Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.GlucuronidaseLettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Darkness: The absence of light.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.

Activation of systemic acquired silencing by localised introduction of DNA. (1/7901)

BACKGROUND: In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing results in RNA degradation after transcription. Among tobacco transformants carrying a nitrate reductase (Nia) construct under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-Nia2), one class of transformants spontaneously triggers Nia post-transcriptional gene silencing (class II) whereas another class does not (class I). Non-silenced plants of both classes become silenced when grafted onto silenced stocks, indicating the existence of a systemic silencing signal. Graft-transmitted silencing is maintained in class II but not in class I plants when removed from silenced stocks, indicating similar requirements for spontaneous triggering and maintenance. RESULTS: Introduction of 35S-Nia2 DNA by the gene transfer method called biolistics led to localised acquired silencing (LAS) in bombarded leaves of wild-type, class I and class II plants, and to systemic acquired silencing (SAS) in class II plants. SAS occurred even if the targeted leaf was removed 2 days after bombardment, indicating that the systemic signal is produced, transmitted and amplified rapidly. SAS was activated by sense, antisense and promoterless Nia2 DNA constructs, indicating that transcription is not required although it does stimulate SAS. CONCLUSIONS: SAS was activated by biolistic introduction of promoterless constructs, indicating that the DNA itself is a potent activator of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The systemic silencing signal invaded the whole plant by cell-to-cell and long-distance propagation, and reamplification of the signal.  (+info)

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (2/7901)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (3/7901)

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

Enhanced resistance to bacterial diseases of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sarcotoxin IA, a bactericidal peptide of insect. (4/7901)

Sarcotoxin IA is a bactericidal peptide of 39 amino acids found in the common flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Many agronomically important bacteria in Japan are killed by this peptide at sub-micro molar levels, and the growth of tobacco and rice suspension cultured cells is not inhibited with less than 25 microM. Transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress the peptide, i.e. over 250 pmol per gram of fresh leaf, under the control of a high expression constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to the pathogens for wild fire disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) and bacterial soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora).  (+info)

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (5/7901)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin. (6/7901)

Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phosphatidylserine synthase cDNA. Overexpression in plants alters the composition of phospholipids. (7/7901)

We describe the cloning of a wheat cDNA (TaPSS1) that encodes a phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS) and provides the first strong evidence for the existence of this enzyme in a higher eukaryotic cell. The cDNA was isolated on its ability to confer increased resistance to aluminum toxicity when expressed in yeast. The sequence of the predicted protein encoded by TaPSS1 shows homology to PSS from both yeast and bacteria but is distinct from the animal PSS enzymes that catalyze base-exchange reactions. In wheat, Southern blot analysis identified the presence of a small family of genes that cross-hybridized to TaPSS1, and Northern blots showed that aluminum induced TaPSS1 expression in root apices. Expression of TaPSS1 complemented the yeast cho1 mutant that lacks PSS activity and altered the phospholipid composition of wild type yeast, with the most marked effect being increased abundance of phosphatidylserine (PS). Arabidopsis thaliana leaves overexpressing TaPSS1 showed a marked enhancement in PSS activity, which was associated with increased biosynthesis of PS at the expense of both phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. Unlike mammalian cells where PS accumulation is tightly regulated even when the capacity for PS biosynthesis is increased, plant cells accumulated large amounts of PS when TaPSS1 was overexpressed. High levels of TaPSS1 expression in Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) led to the appearance of necrotic lesions on leaves, which may have resulted from the excessive accumulation of PS. The cloning of TaPSS1 now provides evidence that the yeast pathway for PS synthesis exists in some plant tissues and provides a tool for understanding the pathways of phospholipid biosynthesis and their regulation in plants.  (+info)

NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression. (8/7901)

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat.  (+info)

*Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified plants can also be developed using gene knockdown or gene knockout to alter the genetic makeup of a plant ... Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the two main property rights regimes equivalent ... Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been ... The first genetically modified crop plant was produced in 1982, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. The first field trials ...

*Genetically modified organism containment and escape

"US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... required between GM and non-GM cultivations for most of the GM pollen to fall to the ground before reaching non-GM plants. ... In 1986 the OSTP assigned regulatory approval of genetically modified plants in the US to the USDA, FDA and EPA. The Cartagena ... With the end of the de facto moratorium on genetically modified plants in Europe, several research programmes (e.g. SIGMEA, Co- ...

