Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Percutaneous transluminal procedure for removing atheromatous plaque from the coronary arteries. Both directional (for removing focal atheromas) and rotational (for removing concentric atheromatous plaque) atherectomy devices have been used.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Persistent and reproducible chest discomfort usually precipitated by a physical exertion that dissipates upon cessation of such an activity. The symptoms are manifestations of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
A condition characterized by hardening of the PENIS due to the formation of fibrous plaques on the dorsolateral aspect of the PENIS, usually involving the membrane (tunica albuginea) surrounding the erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum penis). This may eventually cause a painful deformity of the shaft or constriction of the urethra, or both.
Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Postmortem examination of the body.
The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.
An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.
Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Inorganic fluorides of tin. They include both stannic fluoride (tin tetrafluoride) and stannous fluoride (tin difluoride). The latter is used in the prevention of dental caries.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.
Endovascular procedure in which atheromatous plaque is excised by a cutting or rotating catheter. It differs from balloon and laser angioplasty procedures which enlarge vessels by dilation but frequently do not remove much plaque. If the plaque is removed by surgical excision under general anesthesia rather than by an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.
Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.
Members of the armadillo family of proteins that are found in DESMOSOMES and interact with various proteins including desmocadherins; DESMOPLAKIN; ACTIN FILAMENTS; and KERATINS.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
An autosomal dominant familial prion disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations including ATAXIA, spastic paraparesis, extrapyramidal signs, and DEMENTIA. Clinical onset is in the third to sixth decade of life and the mean duration of illness prior to death is five years. Several kindreds with variable clinical and pathologic features have been described. Pathologic features include cerebral prion protein amyloidosis, and spongiform or neurofibrillary degeneration. (From Brain Pathol 1998 Jul;8(3):499-513; Brain Pathol 1995 Jan;5(1):61-75)
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
A member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES that cleaves triple-helical COLLAGEN types I, II, and III.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus not accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment.
Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

In vivo virtual histology intravascular ultrasound correlates of risk factors for sudden coronary death in men: results from the prospective, multi-centre virtual histology intravascular ultrasound registry. (1/920)

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Impact of plaque components on no-reflow phenomenon after stent deployment in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound analysis. (2/920)

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Association of myocardial infarctions with COX-2 inhibition may be related to immunomodulation towards a Th1 response resulting in atheromatous plaque instability: an evidence-based interpretation. (3/920)

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Relationship between plaque composition and no-reflow phenomenon following primary angioplasty in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction--analysis with virtual histology intravascular ultrasound. (4/920)

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Do systemic risk factors impact invasive findings from virtual histology? Insights from the international virtual histology registry. (5/920)

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Expert review document on methodology, terminology, and clinical applications of optical coherence tomography: physical principles, methodology of image acquisition, and clinical application for assessment of coronary arteries and atherosclerosis. (6/920)

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Clinical impact of dyslipidemia for coronary plaque vulnerability in acute coronary syndrome without metabolic syndrome. (7/920)

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Regional adipose tissue associations with calcified atherosclerotic plaque: African American-diabetes heart study. (8/920)

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Glycemic Variability on Continuous Glucose Monitoring System Correlates With Non-Culprit Vessel Coronary Plaque Vulnerability in Patients With First-Episode Acute Coronary Syndrome - Optical Coherence Tomography Study -
Background: The augmentation index (AI) has been considered to reflect vascular property and predict a higher risk of coronary atherosclerosis. However, the association of augmentation index and coronary plaque morphology has not been fully elucidated.Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality and allows us to analyze the plaque morphology in detail. In this study, we observed the coronary plaque morphology by OCT at the coronary culprit artery in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and evaluated the association of augmentation index and coronary plaque characteristics.. Methods: The measurement of AI by carotid ultrasound and OCT examinations were performed in 33 patients with CAD (stable angina pectoris (SAP): n=19, acute coronary syndrome (ACS): n=14). At the coronary culprit artery, plaque characterization (lipid or fibrous plaque) was analyzed. Futhermore, fibrous cap thickness, spotty calcification, thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), and plaque rupture ...
In the current study we assessed the longitudinal distribution of grayscale and IVUS-VH parameters among fibroatheromas in nonculprit coronary arteries, as well as the impact of vessel area and plaque burden on plaque rupture. The main findings are as follows: 1) there was a gradient of high-risk plaques (fibroatheromas of all types and plaque ruptures) from proximal to distal coronary segments, mainly in the LAD and LCX and least in the RCA; and 2) although proximal location was an independent predictor for plaque rupture, vessel area and plaque burden were better discriminants of plaque rupture versus nonruptured fibroatheromas rather than the distance from the ostium to the maximum NC site.. Previous autopsy, angiographic, IVUS, and optical coherence tomography studies elucidated that the majority of high-risk plaques including ruptured plaques accumulated in proximal segments of the coronary tree (5-8,15-17). Cheruvu et al. (5), Farb et al. (18), and Davies (19) have reported that most ...
The primary aim of this thesis was to quantify the collagenase concentrations in carotid plaques and to relate them to markers to plaque instability.;Recent studies have shown that strain therapy decreases cardiovascular risk, even in patients with normal cholesterol levels. A further aim of this thesis was to observe the effects of statins on clinical and biochemical indicators of plaque instability.;Atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 159 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. The presence and timing of carotid territory symptoms was ascertained. Pre-operative embolisation was recorded by transcranial Doppler. Each plaque was assessed for histological features of instability. Plaque MMP and cytokine concentrations was quantified using ELISA.;Significantly higher concentrations of active MMP-8 were observed in the plaques of symptomatic patients (p=0.0002), emboli-positive patients (p=0.0037) and in those plaques demonstrating histological evidence of rupture (p=0.0036). No ...
BACKGROUND: Prospective data on the associations of adiponectin with in-vivo measurements of degree, phenotype and vulnerability of coronary atherosclerosis are currently lacking.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma adiponectin with virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS)-derived measures of atherosclerosis and with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with established coronary artery disease.METHODS: In 2008-2011, VH-IVUS of a non-culprit non-stenotic coronary segment was performed in 581 patients undergoing coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n = 318) or stable angina pectoris (SAP, n = 263) from the atherosclerosis-intravascular ultrasound (ATHEROREMO-IVUS) study. Blood was sampled prior to coronary angiography. Coronary plaque burden, tissue composition, high-risk lesions, including VH-IVUS-derived thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), were assessed. All-cause mortality, ACS, unplanned coronary revascularization were registered during a ...
In the present study, we show that it is possible to identify genes that are differentially and reproducibly expressed in whole-mount advanced human atherosclerotic plaques by using the SSH procedure. In the present study, we describe the identification of several genes differentially expressed between advanced stable and ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. Our stable plaques are classified according to the morphological criteria of the AHA and are characterized by a thick fibrous cap, high smooth muscle cell/collagen content, and a small lipid core, but also comprise rupture-prone lesions, with a thin fibrous cap and a large lipid core, but with no signs of intraplaque hemorrhage or a healed fibrous cap. According to the classification scheme described by Virmani et al,5 our group of stable atherosclerotic plaques includes thin and thick fibrous cap atheromas and fibrocalcified plaques. Our group of ruptured plaques (type VI lesions according to the AHA classification) is defined by the presence ...
High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proved to be a protective factor for coronary heart disease. Notably, HDL in atherosclerotic plaques can be nitrated (NO2-oxHDL) and chlorinated (Cl-oxHDL) by myeloperoxidase (MPO), likely compromising its cardiovascular protective effects. Here we determined the effects of NO2-oxHDL and Cl-oxHDL on SMC migration using wound healing and transwell assays, proliferation using MTT and BrdU assays, and apoptosis using Annexin-V assay in vitro, as well as on atherosclerotic plaque stability in vivo using a coratid artery collar implantation mice model. Our results showed that native HDL promoted SMC proliferation and migration, whereas NO2-oxHDL and Cl-oxHDL inhibited SMC migration and reduced capacity of stimulating SMC proliferation as well as migration, respectively. OxHDL had no significant influence on SMC apoptosis. In addition, we found that ERK1/2-phosphorylation was significantly lower when SMCs were incubated with NO2-oxHDL and Cl-oxHDL. Furthermore,
Diabetes mellitus (DM) type II is increasing rapidly worldwide. Patients with DM II have a greater atherosclerotic burden and higher risk of developing cardiovascular complications. Inflammation has been proposed as the main cause for the high risk of atherosclerotic disease in DM II. In this study, we compared markers of inflammation and fibrous repair in plaques from subjects with and without DM II ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a member of the pentraxin family and represents the most extensively studied proinflammatory molecule. In healthy individuals, only trace levels of CRP can be detected in the circulation. Under acute conditions, concentrations of CRP increase during the first 6 to 8 hours and can reach peak levels approaching 300 mg/L after approximately 48 hours.3 CRP is a robust clinical marker because of its analytical stability, shows reproducible results, and high-sensitivity assays with good precision are commercially available.. CRP is synthesized by hepatocytes and its production is under transcriptional control of several cytokines, with interleukin (IL)-6 being a primary stimulus. However, recent evidence has suggested that CRP may be also produced locally in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions.4-5 A recent post-mortem study further confirmed a potential pathogenic role of CRP in atheromatous plaque vulnerability,6 demonstrating ...
Approach and Results-In the present study, we used a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE−/−) in conjunction with DKK3−/− and performed tandem stenosis of the carotid artery to evaluate atherosclerotic plaque development. We found that the absence of DKK3 leads to vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, because of a reduced number of SMCs and reduced matrix protein deposition, as well as increased hemorrhage and macrophage infiltration. Further in vitro studies revealed that DKK3 can induce differentiation of Sca1+ vascular progenitors and fibroblasts into SMCs via activation of the TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β)/ATF6 and Wnt signaling pathways. Finally, we assessed the therapeutic potential of DKK3 in mouse and rabbit models and found that DKK3 altered the atherosclerotic plaque content via increasing SMC numbers and reducing vascular inflammation. ...
The goal of identifying high-risk plaques before they become disrupted (i.e., plaque rupture or intraplaque hemorrhage) leading to plaque progression and/or a new clinical event has preoccupied cardiologists for many years, with its promise that early and accurate identification of high-risk plaques would enable the development of pre-emptive therapeutic strategies to avert cardiac morbidity and mortality. The plaque morphology that underlies the majority of plaque disruption is the highly inflamed thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). Plaque disruption is a very complicated pathobiological and biomechanical process that is dependent on the nature and constituents of the plaque itself (1), as well as the external mechanical forces affecting that plaque. Rupture of the TCFAs fibrous cap occurs when plaque stress exceeds plaque strength, leading to abrupt superimposed intraplaque/intraluminal thrombus and a clinical acute coronary syndrome. In contrast, intraplaque hemorrhage, associated with subsequent ...
The rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is known to be associated with the stresses that act on or within the arterial wall. The extreme wall tensile stress is usually recognized as a primary trigger for the rupture of the plaque. The present study used one-way fluid-structure interaction simulation to investigate the impacts of fibrous cap thickness and lipid core volume to the wall tensile stress value and distributions on the fibrous cap. Von Mises stress was employed to represent the wall tensile stress (VWTS). A total of 13 carotid bifurcation cases were manipulated based on a base geometry in the study with varied combinations of fibrous cap thickness and lipid core volume in the plaque. Values of maximum VWTS and a stress value of VWTS_90, which represents the cut-off VWTS value of 90% in cumulative histogram of VWTS possessed at the computational nodes on the luminal surface of fibrous cap, were used to assess the risk of plaque rupture for each case. Both parameters are capable of ...
Vulnerable plaques, which are responsible for most acute ischemic events, are presently invisible to x-ray angiography. Their primary morphological features include a thin or ulcerated fibrous cap, a large necrotic core, superficial foam cells, and intraplaque hemorrhage. We present evidence that multimodal spectroscopy (MMS), a novel method that combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), can detect these markers of plaque vulnerability. To test this concept, we perform an MMS feasibility study on 17 human carotid artery specimens. Following the acquisition of spectra, each specimen is histologically evaluated. Two parameters from DRS, hemoglobin concentration and a scattering parameter, are used to detect intraplaque hemorrhage and foam cells; an IFS parameter that relates to the amount of collagen in the topmost layers of the tissue is used to detect the presence of a thin fibrous cap; and an RS parameter related to ...
An elevated systemic inflammatory status is considered to be a riskfactor for future cardiovascular events. Multi Slice CT allows to assess and characterize coronary plaques and it is hypothesized that the presence of mixed and noncalcified plaques may be an indicator for plaque vulnerability. To date it is not clear whether there is an association between plaque composition determined by Dual Source CT and systemic biomarkers for inflammation and thrombogenity. In the present study we investigated 303 (102 female, 201 male, age 55 ± 9 years) consecutive patients with an intermediate likelihood for coronary artery disease, who underwent DSCT coronary angiography. The scan was performed on a Siemens Definiton Scanner (Forchheim, Germany) using a standard protocol. For analysis we divided the coronary tree in 15 segments according to the AHA-scheme and each segment was further divided in a proximal and a distal part. Each segment was then classified as containing no, noncalcified, mixed (20% ...
BackgroundCoronary atherothrombosis due to atherosclerotic plaque rupture or erosion is frequently associated with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Significant efforts have been made to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying acute coronary events. Materials and methodsThis narrative review is based on the material searched for and obtained via PubMed up to August 2014. The search terms we used were as follows: angiotensin, acute coronary syndromes, acute myocardial infarction in combination with atherosclerosis, vulnerability, clinical trial, ACE inhibitors, inflammation. ResultsAmong several regulatory components, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was shown as a key pathway modulating coronary atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. Indeed, these molecules are involved in all stages of atherogenesis. Classically, the RAS is composed by a series of enzymatic reactions leading to the angiotensin (Ang) II generation and activity. However, the knowledge of RAS has expanded and ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The overall goal of this project is to streamline the new advanced ultrasound imaging (USI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of carotid plaque for effective stroke risk tratification. Rupture of carotid plaque causes stroke posing threats to human life and long-term disability. Recent investigations have shown us that specific features of atherosclerotic plaques predispose them to plaque rupture, the proximate cause of clinical events. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been the gold standard for carotid plaque characterization. Latest ultrasound imaging (USI) technology makes it possible to contribute more to plaque characterization, yet it lacks of validation. The objective of this proposed effort is to extend the MRI high-risk plaque characterization technology and knowledge to validate the performance of USI plaque characterization and to compare and improve the performance of both MRI and USI with the information and knowledge from the other ...
Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can detect detailed plaque features in native coronary arteries. Stent struts cause shadows that partially obscure the vessel wall, but plaque features can still be seen. We investigated the impact of stent artefact on plaque quantification and whether the plaque behind struts is associated with microvascular dysfunction. Methods: Patients retrospectively recruited from two centres, underwent OCT pre- and post-stenting on the same vessel segment. Lipid (LA) and calcium (CA) were measured as arcs. Macrophages, microchannels and cholesterol crystals were counted. Subsequently, we determined whether stented plaque features were associated with reduced TIMI flow grade in consecutive patients who underwent OCT post-stenting. Results: In 52 patients the lipid arc was similar pre- vs post-stent: median (55º [13º-93º] vs. 40º [18º-87°]; difference 1º [−7º to 16º], p = NS). Pre- and post-stent lipid were strongly correlated (r = 0.92, p , 0.001). ...
Atherosclerosis is recognized clinically as an arterial disease prominently involving the intima of medium- or large-sized arteries, including the aortic, carotid, coronary and cerebral arteries. Atherosclerotic lesions or plaques contain complex tissue matrix, including collagen, elastin, proteoglycans and extracellular and intracellular lipids with foamy macrophages and smooth muscle cells. In addition, inflammatory cellular components (e.g., T lymphocytes, macrophages, some basophils) also exist in the lesions. Disruption of atherosclerotic plaques appears to be the major cause of heart attacks and strokes. Although the risk of plaque rupture usually cannot be predicted, many postmortem examinations have revealed that this risk depends mainly on plaque composition (1,2). Most ruptured atherosclerotic plaques are characterized structurally by formation of a large, soft, lipid-rich, necrotic core covered by a thin fibrous cap densely infiltrated by macrophages. Inflammation is also a major ...
Recruitment of monocytes into atherosclerotic plaque has been shown to drive disease progression, and the presence of a higher number of macrophages has been associated with increased plaque vulnerability. Conversely, a reduction in plaque macrophage content has been associated with plaque stabilisation; however, it has not previously been described exactly how macrophages are removed from plaques, for example in the context of statin therapy.. Potteaux et al. aimed to elucidate this mechanism by use of the mouse Apoe-/- model, which has high levels of cholesterol and therefore spontaneously develops atherosclerotic lesions. However, in this case the authors re-introduced the apoE gene (by means of an adenoviral vector), and studied what happened to the mices atherosclerotic plaques subsequently.. Within two days of apoE complementation, plasma cholesterol levels had returned to normal levels, and HDL cholesterol levels had increased four fold, leading to a stabilisation of plaque area. At four ...
