorescence has been used in a first-in-man study in coronary arteries in combination with Intracoronary optical ... to detect high-risk features of carotid plaques at risk for stroke. Molecular agents has been also used to detect specific ... Several research studies demonstrated the role of intravascular fluorescence for the diagnosis of vascular diseases. ... It is typically used to detect functional state of artery wall including some known high-risk features of atherosclerosis (e.g ...
... usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes ... Thrombotic stroke can be divided into two categories-large vessel disease and small vessel disease. The former affects vessels ... such as the internal carotids, vertebral and the circle of Willis. The latter can affect smaller vessels such as the branches ... The treatment for thrombosis depends on whether it is in a vein or an artery, the impact on the person, and the risk of ...
"Endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery disease". Coronary Artery Disease. 25 (8): 713-724. doi:10.1097/mca. ... This helps to create more plaques in the arteries, leading to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis . Endothelial dysfunction has ... one of the causes of oxidative stress being platelets disrupting the carotid artery), hypertension, or obesity. One of the ... Endothelial dysfunction is a major pathophysiological mechanism that leads towards coronary artery disease, and other ...
... is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque. Initially, there are ... Carotid arteries supply blood to the brain and neck. Marked narrowing of the carotid arteries can present with symptoms such as ... it can result in coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems depending on the arteries which ... While coronary artery disease is more prevalent in men than women, atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries and strokes equally ...
... responsible for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. He also was one of the pioneers of targeted molecular ... that can illuminate high-risk features of human carotid atherosclerosic plaques and other molecular agents for the ... Does New Dual-Modality Imaging Come Closer to Uncovering Vulnerable Plaques? OCT, fluorescence imaging pair to better identify ... Psaltis PJ, Nicholls SJ (2016). "Imaging: Focusing light on the vulnerable plaque". Nature Reviews Cardiology. 13: 253-255. doi ...
Another common culprit of TIA is an atherosclerotic plaque located in the common carotid artery, typically by the bifurcation ... screen for the disease with ultrasonography, and confirm with CTA). Confirming a diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis is ... Carotid ultrasonography is often used to screen for carotid artery stenosis, as it is more readily available. However, all of ... so it does not necessarily apply to patients with TIAs as these may in fact be a symptom of underlying carotid artery disease ( ...
Imaging studies in severe internal carotid artery (ICA) disease report an incidence of watershed stroke ranging from 19% to 64 ... People with many different cardiovascular diseases have a higher likelihood of experiencing a clot or a plaque that impedes ... Momjian-Mayor, I; Baron, J.C. (2005). "The Pathophysiology of Watershed Infarction in Internal Carotid Artery Disease: Review ... Thrombi at the split of the internal carotid artery in the neck may cause watershed infarcts between the territories of the ...
It may also be caused by embolization from atherosclerotic plaques in the ipsilateral (same side) internal carotid artery. It ... Leber's congenital amaurosis is an inherited disease resulting in optic atrophy and secondary severe vision loss or blindness. ...
Atherosclerosis causes plaque to form within the carotid artery walls, usually at the fork where the common carotid artery ... The aim of CEA is to prevent the adverse sequelae of carotid artery stenosis secondary to atherosclerotic disease, i.e. ... The lumen of the internal carotid artery is opened, and the atheromatous plaque substance removed. The artery is closed using ... Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid ...
Renal artery stenosis can cause renovascular hypertension. Carotid artery disease can cause strokes and transient ischemic ... Atherectomy, in which the plaque is scraped off of the inside of the vessel wall (albeit with no better results than ... it is called coronary artery disease, while, in the brain, it is called cerebrovascular disease. Peripheral artery disease most ... "Family History of Peripheral Artery Disease Is Associated With Prevalence and Severity of Peripheral Artery Disease". Journal ...
... endarterectomy and carotid stenting may be performed if the patient has a significant amount of plaque in the carotid arteries ... Recently, Moyamoya disease has also been identified as a potential cause for brain ischemia. Moyamoya disease is an extremely ... Blockage of arteries due to plaque buildup may also result in ischemia. Even a small amount of plaque build up can result in ... Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, ...