*Genetically modified canola

"Questions & Answers on Food from Genetically Engineered Plants". fda.gov. FDA page on Regulation of GM Plants in Animal Feed ... Genetically modified canola is a genetically modified crop. The first strain, Roundup Ready canola, was developed by Monsanto ... GOX helps break down glyphosate within the plant. Genetically modified crops undergo a significant amount of regulation ... GM crops is no riskier than consuming the same foods containing ingredients from crop plants modified by conventional plant ...

*Genetically modified food

The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. Genetically modified ... Genetically modified crops Genetically modified food controversies Genetically modified organisms List of genetically modified ... are subject to plant breeders' rights owned by corporations. Genetically modified foods, GM foods or genetically engineered ... The genetically modified foods controversy consists of a set of disputes over the use of food made from genetically modified ...

*Genetically modified organism

Genetically modified crops (GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified ... "Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the two main property rights regimes equivalent ... Genetically modified mammals are an important category of genetically modified organisms. Ralph L. Brinster and Richard ... EFSA (2012). Genetically modified animals Europe: EFSA Murray, Joo (20). Genetically modified animals. Canada: Brainwaving ...

*Genetically modified maize

GM crops is no riskier than consuming the same foods containing ingredients from crop plants modified by conventional plant ... Genetically modified food Genetically modified crops Genetically modified food controversies "Roundup Ready System". Monsanto. ... Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop. Specific maize strains have been genetically engineered to ... Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the two main property rights regimes equivalent ...

*Genetically modified soybean

link) Domingo, Jose' L (2007). "Toxicity Studies of Genetically Modified Plants: A Review of the Published Literature". ... Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the two main property rights regimes equivalent ... See the genetically modified food controversies article for discussion of issues about GM crops and GM food. These ... September 2001). "Assessment of the Food Safety Issues Related to Genetically Modified Foods". Plant Journal. 27 (6): 503-28. ...

*Genetically modified fish

"Press Announcements - FDA takes several actions involving genetically engineered plants and animals for food". www.fda.gov. ... Genetically modified fish (GM fish) are organisms from the taxonomic clade which includes the classes Agnatha (jawless fish), ... There is much doubt among the public about genetically modified animals in general. It is believed that the acceptance of GM ... "Genetically modified salmon becomes first to be approved for human consumption - but it won't have to be labelled as GM". The ...

*Genetically modified livestock

Enviropig was a genetically enhanced line of Yorkshire pigs in Canada created with the capability of digesting plant phosphorus ... "Genetically modified cows produce 'human' milk" Classical Medicine Journal (14 April 2010). "Genetically modified cows ... Genetically modified livestock (GM livestock) are organisms from the group of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, birds, horses and ... It is the first genetically modified animal to be approved for human consumption. The fish is essentially a GM Atlantic salmon ...

*List of genetically modified crops

In 2014, 181.5 million hectares of genetically modified crops were planted in 28 countries. Half of all GM crops planted were ... Genetically modified crops are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering ... The following graph shows the area planted in GM crops in the five largest GM crop producing countries. The area planted is ... was genetically modified in some way. Seventeen countries grew a total of 55.2 million hectares of genetically modified maize ...

*GM Ecotec engine

Engine production started in April 2012 at GM's Tonawanda Engine plant. The new combustion system developed with GM's ... Following the GM-Fiat agreement, the 2.2 L engine is also used in Fiat Croma unmodified Alfa Romeo 159 heavy modified with ... This engine family replaced the GM Family II engine, the GM 122 engine, the Saab H engine, and the Quad 4 engine. It is ... The LE5 is also used in the following overseas models: 2006 GM Taiwan Buick LaCrosse 2006 Shanghai GM Buick LaCrosse Buick GL8 ...

*Genetically modified tomato

While no genetically modified stress-tolerant plants are currently commercialised, transgenic approaches have been researched. ... A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. ... "Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I)". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 59: ... The first commercially available genetically modified food was a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life (the Flavr Savr ...

*Plant breeding

The debate encompasses the ecological impact of genetically modified plants, the safety of genetically modified food and ... To genetically modify a plant, a genetic construct must be designed so that the gene to be added or removed will be expressed ... that plants produced by classical breeding methods should undergo the same safety testing regime as genetically modified plants ... Examples include variety registration, seed schemes, regulatory authorizations for GM plants, etc. Plant breeders' rights is ...