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine whether a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol combining carotid atherosclerotic plaque and brain imaging can identify features of high-risk acutely symptomatic plaque that correlate with brain injury. BACKGROUND: It has previously been demonstrated that, in asymptomatic patients, MRI can identify features of carotid plaque that are associated with stroke, such as the presence of a large lipid core. We hypothesized that the early phase (|7 days) after a cerebrovascular event, when risk of recurrence is highest, may be associated with particular plaque characteristics that associate with cerebral injury. METHODS: Eighty-one patients (41 presenting acutely with transient ischemic attack [TIA] or minor stroke and 40 asymptomatic controls) underwent multicontrast carotid artery MRI on 2 separate occasions, each accompanied by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging of the brain. RESULTS: Complex
There has been a great deal of research interest regarding the relationships among lipids, inflammation, and their effects on the arterial wall (11). Intravascular ultrasound has been used clinically as a representative imaging modality to evaluate the coronary arterial wall and plaque morphology, including quantification of plaque burden, but it is not possible to determine the thickness of the cap with this method, due to its poor resolution. In contrast, the high resolution of OCT makes it an ideal imaging modality for microstructural evaluation, such as determination of FCT (12,13), although this method is not suitable for evaluation of plaque burden due to its poor penetration depth. Therefore, assessment with a combination of both IVUS and OCT has the potential to allow detailed assessment of changes in plaque morphology.. The pathological features of the most common form of vulnerable plaque include a large lipid pool within the plaque, a thin fibrous cap, and macrophage accumulation ...
Spontaneous plaque rupture in mouse models of atherosclerosis is controversial, although numerous studies have discussed so-called vulnerable plaque phenotypes in mice. We compared the morphology and biomechanics of two acute and one chronic murine model of atherosclerosis to human coronaries of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) phenotype. Our acute models were apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) and LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr−/−) mice, both fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk with simultaneous infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II), and our chronic mouse model was the apolipoprotein E-deficient strain fed a regular chow diet for 1 yr. We found that the mouse plaques from all three models exhibited significant morphological differences from human TCFA plaques, including the plaque burden, plaque thickness, eccentricity, and amount of the vessel wall covered by lesion as well as significant differences in the relative composition of plaques. These morphological differences suggested that the ...
Mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) are crucial for lipid transport and synthesis, calcium exchange, and mitochondrial functions, and they also act as signaling platforms. These contact sites also play a critical role in the decision between autophagy and apoptosis with far reaching implications for cell fate. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis accelerates atherogenesis and the progression of advanced lesions, leading to atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and medial degeneration. Though the successful autophagy of damaged mitochondria promotes VSMC survival against pro-apoptotic atherogenic stressors, it is unknown whether MAMs are involved in VSMC mitophagy processes. Here, we investigated the role of the multifunctional MAM protein phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2) in regulating VSMC survival following a challenge by atherogenic lipids. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assays, we found an increase in MAM contacts as in PACS-2
The investigators hypothesis is that local activation of the endogenous Lp-PLA2 plays an integral role in early atherosclerosis, and contributes to the mechanism of coronary endothelial dysfunction and to the structural and mechanical properties that characterize plaque vulnerability. Thus, our study will characterize prospectively the correlation between the functional and structural vascular wall properties, and the activity of the Lp-PLA2 pathway.. ...
Naya M, Murthy VL, Blankstein R, Sitek A, Hainer J, Foster C, Gaber M, Fantony JM, Dorbala S, Di Carli MF. Quantitative relationship between the extent and morphology of coronary atherosclerotic plaque and downstream myocardial perfusion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Oct 18; 58(17):1807-16 ...
Acute coronary syndromesâ€unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac deathâ€are caused by acute disruption of an unstable coronary atheroma. Unstable plaques have three histologic characteristics: a large lipid core, many inflammatory cells, and a thin fibrous cap. Because the unstable plaque is not necessarily obstructive, it may cause no symptoms before rupture. The cellular processes that lead to the characteristic histologic features of unstable plaque have recently been identified. This new understanding of the cell biology of plaque instability suggests new therapeutic strategies: passivation of the endothelium, reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the vessel wall by decreasing serum LDL levels or accelerating reverse cholesterol transport, inhibition of LDL oxidation, inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression, and inhibition of thrombus formation. Although the morbidity and mortality resulting from acute coronary disease have been reduced by more than ...
Acute coronary syndromesâ€unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac deathâ€are caused by acute disruption of an unstable coronary atheroma. Unstable plaques have three histologic characteristics: a large lipid core, many inflammatory cells, and a thin fibrous cap. Because the unstable plaque is not necessarily obstructive, it may cause no symptoms before rupture. The cellular processes that lead to the characteristic histologic features of unstable plaque have recently been identified. This new understanding of the cell biology of plaque instability suggests new therapeutic strategies: passivation of the endothelium, reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the vessel wall by decreasing serum LDL levels or accelerating reverse cholesterol transport, inhibition of LDL oxidation, inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression, and inhibition of thrombus formation. Although the morbidity and mortality resulting from acute coronary disease have been reduced by more than ...
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and developing therapies to promote its regression is an important clinical goal. We previously established that atherosclerosis regression is characterized by an overall decrease in plaque macrophages and enrichment in markers of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. We have now investigated the origin and functional requirement for M2 macrophages in regression in normolipidemic mice that received transplants of atherosclerotic aortic segments. We compared plaque regression in WT normolipidemic recipients and those deficient in chemokine receptors necessary to recruit inflammatory Ly6Chi (Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/-) or patrolling Ly6Clo (Ccr5-/-) monocytes. Atherosclerotic plaques transplanted into WT or Ccr5-/- recipients showed reduced macrophage content and increased M2 markers consistent with plaque regression, whereas plaques transplanted into Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/- recipients lacked this regression signature. The requirement of recipient Ly6Chi ...
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and developing therapies to promote its regression is an important clinical goal. We previously established that atherosclerosis regression is characterized by an overall decrease in plaque macrophages and enrichment in markers of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. We have now investigated the origin and functional requirement for M2 macrophages in regression in normolipidemic mice that received transplants of atherosclerotic aortic segments. We compared plaque regression in WT normolipidemic recipients and those deficient in chemokine receptors necessary to recruit inflammatory Ly6Chi (Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/-) or patrolling Ly6Clo (Ccr5-/-) monocytes. Atherosclerotic plaques transplanted into WT or Ccr5-/- recipients showed reduced macrophage content and increased M2 markers consistent with plaque regression, whereas plaques transplanted into Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/- recipients lacked this regression signature. The requirement of recipient Ly6Chi ...
Q: Dr. Pasterkamp, this year began with the publication of a very exciting study of yours in Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. It points out the natural history of carotid artery plaques after an acute cerebral ischemia event providing support for current concepts as well as new aspects. What would point out as the key findings of the study?. A: For our research group there are several key findings. First, it confirms the outcome of previous studies and concepts that plaque remodeling can go in two directions. The mechanism of plaque destabilization has always been the main research domain for many cardiovascular investigators. But this study strengthens the idea that unstable plaques also stabilize after an event, which, in fact, is a normal response after an injury (like a rupture of cap). Secondly, it shows that cytokine expression in plaques can rapidly change over time independent of the amount of inflammatory cells. Many researchers use a limited number of human ...
Atherosclerotic plaques vulnerable for rupture are characterised by e.g., a large lipid pole, a high concentration of inflammatory cells and a thin fibrous cap. Recent research has showed that vulnerable plaques are structurally weaker and therefore more likely to rupture in response to physical forces; possible due to high local concentrations of macrophages and reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is well known that redox active iron catalyses production of ROS and that the presence of Fe(III) is linked to ROS production. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of Fe(III) in carotid plaques.. ...
Heart attack is when the blood flow to the heart is restricted causing the heart cells to die. The lack of blood flow is caused by a partial blockage to the a coronary artery causing the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, an unstable collection of lipids and white blood cells in the wall of an artery. Cardiac Arrest is a heart condition where the heart does not
BURT-04]C. Burtea, Chaabane, L., Laurent, S., Canet-Soulas, E., Vander Elst, L., Briguet, A., and Müller, R. N., Preclinical evaluation of a new alphavbeta3-targeted nonpeptidic RGD mimetic grafted to USPIO. Preliminary investigations on the molecular imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, in European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology, 21st Annual Scientific Meeting ESMRMB, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004, vol. 373. ...
OBJECTIVE: The association of inflammatory cells and neovessels in atherosclerosis is considered a histological hallmark of high-risk active lesions. Therefore, the development and validation of noninvasive imaging techniques that allow for the detection of inflammation and neoangiogenesis in atherosclerosis would be of major clinical interest. Our aim was to test 2 techniques, black blood dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and 18-fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET, to quantify inflammation expressed as plaque neovessels content in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Atherosclerotic plaques were induced in the aorta of 10 rabbits by a combination of 2 endothelial abrasions and 4 months hyperlipidemic diet. Six rabbits underwent MRI during the injection of Gd-DTPA, whereas 4 rabbits were imaged after injection of 18F-FDG with PET. We found a positive correlation between neovessels count in atherosclerotic plaques and (1) Gd-DTPA uptake parameters evaluated by DCE-MRI (r=0
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The atherosclerotic process in diabetic patients seems to be different compared to non-diabetics. Larger plaques, with higher necrotic core content, were confirmed in DM patients during postmortem studies [27]. These findings were confirmed in vivo by studies using IVUS in plaques from both stable and acute patients [28-30]. Studies assessing plaque phenotypes describe more-developed lesions in DM patients [31, 32]. We found accelerated progression in DM patients of both plaque burden and plaque risk profiles in our study. These findings are supported by the study published by Bayturan et al. [10] with data from 7 clinical trials involving 3437 patients, where the presence of diabetes was found as one of the predictors of plaque progression despite the achievement of very low levels of LDLc. The impact of the presence of diabetes on clinical events was tested in a study done by Kennedy et al. Lesions not causing ischemia (with fraction flow reserve , 0.8) led to clinical events in DM patients in ...
It has been supposed that the response to TGF-β1 within vascular lesions is an important aspect of atherosclerosis progression toward clinical expression in humans. In fact, atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease, and the balance between degradation and deposition of the extracellular matrix is thought to be important for the maintenance of plaque stability in humans.1 TGF-β is a growth factor that exerts many regulatory actions. These functions are best reflected in several antiinflammatory effects on vascular cells4 and in a strongly positive effect on extracellular matrix production.11. In the present study, we found that TGF-β mRNA levels are increased up to 3-fold in asymptomatic as compared with symptomatic plaques; TGF-β gene was transcriptionally active as demonstrated by the parallel increase in TGF-β1 protein expression at immunocytochemistry and Western blot analyses. Notably, enhanced TGF-β1 staining at immunohistochemistry and expression at Western blot ...
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In a new study performed in humans, researchers from Swedens Karolinska Institutet have determined the age of atherosclerotic plaques by taking advantage of
Computer-assisted ultrasound assessment of plaque characteristics in radiation-induced and non-radiation-induced carotid atherosclerosis
The mission of the Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy is the rapid exchange of scientific information between clinicians and scientists worldwide. To reach this goal, the journal will focus on novel media.
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Arterial plaques are evaluated by determining their deformation under the periodic pulsatile force of blood flow. A relationship between plaque deformation and rupture risk is established by measureme
It is widely believed that atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis leads to acute coronary events and stroke. However, study of the mechanism and treatment of human plaque rupture is hampered by lack of a suitable animal model. Our aim was to develop a novel animal model of atherosclerotic plaque rupture to facilitate the study of human plaque disruption and thrombosis. 28 healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: rabbits in group A (n = 12) were only fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks; rabbits in group B (n = 16) underwent cold-induced endothelial injury with liquid nitrogen, then were given a high-fat diet for eight weeks. After completion of the preparatory regimen, triggering of plaque rupture was attempted by local injection of liquid nitrogen in both groups. All rabbits in group B had disrupted plaques or rupture-driven occlusive thrombus formation, but none in group A showed any effects. More importantly, the cold-induced plaques in our model
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ex Vivo Assessment of Various Histological Differentiation in Human Carotid Plaque with Near-infrared Spectroscopy Using Multiple Wavelengths. AU - Munemitsu, Toshihiro. AU - Ishii, Akira. AU - Okada, Eiji. AU - Chihara, Hideo. AU - Yoshida, Kazumichi. AU - Takahashi, Jun C.. AU - Takagi, Yasushi. AU - Miyamoto, Susumu. PY - 2019/5/15. Y1 - 2019/5/15. N2 - We previously reported that near-infrared hyperspectral imaging enabled the localization of atherosclerotic plaques from outside the vessels, but not the optical characteristics of each histological component. Therefore, the near-infrared spectrum of each component was collected from the sliced section of the human carotid plaque obtained with endarterectomy and the optical characteristics were confirmed in several wavelengths. Based on this information, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy for ex vivo chemogram in each plaque component created with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), using multiple wavelengths. The chemogram ...
Figure 1. Multimodal approach to atherosclerosis imaging. A representative illustration of current and emerging atherosclerosis imaging modalities. Each modality offers unique measurements of disease severity. Together, this information can be used to determine anatomic and hemodynamic consequences of atherosclerosis, complimented by detail on plaque composition, overall disease burden, and current metabolic activity acting within an individual patient. A, X-ray angiography showing multiple right coronary artery atherosclerotic lesions (arrows) resulting in significant luminal narrowing; B, virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) demonstrating coronary plaque with high content of necrotic core (red), as well as dense calcium (white) and fibro-fatty regions (dark/light green); C, Computed tomographic (CT) angiography showing noncalcified plaque in the left anterior descending artery with positive remodeling (dashed line); D, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ...
Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) is a clinically available technique for atherosclerosis plaque characterization. It, however, suffers from a poor longitudinal resolution due to electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated acquisition. This article presents an effective algorithm for IVUS image-based histology to overcome this limitation. After plaque area extraction within an input IVUS image, a textural analysis procedure consisting of feature extraction and classification steps is proposed. The pixels of the extracted plaque area excluding the shadow region were classified into one of the three plaque components of fibro-fatty (FF), calcification (CA) or necrotic core (NC) tissues. The average classification accuracy for pixel and region based validations is 75% and 87% respectively. Sensitivities (specificities) were 79% (85%) for CA, 81% (90%) for FF and 52% (82%) for NC. The kappa (k)50.61 and p value50.02 indicate good agreement of the proposed method withVHimages. Finally, the ...
To investigate the role of infrasound aortic pressure waves (IPW) in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Atherosclerotic plaques have been simulated partly, in two dimensions, as being short or long Conical Intersections (CIS), that is to say ellip
Two potentially important findings were observed in the present study. Firstly, plasma concentrations of IL-18 are increased in patients with acute coronary syndromes with or without myocardial necrosis. Secondly, plasma concentrations of IL-18 correlate with the severity of myocardial dysfunction.. Although these findings are preliminary and need confirmation in a large multicentre study, we believe that they should be considered seriously for several reasons. IL-18 has the potential to promote both atherosclerotic plaque instability4 and systemic inflammatory responses through activation of monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. Indeed, we have recently showed that in vivo inhibition of IL-18 signalling greatly decreases plaque development and induces a switch to a stable plaque phenotype.7 In the human myocardium, IL-18 is upregulated following ischaemia and contributes to postischaemic myocardial dysfunction in vitro.5 IL-18 may aggravate the proinflammatory response ...
Background: Atherosclerosis is an important cause of stroke. Ultrasound offers the convenience of real-time and detailed assessment of carotid plaque features as well as arterial wall thickening and composition. Evaluation of these features is important for determining patients risk of suffering vascular events and also contributes to selecting the best treatment strategy.. Methods: Using ultrasound data analysis we have determined plaque features in the bifurcation and internal carotid artery (ICA), including: surface plaque irregularities, calcification, echogenicity (grey scale median-GSM) and other textural plaque features (Juxtaluminal black area, entropy, coarseness). In addition, intima media thickens (IMT) and its grey scale median (IM-GSM) was measured in common carotid artery (CCA). Using Cone Beam CT (CBCT) we have quantified calcification volume of the carotid plaques extracted after carotid endarterectomy procedure. For the meta-analysis we have used comprehensive meta-analysis ...
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) of rabbit atherosclerotic plaque in near-infrared (NIR) range from 1150 to 2400 nm was demonstrated. A method to identify vulnerable plaques that are likely to cause acute coronary events has been required. The object of this study is identifying vulnerable plaques by NIR-HSI for an angioscopic application. In this study, we observed the hyperspectral images of the atherosclerotic plaque in WHHLMI rabbit (atherosclerotic rabbit) artery under simulated angioscopic conditions by NIR-HSI. NIR-HSI system was constructed by a NIR super continuum light and a mercury-cadmium-telluride camera. Spectral absorbance values (log (1/R) data) were obtained in the wavelength range from 1150 to 2400 nm at 10 nm intervals. The hyperspectral images were constructed with spectral angle mapper algorithm. As a result, the detections of atherosclerotic plaque under angioscopic observation conditions were achieved especially in the wavelength around 1200 nm, which corresponds to the second ...
Cardiovascular disease resulting from atherosclerosis is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis and cholesterol crystals are candidate triggers early in the development of the disease.. Scientists from Bonn in Germany together with scientists from Center of Molecular Inflammation Research (CEMIR) in Trondheim and UiO/OUS Rikshospitalet in Oslo, have in a multi-international collaboration published in Science Translational Medicine that cyclic oligosaccharide 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin dissolve cholesterol crystals and reduces atherosclerotic plaques. This is a promising therapeutic approach for treating atherosclerosis.. Cyclodextrin reprograms the macrophages in an anti-inflammatory manner in addition to increasing cholesterol efflux. The result is prevention of plaque formation and even atherosclerotic plaque regression in mice. Furthermore, biopsies of plaque carotid from humans treated with cyclodextrin showed similar ...
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel, catheter-based, invasive imaging system based on near-infrared light with high image resolution (15-20 μm). The system allows for unparalleled imaging of the coronary artery lumen, plaque characterization, assessment of coronary stent strut apposition, neointimal coverage, vascular proliferative response, complications such as focal dissection or thrombus formation, and insight into the time course of stent endothelization. This review will describe the currently available developments in OCT technology and its application in both the clinical and research arenas.. ...
Above Image Courtesy of CONFIRM registry. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2014.(3). Here is a quote from Dr. Stephan Achenbach in 2010 Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis by computed tomography.(4). So far, the available clinical data are not sufficient to draw specific conclusions as to the risk-benefit ratio of contrast-enhanced coronary CTA (computed tomography) for risk prediction, especially for asymptomatic individuals. Hence, CTA is currently not recommended for risk stratification purposes.(4). Rather than used as a stand alone tool, CAT scan detection of non-calcified plaque is useful as an add on to the calcium score to improve discriminatory value.(3). Results Are Discordant: CAT scan calcium score is the best predictor on non-calcified plaque in patients with low calcium score.(28) Calcium score and total plaque measurements should be trending in the same direction. Therefore, the results of the Budoff study are discordant and suspect.. Fourth Problem with Budoff Study:. Another red ...
The ability to selectively deliver compounds into atherosclerotic plaques would greatly benefit the detection and treatment of atherosclerotic disease. We describe such a delivery system based on a 9-amino acid cyclic peptide, LyP-1. LyP-1 was originally identified as a tumor-homing peptide that specifically recognizes tumor cells, tumor lymphatics, and tumor-associated macrophages. As the receptor for LyP-1, p32, is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques, we tested the ability of LyP-1 to home to plaques. Fluorescein-labeled LyP-1 was intravenously injected into apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-null mice that had been maintained on a high-fat diet to induce atherosclerosis. LyP-1 accumulated in the plaque interior, predominantly in macrophages. More than 60% of cells released from plaques were positive for LyP-1 fluorescence. Another plaque-homing peptide, CREKA, which binds to fibrin-fibronectin clots and accumulates at the surface of plaques, yielded fewer positive cells. Tissues that did not contain plaque
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The use of non-invasive imaging to identify ruptured or high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques would represent a major clinical advance for prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. We used combined PET and CT to identify ruptured and
The present study demonstrates for the first time that shed-membrane MPs isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions stimulate endothelial cell proliferation and promote in vivo neovessel formation after CD40 ligation. The endothelial proliferative effect of plaque MPs was more pronounced when MPs were isolated from symptomatic patients compared with that seen in asymptomatic patients, and this finding was associated with an increased number of CD40L+ MPs in these patients. Therefore, accumulation of MPs in atherosclerotic lesions may represent an endogenous signal for atherosclerotic plaque neovascularization and vulnerability.. Shed-membrane vesicles have been observed in situ in human atherosclerotic plaque where they colocalize with markers of cellular apoptosis (12,13). Although very little is known regarding the mechanisms leading to their formation, they may result from cell plasma membrane budding after inflammation of the vessel wall leading to activation or apoptosis of cells from the ...
The initial formulation and testing of CAS was based on data from a cross-sectional study (17). The serial carotid MRI study reported herein demonstrates that CAS measures are predictive of future carotid luminal surface disruption, thus providing prospective confirmation of the earlier single time-point study findings. Furthermore, a significant association was noted between CAS and plaque progression in asymptomatic patients with 50% to 79% stenosis and who did not have carotid DLS or IPH at baseline. We caution the reader against over-interpretation of the data presented given the relatively low number of events. Nevertheless, the data are promising for a simplification of carotid risk stratification using CAS and provide strong evidence for conducting future studies that use a larger study sample to validate these initial findings.. Findings from randomized clinical trials indicate that the benefit of CEA or stenting in this group of individuals is marginal. However, the further risk ...
The extent of luminal narrowing varies with underlying plaque morphology. TCFAs and fibroatheromas have the least luminal narrowing while lesions with acute plaque rupture, haemorrhage, or healed repair sites show the most stenosis. Over 74% of TCFAs have , 75% cross sectional area luminal narrowing (equivalent to , 50% diameter stenosis). Healed and acute plaque ruptures show the greatest luminal narrowing with 46% and 43%, respectively, containing , 75% cross sectional area narrowing. In contrast, only 26% of TCFAs show severe luminal narrowing (fig 3B). In a population where sudden cardiac death is the first manifestation of coronary disease, these morphologic findings strongly suggest that TCFAs are precursors to acute ruptures and healed plaque ruptures are often clinically silent.. TCFAs with ⩽ 50% diameter stenosis may be the ideal candidate lesions one should first attempt to identify and treat as a measure to reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction in high risk patients. If a ...
Impact of atherosclerotic plaque components and their distribution on stent deployment: an intravascular-ultrasound virtual histology observational study. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2016 Oct; 64(5):507-16 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiovascular PET/MR imaging. T2 - Quo Vadis?. AU - Schindler, Thomas Hellmut. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - With the recent advent of PET/MRI scanners, the combination of molecular imaging with a variety of known and novel PET radiotracers, the high spatial resolution of MRI, and its potential for multi-parametric imaging are anticipated to increase the diagnostic accuracy in cardiovascular disease detection, while providing novel mechanistic insights into the initiation and progression of the disease state. For the time being, cardiac PET/MRI emerges as potential clinical tool in the identification and characterization of infiltrative cardiac diseases, such as sarcoidosis, acute or chronic myocarditis, and cardiac tumors, respectively. The application of PET/MRI in conjunction with various radiotracer probes in the identification of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque also holds much promise but needs further translation and validation in clinical investigations. The ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Morbidity and mortality from atherosclerosis are associated with complicated atherosclerotic lesions due to plaque rupture and severe hemispheric neurological symptoms. However, a group of atherosclerotic patients remain asymptomatic because of plaque stability. It is not known if and how the stable and unstable plaques are different biochemically, and how the immune system regulates plaque stability. The studies over the past several years in our laboratory suggest that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a potent chemoattractant for monocytes, and possess strong mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activity for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Furthermore, we have shown that in stable plaques there is increased density of VSMCs and decreased number of macrophages and T-lymphocytes, whereas reverse is true with unstable plaques. We propose the hypothesis that decreased expression and activity of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R) on VSMCs due to cytokines released by ...
Quyen Nguyen and colleagues at the University of California have developed a probe that can be used to study thrombin activity in coagulation and atherosclerosis.. The probe was used in vivo to image atherosclerotic plaques in living mice. The fluorescent probe is based on an activatable cell penetrating peptide (ACPP) that incorporates a peptide sequence from the proteinase activated receptor 1. The probe is preferentially cleaved by thrombin (cleavage can be blocked using thrombin inhibitors), and this fluorescent cleavage product builds up at the site of atherosclerotic lesions. The fluorescence intensity varies depending on the severity of the plaque and the histologic grade of the aorta.. The probe was also used with human atheroma specimens ex vivo, and the retention of the fluorescent cleavage product was 63% higher than that found when using a control ACPP.. The team hope that probes like this could eventually be used to deliver MRI contrast agents to atherosclerotic plaques to enable ...
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used to visualize the extent of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary artery lumen. Total atheroma volume (TAV) in a ≥ 40 mm segment of the targeted coronary artery was calculated as the average plaque area over the number of images that were evaluated by IVUS multiplied by the median vessel length to compensate for differences in segment length between participants.. Regression in TAV was defined as any reduction from baseline in TAV. ...
Atherosclerosis is the underlying etiology of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a heterogeneous disease in which only a small fraction of lesions lead to heart attack, stroke, or sudden cardiac death. A distinct type of plaque containing large necrotic cores with thin fibrous caps often precipitates these acute events. Here, we show that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase γ (CaMKIIγ) in macrophages plays a major role in the development of necrotic, thin-capped plaques. Macrophages in necrotic and symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques in humans as well as advanced atherosclerotic lesions in mice demonstrated activation of CaMKII. Western diet-fed LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice with myeloid-specific deletion of CaMKII had smaller necrotic cores with concomitantly thicker collagen caps. These lesions demonstrated evidence of enhanced efferocytosis, which was associated with increased expression of the macrophage efferocytosis receptor ...
A new study from researchers at the NIH Clinical Center has found that non-calcified arterial plaque is associated with diabetes, high systolic blood pressure and elevated bad cholesterol levels in asymptomatic individuals.. The team state that Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in men and women worldwide, accounting for 17 million deaths annually. Current treatment strategies focus on cardiovascular risk and serum cholesterol levels rather than direct assessment of extent of disease in the coronary arteries. They go on to explain that plaque that forms in the arterial walls can restrict blood flow and, in some cases, rupture, leading to potentially fatal heart attacks. There is considerable evidence that calcified, or stable, plaque is less prone to rupture than non-calcified, or soft, plaque. Intravascular ultrasound can quantify non-calcified and calcified coronary artery plaque, however, it is invasive and unsuitable for screening purposes.. Previous studies have ...
RESULTS: JBA had a linear association with future stroke rate. The area under the ROC curve was 0.816. Using Kaplan Meier curves, the mean annual stroke rate was 0.4% in 706 patients with JBA ,4 mm2; it was 1.4% in 171 patients with JBA 4-8 mm2, 3.2% in 46 patients with JBA 8-10 mm2 and 5% in 198 patients with JBA ,10 mm2 (p,.001). In a Cox model with ipsilateral ischemic events (AF, TIA or stroke) as the dependent variable, JBA (,4, 4-8, ,8) was still significant after adjusting for other plaque features known to be associated with increased risk (stenosis, GSM, presence of discrete white areas without acoustic shadowing (DWA) indicating neovascularization, plaque area and history of contralateral TIA or stroke. Plaque area and gray scale median (GSM) were not significant. Using the significant variables (stenosis, DWA, JBA and history of contralateral TIA or stroke), this model predicted the annual risk of stroke (range 0.5-10.0%). The average annual stroke risk was ,1% in 734 patients, 1-1.9% ...
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Figure 3 Plaque Site With Attenuation at Baseline and 2-Year Follow-Up. This figure shows a plaque site with attenuation at baseline (A) and 2-year follow-up (B). Presence of attenuation and plaque morphology is not significantly changed. ...
Systemic loss of one IL-6 cytokine member exhibits mild or unexpected morphological vascular phenotypes (19), e.g., systemic deletion of IL-6 in a mouse model prone to atherosclerosis elicits detrimental effects on atherosclerotic plaque development, potentially via an IL-6−dependent down-regulation of its counteracting cytokine IL-10 (20). The complete systemic gp130 knockout, in contrast, shows profound defects in cardiac and hematopoetic development, resulting in premature death in utero or soon after birth. Thus, to delineate the role of the hepatic APR in atherosclerosis, we selectively deleted the gp130 receptor in hepatocytes using the Cre-loxP system. The genetic modification was confirmed by a PCR reaction demonstrating the gene inactivation exclusively in liver, but not in heart, aorta, or spleen, and by functional analysis of gp130-dependent, LIF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and SAA release from hepatocytes from controls, but not from gp130− mice. Thus, the introduction of loxP ...
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The overall aim of this proposal is to compare the effectiveness of an image guided approach to lipid lowering to standard therapy guided by clinical risk factors and blood lipid levels. Men and women over age 55 who are candidates for statin therapy will be randomized to usual cholesterol lowering care, or to care guided by MRI images of the carotid arteries. Participants randomized to the second, imaging guided, group will be assigned to LDL cholesterol targets according to the degree of atherosclerosis seen by MRI. The study endpoints will be the total degree of plaque regression seen, the dosage of statin drugs required to achieve that reduction, and the rate of cardiovascular events.. FDG-PET is hypothesized to enable visualization of anti-inflammatory effects of statins that most likely occur before anatomic regression of the plaques can be demonstrated on MRI. A pilot substudy is to be conducted to explore this relationship. A subgroup of patients participating in the main study will be ...
Aortic and Carotid Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) Imaging. Can identify plaque components such as fibrous cap, lipid core, calcium, hemorrhage, and thrombosis (vunerable plaques have thin fibrous cap and large lipid core) Non-invasive and no radiation Slideshow 157134 by benjamin
In a new study performed in humans, researchers from Swedens Karolinska Institutet have determined the age of atherosclerotic plaques by taking advantage of Carbon-14 (14C) residues in the atmosphere, prevailing after the extensive atomic bomb tests in the 50ties and 60ties. The findings, published in the scientific online journal |I|PLoS ONE|/I|, suggest that in most people plaque formation occurs during a relatively short and late time period in life of 3-5 years.
The 9-months data of the EVAPORATE study show slowing of several markers of plaque progression, although the primary endpoint of low attenuation plaque was not met.
... carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques; Abdominal aorta aneurysms; corneal endothelium, corneal keratocytes, trabecular cells, ... suppresses the development of Atherosclerosis plaques by promoting the death (i.e. apoptosis) of plaque-bound pro-inflammatory ...
Hamsters develop atherosclerotic plaques as humans do. Smoke inhalation can be studied on Syrian hamsters by putting the ...
Atherosclerotic lesions, or atherosclerotic plaques, are separated into two broad categories: Stable and unstable (also called ... thus linking DNA damage to plaque formation. DNA strand breaks also increased in atherosclerotic plaques. Werner syndrome (WS) ... The multiple and focal development of atherosclerotic changes is similar to that in the development of amyloid plaques in the ... WS patients develop a considerable burden of atherosclerotic plaques in their coronary arteries and aorta: calcification of the ...
Identification in Escherichia coli and atherosclerotic plaque". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
"Plaque-penetrating peptide inhibits development of hypoxic atherosclerotic plaque". J Control Release. 238: 212-220. doi: ...
"Detection of nanobacteria-like particles in human atherosclerotic plaques". Acta Biol Hung. 56 (3-4): 233-45. doi:10.1556/ABiol ... Puskás identified these particles in cultures obtained from human atherosclerotic aortic walls and blood samples of ... atherosclerotic patients but the group was unable to detect DNA in these samples. In 2005, Ciftcioglu and her research team at ...
22 Feb 2013). "Adhesive strength of atherosclerotic plaque in a mouse model depends on local collagen content and elastin ... 14 July 2011). "Development of a quantitative mechanical test of atherosclerotic plaque stability". Journal of Biomechanics. 44 ...
... plaque rupture, imaging atherosclerotic plaque, and thrombosis. Abela's laboratory studies the role of cholesterol crystals in ... "Effect of Statins on Cholesterol Crystallization and Atherosclerotic Plaque Stabilization". The American Journal of Cardiology ... "Plaque Rupture and Thrombosis: the Value of the Atherosclerotic Rabbit Model in Defining the Mechanism". Current ... "Effect of Statins on Cholesterol Crystallization and Atherosclerotic Plaque Stabilization". American Journal of Cardiology. 107 ...
Atherosclerotic plaque can rupture, resulting in a source of emboli. These emboli can cause TIAs or strokes in the areas of the ...
Fayad, ZA; Fuster, V (Aug 2001). "Clinical imaging of the high-risk or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque". Circ Res. 89 (4): ... Paperback Assessing and Modifying the Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque by Valentin Fuster (Editor) with William Insull Jr., MD ... Valentín Fuster con la colaboracíon de Emma Reverter The Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque: Understanding, Identification and ... The first demonstration in humans that coronary plaque rupture occurs in plaques that paradoxically are small and ...
The procedure may lead to cholesterol embolism from atherosclerotic plaques. Catheter embolectomy is also used for aspiration ...
Serum vitamin D has been found to correlate with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African Americans as they have higher ... There are racial differences in the association of coronary calcified plaque in that there is less calcified atherosclerotic ... Higher levels of calcidiol positively correlate with aorta and carotid calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African Americans ... and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in african-americans". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 95 (3): 1076- ...