Beberapa ahli lain mempertimbangan klasifikasi berdasarkan fenotipe seperti keberadaan internal carotid artery plaque, intima- ... Demyelinating disease, hipoglisemia, hiperglisemia, primary ocular disease-glaucoma, vitreal hemorrhage. floaters and the like ... ekstrakranial seperti vertebral artery origin stenosis atau proksimal seperti thick plaques in the aortic arch yang selama ini ... "Cerebrovascular Disease Service, Palmer 127, West Campus, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Caplan LR. Diakses tanggal 2011 ...
Role of NO in flow-induced remodeling of the rabbit common carotid artery. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 16: 1256-1262, 1996. ... although MCP-1 receptors are known to be associated with plaque formation (Van Royen et al., 2001). angiogenesis anaerobic ... a new concept for the treatment of arterial occlusive disease. Cardiovasc Res 49: 543-553, 2001.. ... Finally, MMPs remodel the space around the artery to provide the space for expansion (Van Royen et al., 2001). Another potent ...
... kidney glomeruli and Tunica media of kidney arteries; corpus cavernosum of the penis; carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques; ... Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and certain cardiovascular diseases. Inhibitory receptor antagonists for EP4, including ... suppresses the development of Atherosclerosis plaques by promoting the death (i.e. apoptosis) of plaque-bound pro-inflammatory ... The ductus operates in the fetus to shunt blood from the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta thereby allowing ...
... leads to a build-up of plaques and they can be deposited in the renal arteries causing stenosis and ischemic kidney disease.[ ... Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... Hypertensive kidney disease. Other names. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis (HN or HNS), hypertensive kidney disease, hypertensive ... "Epidemiology of Hypertensive Kidney Disease".. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link). *^ Rowe, D J; Bagga, H; Betts, P B ( ...
The main artery that supplies the eye and... ... Retinal artery occlusion may occur in any of the vessels how to ... or large calcific plaque (cardiac valvular disease). The arteries are thinned. Veins may be thinned, slightly dilated or normal ... Carotid disease is the most common cause.. Clot busting tissue plasminogen activator (tpa) was evaluated in the EAGLE study, ... The main artery that supplies the eye and surrounding structures how to get rid of small acne scars is the ophthalmic artery. ...
... as well as carotid plaque and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in Chinese, among whom data are limited. ... Carotid plaque measured by the degree of diameter stenosis was also significantly associated with increased risk of CHD (p for ... The corresponding RRs with internal carotid IMT were 1.47 (95% CI, 1.21-1.79) for CHD and 1.52 (95% CI, 1.31-1.76) for stroke. ... During a median 10.5-year follow up, we documented 68 new cases of coronary heart disease and 94 cases of stroke. The ...
Conventional Measures of Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Carotid Artery Plaque. Carotid plaque prevalence was not clearly ... Assessment of Carotid Artery Plaque and Maximal Carotid Plaque Thickness. Carotid ultrasound was performed by high-resolution B ... had carotid artery plaque, whereas among those with ≥10 missing teeth, the prevalence of carotid artery plaque was ≈60% (Table ... had carotid artery plaque, whereas among those with ≥10 missing teeth, carotid artery plaque prevalence was ≈60% (P,0.05). ...
Figure 1. Distribution of carotid plaque groups in carotid artery IMT category with more complex plaque characteristics in the ... Association of Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness, Plaques, and C-Reactive Protein With Future Cardiovascular Disease and ... Association of Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness, Plaques, and C-Reactive Protein With Future Cardiovascular Disease and ... Association of Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness, Plaques, and C-Reactive Protein With Future Cardiovascular Disease and ...
Abstract 14696: Carotid Augmentation Index is related to Coronary Plaque Morphology in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: ... Abstract 14696: Carotid Augmentation Index is related to Coronary Plaque Morphology in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: ... Abstract 14696: Carotid Augmentation Index is related to Coronary Plaque Morphology in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: ... Abstract 14696: Carotid Augmentation Index is related to Coronary Plaque Morphology in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: ...
Life Line Screenings Carotid Artery Disease Screening can help identify if you are at risk for a stroke due to plaque buildup ... About Carotid Artery Disease Carotid Artery Disease is plaque in the carotid arteries, the large arteries in your neck that ... Warning Signs of Carotid Artery Disease. In its early stages, carotid artery disease often doesnt produce any symptoms. The ... Carotid Artery Disease Screening Details. Carotid Artery Disease screening is painless, non-invasive, and does not require the ...