*Bacillus thuringiensis

Key, S; Ma, JK; Drake, PM (Jun 2008). "Genetically modified plants and human health". J R Soc Med. 101 (6): 290-8. doi:10.1258/ ... For current crops and their acreage under cultivation, see genetically modified crops. In 1996, genetically modified maize ... Concerns over the safety of consumption of genetically-modified plant materials that contain Cry proteins have been addressed ... According to the USDA, "Genetically modified (GM) crops, most commonly Bt corn, have been offered up as the cause of CCD. But ...

*Árpád Pusztai

Key, Suzie; Julian; Ma, K-C; Drake, Pascal MW (2008). "Genetically modified plants and human health". Journal of the Royal ... In 1995 Árpád Pusztai began research on genetically modified potatoes containing the GNA lectin gene from the snowdrop plant. ... His group fed rats on raw and cooked genetically modified potatoes, using Desiree Red potatoes as controls. In 1998 Árpád ... In 1998, Árpád Pusztai publicly announced that the results of his research showed feeding genetically modified potatoes to rats ...

*Tesla Factory

"GM Nummi Plant". Archived from the original on 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-10-09. PUI-WING TAM (2010-10-21). "Idle Fremont Plant ... Various parts of the NUMMI plant were planned to be modified to support Tesla vehicle production. For example, the passenger ... Some of the current facility was operated as the GM Fremont Assembly from 1962 to 1982, and between 1984-2009 used as a plant ... The plant has a high level of integration compared with other modern car assembly plants, with most processes taking place ...

*History of genetic engineering

"US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in food production and were ... The first genetically modified crop plant was produced in 1982, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. The first field trials ... Plants were first commercialized with virus resistant tobacco released in China in 1992. The first genetically modified food ...

*Natural stress

Genetically modified plants are a good answer to the problem of not enough crops to go around. These plants can be engineered ... A lot of people do not like genetically modified organisms. People opposed to these modified plants often claim that they are ... This problem could be solved by genetically modifying plants to become more drought resistant. If plants could use less water ... One study on plants was conducted on Canola plants at 28 degrees Celsius, the result was decreased plant size, but the plants ...

*Mutation breeding

Unlike genetically modified crops, which typically involve the insertion of one or two target genes, plants developed via ... "Are Mutations in Genetically Modified Plants Dangerous?". Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2007: 1. doi:10.1155/2007/ ... In other words, a product is regulated as genetically modified if it carries some trait not previously found in the species ... Mendel in the Kitchen: A Scientist's View of Genetically Modified Foods, By Nina V. Fedoroff and Nancy Marie Brow, pg. 17, ...

*Genetic engineering techniques

Plants and animals have been genetically modified for research, agricultural and medical applications. In plants, the most ... Graham Head; Hull, Roger H; Tzotzos, George T. (2009). Genetically Modified Plants: Assessing Safety and Managing Risk. London ... X-rays were first used to deliberately mutate plants in 1927. Between 1927 and 2017, more than 3,248 genetically mutated plant ... "Are Mutations in Genetically Modified Plants Dangerous?". Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2007: 1-2. doi:10.1155/2007 ...

*Genetic engineering

The Regulation of Genetically Modified Food Glossary definition of Genetically Modified: "An organism, such as a plant, animal ... is the creation and use of genetically modified crops or genetically modified livestock to produce genetically modified food. ... "US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... Regulatory Policy on Genetically Modified Food and Agriculture, 44 B.C.L. Rev. 733 (2003)[3] John Davison (2010)"GM plants: ...

*Timeline of agriculture and food technology

2000 - Genetically modified plants cultivated around the world. 2005 - Lasers used to replace stickers by writing on food to " ... States farms Fertile Crescent History of agriculture Neolithic founder crops New World Crops Timeline of genetically modified ... 6001 BC - Archaeological evidence from various sites on the Iberian peninsula suggest the domestication of plants and animals. ... organisms Timeline of historic inventions [1] Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy) around 32,600 ...

*Federal Ethics Committee on Non-Human Biotechnology

Release of genetically modified plants - ethical requirements, 2012. Ethical treatment of fish, 2014. Freedom of research and ... Gene Technology for Food - Ethical considerations for the marketing of genetically modified foodstuffs and animal feed, 2003. ... The Dignity of Living Beings with regard to Plants. Moral consideration of plants for their own sake, 2008. Synthetic biology. ... "The dignity of living beings with regard to plants - Moral consideration of plants for their own sake". Website of the Federal ...

*Monsanto

"The race towards the first genetically modified plant". Plant Biotech News. 19 June 2013. Dorothy Leonard-Barton, Gary P. ... Monsanto scientists were among the first to genetically modify a plant cell, publishing their results in 1983. Five years later ... In 2003 Brazil allowed a one-year exemption when GM soy was found in fields planted in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This was ... BBC News (June 3, 2003). "Brazil Approves Law to Legalize Genetically Modified Crops". Enn.com (March 4, 2005). "郎咸平:孟山都的转基因帝国- ...

*Timeline of Monsanto

"The race towards the first genetically modified plant". Plant Biotech News. 19 June 2013. "KEMNER v. MONSANTO CO. - July 22, ... Genetically Altered Potato Ok'd For Crops Lawrence Journal-World, May 6, 1995. "The Roundup Ready Controversy". Web.mit.edu. ...

*Flavr Savr

... a genetically modified tomato, was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human ... unmodified tomatoes are picked before fully ripened and are then artificially ripened using ethylene gas which acts as a plant ... Don Grierson was involved in the research to make the genetically modified tomato. Due to the characteristics of the tomato, it ... House of Commons Science; Technology Committee (May 18, 1999). "Scientific Advisory System: Genetically Modified Foods". ...
Read "Cytokinin regulates differentially expression of P AHK -GUS constructs in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In another opinion, the GMO Panel reviewed its previous assessments of individual GM plants containing ARMG taking into account the findings and conclusions of the joint opinion of the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels. The GMO Panel concluded that its previous risk assessments on the use of the nptII marker gene in GM plants are consistent with the risk assessment strategy described in the joint opinion and that no new scientific evidence has become available that would prompt it to change its previous opinions[3] on these GM plants.. Following the adoption of the joint opinion of the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels, EFSA asked the panels to consider whether the minority opinions required any clarification of the joint opinion or additional scientific work. The Panel chairs responded that the minority opinions had been extensively considered during the preparation of the joint opinion and no further clarification or scientific work were needed at this time.. In their joint opinion, the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels ...
Protease inhibitors have been reported to confer insect resistance in transgenic plants, except for a rice protease inhibitor that conferred drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants. We have cloned a protease inhibitor of tobacco that is expressed under treatment with ABA, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate and wounding. The cDNA codes for a six-domain serine protease inhibitor with a deduced sequence of 396 amino acids. We have generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing the protease inhibitor constitutively under the 35S promoter. When analyzed in the T2 generation, these transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to sodium chloride, variable pH and sorbitol, together with the expected resistance to the insect pests Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. The transgenic plants showed enhanced seed germination, root length and root-shoot ratio, significantly enhanced total chlorophyll content and reduced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances under stress. Under sodium chloride ...
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294571511 - EP 1064304 A2 2001-01-03 - GENES ENCODING MLO PROTEINS AND CONFERRING FUNGAL RESISTANCE UPON PLANTS - [origin: WO9947552A2] This invention describes genes encoding proteins which control resistance of plants to fungal pathogens. The invention also describes transgenic plants resistant to fungal pathogens and methods for making plants resistant to fungal pathogens. The invention further discloses a method to isolate additional genes coding for additional proteins controlling the resistance of plants to fungal pathogens.[origin: WO9947552A2] This invention describes genes encoding proteins which control resistance of plants to fungal pathogens. The invention also describes transgenic plants resistant to fungal pathogens and methods for making plants resistant to fungal pathogens. The invention further discloses a method to isolate additional genes coding for additional proteins controlling the resistance of plants to fungal pathogens.
Transgenic maize is developed with a gene coding for protein rich in the essential amino acid lysine. It will improve greatly the nutritional status of people in countries like Africa.. Transgenic wheat has been made which is resistant to herbicides by the induction of a bacterial gene whose protein inactivates such chemicals. If a field is treated with herbicide to kill weeds the original crop will not be harmed.. A transgenic tomato is introduced with reduced amount of an enzyme necessary for ripening. This tomato does not go soft on storage. The gene which is inserted transcribes and produces a RNA complementary in sequence to the mRNA for the ripening protein. The two RNAs bond by complementary base-pairing, and so the translation of the normal /w-RNA is inhibited. Genetically engineered "Flavr Savr" tomatoes are produced in 1995 in USA. These have increased yield and full development of flavour.. ...
Contributed by Gustavo A. Fermin-Muñoz. Fermin-Munoz, G. A. 2000. Enhancing a plants resistance with genes from the plant kingdom. 2000. APSnet Feature. Online. doi: 10.1094/APSnetFeature-2000-0500A. Plants have their own networks of defense against plant pathogens that include a vast array of proteins and other organic molecules produced prior to infection or during pathogen attack. Not all pathogens can attack all plants and a single plant is not susceptible to the whole plethora of plant pathogenic fungi, viruses, bacteria or nematodes. Recombinant DNA technology allows the enhancement of inherent plant responses against a pathogen by either using single dominant resistance genes not normally present in the susceptible plant (Keen 1999) or by choosing plant genes that intensify or trigger the expressions of existing defense mechanisms (Bent and Yu 1999, Rommens and Kishore 2000). What is useful in one plant/pathogen system may be transferred to another, increasing the recipient plants ...
Annual Plant Reviews, Endogenous Plant Rhythms von Anthony J. W. Hall und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
View Notes - Genetically+Modified+Rice from FST 10 at UC Davis. Apr 20, 2010| 10:54 pm Crops and Cereals Crops Gm Plants: Cultivation and Futur Projects Soybeans Maize Rape Seed Cotton Sugar beet
Do Plants Have a Neural Net?. In addition to thigmosnastic plants, all vascular plants may be utilizing electrical signals to regulate a variety of physiological functions.. Many of the biochemical and cellular components of the neuromotoric system of animals has been found in plants. And this has led to the hypothesis that a simple neural network is present in plants, especially within phloem cells, which is responsible for the communication over long distances.. "The reason why plants have developed pathways for electrical signal transmission is most probably the necessity to respond rapidly to external stimuli, for example, environmental stress factors." (from ref 2 below). More regarding electrical communication in plants: Novel electrical signals in plants induced by wounding. The Emerging Field of Plant Neurobiology. In 2006, an article was published in the journal Trends in Plant Science that elicited quite a kerfuffle. This review (PDF) introduced, to the plant scientific community at ...
Do Plants Have a Neural Net?. In addition to thigmosnastic plants, all vascular plants may be utilizing electrical signals to regulate a variety of physiological functions.. Many of the biochemical and cellular components of the neuromotoric system of animals has been found in plants. And this has led to the hypothesis that a simple neural network is present in plants, especially within phloem cells, which is responsible for the communication over long distances.. "The reason why plants have developed pathways for electrical signal transmission is most probably the necessity to respond rapidly to external stimuli, for example, environmental stress factors." (from ref 2 below). More regarding electrical communication in plants: Novel electrical signals in plants induced by wounding. The Emerging Field of Plant Neurobiology. In 2006, an article was published in the journal Trends in Plant Science that elicited quite a kerfuffle. This review (PDF) introduced, to the plant scientific community at ...
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The first step in developing a transgenic plant is to identify a trait in one type of organism that would make a useful characteristic if transferred to the experimental plant. The components of an experiment to create a transgenic plant are the gene of interest, a piece of vector DNA that delivers the gene of interest, and a recipient plant cell. Donor genes are often derived from bacteria, and are chosen because they are expected to confer a useful characteristic, such as resistance to a pest or pesticide.. To begin, the donor DNA and vector DNA are cut with the same restriction enzyme. This creates hanging ends that are the same sequence on both of the DNA molecules. Some of the pieces of donor DNA are then joined with vector DNA, forming a recombinant DNA molecule. The vector then introduces the donor DNA into the recipient plant cell, and a new plant is grown.. For plants that have two seed leaves (dicots), a naturally occurring ring of DNA called a Ti plasmid is a commonly used vector. ...
Scrutinizing GMO Risk Assessment Evaluating the practice of risk assessment of GM plants and food in the EU. SUBSTANTIAL EQUIVALENCE and NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS Petra Lehner Workshop, Vienna 10.12.2003. My Part. Detailed look on the practice of applying the concept of SE Slideshow 1085169 by dixie
CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS - LAB. The plant kingdom can include one celled organisms (diatoms) as well as complex organisms like angiosperms. Some plants and trees for example, have vascular tissue or well-developed conducting tissue through which water and solutes pass to various parts of the plant. Other plants are non-vascular or do not possess internal transport systems. Most non-vascular plants live in water or in wet environments that facilitate direct diffusion of water and nutrients. Vascular plants however, live on land and possess special features adapted to this environment including roots, stems and leaves. Dichotomous keys are ideal for plant classification. You can either eliminate or include plants based on several key characteristics. For instance, if it has woody tissue (bark) it is a vascular plant. Leaves, types of seed, type of flowers are also characteristics of vascular plants. However, before you can use dichotomous keys you need to describe plants. The classification of ...
Previous efforts to create light-emitting plants have relied on genetically engineering plants to express the gene for luciferase, but this is a laborious process that yields extremely dim light. Those studies were performed on tobacco plants and Arabidopsis thaliana, which are commonly used for plant genetic studies. However, the method developed by Stranos lab could be used on any type of plant. So far, they have demonstrated it with arugula, kale, and spinach, in addition to watercress. For future versions of this technology, the researchers hope to develop a way to paint or spray the nanoparticles onto plant leaves, which could make it possible to transform trees and other large plants into light sources. "Our target is to perform one treatment when the plant is a seedling or a mature plant, and have it last for the lifetime of the plant," Strano says. "Our work very seriously opens up the doorway to streetlamps that are nothing but treated trees, and to indirect lighting around homes ...
Blockade of mismatch repair in a plant can lead to hypermutation and a new genotype and/or phenotype. One approach used to generate hypermutable plants is through the expression of dominant negative alleles of mismatch repair genes in transgenic plants or derived cells. By introducing these genes into cells and transgenic plants, new cell lines and plant varieties with novel and useful properties can be prepared more efficiently than by relying on the natural rate of mutation. Moreover, methods to inhibit the expression and activity of endogenous plant MMR genes and their encoded products are also useful to generate hypermutable plants.
Plants are sources of nourishment for thousands of fungi, bacteria, invertebrates, vertebrates, and other plants. Plants possess a truly remarkable diversity of mechanisms to fend off attackers and recent research has shown just how complex and sophisticated these defense mechanisms can be. Plant Defense provides comprehensive coverage of the range of different organisms that plants need to fend off, describes how plants coordinate their defenses against multiple attacks, explains the evolution of defense in plants, and how plant defences are exploited in crop protection strategies.. Plant Defense:. ...
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Professor PARK Chung-Mo When we think of how plants undergo the process of photosynthesis, we often think that only the part above ground is capable of detecting and reacting to sunlight. On November 2, Professor PARK Chung-Mo (Department of Biology) and his team overturned this long-accepted notion by discovering that the roots of a plant had a much wider range of function and also assisted in detecting sunlight. To reach these conclusions, PARK and his team examined two types of plants: the thale cress (a small, white flowering plant) and the tobacco plant. The researchers covered the stems of these plants, and used sensors to detect if the roots of the plants still reacted to the sunlight. The research team found that the vascular bundles of a plant (part of the transport system within the stems of a plant) allow even the roots to be sensitive to sunlight. The photoreceptors along the plant and the HY5 protein helped boost the growth and development of the roots, leaves, and stem of the ...
Plant cells exhibit a variety of characteristics that distinguish them from animal cells. These characteristics include the presence of a large central vacuole and a cell wall, and the absence of entioles, which play a role in mitosis, meiosis, and cell division. Along with these physical differences, another factor distinguishes plant cells from animal cells, which is of great significance to the scientist interested in biotechnology: Many varieties of full-grown adult plants can regenerate from single, modified plant cells called protoplasts - plant cells whose cell walls have been removed by enzymatic digestion. More specifically, when some species of plant cells are subjected to the removal of the cell wall by enzymatic treatment, they respond by synthesizing a new cell wall and eventually undergoing a series of cell divisions and developmental processes that result in the formation of a new adult plant. That adult plant can be said to have been cloned from a single cell of a parent plant. ...
Introduction. What is a Plant? MOST PLANTS are green because they contain the substance chlorophyll. They use it to trap light energy; this is used during photosynthesis to make food. Plants are usually anchored in a growing medium such as soil. Some, such as mosses and liverworts, are small and delicate. Others, such as the giant redwood trees, are huge. Many plants, such as marigolds and sunflowers, are annuals, which means that they live for just a year. Perennials can live for many years: some bristlecone pine trees, for example, are nearly 5,000 years old. Rainforest vegetation Where a plant lives depends on its growing requirements. Plants of the rainforest, for example, need its humid climate in order to survive and grow. Flowering Plants FLOWERING plants, known as angiosperms, are the most widespread of all plants. Using flowers to reproduce has contributed to this success. Flowers carry the reproductive organs within a ring of petals. After pollination and fertilization, the flowers ...
Part of Americas answer to the current energy crisis could be fuels made from plants. Fuel made from plant materials, such as cellulose or corn kernels, not only holds promise of reducing our nations dependence on foreign sources of energy, but also offers a green alternative to traditional petroleum-based fuels. Researchers are investigating a number of different plants as possible sources of biofuels, with corn, soybean, switchgrass, algae, and sugar cane, being the most popular. No matter the source, the process of converting plant material into fuel will require fundamental knowledge of plant development and growth in response to changing environments. For example, production of cellulosic ethanol requires a genetic understanding of how plants control the composition and structure of their cell walls. A number of faculty in the Interdisciplinary Plant Group at the University of Missouri are working on projects that could help scientists and engineers develop new energy crops. Plant ...
A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences, a second gene that encodes a recombinase specific for the specific excision sequences linked to a repressible promoter, and a third gene that encodes the repressor specific for the repressible promoter. Also a method for making a genetically modified hybrid plant by hybridizing a first plant regenerated from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences to a second plant regenerated
In article ,841530807C0 at csnet.nw.uoguelph.ca,, ACARLSON at CROP.UOGUELPH.CA (Alvar Carlson) wrote: , On April 14th I posted the following questions: , , , , I am attempting to use sGFP to visually select transgenic barley. , ,I am concerned that the accumulation of the GFP in the nucleus will , ,be detrimental to the development of transgenic plants. Has anyone , ,observed reduced transformation efficiency in plants when using GFP , ,or reduced fertility in any of the transgenic plants generated? , ,Furthermore, has anyone found that modified GFP, to exclude it from , ,the nucleus, increases the transformation efficiency? , ......................................... , , , From: David Galbraith ,dgalbrai at ag.Arizona.EDU, , , We have expressed GFP transgenically targeted to the nucleus in tobacco and , have seen no evidence of toxicity. Plants have not gone to the next , generation yet. , , From: sjdavis1 at students.wisc.edu (Seth J. Davis) , , WT GFP is toxic, and interferes with ...
Aquarium Plant Description and Structure at animal-world.com, provides an introduction to the Parts of a Plant and the Types of Aquatic Plants Such as Ferns, Moss, Pond Plants, Types of Flowering Plants, and Aquarium Plant Bulbs.
Tom, have you noticed this behavior in all, most, or some stem plants, and if , it is the latter, which ones seem to be most susceptible? ,rs A number of stem plants, things like Micrantherum umbrosum are very susceptible to NO3 levels and Chlorine oddly. Some are more tolerant, depends on the plant and depends on how long the problem has been going on. Faster growers seem to have more issues. Some dont grow well unless you add PO4 or high CO2 etc. A well fed plant with good nutrient levels/CO2/light etc that has been growing nicely for a few weeks vs a plant in so-so shape in so-so conditions are going to give different results over a 1-2 day period. After 2 days with zero ppm of NO3: The so-so plant will get holes and cannibalize itself, stop growing etc. The well fed plant may simply slow down or stop growing. The gas tank is only half full with the so-so plant, the tank is full with the well fed plant that has had time to build up reserves(starch/well supplied cells) etc. Ill let you guess ...
Selectable marker genes (SMGs) have been extraordinarily useful in enabling plant transformation because of the low efficiency of transgene integration. However, there are perceived risks in wide-scale deployment of SMG-transgenic plants, and therefore research has recently been performed to develop marker-free systems.
Downloadable! Are multinational enterprises, MNEs, more likely than non-MNEs to close down their plants due to their footloose character? The results from using a panel of all Swedish manufacturing plants over the period 1993 and 2002 suggest that MNE plants, in particular Swedish MNE plants, have a higher probability of exiting the market than non-MNE plants. The outcome is robust controlling for other variables affecting the survival rates. Among non-MNE plants, the probabilities of exit are higher in non-exporting firms than in exporting firms. Moreover, the increased foreign presence in Swedish manufacturing seems to have led to higher exit rates of plants in non-exporting non-MNEs while plants of globally engaged indigenous firms appear to have been unaffected by the increased foreign presence.
High temperature (HT) stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plant responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plant type. HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high yields of crop plants under HT stress are important agricultural goals. Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes.
High temperature (HT) stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plant responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plant type. HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high yields of crop plants under HT stress are important agricultural goals. Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes.
1. Transmembrane Receptors in Plants: Receptor Kinases and Their Ligands. