Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.GlucuronidaseLettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Darkness: The absence of light.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Stinkwood is a dioecious plant, having both male and female plants. It flowers between August and October. The plant was named ... "Story: Plant extracts - Stinkwood". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 24 February 2013. ...
"Making Cements with Plant Extracts" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-13. Dunning, Brian (3 February 2015). "Skeptoid #452: The Stone ... Limestone, for example, can be dissolved by acidic solutions obtained from plants. Research led by Joseph Davidovits of the ... Gazetteer of Costa Rican Plant-Collecting Locales: Diquís (or Dikís) from the website of the Missouri Botanical Garden "The ... vegetation in this area offered a great deal of biodiversity in both plant and animal resources. Resources available to ...
Two steel plants operate in an area of nearly 3,000 acres. AHMSA extracts coal and iron ore. The company has its own coal mines ... Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A.B. de C.V. (AHMSA) is the largest integrated steel plant in Mexico. It has corporate offices in ... Once extracted, the washed coal is shipped by railroad to AHMSA's coke plants. The main source of iron ore is located in ... AHMSA leads an active social policy where its plants are active, maintaining permanent programs on the following fronts: ...
... and the extract are used in traditional and alternative medicine, including aromatherapy. The plant has been cultivated at ... plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MEOF2. Retrieved July 2, 2010. Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants, VI.1.4, identified as "M ... The plant is used to attract bees to make honey. It is also grown and sold as an ornamental plant. The essential oil is used as ... The plant is used to attract bees for honey production. It is grown as an ornamental plant and for its oil (to use in perfumery ...
"The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 30 July 2014. Altervista Flora Italiana, Glebionis coronaria (L ... A leafy herb, the garland chrysanthemum is one of the few annual plants in its genus. It has yellow ray florets grouped in ... Extracts from C. coronarium var. spatiosum have been shown to inhibit growth of Lactobacillus casei, a beneficial human ... "The plant is rich in minerals and vitamins with potassium concentrations at 610 mg/100 g and carotene at 3.4 g/100 g in edible ...
The Plant List "Solanum americanum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 17 November 2015 ... Water based extracts had no antibacterial activity. Sobemovirus "Solanum nodiflorum". Germplasm Resources Information Network ( ... Poisonous plant experts advise: "...unless you are certain that the berries are from an edible strain, leave them alone." ... The plant is widely naturalised around the Tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans, including Hawaiʻi, Indochina, Madagascar and ...
It is a tough plant, hardy, fast growing and drought tolerant but short lived. Seeds germinate readily in around 2 to 3 weeks ... variety Incana E. MEY.) Fabaceae shoot aqueous extract". Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 26 (6 ... Müller, AC; Kanfer, I (2011). "Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and medicinal plants used as ... "Sutherlandia frutescens". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 4 December 2015. Ojewole, JA ...
"PLANTS profile for Usnea (beard lichen)". USDA PLANTS. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation ... Usnea looks very similar to the plant Spanish moss, so much so that the latter's Latin name is derived from it (Tillandsia ... Ash, Michael; Irene Ash (2004). "Lichen (Usnea barbata) extract". Handbook of Preservatives. Synapse Info Resources. p. 437. ... "Which Specialized Metabolites Does the Native Subantarctic Gastropod Notodiscus hookeri Extract from the Consumption of the ...
Plant has not been seen to be toxic, however some plants in the genus contain a narcotic principle that has its highest ... "Wild Lettuce Extract Benefits". www.anniesremedy.com. Retrieved 2016-11-06. Millspaugh, Charles Frederick (1892-01-01). ... Cottontail Rabbit eats leaves of young plants. Horses, cattle, and sheep have also been seen to graze on the plant. Preferably ... "Plants Profile for Lactuca canadensis (Canada lettuce)". plants.usda.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-05. "medicinal herbs: CANADA ...