Coronary Artery Disease. Myocardial Ischemia. Coronary Disease. Atherosclerosis. Carotid Artery Diseases. Heart Diseases. ... of atherosclerotic plaques within the carotid arteries of people with coronary artery disease and carotid artery disease. ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Coronary Artery Disease Carotid Artery Diseases Atherosclerosis Drug: ... in which plaque build-up occurs in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, and carotid artery disease, in which plaque ...
Carotid Stenosis. Carotid Artery Diseases. Cerebrovascular Disorders. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous ... Histological Validation Of Carotid Plaque Composition In Preoperative Imaging Of Patients Scheduled For Carotid Endarterectomy ... Histological Validation Of Carotid Plaque Composition In Preoperative Imaging. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... CAIN-2B Atherosclerotic plaque imaging using NaF and FDG imaging: Validation and Evaluation of Disease Progression. A sub-study ...
carotid artery disease. carotid stenosis. carotid endarterectomy. RDG-K5. PET imaging. ... Carotid Stenosis. Carotid Artery Diseases. Pathological Conditions, Anatomical. Cerebrovascular Disorders. Brain Diseases. ... Carotid Artery Disease Carotid Stenosis Drug: [F-18] RDG-K5 Phase 2 ... Patients will be chosen for the study based on presence of carotid artery stenosis ascertained by CTA and carotid artery ...
Carotid Artery Diseases/pathology*. *Echo-Planar Imaging/methods*. *Humans. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Wiley ... Improved suppression of plaque-mimicking artifacts in black-blood carotid atherosclerosis imaging using a multislice motion- ... and provide a more accurate depiction of the lumen boundaries by eliminating plaque mimicking artifacts in carotid artery (CA) ... To assess MSDE sequence in a clinical carotid protocol, 42 locations from six subjects with 50% to 79% carotid stenosis by ...
... a uniform management strategy does not necessarily prevent secondary events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). ... irregularity and calcification length within carotid plaque predict secondary events in patients with coronary artery disease ... Carotid ultrasound can reliably identify systemic atherosclerosis, and carotid plaque and intima-media thickness (IMT) are ... plaque score, plaque area, plaque surface irregularity, and calcification length (calculated by summing the calcified lesions ...
Atherosclerotic disease of the carotid artery may be associated with the following: Amaurosis fugax (transient ipsilateral ... Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events. Stroke. 2014 Sep. 45 (9):2695-701. [Medline]. ... Carotid artery stenting has increased risk of external carotid artery occlusion compared with carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc ... Carotid artery exposed prior to carotid endarterectomy (coil present in internal carotid artery). ...
Indications for carotid endarterectomy (CEA), based on prospective randomized trials, include the following: Symptomatic ... Three-dimensional carotid ultrasound plaque texture predicts vascular events. Stroke. 2014 Sep. 45 (9):2695-701. [Medline]. ... Carotid artery stenting has increased risk of external carotid artery occlusion compared with carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc ... Carotid artery exposed prior to carotid endarterectomy (coil present in internal carotid artery). ...
Picture of Carotid Artery Disease and Plaque Buildup Picture of Carotid Artery Disease and Plaque Buildup. Brain hemorrhage or ... Transient blindness in one eye occurs because debris from a narrowed carotid artery clogs the artery (ophthalmic artery) that ... The artery blockage may occur because of a ruptured plaque due to atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries, debris that ... Fatty plaque formation in the blood vessel wall is called atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. Plaque can rupture ...
... cardiovascular events in Asian patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).Patients and methodsThe study population consisted ... Body mass index, carotid plaque, and clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease ... In multivariate analysis, old age, lower ejection fraction, high carotid intima-media thickness, and presence of carotid plaque ... carotid plaque (group I: 42.1%; group II: 42.3%; group III: 27.9%; group IV: 24.6%; P=0.003), and major cardiovascular events ...
KEY WORDS: Stroke; Magnetic resonance imaging; Plaque, atherosclerotic; Carotid artery diseases. inizio pagina ... detected vulnerable Carotid Plaques and clinical presentation related to ipsilateral carotid artery territory.. EVIDENCE ... of MRI-detected vulnerable carotid plaque between symptomatic and asymptomatic arteries.. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Of 2855 studies, ... Therefore, carotid plaque MRI might be a useful risk stratification tool in determining the risk of ischemic stroke. ...