2020). CD9 induces cellular senescence and aggravates atherosclerotic plaque formation. Cell Death & Differentiation https:// ...
"Histone Deacetylase 9 Activates IKK to Regulate Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability". Circulation Research. 127 (6): 811-823. ...
August 2020). "Histone Deacetylase 9 Activates IKK to Regulate Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability". Circulation Research. 127 ...
June 2002). "Imaging atherosclerotic plaque inflammation with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography". ... These amyloid imaging probes permit the visualization of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients and could assist ... which are all used to detect amyloid-beta plaques (a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's) in the brain. PET imaging with FDG ... commercialized a compound called florbetapir that uses the longer-lasting radionuclide fluorine-18 to detect amyloid plaques ...
Hypertension and atherosclerosis are risk factors for both atherosclerotic plaques and thromboembolism. In atherosclerotic ... or atherosclerotic plaque), compressed by something outside of the vessel causing it to narrow (e.g., tumor, volvulus, or ... of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids ( ... Occasionally, the plaque may rupture and form an embolus which travels with the blood-flow downstream to where the vessel ...
Atherosclerotic plaques are often present for decades before they result in symptoms. The gradual buildup of cholesterol and ... Play media The most common cause of a myocardial infarction is the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque on an artery supplying ... The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism ... The cholesterol crystals have been associated with plaque rupture through mechanical injury and inflammation. Atherosclerotic ...
"Production of the long pentraxin PTX3 in advanced atherosclerotic plaques". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology ...
Cormode, D.P.; Gordon, R.E.; Fisher, E.A.; Mulder, W.J.M.; Proksa, R. (2010). "Atherosclerotic plaque composition: Analysis ... "Photon counting spectral CT component analysis of coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque samples". Br. J. Radiol. 87. PMC ... suppressing bone contrast and improving characterization of atherosclerotic plaque. Suppression of contrast agents is employed ...
"Identification and Quantitation of Unique Fatty Acid Oxidation Products in Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Using High-Performance ... "Lipoxygenase contributes to the oxidation of lipids in human atherosclerotic plaques". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 96 (1 ... "Fatty acid oxidation products in human atherosclerotic plaque: An analysis of clinical and histopathological correlates". ... is a dominant component of these plaques. Since these studies found that early into the progression of the plaques, 13-HODE ...
August 2015). "Alternation of histone and DNA methylation in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques". Thrombosis and Haemostasis ... Reduced levels of H3K9me2 have been observed in vascular smooth muscle cells from human atherosclerotic lesions compared to ... Harman JL, Jørgensen HF (October 2019). "The role of smooth muscle cells in plaque stability: Therapeutic targeting potential ...
"Differential enlargement of artery segments in response to enlarging atherosclerotic plaques". J Vasc Surg. 7 (3): 386-94. doi: ... The progressive accumulation of plaque within the artery wall over decades is the setup for vulnerable plaque which, in turn, ... showing that atheromatous plaque tends to cause expansion of the internal elastic lamina, causing the degree of plaque burden ... IVUS is used in the coronary arteries to determine the amount of atheromatous plaque built up at any particular point in the ...
... which form atherosclerotic plaques. Probucol has also been shown to inhibit ABCA1-dependent cholesterol transport, which may ...
Cholesterol embolism - embolism of cholesterol, often from atherosclerotic plaque inside a vessel. Fat embolism - embolism of ...
Furthermore, betulin reduced the size and improved the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Native Americans used red alder ... Improves Hyperlipidemia and Insulin Resistance and Reduces Atherosclerotic Plaques". Cell Metabolism. 13 (1): 44-56. doi: ...
... usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes ...
In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus (blood clot) usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is ... small atherosclerotic plaques). Sickle-cell anemia, which can cause blood cells to clump up and block blood vessels, can also ...
"Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 reduces complex coronary atherosclerotic plaque development". Nature ...
Lee, G. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, G. T.; Lee, B. H.; Kwon, I. C.; Kim, I. S. (2011). "Molecular targeting of atherosclerotic plaques ... atherosclerotic plaque-homing peptide, and IL-4 receptor-binding peptide. We[who?] also have been working on selecting peptides ... He is currently carrying out projects for the identification of homing peptides to tumor and atherosclerotic plaque and of ... "Phage display selection of peptides that home to atherosclerotic plaques: IL-4 receptor as a candidate target in ...
2002). "Imaging atherosclerotic plaque inflammation with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography". Circulation. ... These amyloid imaging probes permit the visualization of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients and could assist ... which are all used to detect amyloid-beta plaques (a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's) in the brain. ... commercialized a compound called florbetapir that uses the longer-lasting radionuclide fluorine-18 to detect amyloid plaques ...
Coagulation issues and inflammation of atherosclerotic plaques are known to occur as a result of G-CSF injection. G-CSF has ...
This knowledge helped modern scientist's understanding of how atherosclerotic plaques form and provided information on ...
Beberapa ahli lain mempertimbangan klasifikasi berdasarkan fenotipe seperti keberadaan internal carotid artery plaque, intima- ... cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council ... Sebagai contoh, penurunan diameter ≥ 50%, atau penurunan diameter ,50% disertai plaque ulceration atau trombosis. Dan subtipe ... ekstrakranial seperti vertebral artery origin stenosis atau proksimal seperti thick plaques in the aortic arch yang selama ini ...
... and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in african-americans". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 95 (3): 1076- ... are racial differences in the association of coronary calcified plaque in that there is less calcified atherosclerotic plaque ... positively correlate with aorta and carotid calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African Americans but not with coronary plaque ... Serum vitamin D has been found to correlate with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African Americans as they have higher ...
In contrast, occlusion of the blood vessel by atherosclerotic plaque, by an embolised blood clot or a foreign body leads to ...
"Lipoxygenase contributes to the oxidation of lipids in human atherosclerotic plaques". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 96 (1 ... "Identification and Quantitation of Unique Fatty Acid Oxidation Products in Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Using High-Performance ... "Fatty acid oxidation products in human atherosclerotic plaque: An analysis of clinical and histopathological correlates". ... Further studies suggest that 13(S)-HODE contributes to plaque formation by activating the transcription factor, PPARγ (13(R)- ...
... and the atherosclerotic plaque burden (green). ...
... leading to atherosclerotic plaques.[186] Cigarette smoke increases proinflammatory cytokines in the bloodstream, causing ... the adherent white plaques or patches on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, including the tongue.[89] ... "Endothelial dysfunction: a marker of atherosclerotic risk". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 23 (2): 168- ...
... the form of LDL present in foam cells of an atheromatous plaque. Because of their know association with high-density ... "Structure and evolution of the serum paraoxonase family of detoxifying and anti-atherosclerotic enzymes". Nature Structural & ...
2002). "Imaging atherosclerotic plaque inflammation with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography". Circulation. ... These amyloid imaging probes permit the visualization of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients and could assist ... has developed a compound called 18F-AV-45 that uses the longer-lasting radionuclide fluorine-18 to detect amyloid plaques using ... 6-dialkylamino-2-naphthylethylidene derivatives as positron emission tomography imaging probes for beta-amyloid plaques in ...
... leading to plaque stabilization and, sometimes, plaque regression. However, there is an increased risk of statin-associated ... Furie KL (July 2012). "High-dose statins should only be used in atherosclerotic strokes". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral ... Recent studies have shown that in patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome, high-dose statin treatment may play a plaque ... There have been recent studies suggesting that high-dose statin therapy plays a plaque-stabilizing role in people suffering ...
... consequently decreases atherosclerotic plaques area in apolipoprotein E−/− mice.[15] GDF11 attenuates liver fibrosis via ... "GDF11 Protects against Endothelial Injury and Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in Apolipoprotein E-Null Mice" ...
Atherosclerotic plaque) ପ୍ଲେକ କହନ୍ତି । ଜମି ରହିଥିବା ଏହି ପ୍ଲେକ ସ୍ଥାନଚ୍ୟୁତ ହୋଇଗଲେ ସେହି ସ୍ଥାନଠାରୁ ଦୂରରେ ଥିବା ସରୁ ରକ୍ତ ନଳୀ ବନ୍ଦ ...
... leukocyte recruitment into the atherosclerotic plaque, enhanced oxidative stress, migration and proliferation of vascular ...
In 1957, Lown was concerned with how to visualize an atherosclerotic aortic plaque, which occurs in the big coronary vessels ...
Vibration of the carotid artery with snoring also lends itself as a potential mechanism for atherosclerotic plaque rupture and ... identifying a possible mechanism for snoring-associated carotid artery damage and atherosclerotic plaque development. These ...
Aquest fenomen es veu afavorit per la presència de plaques d'arteriosclerosi en les artèries cerebrals. ... cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council ...
... plaque development and plaque responses to medical treatment". The American Journal of Medicine. 122 (1 Suppl): S3-S14. doi: ... "What a vascular surgeon should know and do about atherosclerotic risk factors". Journal of Vascular Surgery. 49 (5): 1348-54. ... they can inflate the balloon at the occlusion site in the vascular system to flatten or compress the plaque against the ...
Another way glycated Hb causes damage is via inflammation which results in atherosclerotic plaque (atheroma) formation. Free ... NO is a potent vasodilator and also inhibits formation of plaque promoting LDLs (i.e. "bad cholesterol") oxidized form.[12] ... Loose heme can cause oxidation of endothelial and LDL proteins which results in plaques.[12] ... which promote macrophage accumulation in blood vessel surfaces ultimately leading to harmful plaques in these vessels.[12] ...
While this intracellular organism has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques, evidence is inconclusive as to whether it ... Atherosclerotic heart disease,[1] atherosclerotic vascular disease,[2] coronary heart disease[3]. ... Faxon, D. P. (1 June 2004). "Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Conference: Executive Summary: Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease ... Plaques can be thought of as large "pimples" that protrude into the channel of an artery, causing a partial obstruction to ...
Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation ...
Periodontal disease is a type of gum disease caused by the accumulation of plaque on the teeth due to poor oral hygiene. Plaque ... Atherosclerotic vascular disease is chronic inflammatory disease of large arteries distinguished by invasion, proliferation and ... if left to get worse atherosclerotic vascular disease can result in cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease (including ...
June 2014). "2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in ... "A century of cholesterol and coronaries: from plaques to genes to statins". Cell. 161 (1): 161-172. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.01 ...
A novel monocyte/macrophage fatty acid epoxygenase in human atherosclerotic plaques". Basic Research in Cardiology. 108 (1): ...
Coronary no-reflow is caused by shedding of active tissue factor from dissected atherosclerotic plaque.. Blood. 2002-04-15, 99 ... Cellular origins and thrombogenic activity of microparticles isolated from human atherosclerotic plaques.. Journal of the ...
This can change when the blood vessel is damaged by for example physical injury or rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Exposure ...
Potential mechanisms for the pathogenesis and development of atherosclerotic plaques may be similar to the mechanisms involved ... In laboratory experiments, animals exposed to certain PAHs have shown increased development of plaques (atherogenesis) within ... which are steps in plaque formation.[85][86] These quinone metabolites also generate reactive oxygen species that may alter the ... activity of genes that affect plaque formation.[86]. Oxidative stress following PAH exposure could also result in ...
Atherosclerotic obstruction of the renal artery can be treated with angioplasty with or without stenting of the renal artery. ... These stenotic segments are due to the buildup of cholesterol-laden plaques that form due to atherosclerosis. A percutaneous ... It is most commonly done to treat atherosclerotic narrowings of the abdomen, leg and renal arteries caused by peripheral artery ...
... Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide As a Contrast Media for MRI Mitra Rajabi, MD ... Visualization of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque * 1. Visualization of Atherosclerotic Vulnerable Plaque Super Paramagnetic ... Atherosclerotic plaque: Radionucli... by adamsh 629 views * Cardiovascular pathology coronary h... by Ivano-Frankivsk N... ... and intra plaque hemorrhage all of them representing vulnerable plaque may contribute to retaining of USPIO inside the plaque ...
... in atherosclerotic plaques. Fumagillin is an antiangiogenesis drug. ... in atherosclerotic plaques. Fumagillin is an antiangiogenesis drug.. "Previously we reported that we can visualize plaques ... If a plaque ruptures, it can block blood flow to the heart or brain, causing heart attack or stroke.. While growing, plaques ... The diet caused numerous small plaques in the rabbits aortas, but the plaques were considered to be at an early stage of ...
Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances atherosclerotic plaque progression.. Celletti FL1, Waugh JM, Amabile PG, Brendolan ... can promote angiogenesis but may also exert certain effects to alter the rate of atherosclerotic plaque development. To ... Plaque macrophage and endothelial cell content also increased disproportionately over controls. In order to confirm that the ... VEGF significantly increased macrophage levels in bone marrow and peripheral blood and increased plaque area 5-, 14- and 4-fold ...
State University and Stanford University have designed special nanoparticles which could break down an atherosclerotic plaque ... Thus, the arteries are cleared of the plaques with the nanocarriers carrying in the plaque busting drugs. The plaque size could ... A typical feature of an atherosclerotic plaque, wrote the researchers is accumulation of the dead cells and debris within the ... The team designed these nano particles that could specifically target the atherosclerotic plaques clogging up the heart ...
CD9 expression increased in arterial tissues from humans and rats with age, and in atherosclerotic plaques in humans and mice. ... We investigated the potential mechanism for CD9-mediated cellular senescence and its role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. ... CD9 is upregulated in senescent endothelial cells, neointima hyperplasia, and atherosclerotic plaques. However, its role in ... Anti-mouse CD9 antibody noticeably prevented the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE−/− mice and Ldlr−/− mice. ...
... leading to plaque rupture [4]. Detection of atherosclerotic plaques at this inflammatory stage with the use of invasive and ... distribution of the plaque, and severity of the plaque in addition to its ability to detect the plaque cross-sectional area, ... 10−5 cm2·s−1 in plaque lipid core, cm2·s−1 in a collagenous cap, and × 10−5 cm2·s−1 in normal media [84]. Water will diffuse ... Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque. Sunny Goel,1 Avraham Miller,1 Chirag Agarwal,1 Elina ...
Phospholipids and oxophospholipids in atherosclerotic plaques at different stages of plaque development. Lipids 39:97-109PubMed ... This is the first identification of OxPtdIns molecules in human OxLDL and atherosclerotic plaque. With these novel molecules ... Hydroxides decreased with increased oxidation achieving a minimum at 24 h (5.2 ± 0.3%). Human atherosclerotic plaques contained ... We sought to identify and quantitate oxidized phosphatidylinositol (OxPtdIns) species in OxLDL and human atherosclerotic plaque ...
... in the determination of atherosclerotic plaques with microcalcifications and, therefore, the prospect of constructing a ... The discrimination of microcalcifications within the fibrocalcific plaques and, therefore, the effectivity of these imaging ... Microcalcification is an indication of vulnerability of plaques in humans. With conventional imaging modalities, screening of ... SAM images of the atherosclerotic plaques are received using acoustic impedance mode of SAM as can be seen in Figure 7. This ...
Degree of stenosis, which is the current criterion for assessment of atherosclerotic disease severity, has been observed to h ... Atherosclerotic plaques may rupture without warning, causing fatal clinical events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. ... Atherosclerotic plaques may rupture without warning, causing fatal clinical events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. ... We discuss the basic mechanics that govern plaque behavior, the material properties of atherosclerotic tissues and the studies ...
Multiple atherosclerotic plaque rupture in acute coronary syndrome: a three-vessel intravascular ultrasound study. Circulation ... Multiple atherosclerotic plaque rupture in acute coronary syndrome: a three-vessel intravascular ultrasound study. Circulation ... Unfortunately, the coronary arteriographic appearance of a ruptured plaque does not tell how recently the plaque rupture has ... that plaque rupture is not the usual mechanism for increase in occlusiveness of smooth-appearing atherosclerotic lesions, and ...
Histopathological Analysis of Atherosclerotic Plaques. Total collagen content was determined in the atherosclerotic plaque ... Influence of plaque configuration and stress distribution on fissuring of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Lancet. 1989; 2: ... TABLE 1. Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization Using LSI: Differences in τ for Different Plaque Groups Under Static ... Background- A method capable of determining atherosclerotic plaque composition and measuring plaque viscoelasticity can provide ...
... electron paramagnetic resonance in medicine are demonstrated on an example of the investigation of a calcified atherosclerotic ... After the irradiation of the atherosclerotic plaque by x rays, a new type of paramagnetic centers-organomineral radicals-is ... The spectral and relaxation characteristics of these radicals depend on the calcification degree of the atherosclerotic plaque ... Stationary and high-frequency pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance of a calcified atherosclerotic plaque. ...
Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 reduces complex coronary atherosclerotic plaque development.. Wilensky RL ... Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 reduces complex coronary atherosclerotic plaque development ... Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 reduces complex coronary atherosclerotic plaque development ... Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 reduces complex coronary atherosclerotic plaque development ...
Effects of Crestor on Inflammation of Atherosclerotic Plaques. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Effects of Crestor on Inflammation of Atherosclerotic Plaques. Official Title ICMJE Exploratory Study of New Imaging Biomarkers ... Subjects with a non-calcified plaque of at least 2 mm over an at least 6 mm length on first MR scan with an uptake of contrast ... The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effect of 40 mg dose of rosuvastatin on carotid plaque inflammation ...
... fibrous plaque, atherosclerotic plaque, calcified plaque and ulcerated plaque. As for statistics, the total number of ... Laser-induced fluorescence of atherosclerotic plaques Author(s): N. Moise; Mihail-Lucian Pascu; C. Carp; C. Volvoreanu ... we found proeminent differences both in spectral and temporal range between normal artery and atherosclerotic plaques which was ... In vitro laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra and lifetimes of normal and atherosclerotic tissues are reported. The ...
Formation of atherosclerotic plaque tends to occur at sites of injury, such as at bifurcations where shear forces are maximal, ... Atherosclerotic Plaque as Infected Biofilm. The main failing in most of Western Medicine is misdiagnosis. You cannot ... Stephen Fry runs his own microbiology lab where he examines high powered views of biofilms in atherosclerotic plaque material ... So, the idea of atherosclerotic plaque as infected biofilm certainly fits the pattern of commonly affected sites in the ...
Localization of tissue factor in the normal vessel wall and in the atherosclerotic plaque. J N Wilcox, K M Smith, S M Schwartz ... Atherosclerotic plaques contained many cells synthesizing TF mRNA and protein. Macrophages present as foam cells and monocytes ... These results suggest that deposition of TF protein in the matrix of the necrotic core of the atherosclerotic plaque may ... Tissue factor (TF)-producing cells were identified in normal human vessels and atherosclerotic plaques by in situ hybridization ...
... Author(s). Kastrup, Christian; Nahrendorf, ... "Painting blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with an adhesive drug depot." Proceedings of the National Academy of ... DownloadKastrup-2012-Painting Blood Vessels and Atherosclerotic Plaques with an Adhesive Drug Depot.pdf (1.353Mb) ... Treatment also lowered plasma cytokine levels and biomarkers of inflammation in the plaque. The drug-eluting devices developed ...
This study assessed the impact of diabetes mellitus on atherosclerotic lesion formation. Seventy insulin-treated diabetics, 150 ... Paradoxic decreases in atherosclerotic plaque mass in insulin-treated diabetic patients Am J Cardiol. 1998 Jun 1;81(11):1298- ... less reference plaque (8.3 +/- 3.4 vs 10.5 +/- 4.5 mm2, p = 0.0015), (2) less stenosis plaque (13.0 +/- 4.9 vs 16.9 mm2, p , ... predictor of reference plaque and arterial areas (p = 0.0308 and p = 0.0179) and stenosis plaque and arterial areas (p = 0.0117 ...
What is atherosclerotic plaque? Meaning of atherosclerotic plaque medical term. What does atherosclerotic plaque mean? ... Looking for online definition of atherosclerotic plaque in the Medical Dictionary? atherosclerotic plaque explanation free. ... atherosclerotic plaque. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. atherosclerotic plaque. The core lesion of ... See Complicated plaque. Atherosclerotic plaque. A deposit of fat and other substances that accumulate in the lining of the ...
Macrophages in necrotic and symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques in humans as well as advanced atherosclerotic lesions in mice ... CAMKIIγ suppresses an efferocytosis pathway in macrophages and promotes atherosclerotic plaque necrosis. ... CAMKIIγ suppresses an efferocytosis pathway in macrophages and promotes atherosclerotic plaque necrosis. ... identify a macrophage CaMKIIγ/ATF6/LXRα/MerTK pathway as a key factor in the development of necrotic atherosclerotic plaques. ...
Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation Imaged Using PDG-PET/CT. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Plaque, Atherosclerotic. Pathologic Processes. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus ... Tools for detecting and quantifying atherosclerotic pro/regression in people with diabetes and other CVD risk factors lack ... a standard measure of carotid atherosclerotic burden. We propose to obtain pilot data that shows feasibility for a novel ...
The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Inflammatory Activity in Diabetic Atherosclerotic Plaques. Raffaele Marfella, Michele ... The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Inflammatory Activity in Diabetic Atherosclerotic Plaques. Raffaele Marfella, Michele ... The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Inflammatory Activity in Diabetic Atherosclerotic Plaques Message Subject (Your Name) has ... The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Inflammatory Activity in Diabetic Atherosclerotic Plaques. Effects of Rosiglitazone ...
... and also that smooth muscle cells in these plaques express class II MHC (Ia) antigens. These antigens are not normally present ... It was recently shown that the human atherosclerotic plaque contains significant amounts of T lymphocytes, ... Detection of activated T lymphocytes in the human atherosclerotic plaque Am J Pathol. 1989 Jul;135(1):169-75. ... Taken together, these results indicated that a substantial proportion of the T cells in atherosclerotic plaque are in an ...
The probe was used in vivo to image atherosclerotic plaques in living mice. The fluorescent probe is based on an activatable ... The team hope that probes like this could eventually be used to deliver MRI contrast agents to atherosclerotic plaques to ... In vivo fluorescence imaging of atherosclerotic plaques with activatable cell-penetrating peptides targeting thrombin activity ... The fluorescence intensity varies depending on the severity of the plaque and the histologic grade of the aorta. ...
... calcified plaque versus fatty-mixed plaque and (2) calcified plaque versus iodine-mixed blood. MECT outperformed DECT and ... Numerical observer for atherosclerotic plaque classification in spectral computed tomography. Auranuch Lorsakul, Georges El ... We used an extended cardiac-torso anthropomorphic digital phantom and three simulated plaque types (i.e., calcified plaque, ... "Numerical observer for atherosclerotic plaque classification in spectral computed tomography," Journal of Medical Imaging 3(3 ...
... "soft plaque"), partially calcified plaque (PCP, also called "mixed plaque"), and calcified plaque (CP). Further details about ... Noncalcified plaque (NCP, referred to as "soft plaque") [1] usually shows lower attenuation values than calcified plaque in a ... A Voxel-Map Quantitative Analysis Approach for Atherosclerotic Noncalcified Plaques of the Coronary Artery Tree. Ying Li,1 Wei ... M. Schmid, S. Achenbach, D. Ropers et al., "Assessment of changes in non-calcified atherosclerotic plaque volume in the left ...
Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy. Research and Teaching ... Detection of morphological markers of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque using multimodal spectroscopy. Download ... "Detection of Morphological Markers of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque Using Multimodal Spectroscopy." Journal of Biomedical ... Vulnerable plaques, which are responsible for most acute ischemic events, are presently invisible to x-ray angiography. Their ...
Formation of atherosclerotic plaque tends to occur at sites of injury, such as at bifurcations where shear forces are maximal, ... Atherosclerotic Plaque as Infected Biofilm has no comments. Be the first to comment this post!. ... Stephen Fry runs his own microbiology lab where he examines high powered views of biofilms in atherosclerotic plaque material ... So, the idea of atherosclerotic plaque as infected biofilm certainly fits the pattern of commonly affected sites in the ...
Carotid atherosclerotic plaque was recorded when atherosclerotic plaque was found in the carotid arteries on noninvasive, 2D- ... On the other hand, the diagnosis of carotid atherosclerotic plaque is a surrogate objective and constitutes an independent ... Keywords: Atherosclerosis / complications; Plaque, Atherosclerotic; Carotid Arteries; Cholesterol, LDL; Lipoproteins, LDL; ... increased mean intima-media thickness and more atherosclerotic plaques than patients with low non-HDL-C levels. Moreover, high ...
  • Anti-mouse CD9 antibody noticeably prevented the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE −/− mice and Ldlr −/− mice. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, CD9 ablation in ApoE −/− mice decreased atherosclerotic lesions in aorta and aortic sinus. (nature.com)
  • In a study 2,3 of the natural history of complex (ruptured plaque) and smooth coronary artery lesions performed by analyzing serial coronary arteriograms, we found that complex lesions were frequently preceded by minimally occlusive lesions or seemingly normal vessel segments and that complex lesions were often present in more than 1 vessel simultaneously. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hence, until then, the presence of multiple lesions indicative of ruptured plaques does not necessarily imply that all the ruptured plaques had occurred at the time of the culprit lesion, nor does it prove that there is necessarily generalized plaque instability at the time of the patient's acute coronary syndrome. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the basis of repeated angiographic studies showing that complex coronary lesions (CCL) have a certain "chronicity," 1 Dr Haft raises the possibility that the ruptured plaques associated with culprit lesions may be longstanding, rather than occurring simultaneously with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), which would imply generalized instability. (ahajournals.org)
  • Background- A method capable of determining atherosclerotic plaque composition and measuring plaque viscoelasticity can provide valuable insight into intrinsic features associated with plaque rupture and can enable the identification of high-risk lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Darapladib treatment resulted in a considerable decrease in plaque area and, notably, a markedly reduced necrotic core area and reduced medial destruction, resulting in fewer lesions with an unstable phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • These data show that selective inhibition of Lp-PLA(2) inhibits progression to advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions and confirms a crucial role of vascular inflammation independent from hypercholesterolemia in the development of lesions implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction and stroke. (nih.gov)
  • The core lesion of atherosclerosis, beginning as a fatty streak (an ill-defined yellow lesion-, or fatty plaque), which develops well-demarcated edges that evolve to fibrous plaques (whitish lesions with a grumous lipid-rich core). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • it begins as a fatty streak, an ill-defined yellow lesion-fatty plaque, which develops well-demarcated edges that evolve to fibrous plaques, whitish lesions with a grumous lipid-rich core which, with time, becomes a complicated plaque composed of WBCs, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix in large artery intimas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To test our hypothesis that altered collagen contents by P4H[alpha]1 overexpression affects the development of atherosclerotic plaque , we studied the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesions of vulnerable and stable phenotypes induced by a perivascular cast [14]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Macrophages in necrotic and symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques in humans as well as advanced atherosclerotic lesions in mice demonstrated activation of CaMKII. (jci.org)
  • Mechanistic studies revealed that CaMKIIγ-deficient macrophages and atherosclerotic lesions lacking myeloid CaMKIIγ had increased expression of the transcription factor ATF6. (jci.org)
  • The probe is preferentially cleaved by thrombin (cleavage can be blocked using thrombin inhibitors), and this fluorescent cleavage product builds up at the site of atherosclerotic lesions. (rsc.org)
  • Six patients who were diagnosed with atherosclerotic lesions were included. (ajnr.org)
  • On the basis of the concept of MSR, 21 , 22 we developed the PR model to recover the vessel lumen at the regions of the atherosclerotic lesions and to compute the morphology of the plaque. (ajnr.org)
  • The present project works with design and planning of collaborative studies aimed to develop novel therapies for treatment of atherosclerosis based on local activation of protective anti-inflammatory immune and tissue repair responses in atherosclerotic lesions. (stias.ac.za)
  • Global noise levels and target-to-background ratios (TBR) defined on manually delineated coronary plaque lesions were compared to assess image quality and uptake estimates. (snmjournals.org)
  • Our results show that Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique to obtain a consistent and non-destructive quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic lesions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a thrombogenic substance that accumulates in mildly-oxidized LDL and in human atherosclerotic lesions, and is responsible for the initial platelet activation, shape change, induced by mildly-oxidized LDL and extracts of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques (Siess et al. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • However, angiography identifies only those lesions that encroach significantly into the lumen, and there is a poor correlation between the angiographic appearance of plaques and subsequent risk of plaque rupture. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Low degrees of thermal damage after ablation of atherosclerotic lesions have been achieved by XeCl excimer laser at 308 nm. (spie.org)
  • At atherosclerotic lesions, cholesterol accumulates on the tunica intima by establishing an ester bond with fatty acids such as oleic acid, and thus cholesterol ester is the main component of atherosclerotic plaques. (spie.org)
  • Immune-histochemistry of early and advanced lesions of coronary arteries demonstrated co-localization of Cathepsin-K and CTX-I in areas of intimal hyperplasia and in shoulder regions of advanced plaques. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The main event leading to clinically significant disease often involves the rupture of unstable atherosclerotic lesions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Other groups focused on differences in gene expression between fatty streaks and advanced lesions 10 and intima and media of human atherosclerotic plaques. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, in the present study, we focused on differential gene expression of morphologically advanced, but stable, human atherosclerotic lesions and ruptured human atherosclerotic lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Electrical impedance measurements were performed on 13 atherosclerotic human aortic segments at 67 measuring spots in order to determine whether or not on the basis of these data a distinction can be made between atherosclerotic lesions and normal tissue. (eur.nl)
  • IL-17A/F + neutrophils were always observed in complicated plaques, but hardly in intact lesions. (ovid.com)
  • Three decades ago Benditt and Benditt presented evidence that atherosclerotic lesions were monoclonal.1 Subsequent work using a polymorphism in the human androgen receptor gene demonstrated that the cell responsible for clonality was the smooth muscle cell of the fibrous cap.2 The critical question now is: How does monoclonality arise? (39kf.com)
  • The duration of its effects, however, may primarily determine the clinical significance of IPH, especially in those lesions without luminal stenosis and with minimal plaque burden ( 6,7 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Conclusion: 3 T bb-CMR is able to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid plaques, demonstrating the potential of bb-CMR to differentiate between stable and vulnerable lesions and ultimately to identify patients with low versus high risk for cardiovascular complications. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This study is a detailed pathological comparison of atherosclerotic lesions and plaque stability in patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA), previously treated versus untreated with a statin. (springermedizin.de)
  • If proven true, the growth of atherosclerotic lesions may be interrupted to prevent clinical manifestation, like TIA and stroke, even in late stages of life, at 60 years of age or possibly later. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Background The nature and the tissue characterization of atherosclerotic RAS lesions have not been fully explored. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Clinical tools to identify individuals with unstable atherosclerotic lesions are required to improve prevention of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. (diva-portal.org)
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the progression of atherosclerosis and the occurrence of cardiovascular events in asymptomatic patients with atherosclerotic plaques (Class IV and V) and arterial wall atherosclerotic lesions and intima-media thickening (IMT). (minervamedica.it)
  • METHODS: Progression of atherosclerotic lesions, oxidative stress and IMT were measured in a 3-year concept, pilot registry study. (minervamedica.it)
  • The ability of ATCA to detect atherosclerotic plaque lesions in vivo was assessed using CMR. (uncg.edu)
  • The ATCA exhibited time-dependent accumulation in atherosclerotic plaque lesions of ApoE -/- mice as determined using CMR. (uncg.edu)
  • Conclusions: The ATCA is specifically internalized by CD36 receptors on atherosclerotic plaque providing enhanced visualization of lesions under physiological conditions. (uncg.edu)
  • Symptomatic lesions were defined as ipsilateral is- hemoglobin-rich plaque hemorrhage in the transformation chemic events, including cerebral infarction, transient ische- from stable to unstable lesions was proposed over 80 years micattack(TIA) andamaurosis fugaxwithin6months. (deepdyve.com)
  • Fibrous cap smooth muscle cells (SMCs) protect atherosclerotic lesions from rupturing and causing thrombosis, while other plaque SMCs may have detrimental roles in plaque development. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, ICG/[email protected] NMs-treated mice presented a more favorable plaque phenotype than that was observed in free SRT1720-treated mice, suggesting the enhanced delivery of pharmaceutical agents to the atherosclerotic lesions and improved therapeutic efficacy of NMs compared with free SRT1720. (thno.org)
  • The distal areas of specimens lacking macroscopic atherosclerotic lesions served as controls. (go.jp)
  • The MAA-specific Fabs also recognized epitopes on advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and the uptake of infrared (IR)-labeled MAA-low-density lipoprotein by mouse J774A.1 macrophages was significantly reduced in the presence of these Fabs. (oup.com)
  • An atherosclerosis plaque results when a buildup of cholesterol, inflammatory cells and fibrous tissue forms inside an artery. (medgadget.com)
  • Plaque VSMCs showed reduced expression and telomere binding of telomeric repeat-binding factor-2 (TRF2) and transgenic mice expressing VSMC-specific TRF2 decreased atherosclerosis and necrotic core areas [ 5 ]. (nature.com)
  • Over the last three decades, much work has been done to develop imaging modalities which can diagnose atherosclerosis at least in its intermediate stages and visualize the stage of active inflammation within the vessel wall which converts a stable plaque into an unstable one. (hindawi.com)
  • In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, inflamed plaques treated with steroid-eluting adhesive gels had reduced macrophage content and developed protective fibrous caps covering the plaque core. (mit.edu)
  • In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic plaques were coated via catheter by the adhesive gel loaded with the anti-inflammatory molecule dexamethasone. (sciencemag.org)
  • 5 , 6 In patients with less than 70% carotid stenosis, high-resolution lumenography fails to provide any insight into the associated risk for stroke, because angiography is able to detect atherosclerosis only when more than 40% of the area of the vessel wall is occupied by the plaque. (ajnr.org)
  • Herein, we investigated the possible role of FcγRIIIA in the atherosclerotic plaque destabilisation using an aortic atherosclerosis mouse model of ApoE −/− mice in vivo. (bmj.com)
  • The individuals are participants in the PESA-CNIC-Santander (Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis) ongoing observational prospective study characterizing early subclinical atherosclerotic burden and determinants of atherosclerosis presence and progression. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Despite this cause, current treatment algorithms make no allowance for the presence or absence of vulnerable plaques at risk of rupture, and the current dogma is to treat all patients with any atherosclerosis in the same way. (snmjournals.org)
  • This emerging line of evidence demonstrating that extensive proteolytic activity of different origins is of paramount important of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, further emphasis the need for understanding the role of the proteolytic array of enzymes in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix of the atherosclerotic plaques. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our results show that it is possible to identify genes that are specifically and reproducibly associated with specific stages of atherosclerosis by using whole-mount human atherosclerotic specimens. (ahajournals.org)
  • Objective- Macrophages play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but their dynamics within plaques remain obscure. (ovid.com)
  • The constitutive expression of IL-17E by resident plaque cells, and the additional presence of IL-17E + B cells and IL-17A/F + neutrophils in advanced and complicated plaques indicates a complex contribution of IL-17 family cytokines in human atherosclerosis, depending on the stage and activity of the disease. (ovid.com)
  • IVUS measures the volume of plaque build-up in the coronary arteries, a marker of coronary atherosclerosis. (takeda.com)
  • Background: The hallmark of atherosclerosis is the accumulation of plaque in vessel walls. (uncg.edu)
  • Analysis of the clonal structure showed that a low number of local medial SMCs partake in atherosclerosis and that single medial SMCs can produce several different SMC phenotypes in plaque. (jci.org)
  • The combined results show that few medial SMCs proliferate to form the entire phenotypically heterogeneous plaque SMC population in murine atherosclerosis. (jci.org)
  • Background and aims: Carotid plaque is a specific sign of atherosclerosis and adults with carotid plaque are at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes. (edu.au)
  • These nano particles are taught to target monocytes and macrophages, which are immune cells commonly found in the plaques. (news-medical.net)
  • If the signalling pathway is blocked, the macrophages go on a killing and engulfing spree and thus clear the debris left by the broken plaques. (news-medical.net)
  • The team also wrote in conclusion, "prophagocytic single-walled carbon nanotubes decrease the expression of inflammatory genes linked to cytokine and chemokine pathways in lesional macrophages, which demonstrates the potential of 'Trojan horse' nanoparticles to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. (news-medical.net)
  • The hallmark characteristic of inflammation is the presence of macrophages within the plaque lipid core [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 65 μm), a large lipid-rich atheromatous core, and activated macrophages at the plaque shoulder. (ahajournals.org)
  • The switch from anti-inflammatory lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase to pro-inflammatory Type 1 inducible membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in carotid atherosclerotic plaque macrophages is associated with acute brain ischemia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we show that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase γ (CaMKIIγ) in macrophages plays a major role in the development of necrotic, thin-capped plaques. (jci.org)
  • T cells may be activated locally, presumably by antigen(s) presented in the context of class II MHC expressing smooth muscle cells and/or macrophages, in the atherosclerotic lesion. (nih.gov)
  • Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. (osti.gov)
  • Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. (osti.gov)
  • Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin. (osti.gov)
  • Macrophages and atherosclerotic plaque stability. (harvard.edu)
  • Pathomorphological changes of aorta were observed by Masson staining evaluating plaques collagen content, immunohistochemical staining α-actin and CD68 evaluating contents of plaques vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages, and oil red O staining evaluating plaques adipose tissue contents. (bmj.com)
  • Approach and Results- In a stable intravital preparation, large asymmetrical foamy macrophages in the intima of carotid artery plaques were sessile, but smaller rounded cells nearer plaque margins, possibly newly recruited monocytes, mobilized laterally along plaque borders. (ovid.com)
  • Thus, to test macrophage dynamics in plaques over a longer period of time in progressing and regressing disease, we quantified displacement of nondegradable phagocytic particles within macrophages for up to 6 weeks. (ovid.com)
  • Conclusions- Although there may be individual exceptions, as a population, newly differentiated macrophages fail to penetrate significantly deeper than the limited depth they reside on initial entry, regardless of plaque progression, or regression. (ovid.com)
  • These limited dynamics may prevent macrophages from escaping areas with unfavorable conditions (such as hypoxia) and pose a challenge for newly recruited macrophages to clear debris through efferocytosis deep within plaque. (ovid.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry, in situ by hybridisation and colocalisation studies confirmed the presence of MMP-8 protein and mRNA within the plaque, which colocalised with macrophages. (le.ac.uk)
  • During the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic plaques, circulating monocytes move to and reside in the subendothelium of vessel walls and then transform into macrophages, which subsequently transform to foam cells after intaking oxidative low-density lipoprotein (LDL). (portlandpress.com)
  • 1985). Although the functional importance of macrophages in lipoprotein metabolism has been verified in vitro, our knowledge of their behavior, especially in the human atherosclerotic plaque, is still fairly vague, as most of the morphologic studies conducted in this field have been based on experimental models ( Masuda and Ross 1990a,b). (springer.com)
  • Jaeger E, Rust S, Roessner A, Kleinhans G, Buchholz B, Althaus M, Rauterberg J, Gerlach U (1991) Joint occurrence of collagen mRNA containing cells and macrophages in human atherosclerotic vessels. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SR-BI and its isoforms in human macrophages and atherosclerotic plaques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of SR-BI isoforms was characterized in human atherosclerotic plaques and macrophages using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, we identified SR-BIII as a novel isoform expressed in human macrophages and in human atherosclerotic plaques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The majority of myocardial infarctions are not caused by atherosclerotic plaques that cause a hemodynamically significant stenosis, but rather by smaller plaques, which called "vulnerable "plaque. (slideshare.net)
  • With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. (hindawi.com)
  • Degree of stenosis, which is the current criterion for assessment of atherosclerotic disease severity, has been observed to have poor correlation with plaque vulnerability. (biomedsearch.com)
  • With use of multivariate linear regression analysis, insulin use was an independent (and negative) predictor of reference plaque and arterial areas (p = 0.0308 and p = 0.0179) and stenosis plaque and arterial areas (p = 0.0117 and p = 0.0066). (nih.gov)
  • or = 1 year had (paradoxically) less reference segment and stenosis plaque accumulation. (nih.gov)
  • In order to recognize NCPs, a radiologist needs to detect stenosis through various reconstruction methods and then quantitatively analyze plaques by manually drawing the boundaries of the wall and plaques [ 8 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Carotid endarterectomy due to the significant atherosclerotic stenosis was performed in 91 patients. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Conclusion- In patients with asymptomatic ≥50% carotid stenosis by duplex ultrasound, men had higher-risk plaque features compared with women after controlling for potential confounders. (ahajournals.org)
  • men were shown to have less carotid stenosis but more plaque area than women. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 Carotid plaque area was found to be a stronger predictor of stroke risk than stenosis in this study. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because different volumes of plaque may relate to different clinical risks, to verify that the proposed method is accurate and useful for ranges of atherosclerotic conditions, we tested and validated phantoms with various degrees of stenosis. (ajnr.org)
  • We analyzed the frequency and location of plaque irregularities in a large cohort of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and the relation with severity of stenosis, cardiovascular risk factors, and symptomatology. (ahajournals.org)
  • Complicated plaques are frequent in atherosclerotic carotid disease, especially with higher stenosis degree. (ahajournals.org)
  • Besides the severity of stenosis, plaque ulceration on intra-arterial contrast angiography is a strong independent predictor of stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 Plaque ulceration has been more frequently observed proximal to the point of maximum luminal stenosis, 9 which is exposed to higher wall shear stress. (ahajournals.org)
  • Noticeably, atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis consists of 20% of all the etiological factors of ischemic stroke in the globe [ 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • In addition to atherosclerotic plaque size, plaque stability is a major risk factor of stroke, which has been raised as a main concentrated issue in clinic targeting carotid stenosis diseases [ 4 , 5 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • IPH has been identified across a wide spectrum of stenosis and/or plaque burden ( 6-8 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • The risk of acute coronary syndromes caused by plaque disruption and thrombosis depends on plaque composition rather than stenosis severity. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Carotid artery plaques were measured by ultrasound (n = 954), and arterial stenosis by whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WBMRA) (n = 302). (acc.org)
  • The investigators collected carotid plaques during carotid stenosis surgery at the Stockholm South General Hospital (Södersjukhuset). (nutritionreview.org)
  • In patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS), vessel wall characteristics and remodeling was compared with left main trunk coronary artery disease (CAD) using virtual histology and gray scale intravascular ultrasound imaging. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Objectives The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between renal arterial structure and vessel remodeling in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS), compared with that seen in coronary artery disease (CAD). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Introduction: In patients with carotid artery stenosis histological plaque composition is associated with plaque stability and with presenting symptomatology. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Preferentially, plaque vulnerability should be taken into account in pre-operative work-up of patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • An intravascular ultrasound study showed severe stenosis with atherosclerotic plaque and the origin of the coronary fistula ( Figure 1C , Online Video 2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • (C) Intravascular ultrasound study: severe stenosis with extensive atherosclerotic plaque (lower black arrows) , and the origins of the coronary fistula originated from here (upper gray shadow) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • Vessel based predictor variables included maximum percent diameter stenosis, lesion length, coronary calcium score, maximum cross-sectional calcium arc, percent atheroma volume (PAV), low-attenuation atheroma volume, positive (external) vascular remodeling, and subjective impression of "vulnerable plaque. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Various plaque metrics obtained by cardiac CT predict provocable myocardial ischemia by CT perfusion imaging through their association with maximum percent stenosis, while none had significant incremental value. (elsevier.com)
  • With SPECT as reference standard, PAV and "vulnerable plaque" remained predictors of ischemia after adjustment but the predictive value added to stenosis assessment alone was small. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods and Results- Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images were acquired from 118 aortic plaque specimens from 14 human cadavers under static and deforming conditions (0 to 200 μm/s). (ahajournals.org)
  • A previous preliminary feasibility study using 5 aortic plaques indicated differences in laser speckle modulations between 2 necrotic core fibroatheromas, 1 with a thin fibrous cap and 1 with a thick fibrous cap. (ahajournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of infrasound aortic pressure waves (IPW) in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Consequently, the course and reflection of the generated aortic pressure wave (infrasound domain-less than 20Hz) has been examined around the simulated plaques. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results Aortic atherosclerotic plaque formation was induced in ApoE −/− mice after feeding on high-fat diet for 10 weeks which was confirmed by assessment of blood lipid levels and histological examination of aortic roots. (bmj.com)
  • Human macrophage foam cells degrade the atherosclerotic plaques though cathepsin K mediated processes, resulting in increase in levels of CTX-I. Serum CTX-I was not elevated in women with aortic calcification, likely due to the contribution of CTX-I from osteoclastic bone resorption which involves Cathepsin-K. The human macrophage model system may be used to identify important pathway leading to excessive proteolytic plaque remodeling and plaque rupture. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Also, plaque formation in the aortic arch was analyzed. (aps.org)
  • Assemat P, Armitage JA, Siu KK, Contreras KG, Dart AM, Chin-Dusting JP, Hourigan K (2014) Three-dimensional numerical simulation of blood flow in mouse aortic arch around atherosclerotic plaques. (springer.com)
  • 2-11 A positive association between plaque disruption and an increased heart rate has also been demonstrated.12 Experimental data indicate that rupture of explanted human aortic plaques is increased with elevated heart rate, 13 and that a high heart rate increases hemodynamic and mechanical vascular stress, which may play a critical role in the process of plaque destabilization. (medicographia.com)
  • While growing, plaques require an influx of nutrients, fats and cells, so they develop their own blood supply - minute blood vessels that grow within the wall of arteries and penetrate the plaque. (medgadget.com)
  • The team led by Bryan Smith, associate professor of biomedical engineering at MSU, have called these special nano particles as a "Trojan horse" that could reach the atherosclerotic plaques that block the arteries of the heart and break it from within while eating away the debris created from the breakdown. (news-medical.net)
  • The team designed these nano particles that could specifically target the atherosclerotic plaques clogging up the heart arteries. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus, the arteries are cleared of the plaques with the nanocarriers carrying in the plaque busting drugs. (news-medical.net)
  • If the necrotic core is not cleared, the plaque rupture can clog the arteries and lead to the heart attack says the researchers. (news-medical.net)
  • In their interesting article, Rioufol et al 1 found that patients with acute coronary syndromes frequently had findings on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) of ruptured plaques in coronary arteries remote from the artery with the culprit lesion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Formation of atherosclerotic plaque tends to occur at sites of injury, such as at bifurcations where shear forces are maximal, and at sites of movement such as the coronary arteries imbedded in the moving surface of the left ventricle. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The performance of our new observer was evaluated for the particular binary classification task of differentiating between alternative plaque characterizations in carotid arteries. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This is the process that causes arteries to thicken over time, increasing the risk of atherosclerotic disease and related health problems. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • Cerebral infarction in the territory of the carotid arteries accounts for most strokes in Western countries and approximately 20% of patients have significant atherosclerotic narrowing at the origin of the internal carotid artery. (ajnr.org)
  • Our initial experiences with PR in patients showed that this method can compute plaque in different arteries. (ajnr.org)
  • Now, researchers in Spain report that three-dimensional vascular ultrasound (3DVUS) is a safe and reproducible approach to detect and quantify early atherosclerotic burden in the carotid and femoral arteries. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Vascular plaque quantification software was used to analyze 15,936 arteries, with data reviewed by four technicians blinded to other test results. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The sum of plaque volumes in the right and left carotid and femoral arteries defined global plaque burden. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Where plaque was identified, the total number was recorded as well as the number of arteries affected. (appliedradiology.com)
  • It has recently been shown that active microcalcification in the coronary arteries, one of the features that characterizes vulnerable plaques at risk of rupture, can be imaged using 18 F-NaF PET. (snmjournals.org)
  • A recent series of studies ( 2 - 4 ) demonstrated that 18 F-sodium fluoride ( 18 F-NaF)-an inexpensive, Food and Drug Administration-approved, widely available PET tracer-binds preferentially to regions of vascular microcalcification and can be used to identify high-risk plaques and plaque rupture in the coronary arteries. (snmjournals.org)
  • Thus, the ultimate goal of this research is to advance our understanding of human CAD by improving the characterization of metabolically active vulnerable plaques within the coronary arteries using a novel catheter-based imaging system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • IL-17E was expressed by smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in both normal and atherosclerotic arteries, and in advanced plaques also extensively by mature B cells. (ovid.com)
  • Vascular ultrasound of the carotid arteries was performed, and total plaque area was measured. (bmj.com)
  • Chicago, Ill, March 31, 2008 - New data from a clinical trial using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) technology found that in patients living with type 2 diabetes, ACTOS® (pioglitazone HCl) reduced the atherosclerotic burden in the coronary arteries compared to glimepiride, and prevented progression compared to baseline. (takeda.com)
  • In vivo MRI provides a means to non-invasively image and assess the morphological features of atherosclerotic carotid arteries. (semanticscholar.org)
  • CONCLUSION: These findings open novel biomolecular avenues for the in vivo imaging of atherosclerotic plaques and for pharmacodelivery applications, since F8 had previously been reported by our group to strongly stain atherosclerotic plaques in human carotid arteries. (uzh.ch)
  • End-arterectomy was done and the arteries with atherosclerotic plaques were cut into serial sections and made into tissue blocks. (jcdr.net)
  • 29. 29 The need for assessment of functional properties of plaques in particular its macrophage activity is beyond doubt, as these inflammatory cells are considered the major culprit agents promoting plaque rupture Presence of inflammation has led to find new diagnostic ways based on thermal and or PH detection of vulnerable plaques, and the idea of finding active macrohages by using new contrast media for MR imaging of plaques. (slideshare.net)
  • VEGF significantly increased macrophage levels in bone marrow and peripheral blood and increased plaque area 5-, 14- and 4-fold compared with controls at weeks 1, 2 and 3, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Plaque macrophage and endothelial cell content also increased disproportionately over controls. (nih.gov)
  • These findings identify a macrophage CaMKIIγ/ATF6/LXRα/MerTK pathway as a key factor in the development of necrotic atherosclerotic plaques. (jci.org)
  • Diabetic plaque sections show that ubiquitin and proteasome 20S colocalize with macrophage immunoreactivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 40% fat), higher macrophage staining, weaker smooth muscle cell staining, higher plaque concentration of interleukin-8, and higher matrix metalloproteinase-8 activity in men compared with women. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of the current study was to investigate whether human macrophage foam cells degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) of atherosclerotic plaques by cathepsin K mediated processes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • High-resolution contrast-enhanced MRI (CEMRI) is an optimal noninvasive imaging technique that allows the discrimination of large lipid cores with macrophage infiltration, thin and fragile fibrous caps, calcific nodules and adventitia in human atheromatous vulnerable plaques both in vivo and ex vivo [ 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Murine macrophage-rich atherosclerotic carotid plaques were imaged ex vivo after intravenous delivery of 18F-FDG or 6-NBDG. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, 6-NBDG is a promising novel fluorescent probe for detecting macrophage-rich atherosclerotic plaques. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We aimed to quantify macrophage positional dynamics within progressing and regressing atherosclerotic plaques. (ovid.com)
  • In progressing plaques, macrophage-associated particles appeared to mobilize to deeper layers in plaque, whereas in regressing plaques, the label was persistently located near the lumen. (ovid.com)
  • In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that TMAO reduction enhanced the stability of carotid atherosclerotic plaque through promoting macrophage M2 polarization and efferocytosis. (portlandpress.com)
  • The probe was used in vivo to image atherosclerotic plaques in living mice. (rsc.org)
  • Recent work has demonstrated the ability of in vivo MR images to identify "high-risk" carotid plaque features that are associated with subsequent stroke or transient ischemic attack thought to be due to plaque rupture. (ahajournals.org)
  • In vivo carotid MRI has the ability to visualize atherosclerotic plaque components such as a lipid-rich/necrotic core (LR/NC), calcification, intraplaque hemorrhage, and fibrous cap status and has been shown to have good concordance with histology. (ahajournals.org)
  • Noninvasive in vivo imaging of carotid atherosclerotic plaques holds considerable promise for clinical decision making and treatment. (ajnr.org)
  • The aims of this study include (1) developing a novel fiber-optic imaging system with a scintillator to detect both 18F and fluorescent glucose probes, and (2) validating the system on ex vivo murine plaques. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1-3 Although the morphology of ruptured plaques is well described, 4,5 specific markers to identify ruptured plaques or plaques prone to rupture in vivo are not available. (ahajournals.org)
  • Carotid magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive imaging technique that has been validated with histology for the accurate in vivo detection of IPH and measurement of plaque burden. (onlinejacc.org)
  • However, currently no appropriate and conclusive (non-) invasive technique to differentiate between the high and low risk carotid artery plaque in vivo is available. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Comparative in vivo analysis of the atherosclerotic plaque targeting properties of eight human monoclonal antibodies. (uzh.ch)
  • OBJECTIVE: The selective in vivo localization of antibody derivatives in atherosclerotic plaques may open novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (uzh.ch)
  • Non-targeted control compounds, without the plaque-targeting moieties, were not taken up by foam cells in vitro and did not bind plaque in vivo. (uncg.edu)
  • In vivo, levels of plasmin, active caspase 3 and VSMC apoptotic index were significantly higher in atherosclerotic aortas from mice with combined ApoE and PAI-1 deficiencies than in those from littermates with single ApoE deficiency. (inserm.fr)
  • The in vivo atherosclerotic mouse model was established with the high-fat diet (HFD). (thno.org)
  • 4,5 In addition to plaque morphology, the risk of plaque rupture is influenced by the mechanical properties of the atheroma. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because scatterer motion causes a modulation of the laser speckle pattern, the measurement of temporal intensity variations should provide information about the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the plaque and might be used to determine plaque composition and morphology. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 Here, in a separate study, we investigate the capability of LSI for differentiating atherosclerotic plaque type and assessing plaque morphology and composition. (ahajournals.org)
  • In order to overcome the limitations of coronary CTA and provide more meaningful quantitative information for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we proposed a Voxel-Map based on mathematical morphology to quantitatively analyze the noncalcified plaques on a three-dimensional coronary artery wall model (3D-CAWM). (hindawi.com)
  • Imaging techniques, such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), provide detailed visualization of luminal and plaque morphology and reliable quantification of the atheroma burden and its composition [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the iron concentrations in serum and carotid plaque in patients with different morphology of carotid atherosclerotic plaque and compared with other metal ions. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To our knowledge, only a few studies have examined sex differences in plaque morphology. (ahajournals.org)
  • Application of PR to clinical cases allowed the estimation of plaque morphology and quantification of plaque volume. (ajnr.org)
  • Plaque surface morphology was classified as smooth, irregular, or ulcerated. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, the interest in the effects of statins on the morphology and functional characteristics of atherosclerotic carotid plaques in humans and animals, has been growing. (springermedizin.de)
  • The mechanisms that may account for the pathophysiological effects of high heart rate on plaque morphology include endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, as well as effects on vascular wall mechanics. (medicographia.com)
  • Hopefully, this will not also be true of the IVUS appearance of a complex lesion, though only after serial IVUS studies of ruptured plaques are performed will we know with certainty. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study assessed the impact of diabetes mellitus on atherosclerotic lesion formation. (nih.gov)
  • There is increasing recognition that lesion composition rather than size determines the acute complications of atherosclerotic disease. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • A physical model of an atherosclerotic lesion is presented and compared with the data. (eur.nl)
  • Benditt proposed that monoclonality of the plaque cap was the result of a mutation or viral event as in neoplasia.3 This hypothesis is not consistent with the current consensus that the atherosclerotic plaque is an inflammatory lesion where smooth muscle cells (SMCs) arise as a fibrotic reaction encapsulating the inflammatory necrotic core.4 Malignant neoplasms, however, are not the only instance of clonality. (39kf.com)
  • However, unlike previous studies, the current study did not date DNA reflecting cell turn over, but instead the entire atherosclerotic lesion. (nutritionreview.org)
  • An atherosclerotic lesion located in the nosis ≥ 70% defined by ultrasonography [North American carotid circulation is responsible for 20~30% of ischemic Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) crite- stroke, mostly due to plaque rupture [3, 4]. (deepdyve.com)
  • 11 Consequently, in TCFAs, because of the relatively low viscosity of the lipids, particles within a compliant necrotic core exhibit more rapid Brownian motion compared with stiffer fibrous regions of the plaque. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results suggest that deposition of TF protein in the matrix of the necrotic core of the atherosclerotic plaque may contribute to the hyperthrombotic state of human atherosclerotic vessels. (pnas.org)
  • Sex differences in plaque characteristics may help explain this, because several plaque features, including a thin/ruptured fibrous cap, larger lipid-rich/necrotic core, and hemorrhage, are associated with increased risk of stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Presence of a thin/ruptured fibrous cap, plaque components (lipid-rich/necrotic core, hemorrhage, and calcification), and percent component volume were documented. (ahajournals.org)
  • Efforts from the past 30 years indicate that atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability has a close relationship with certain morphological features, including fibrous cap thickness, size of lipid-rich necrotic core, presence of haemorrhage and luminal contours. (cam.ac.uk)
  • IPH has also been associated with a more rapid growth of the lipid-rich necrotic core and accelerated progression in plaque burden that seem to induce luminal narrowing regardless of initial stenotic severity ( 4,5 ). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Virtual histology showed that the fibrous tissue was the most prominent plaque composition, followed by fibro-fatty, necrotic core, and dense calcium in both vascular beds. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Plaque was characterized as fibrous tissue, fibro-fatty tissue, necrotic core, and dense calcium. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Taken together, these results indicated that a substantial proportion of the T cells in atherosclerotic plaque are in an activated state. (nih.gov)
  • The study of the amount of inflammatory cells in atherosclerotic plaques and understanding their role in the pathophysiology of advanced plaques may have therapeutic implications. (jcdr.net)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor enhances atherosclerotic plaque progression. (nih.gov)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can promote angiogenesis but may also exert certain effects to alter the rate of atherosclerotic plaque development. (nih.gov)
  • If this is true, then this represents a paradigm shift our thinking about the etiology of atherosclerotic vascular disease, and the end of the anti-cholesterol statin drug era. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Kastrup and colleagues believe that the adhesive gel technology leads to a remodeling and shielding of the inner vascular surface, which would be useful for treating atherosclerotic disease, but further mechanistic experiments will be needed to confirm this. (sciencemag.org)
  • 6 , 7 , 9 , 10 Researchers have also presented various techniques and computational models to assess irregular vascular geometry and to estimate the characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque. (ajnr.org)
  • 14 , 15 , 17 , 18 Because conventional angiography remains the criterion standard for the diagnosis of vascular diseases, 19 , 20 techniques that can quantify plaque by using conventional angiography data can be useful. (ajnr.org)
  • Accurate quantification of atherosclerotic plaque volume by 3D vascular ultrasound using the volumetric linear array method. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Results: We found a strong correlation of plaque volume with CVRF and the number of vascular beds involved. (mdpi.com)
  • Abstract- Although rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the major cause of acute vascular occlusion, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the predominant underlying process in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes and peripheral vascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • ժҪ: Plaque cells replicated slightly faster than medial cells, with a population doubling time of 5 versus 7 Smooth muscle cell heterogeneity: role of specific smooth muscle cell subpopulations in pulmonary vascular disease Smooth muscle cells isolated from discrete compartments of the mature vas. (39kf.com)
  • Plasminogen activation: a mediator of vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques. (inserm.fr)
  • BACKGROUND: Apoptosis of vascular cells is considered to be a major determinant of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and potential rupture. (inserm.fr)
  • Plasmin can be generated in atherosclerotic plaques and recent in vitro data suggest that plasminogen activation may trigger vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis. (inserm.fr)
  • We developed a numerical-observer method and used it to assess performance on discrimination vulnerable-plaque features and compared the performance among multienergy CT (MECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), and conventional CT methods. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The images were reconstructed using a standard filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm for all the acquisition methods and were applied to perform two different discrimination tasks of: (1) calcified plaque versus fatty-mixed plaque and (2) calcified plaque versus iodine-mixed blood. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • METHODS: Atherosclerotic plaques have been simulated partly, in two dimensions, as being short or long Conical Intersections (CIS), that is to say elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic surfaces. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 5 , 7 , 11 - 13 While plaque volume has been reported as an important tool for patient management and for evaluating new therapies, 14 - 16 methods to evaluate this index are limited. (ajnr.org)
  • Laser angioplasty, for example XeCl excimer laser angioplasty, has gained more attention in addition to conventional methods of surgical and interventional treatment of atherosclerotic diseases such as bypass operation and balloon dilatation. (spie.org)
  • Therefore, it is essential to search potent methods to enhance the stability of carotid atherosclerotic plaque [ 2 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Methods of altering their tropism have been established and could be utilised to develop vectors with a high degree of selectivity for atherosclerotic plaques. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Methods: We synthesized an atherosclerotic-targeting contrast agent (ATCA) in which gadolinium (Gd)-containing endohedrals were functionalized and formulated into liposomes with CD36 ligands intercalated into the lipid bilayer. (uncg.edu)
  • It is this process that generates erosion and plaque rupture with subsequent embolization and thrombosis, resulting in acute ischemic events [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Thrombosis induced by atherosclerotic plaque destabilisation is the leading cause of the incidence of acute cardiovascular events. (bmj.com)
  • This technique also characterizes intraplaque hemorrhage and acute thrombosis which fulfill the criteria for vulnerable plaque progression, stabilization and rupture [ 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Multiple atherosclerotic plaque rupture in acute coronary syndrome: a three-vessel intravascular ultrasound study. (ahajournals.org)
  • The composition of atherosclerotic plaques is an important determinant in the progression of thrombus-mediated acute coronary syndromes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 Thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) comprise the majority of coronary plaques implicated in acute coronary events. (ahajournals.org)
  • A distinct type of plaque containing large necrotic cores with thin fibrous caps often precipitates these acute events. (jci.org)
  • Retrospective studies have shown an association between plaques containing non-calcified components and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Vulnerable plaques, which are responsible for most acute ischemic events, are presently invisible to x-ray angiography. (mit.edu)
  • A method to identify vulnerable plaques that are likely to cause acute coronary events has been required. (spie.org)
  • In particular, atherosclerotic plaque has been associated with many acute clinical complications. (ajnr.org)
  • Ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaques commonly cause acute myocardial infarction. (snmjournals.org)
  • Acute MI most commonly results from coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture. (snmjournals.org)
  • Histopathologic studies of patients who died from acute MI have demonstrated that the plaques that have ruptured and caused acute MI have several common characteristics. (snmjournals.org)
  • increased 18 F-NaF PET activity was found to localize to the exact site of plaque rupture in more than 90% of patients who had recently experienced an acute MI, independent of stenting ( 2 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • Rupture of the plaque surface and subsequent luminal thrombus formation are probably the most important mechanisms underlying acute ischemic stroke [ 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 3,4 It is current opinion that atherosclerotic plaque rupture plays an important role in acute events, like transient ischemic accidents (TIAs) and stroke. (ahajournals.org)
  • Atherosclerotic diseases, including acute coronary syndromes and stroke, are the leading causes of mortality and disability in developing countries [ 1 , 2 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Background: To determine if black-blood 3 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance (bb-CMR) can depict differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques in acute ischemic stroke patients. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Vulnerable plaque can dislodge, enter the blood stream, and result in acute myocardial infarction and stroke. (uncg.edu)
  • With UV laser excitation we found proeminent differences both in spectral and temporal range between normal artery and atherosclerotic plaques which was standard pathological classified in five types such as: normal artery, fibrous plaque, atherosclerotic plaque, calcified plaque and ulcerated plaque. (spie.org)
  • With time, it becomes a complicated plaque composed of WBCs, smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix in larger artery intimas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tissue samples were obtained from atherectomy of coronary artery or carotid atherosclerotic plaques by surgeon during CABG. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Molecular detection of Helicobacter pylori in the atherosclerotic coronary plaques and carotid plaques: is there association with development of coronary artery disease? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cross-linking - also referred to as glycosylation - may be responsible for many of the ailments associated with old age, including senile cataracts , some cancers , a condition where the artery walls thicken known as atherosclerotic disease, and general damage to the body's immune system . (antiaging-systems.com)
  • Iron, copper and zinc concentration in plaque, carotid artery and serum were measured by spectrophotometry. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this study, we observed the hyperspectral images of the atherosclerotic plaque in WHHLMI rabbit (atherosclerotic rabbit) artery under simulated angioscopic conditions by NIR-HSI. (spie.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of multidetector-row CT angiography (CTA) to assess the composition and characteristics of carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques with use of histologic examination as the gold standard. (ajnr.org)
  • This improvement may allow more reliable identification of vulnerable coronary artery plaques using 18 F-NaF PET. (snmjournals.org)
  • Carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is the predominant precipitant of ischaemic events. (cam.ac.uk)
  • No expression was observed in nondiseased artery, and only a few cells in the shoulder region of stable plaques tested positive for perilipin. (ahajournals.org)
  • The unstable carotid artery plaque models were established in C57/BL6 mice. (portlandpress.com)
  • Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Sirius red, Perl's staining, Masson trichrome staining and immunohistochemical staining with CD68 staining were used for histopathology analysis of the carotid artery plaque. (portlandpress.com)
  • Objectives This study sought to determine the immediate and long-term effects of intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) on plaque progression in the carotid artery. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Background Previous studies have associated IPH in the carotid artery with more rapid plaque progression. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The acceleration of plaque growth on IPH development, if visualized in the same artery, will support IPH as a direct promoter for plaque progression. (onlinejacc.org)
  • One of the most common causes is the rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaques, which can lead to thrombus formation, occlusion of the artery and myocardial infarction. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the reliable noninvasive assessment of plaque configuration would constitute an important step forward for risk stratification in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Analysis included assessment of vessel area and atherosclerotic plaque area of the main renal artery or left main trunk. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Conclusions The current study demonstrates in humans that plaque composition as assessed by VH intravascular ultrasound has an important role of adaptive vessel enlargement, and it is related to renal artery remodeling in RAS in a pattern similar to CAD. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Birchall D, Zaman A, Hacker J, Davies G, Mendelow D (2006) Analysis of haemodynamic disturbance in the atherosclerotic carotid artery using computational fluid dynamics. (springer.com)
  • Noninvasive imaging techniques do not only visualize the plaque but also could gather data on intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), plaque inflammation, calcification, and plaque remodelling, thus providing the examiner with information regarding the degree of plaque vulnerability [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Microcalcification is an indication of vulnerability of plaques in humans. (intechopen.com)
  • Indicators of plaque vulnerability are microcalcifications or spotty calcifications within the plaques [ 4 , 5 ], not larger calcifications, which are found to be stable and no longer threatening [ 6 , 7 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Therefore, morphological and mechanical features should be considered in an integrated way for a more accurate assessment of plaque vulnerability and for identification of the at-risk patient. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Is Cadmium Exposure Associated with the Burden, Vulnerability and Rupture of Human Atherosclerotic Plaques? (plos.org)
  • We present evidence that multimodal spectroscopy (MMS), a novel method that combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS), and Raman spectroscopy (RS), can detect these markers of plaque vulnerability. (mit.edu)
  • Low adiponectin levels may contribute to coronary plaque vulnerability and may thus play a role in the pathophysiology of ACS. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Advances in laboratory techniques during the last two decades disclosed that PMNs play a crucial role in promoting plaque vulnerability by the release of different enzymes, such as gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinases) collagenases, elastase and myeloperoxidase. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This narrative review will provide an update on the role of PMNs in promoting plaque vulnerability also discussing the potential effects of therapeutic strategies targeting PMN on plaque vulnerability. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Federico Carbone, Francois Mach and Fabrizio Montecucco, "Update on the Role of Neutrophils in Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability", Current Drug Targets (2015) 16: 321. (eurekaselect.com)
  • To assess quantitatively the degree of vulnerability and the type of plaque, the contours of the lumen, outer boundary of the vessel wall and plaque components, need to be traced. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hui, Pinjing 2018-06-06 00:00:00 Objective Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and ulceration of carotid atherosclerotic plaques have been associated with vulnerability while calcification has been conventionally thought protective. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, studies suggested calcification size and location may increase plaque vulnerability. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, in the presence of SRT1720, the NMs could activate intracellular Sirt1 and activate an antiatherogenesis effect by inhibiting the phenotypic switching of VSMCs, which is an essential contributor to the vulnerability and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. (thno.org)
  • 1 However, although risk factors for atherosclerotic plaque growth are well understood, the risk factors for plaque vulnerability and rupture and subsequent clinical events remain unclear, and pathophysiological evidence is lacking. (medicographia.com)
  • This process, among other mechanisms may contribute to plaque rupture through the development of local hemorrhage and inflammation in foci areas. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. (osti.gov)
  • Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. (osti.gov)
  • 6,7 With microscopic evaluation of the plaque, it became clear that angiographic ulceration and irregularities were strongly associated with the presence of plaque rupture, plaque hemorrhage, a large lipid core size, and less fibrous tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • MMI administration for 2 weeks significantly decreased the plaque area, increased the thickness of the fibrous cap and reduced the size of the necrotic lipid cores, whereas 5-week of administration of MMI induced intraplate hemorrhage. (portlandpress.com)
  • There is increasing evidence that intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is associated with high-risk atherosclerotic carotid plaque. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Key Points � CTA-defined superficial and multiple calcifications in carotid atherosclerotic plaques are independently associated with the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage. (deepdyve.com)
  • 70% but with recurrent in- onstrated that intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is associated with farcts in the ipsilateral hemisphere despite optimal medical plaque progression and instability [5, 6]. (deepdyve.com)
  • In patients with carotid plaque, intraplaque hemorrhage arising from ruptured neovascular vessels within the neointima is an important cause of stroke. (go.jp)
  • The goal of this study is to evaluate the potentials of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), and photo-acoustic microscopy (PAM) in the determination of atherosclerotic plaques with microcalcifications and, therefore, the prospect of constructing a modality on a catheter system. (intechopen.com)
  • Contrast-enhanced coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is a potential imaging technique to identify atherosclerotic plaques in the whole coronary tree, but it fails to provide information about vessel walls. (hindawi.com)
  • Compared with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), contrast-enhanced coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) has the advantages of being noninvasive, convenient, and economical and offers excellent diagnostic accuracy for coronary plaques [ 6 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Objectives: This study sought to investigate the performance of various cardiac computed tomography (CT)-derived atherosclerotic plaque metrics for predicting provocable myocardial ischemia. (elsevier.com)
  • The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. (hindawi.com)
  • Inflammation plays a critical role in the formation, progression, and rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque. (hindawi.com)
  • The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effect of 40 mg dose of rosuvastatin on carotid plaque inflammation measured with MRI and PET scanning, to evaluate whether these techniques are promising for future proof of principle studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Treatment also lowered plasma cytokine levels and biomarkers of inflammation in the plaque. (mit.edu)
  • 9 The results of this study indicated that men had more unstable carotid plaque that included more features of inflammation compared with women. (ahajournals.org)
  • We are becoming aware of the structure of the CA wall, including the composition, remodeling and inflammation of plaques. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Clinical events attributable to plaque rupture are related to the level of plaque inflammation. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Conclusions- The measurement of speckle decorrelation time constant from laser speckle images provides an index of plaque viscoelasticity and facilitates the characterization of plaque type. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions Collectively, our data demonstrate that FcγRIIIA is involved in the atherosclerotic formation by stimulating expression of inflammatory cytokines and triggering the atherosclerotic plaque destabilisation. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions- Multidetector CT angiography allows the classification of atherosclerotic carotid plaque surface. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions The development of IPH posed an immediate and long-term promoting effect on plaque progression. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Conclusions Spontaneous change in plaque FDG uptake is low over 2 weeks, with favorable inter- and intraobserver agreement. (onlinejacc.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data strongly suggest that plasminogen activation may contribute to VSMC apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques. (inserm.fr)
  • Moreover, these cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and matrix metalloproteinase, which actively weaken the fibrous cap, leading to plaque rupture [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The accumulation of a compliant lipid pool influences the local stress distributions within the plaque and can result in rupture of the fibrous cap at focal weak points. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 , 6 , 13 - 17 Carotid plaques with a thin fibrous cap and a large lipid core are also considered to increase the risk for stroke, 18 , 19 as are ulcerated plaques. (ajnr.org)
  • High-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) has been proven to be an effective tool for the identification of carotid atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque, such as a large lipid core and thin fibrous cap. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • the most frequently seen vulnerable plaque type has a large lipid-rich core with a thin fibrous cap 5 and has proved to be an independent predictor of ischemic cerebrovascular events. (ahajournals.org)
  • Life-threatening conditions, such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, are provoked by the sudden rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, characterized by thin, highly inflamed and collagen-poor fibrous cap. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It was found that the inflammatory cells found in advanced atherosclerotic plaques were predominantly T-lymphocytes as evidenced by their CD3 positivity and they were found to be distributed mainly around the shoulder region and fibrous cap of the plaque. (jcdr.net)
  • Dr. Stephen Fry runs his own microbiology lab where he examines high powered views of biofilms in atherosclerotic plaque material obtained from surgical specimens. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Therefore, T cell activation in the plaque was analyzed by immunofluorescent detection of activation markers on T cells isolated from the plaques and in cryostat sections of carotid endarterectomy specimens. (nih.gov)
  • Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. (osti.gov)
  • We characterized gene expression in plaque and medial SMC cultures developed from human carotid endarterectomy specimens. (39kf.com)
  • The plaques were removed en bloc, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, transected transversely in 5-mm specimens, and embedded in paraffin. (springermedizin.de)
  • We used quantitative real-time PCR and immunostaining to examine 12 atheromatous plaque specimens obtained via carotid endarterectomy. (go.jp)
  • Atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 159 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. (le.ac.uk)
  • Here, a systems-based analysis of atherosclerotic plaques and plasma from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy for stroke prevention was used to identify molecular signatures with a causal relationship to disease. (diva-portal.org)
  • 6,7 In addition, the mechanical strength of atherosclerotic plaques is primarily determined by the fibrillar collagen content of the extracellular matrix, and collagen degradation is associated with an increased risk of plaque rupture. (ahajournals.org)
  • ELISA for MMP-9, TNF-α, and sirius red staining for collagen content in nondiabetic, placebo-treated, and rosiglitazone-treated diabetic plaques. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Proteolytic degradation of Type I Collagen by proteases may play an important role in remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques, contributing to increased risk of plaque rupture. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the whole plaque, aging or plaque progression did not alter the direct relationship between inflammatory cells and collagen. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • These data suggest that the active form of MMP-8 may be partly responsible for degradation of the collagen cap of atherosclerotic plaques. (le.ac.uk)
  • To evaluate this potential impact on plaque progression, we treated cholesterol-fed mice doubly deficient in apolipoprotein E/apolipoprotein B100 with low doses of VEGF (2 microg/kg) or albumin. (nih.gov)
  • CD9 expression increased in arterial tissues from humans and rats with age, and in atherosclerotic plaques in humans and mice. (nature.com)
  • FcγRIIIA expression changes in mice with atherosclerotic plaque were determined by assaying the protein level of membrane CD16 on monocytes using immunofluorescent staining and FACS analysis. (bmj.com)
  • The role of FcγRIIIA inhibition by IVIG in atherosclerotic plaque destabilisation in ApoE −/− mice was similar to that with Simvastatin treatment. (bmj.com)
  • To gain insight into recruitment of different plaque SMCs, we mapped their clonal architecture in aggregation chimeras of eGFP+Apoe-/- and Apoe-/- mouse embryos and in mice with a mosaic expression of fluorescent proteins in medial SMCs that were rendered atherosclerotic by PCSK9-induced hypercholesterolemia. (jci.org)
  • Similarly, plaques in mice with SMC-restricted Confetti expression showed oligoclonal SMC populations with little intermixing between the progeny of different medial SMCs. (jci.org)
  • Due to the overexpression of OPN in activated VSMCs and VASPs, the targeted NMs specifically accumulated within the VASPs region after intravenous injection into the atherosclerotic mice, achieving the precise detection of VASPs. (thno.org)
  • Noncalcified plaques (NCPs) are associated with the presence of lipid-core plaques that are prone to rupture. (hindawi.com)
  • Noncalcified plaque (NCP, referred to as "soft plaque") [ 1 ] usually shows lower attenuation values than calcified plaque in a CT image, which has been associated with the presence of lipid-core plaques [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. (osti.gov)
  • Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. (osti.gov)
  • Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. (osti.gov)
  • AS is a silent and threatening killer, and the development of AS is a chronic process, characterized by the asymptomatic build-up of plaques over decades that can result in the sudden occurrence of fatal cardiovascular events [ 2 , 3 ]. (thno.org)
  • Atherosclerotic plaques may rupture without warning, causing fatal clinical events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent plaque rupture with some thrombus-related myocardial infarction was suspected. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Low adiponectin levels are an independent predictor of mixed and non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaques. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Coronary heart disease is a prevalent and fatal killer caused by vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VASPs). (thno.org)
  • There was a 72.6% agreement between CTA and histologic examination in carotid plaque characterization. (ajnr.org)
  • Characterization of atherosclerotic plaques at the carotid bifurcation: correlation of high-resolution MR imaging with histologic analysis--preliminary study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The authors quantified plaque detection and plaque burden by age, sex, types and number of cardiovascular risk factors, and by types of therapy for cardiovascular risk, if any. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The evaluation of plaque burden in addition to plaque presence provides a closer match with global cardiovascular risk than plaque detection alone. (appliedradiology.com)
  • In this study, we quantitatively measured carotid and femoral plaque volume in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and/or established atherosclerotic disease using a 3D ultrasound technique. (mdpi.com)
  • Measurement of 3D plaque volume is a practical and reproducible technique with the potential to become an additional screening tool in cardiovascular risk stratification. (mdpi.com)
  • Marschang, P. Influence of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Carotid and Femoral Atherosclerotic Plaque Volume as Measured by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound. (mdpi.com)
  • While not definitive, data from PERISCOPE combined with results from a previous study, looking at surrogate endpoints, have shown a consistent trend toward decreasing cardiovascular risk by reducing the atherosclerotic burden in people with type 2 diabetes. (takeda.com)
  • Discussion: We hypothesize that the 7 Tesla MRI scanner will allow early identification of high risk carotid plaques being associated with micro infarcted cerebral areas, and will thus be able to identify patients with a high risk of periprocedural stroke, by identification of surrogate measures of increased cardiovascular risk. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The results indicate that MMS provides depth-sensitive and complementary morphological information about plaque composition. (mit.edu)
  • Atherosclerotic plaques were divided into four morphological groups, according to ultrasonic and intraoperative characteristics. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • So, the idea of atherosclerotic plaque as infected biofilm certainly fits the pattern of commonly affected sites in the arterial tree. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Possible explanations include impaired adaptive remodeling and/or arterial (and plaque) shrinkage. (nih.gov)
  • The aging process is associated with cardiac enlargement, arterial stiffening and atherosclerotic disease, compounded by bad cholesterol / low density lipoprotein. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • This is an interesting case of covered stent implantation for the combination of coronary arterial fistula and unstable plaque. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The size of the coherent plaque SMC patches are much larger than the patch size of the arterial media, indicating that substantial clonal expansion has occurred. (jci.org)
  • In the current study, we tried to detect the correlations of high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP, intima-media thickness, atherosclerotic plaques and neurological function in patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction, to facilitate physicians in diagnosing atherosclerotic cerebral infarction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plaque morphologic features have been suggested as a complement to luminal narrowing measurements for assessing the risk of stroke associated with carotid atherosclerotic disease, giving rise to the concept of "vulnerable plaque. (ajnr.org)
  • Conclusion: We conclude that smoking appears to be associated with total and femoral plaque volume, whereas hyperlipidaemia seems to be associated with carotid plaque volume. (mdpi.com)
  • The theranostic ICG/[email protected] NMs showed great potential for the precise identification and targeted treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. (thno.org)
  • Studies at the University of Milan have further demonstrated Aminoguanidine's power in treating the debilitating condition of atherosclerotic disease / arteriosclerosis. (antiaging-systems.com)
  • Therefore, the VASH1 level may be a novel biomarker for evaluating plaque instability in patients with carotid arteriosclerosis and predicting ischemic stroke. (go.jp)
  • Many believe that cutting off this blood supply could stabilize or reduce plaques. (medgadget.com)
  • The drug-eluting devices developed here provide a general strategy for implanting therapeutics in the vasculature using adhesive forces and could potentially be used to stabilize rupture-prone plaques. (mit.edu)
  • a standard measure of carotid atherosclerotic burden. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lead author Beatriz Lopez-Melgar, MD, PhD, of HM Hospitales-Centro Integral de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares HM in Madrid and co-authors quantified plaque burden by measuring the volumes of all atherosclerotic plaques visualized within the standard 6 cm acquisition. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Adding plaque burden quantification to the detection of plaque presence provides a clearer picture of the relationship between risk and subclinical disease. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Among individuals with the same number of plaques or affected territories, global plaque burden was independently and positively associated with estimated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Global plaque volume, by integrating plaque presence, number, and plaque size is a more comprehensive index of disease burden that may better reflect individual susceptibility," the researchers wrote. (appliedradiology.com)
  • In bivariate analysis adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with total coronary plaque burden (r = -0.21, p = 0.0004), mixed (r = -0.20, p = 0.0007) and non-calcified plaques (r = -0.18, p = 0.003). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In contrast, adiponectin accounts for approximately 20% of the variability in mixed and non-calcified plaque burden. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Adiponectin levels predict mixed and non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Detection of atherosclerotic plaques at this inflammatory stage with the use of invasive and noninvasive imaging modalities could allow for the prevention of future cardiovascular events [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The team hope that probes like this could eventually be used to deliver MRI contrast agents to atherosclerotic plaques to enable non-invasive detection of conditions by magnetic resonance imaging. (rsc.org)
  • In future, detection of foci areas and repair (i.e. via Laser Healing Microtechnique) may attenuate atherosclerotic plaque rupture behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 12 A later report demonstrated that CTA was superior to DSA in the detection of plaque irregularities and ulcerations. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the roles of VASH1 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic diseases remain unclear. (go.jp)
  • Plaque ACTA2 + SMCs are oligoclonal in Apoe -/- aggregation chimeras. (jci.org)
  • A novel angioscope using multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm for quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques was developed. (spie.org)
  • In addition, quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque phantoms based on the lipid volume fractions was performed up to 20 vol. (spie.org)
  • To verify the potential role of FcγRIIIA in atherosclerotic plaque destabilisation and inflammatory response, matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in aorta at protein level and mRNA expression and TNF-α, IL-1 and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) levels in sera were observed, respectively. (bmj.com)
  • In plaques, internalized inflammatory cell density increased with age and plaque progression in tunicae adventitia and intima, but not media. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This is an autopsy study to identify and quantify various inflammatory cells in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. (jcdr.net)
  • This study aims at identifying and categorizing the various inflammatory cells present in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, noting their distribution in the plaque, quantifying them using histomorphometry and comparing them across plaques of different AHA types. (jcdr.net)
  • 50 advanced atherosclerotic plaques of AHA Type IV and V were chosen for this study and were screened for inflammatory cells, first with H & E stain and then with different immunohistochemical stains for T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and neutrophils. (jcdr.net)
  • The present study aimed to clarify the relevance of the VASH1 expression and plaque instability in human carotid plaques. (go.jp)