It resists effectively the antifungal that causes dermatitis and mouth disease . "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant ... Plants of the World Online , Kew Science". powo.science.kew.org. Retrieved 15 October 2017. "กระชาย สมุนไพรลดน้ำหนัก ชะลอความชร ... From experiment with alcohol extracts and chloroform. ... another plant in the family Zingiberaceae which is also known ... The leaf sheaths are red, the blades are oval shape and the apex of leaves
Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jun;92(2-3), pp.303-309 Plants of the ... New shoots can appear over 20 feet from the parent plant. Above the ground, the plant rarely reaches four feet in height. It is ... The perennial plant grows from a massive rhizome system which may extend over six feet into the ground. ... Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile invasive.org Report Photo gallery Mohhammad Kazem Gharib Naseri, Seyyed Ali Mard: ...
"Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants". March 1999. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00135-4. Retrieved 20 ... Most of the country is covered in rainforest, which hosts a huge diversity of plant and animal species. There are approximately ... They also contain large numbers of carnivorous plants, such as pitcher plants, bladderworts, sundews and ant-house plants. Some ... There are an estimated 8,500 species of vascular plants in Peninsular Malaysia, with another 15,000 in the East. The forests of ...
The plants are used as a dye and give a soft green colour. An extract is often used to provide silica for supplementation. ... Fabre, B; Geay, B.; Beaufils, P. (1993). "Thiaminase activity in Equisetum arvense and its extracts". Plant Med Phytother. 26: ... 232 p. Plants For A Future Database. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia & Alaska, ... In Spanish-speaking countries, these plants are known as "cola de caballo," meaning "horsetail". In these plants the leaves are ...
"Antibacterial Activity of Brazilian Amazon Plant Extracts" (PDF). Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 10 (6). doi:10.1590 ... "Alkaloids in certain species of Virola and other South American plants of ethnopharmacologic interest". Acta Chemica ... Virola elongata extracts have weak antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. "Virola ...
Developed plants can also perform a vegetative reproduction. When vines are in contact with the soil, a new plant can grow from ... In Malaysia its extracts are used as medicine. As P. phaseoloides is used as cover crop or as part of a mixture in pastures its ... content of the whole fresh plant (green part) is very high. This is especially true when compared to other tropical plant ... After the establishment, the plant starts to climb and build tangled mats of over a half meter. It was found that the ...
A combination of both the methanol extract and the methyl salicylate component from the roots of the plant create a poison that ... Root-bark Aqueous Extract." Inflammopharmacology 16.(4) (2008): 174-181 "Red List of South African Plants". Ndou, Avhurengwi ... If the root of the plant is always being cut, it is difficult for the plant to be harvested constantly. There is little ... One solution could be to create an extract by mixing the powder with water. An extract would be useful for maize seeds because ...
The plant extracts also have antifungal properties in vitro. African Plants Database: Terminalia schimperiana Arbonnier, M. ( ... In laboratory experiments, extracts of the plant were found to have in vitro antibiotic properties against Staphylococcus. ... In parts of West Africa, T. schimperiana is used as a medicinal plant. The bark is applied to wounds, and the twigs may be ... not in citation given] Akande, J. A., & Hayashi, Y. (1998). Potency of extract contents from selected tropical chewing sticks ...
Antiinflammatory activity of some medicinal plant extracts from Venezuela. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1: 63-68.. ... They may be planted to serve as wind protection of crops and roads, or as living fence posts, and if simply stuck into good ... Hexane extracts of the leaves have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties in animal tests. Gumbo-limbo bark is also ... Bursera simaruba are prevalent in the Petenes mangroves ecoregion of the Yucatán, where it is a subdominant plant species to ...
plants. - Phytotoxicity of Zoysla matrella aqueous extracts and its residues". J-STAGE. Retrieved 13 July 2015. General "Zoysia ... 1771 "Plant Name Details for Agrostis matrella". IPNI. Retrieved May 23, 2011. Malabar, India (Indian Subcontinent, Asia- ... It is naturalised in many places, as in Hawaii, and can become weedy, like many plant species with desirable horticultural ... Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. World Grass Database: Zoysia matrella[permanent dead link] ...
This poisonous plant is endemic to the Pacific Islands. It grows low in coastal sites in coral rubble to pure sand. Solanum ... "Solanum nelsonii (popolo) From Molokai at State nursery Kahului, Maui". Plants of Hawaii. Images by Forest & Kim Starr. 23 May ... Badami S, Prakash O, Dongre SH, Suresh B (2005). "In vitro antioxidant properties of Solanum pseudocapsicum leaf extracts". ... This rule adds these species to the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. "ITIS Report". Integrated ...