... plaque) clogs the arteries that bring blood to your brain and head. Find out how it cause a stroke. ... Carotid Artery Disease (Texas Heart Institute) Also in Spanish * What Is Carotid Artery Disease? (National Heart, Lung, and ... Carotid artery disease (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Carotid artery stenosis -- self-care (Medical Encyclopedia) ... Article: Predictors for High-Risk Carotid Plaque in Asymptomatic Korean Population. * Carotid Artery Disease -- see more ...
Carotid artery disease is caused by a buildup of plaques in arteries that deliver blood to your brain. Plaques are clumps of ... Carotid artery disease can lead to stroke through:. *Reduced blood flow. A carotid artery may become so narrowed by ... Carotid arteries that are clogged with plaques are stiff and narrow. Clogged carotid arteries have trouble delivering oxygen ... Family history. Your risk of carotid artery disease is higher if a relative has atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease. ...
... the hardening of the arteries, states the University of California San Francisco Department of Surgery. This can eventually ... Mild to moderate hard plaque is a stage of atherosclerosis, ... This can eventually lead to carotid artery disease if it is ... Carotid arteries are the blood vessels that supply blood between the heart and the brain, according to the UCSF Department of ... Over time, plaque buildup obstructs the flow of blood through arteries. Potential outcomes include stroke and heart attack. ...
... about CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free. ... 3. Carotid artery disease plaque features and vulnerability. University dissertation from Umeå : Umeå University Author : ... carotid artery stenosis; carotid artery disease; carotid endarterectomy; pupil; pupillometry; retinal blood flow; Ophtalmology ... Keywords : Surgery; carotid endarterectomy; carotid artery stenosis; carotid clamping; cerebral ischaemia; Kirurgi; ...
... in the carotid artery are correlated with the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD), it is not clear which modality is a ... whereas carotid artery plaque burden appears to be less powerful for predicting future cardiac events. ... carotid artery IMT measurement using high-resolution ultrasound, and exercise treadmill testing. The 73 CAD patients and 30 ... in the brachial artery (BA), which measures endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, and intima-media thickness (IMT) ...
Keywords: carotid intima-media thickness, coronary artery disease, dietary patterns, lifestyle improvement programs, lifestyle ... Carotid intima-media thickness and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk: The ARIC ( ... Lifestyle interventions and carotid plaque burden: A comparative analysis of two lifestyle intervention programs in patients ... Carotid plaque was defined as endoluminal protrusion of the arterial lumen of at least 0.5 mm or 50% of the surrounding CIMT ...
... with normal and calcified carotid artery appearances. Circular calcified carotid plaque was found at the carotid bifurcation ... Hemodynamic effect of calcifed plaque on blood flow in carotid artery disease: A preliminary study - Hemodynamic effect of ... Hemodynamic effect of calcifed plaque on blood flow in carotid artery disease: A preliminary study - Hemodynamic effect of ... Hemodynamic Effect of Calcifed Plaque on Blood Flow in Carotid Artery Disease: A Preliminary Study ...
... identified loci for coronary heart disease are associated with intima-media thickness and plaque presence at the carotid artery ... identified loci for coronary heart disease are associated with intima-media thickness and plaque presence at the carotid artery ... identified loci for coronary heart disease are associated with intima-media thickness and plaque presence at the carotid artery ... Disadvantaged women at greater risk of heart disease than men * Multi-centre collaboration awarded NIH grant funding for ...
Plaque hemorrhage in carotid artery disease: Pathogenesis, clinical and biomechanical considerations. Zhongzhao Teng, Umar ... Imaging of the Carotid Artery Vulnerable Plaque. Luca Saba, Michele Anzidei, Beatrice Cavallo Marincola, Mario Piga, Eytan Raz ... Is Carotid Intima-Media Thickness as Predictive as Other Noninvasive Techniques for the Detection of Coronary Artery Disease? ... Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Neovascularization in Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Plaques ...
  • 1,2 The relationship between oral health, specifically periodontal disease, and CVD has been a subject of mounting research in recent years 3-10 and is both biologically plausible and supported by data on transient bacteremia and elevated inflammatory markers. (ahajournals.org)
  • Symptomatic lesions were defined as ipsilateral is- hemoglobin-rich plaque hemorrhage in the transformation chemic events, including cerebral infarction, transient ische- from stable to unstable lesions was proposed over 80 years micattack(TIA) andamaurosis fugaxwithin6months. (deepdyve.com)