Digraki M; Alma MH; Ilcim A; Sen S (1999). Antibacterial and antifungal effects of various commercial plant extracts. Pharm ... 1995). Indian Medicinal Plants. 4. Orient Longman Ltd. Bhattacharjee SK. (2001). Handbook of Medicinal Plants. India: Pointer ... The wide range of pharmacological activities of this plant might support the efficacy of extract preparation of Quercus ... Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants, pages 16-26 Muhamad Z; Mustafa AM (1994). Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants. Kuala ...
Guinea hen weed is used in teas, extracts, capsules. The leaves and also the roots are used with medicinal purposes. This plant ... Schmelzer, GH; Gurib-Fakim, A (2008). Medicinal Plants. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. pp. 412-415. ISBN 978-90-5782-204-9 ... The plant is also used for arthritis, allergies, as therapy for fever, malaria. In addition, the plant is reportedly an ... This plant is native to southernmost Florida and Texas in the United States, the West Indies, Mexico, Central America and South ...
Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a ... and development of medicinal substances of biological origin and especially medicinal substances obtained from plants. ...
Digraki M; Alma MH; Ilcim A; Sen S (1999). Antibacterial and antifungal effects of various commercial plant extracts. Pharm ... 1995). Indian Medicinal Plants. 4. Orient Longman Ltd. Bhattacharjee SK. (2001). Handbook of Medicinal Plants. India: Pointer ... The wide range of pharmacological activities of this plant might support the efficacy of extract preparation of Quercus ... Autumn foliage, Izmir, Turkey leaves with galls leaf with galls gall gall Herbal medicine Medicinal plants Succulent plants ...
The fresh plants have been used for centuries as additives to salads and other meals consisting of leafy vegetables.[citation ... Trifolium repens, the white clover (also known as Dutch clover, Ladino clover, or Ladino), is a herbaceous perennial plant in ... Anticestodal activity of Trifolium repens extract. Pharmaceutical Biology 42: 656-658. The Organic Lawn Care Manual, Tukey, ... Among forage plants, some white clover varieties tend to be favored by rather close grazing, because of their stoloniferous ...
... not all plant material is edible and the nutritional quality or antiherbivore defenses of plants (structural and chemical) ... "Organisms usually extract energy in the form of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as ... because aquatic plants are not as productive as long-lived terrestrial plants such as trees. Ecological trophic pyramids are ... Plants generally have the greatest biomass. Names of trophic categories are shown to the right of the pyramid. Some ecosystems ...
Of the three, linalool, which is found in common plants such as ginger, coriander and lavender, showed potent radio protective ... Plant extracts have long been used for food, cosmetic and medical purposes, from creating drugs to treat serious diseases to ... While a number of plant extracts have been found to exhibit radioprotective ability by scavenging and destroying ROS, most ... drugs made from these extracts are quite inefficient once they are administered to patients, and some have unpleasant side ...
We weed-whack, fence, and cover our plants to keep them from rabbits and deer. However, the killers we cannot eva... ... plant-based pesticides that rely on plants natural defenses against insects may not only be effective and inexpensive for ... Using Plant-Based Biofilters to Purify Household Wastewater * An Analysis of the Effects of a Wildfire on the Biodiversity of ... Many plant species produce substances that protect them by killing or repelling the insects that feed on them. For example, the ...
Scientists in Germany have come up with a method for extracting the precious element germanium from plants.. Di que? Damn, now ... Smart phone ingredient found in plant extracts. Reuters ^ , September 7, 2015 Posted on 09/07/2015 8:41:59 PM PDT by ... Scientists in Germany have come up with a method for extracting the precious element germanium from plants. The element is a ... Yet although germanium is present in soil all over the world, it is difficult to extract, and most supplies currently come from ...
The present study focuses on the antibacterial activity of selected plant extracts against Paenibacillus larvae, the causal ... In this work, the action on P. larvae of extracts from buds and young-leaved twigs of resin-giving plants (downy and silver ... Two-way ANOVA for extract concentration and plant extract, p values for plant extract ... 2.4 Antibacterial activity of plant extracts. The prepared plant-derived extracts and selected chemicals (pure triterpenoids, ...
This protocol is adapted with permission from information on the Science and Plants for Schools (SAPS) website (see www.saps. ... 3 Add only the minimum amount of buffer to make the extract. Never use a greater mass of buffer than of plant matter. With a ... Microscale investigations of catalase activity in plant extracts. Class practical. ... www.nuffieldfoundation.org/practical-biology/microscale-investigations-catalase-activity-plant-extracts ...
New Zealand plants. Many New Zealand plants are found nowhere else. Some contain natural chemicals not found in any other ... Nigel Perry, Plant extracts, Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/plant-extracts (accessed 7 ... Plants contain chemicals (in their leaves, berries, bark or other parts) which can have interesting effects. For example, they ... plants.. Māori use. Māori knew that many native plants had healing properties - mashed-up bark from the pukatea tree eased ...
New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and ... Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.). Lethal Dose ... The specific biofilm formation index (SBF) was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75). Opuntia ... Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms. Eduardo Sánchez,1 ...
Our study clearly indicated that the antihyperglycemic activity observed in the plant extracts was indeed not due to non- ... Preliminary investigations on 14 plant extracts (obtained by ethanolic and aqueous extraction) identified those having high ... Tropical Plant Extracts as Potential Antihyperglycemic Agents. Thamilvaani Manaharan 1,* , Uma Devi Palanisamy 2 and Cheng Hwee ... Manaharan, T.; Palanisamy, U.D.; Ming, C.H. Tropical Plant Extracts as Potential Antihyperglycemic Agents. Molecules 2012, 17, ...
Kōrero: Plant extracts. Rarangi kaupapa. * Story summary. * Unique plants and chemicals * Toxic and commercial compounds ... Nigel Perry, Plant extracts - Toxic and commercial compounds, Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt ...
PubMed journal article Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activit were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime ... Plant Extracts. Plants, Medicinal. Superoxide Dismutase. Pub Type(s). Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt. ... were dose-dependently enhanced in V79-4 cells treated with most of the plant extracts. The extracts of Areca catechu var. ... were dose-dependently enhanced in V79-4 cells treated with most of the plant extracts. The extracts of Areca catechu var. ...
... Manghebati, Sabinsa, Herbavita, Etc. - published on openPR.com ... Plant stress products are a new category, increasing the tolerance of crop plants to these and other adverse environments. They ... www.upmarketresearch.com/reports/plant-extracts-for-livestock-market-2019. "Plant Extracts for Livestock Market Analysis and ... Plant Extracts for Livestock Market Analysis to 2025 with DSM, Manghebati, Sabinsa, Herbavita, Etc.. 03-19-2019 06:49 PM CET , ...
In the present experiment, the treatments with plant extracts did not include combinations of different plants, as the aim was ... "plant extracts" and "essential oils" is the method by which they are obtained or extracted. Despite being considered as plant ... ppm oregano extract; CD + 1000 ppm clove extract; CD + 1000 ppm cinnamon extract; and CD + 1000 ppm red pepper extract. The ... Plant active principles are chemical compounds present in the entire plant or in specific parts of the plant that confers them ...
PEG/PC extracts were made from coconut, onion, garlic, fig, date tree, chicory, ananas, and cistrose. These... ... Tagboto S, Townson S (2001) Antiparasitic properties of medical plants and other naturally occurring products. Adv Parasitol 50 ... Plant Extract Chloroform Extract Liver Fluke Final Host Oral Application These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Aksu G (2009) Plant extracts in the fight against worms. Diploma thesis, Duesseldorf, GermanyGoogle Scholar ...
Scientists from the University of Edinburgh have found that a plant pigment called quercetin -- found in some fruits, ... A chemical found in plants could reduce the symptoms of a rare muscle disease that leaves children with little or no control of ... Plant extract offers hope for infant motor neuron therapy. University of Edinburgh ... Scientists have found that a plant pigment called quercetin - found in some fruits, vegetables, herbs and grains - could help ...
Wholesale Various High Quality Seaweed Extract Natural Plant Growth Promoter Products from Global Seaweed Extract Natural Plant ... Growth Promoter Suppliers and Seaweed Extract Natural Plant Growth Promoter Factory,Importer,Exporter at Alibaba.com. ... Tags: Growing Agent Seaweed Extract / Seaweed Extract Natural Plant Growth Promoter , Seaweed Extract For Plants , Refined ... Tags: Seaweed Extract Flake 8-15% , Plant Growth Seaweed Extract Flake 8-15% , Promote Plant Growth Seaweed Extract Flake 8-15 ...
A series of 5 medicinal herbal extracts have been formulated based on past experience with these plants and research. These ... Plant Extracts and Xenobiotics.. *Dr. Packs Summary #825. *"Defined Plant Extracts can Protect Human Cells against Combined ... All of the above listed extract combinations were able to prevent toxicity by 1/3 to 1/4 within 1 to 2 days. In general, ... Testing was done to see if these herbal extracts altered the course of toxicity resulting from exposure of cultures of ...
Know the future scenario, forecast,and current trends in Plant Extracts. ... The research insight on Plant Extracts Market highlights the growth strategies of the companies. ... The leaves segment is estimated to grow at the highest CAGR because leaves of many plants, including rosemary, aloe vera, basil ... The plant extracts market, based on type, constitutes of four segments, namely phytomedicines & herbal extracts, essential oils ...
All plants were extracted with the conventional method, reflux with methanol. The essential oils of the plants were also ... The antioxidant capacity of the plant extracts was measured by their ability to scavenge free radicals such as (a) DPPH (2,2- ... The Folin-Ciocalteu method proved the existence of antioxidants in the aromatic plant extracts. Taking into account the results ... Eventually, all plants exhibited low but noticeable protection levels against lipid oxidation, as determined by the Rancimat ...
The production of plant based feed additives starts with the extraction of the fuctional ingredients from the plant. A new ... The ID4Feed product range consists of mixtures of plant extracts and plants rich in secondary metabolites, with or without ... This means we can control the the entire spectrum: from the plant itself, all the way to the behaviour of the plant extracts in ... The interest in plant extracts and essential oils in the animal feed industry is increasing and this is because these ...
... the traditional export markets of the U.S plant extracts step into the stage of stable development, annual market growth rate ... Many famous extract suppliers were presenting, showcasing the animal and plant extracts, herbal teas, medicinal plants, ... The plant extracts advantage is low cost of plant operations, rich plant extracts resources. In recent years. , the trend of ... global population aging and the demands for plant extracts will provide better opportunities for plant extracts developing. ...
Health treatment in Turkey using plant extracts. Publication of the Istanbul University No. 3255. Google Scholar ... Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts from eleven spice plants. Ömer Ertürk*Department of Biology, Ordu ... Plants used in folk medicine: The potential of their hydromethanolic extracts against Candida species ... The antimicrobial effects of spices, herbs and extracts from these and other food plants. Scientific and Technical Surveys, ...
The high quality, evidence-based information on each Plant Profiler page is gathered by Natural Standard, the authority on ... The Plant Profiler provides detailed information and bioactive compounds for numerous different plant species. ... Life Science > Nutrition Research > Learning Center > Plant Profiler > Yohimbe bark extract (Pausinystalia johimbe) ... Constituents: Yohimbe bark extract contains approximately 6% indole alkaloids, of which 10-15% is yohimbine. A 1995 chemical ...
Seaweed also contains growth hormones that are helpful for plant germination, and increase flower and fruit yield. Kelp is the ... vegetables and potted plants of all kinds. It contains trace minerals and chelating agents that plants need. ... Seaweed extract can be made into a rich, nutritious fertilizer for houseplants, ... Seaweed extract can be made into a rich, nutritious fertilizer for houseplants, vegetables and potted plants of all kinds. It ...
"We will grow most of the plants and use biochemistry to isolate the bioactive compounds," said Raskin, professor of plant ... Effect of Plant Extracts on Metabolic Syndrome to be Investigated. By Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, May 4, 2005 ... Center researchers will study the effects of plant extracts on metabolic syndrome, a collection of risk factors that predispose ... At this facility, researchers collaborating with Rutgers colleagues will investigate whether plant extracts can cut risk ...
... flowers or any part of the plant. The Plant Extracts Market dealswith the demand and supply of the plant extracts in various ... These extracts are derived from leaves,roots, seeds, ... production and scope of utilization of these extracts during ... Plant extracts are the derived ingredients from plants inliquid, powdered or any other form. ... Plant extracts are the derived ingredients from plants inliquid, powdered or any other form. These extracts are derived from ...
  • Up Market Research recently introduced new title on "Global Plant Extracts for Livestock Market 2019-2025 Report" that provides an in-depth overview of industry and competitive landscape, covering multiple market segments and elaborates market outlook and status to 2025. (openpr.com)
  • The report contains basic, secondary and advanced information pertaining to the Plant Extracts for Livestock Market global status and trend, market size, share, growth, trends analysis, segment and forecasts from 2019 - 2025. (openpr.com)
  • The report for Plant Extracts for Livestock Market analysis & forecast 2019- 2025 is segmented into Product Segment, Application Segment & Major players. (openpr.com)
  • Plant Extracts for Livestock Market Analysis and Forecast 2019- 2025" report helps the clients to take business decisions and to understand strategies of major players in the industry. (openpr.com)
  • To understand the future outlook and prospects for Plant Extracts for Livestock Market analysis and forecast 2019- 2025. (openpr.com)
  • According to MarketsandMarkets analysis, the plant extracts market is estimated to be valued at USD 23.7 billion in 2019 and is projected to reach USD 59.4 billion by 2025, at a CAGR of 16.5% from 2019 to 2025. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • 2019 Hot industrial Extracting oil from plants Basket Centrifuge equipment Machine Introduction: The PPTD centrifuge is top discharging, hermetic closure type equipment. (phrmg.org)
  • Kaempferia Parviflora Extract Powder Black Ginger is a herbaceous plant which belongs to the Zingiberaceae family and is scientifically famous as Kaempferia parviflora. (phrmg.org)
  • Soluble Silymarin 40% 70% 80% 98% Milk Thistle Extract Silymarin Powder Product Description: Milk thistle is a thistle of the genus Silybum Adans. (phrmg.org)
  • The present application concerns plant extracts which have been fermented with kephir grains, methods of production of these extracts, a powder comprising these extracts and compositions comprising these extracts. (sumobrain.com)
  • 14. The powder of claim 10, where the product of vegetable origin is selected from cereals, high protein vegetables and oleaginous plants. (sumobrain.com)
  • These extracts were tested in vivo and in vitro on their anthelmintic activity against cestodes ( Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis ) and trematodes ( Fasciola hepatica, Echinostoma caproni ). (springer.com)
  • Hukkeri VI, Kalyani GA, Hatpaki BC, Manvi FV (1993) In vitro anthelminthic activity of aqueous extract of fruit rind of Punica granatum . (springer.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the in vitro effects of bioactive agents extracted from Christia vespertilionis in chemo- and radiation-resistant NET cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Total flavonoids and phenols, as well as the total protein levels, the in vitro PAL specific activity, and the levels of PAL-like polypeptides were increased by all borage extracts, with particular regard to FEs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plants contain chemicals (in their leaves, berries, bark or other parts) which can have interesting effects. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Māori knew that many native plants had healing properties - mashed-up bark from the pukatea tree eased toothache, and you could treat skin sores with a mixture made from boiled twigs. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Yohimbe bark extract contains approximately 6% indole alkaloids, of which 10-15% is yohimbine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Of the three, linalool, which is found in common plants such as ginger, coriander and lavender, showed potent radio protective activity, with 80 per cent of cells remaining viable after exposure to radiation. (prweb.com)
  • Plant of the ginger family, used as fragrance in cosmetics. (paulaschoice.com)
  • Organic, plant-based pesticides that rely on plants' natural defenses against insects may not only be effective and inexpensive for protecting crops, but also safer and more environmentally friendly. (amnh.org)
  • It is possible to create effective, natural insecticides from these substances to protect crops that, unlike wild plants, may have lost their capability through cultivation to cope with pests. (amnh.org)
  • As a natural remedy essential oils of different plants were examined. (springer.com)
  • Some contain natural chemicals not found in any other plants. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Also, the rising awareness and trends of using cosmetics with natural ingredients and free-from cosmetics are driving the plant extracts market in cosmetics application. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Induction technologies stimulate the production of specific active substances that form part of the natural defence arsenal of plants and that have proven beneficial properties for animals", explains Mr Gautier. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • In recent years, the traditional export markets of the U.S plant extracts step into the stage of stable development, annual market growth rate is about 5%, in Spain, Mexico and other emerging market for the demand of plant extracts, especially the natural pigment is increasing a lot. (articlesfactory.com)
  • In 2012, the unanimous choice of the "Natural Extracts Area" as a major highlight of the 12th CPHI worldwide China exhibition, strong attack at the Shanghai New International Expo Center again. (articlesfactory.com)
  • In 2012 the natural extracts Area was expanded to the entire E3 Pavilion, brought together nearly 300 internationally renowned enterprises in the industry. (articlesfactory.com)
  • Unlike in the past, many enterprises is not only regarded the area as platform to show the products, even standing higher than the previous point, use lofty ideas, innovative technology and strategic vision to look at this natural extract feast seriously, in order to further expand their own brand and open up new ways to market. (articlesfactory.com)
  • As the natural plant extract supplier take the mission of producing "green and healthy" raw materials, many companies have the spirit of "health career, people-oriented" lofty concept in their careers. (articlesfactory.com)
  • Coconut extract and coconut oil are widely used in natural skin and body care, and it's easy to see why. (biome.com.au)
  • Natural News ) Egyptian researchers examined the efficiency of water extracts from edible medicinal plants used to treat kidney stones, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced nephrotoxicity. (naturalnews.com)
  • Tests are under way to determine if the plant can be used as a natural repellent against termite invasions into homes by planting them as a hedge. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • HPLC / Clinical Data Natural Plant Extract Broccoli Seed Extract Glucoraphanin 13% What is Broccoli? (phrmg.org)
  • Mass production of food relies on densely packed plants of the same type (monocultures), which are vulnerable to attack by insects. (amnh.org)
  • The Plant Extracts Market is segmented into various categories in the IndustryARC market research report by type, byform, by end use industry and by geography. (storify.com)
  • A fragrant extract from a type of acacia tree. (paulaschoice.com)
  • The antioxidant capacity of the plant extracts was measured by their ability to scavenge free radicals such as (a) DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and, (b) ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiaziline-6- sulfonate). (mdpi.com)
  • It turned out that the treatment of mice and rats with a combination of onion and coconut extracts (with PEG/PC) eliminated all cestodes from their final hosts. (springer.com)
  • They are also called as botanical extracts which are in high demand in cosmetic industry to naturally enhance the skin. (storify.com)
  • Hyperaccumulator plants are able to accumulate unusually high levels of heavy metals because they can store them in cell vacuoles where they cannot harm metabolic processes in the cell cytoplasm. (madsci.org)
  • Even the ones that can afford it end up selling the resulting extract at very high prices. (mippin.com)
  • Since these extracts have a high content of aglycone active principles, their biological activities are high and their applications are varied. (sumobrain.com)
  • 5. The fermented plant extract of claim 4, comprising a high content of a deglycosylated active principle and a fermentation product of a kefir grain. (sumobrain.com)
  • CV extracts showed antiprolife-rative and proapoptotic effects in all MTC and SI-NET cell lines, whereby high growth inhibition was observed by treatment with the ethylacetate-extracts (CV-45) in tumor cell lines but not in normal human fibroblasts. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The most frequently studied plants to be used in animal nutrition today are (a) cinnamon, (b) cloves both appetite and digestion promoters, (c) oregano, which has antimicrobial properties, and (d) red pepper, which has antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory potential (Kamel, 2000). (scielo.br)
  • The French company has also developed specific galenic and encapsulation technologies to protect the active substances present in plant extracts and release them at their site of action in the animal's gut. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • We are engaged in manufacturing, exporting, trading and supplying excellent quality Stevia Extract (Reb A) to our valuable clients. (tradeindia.com)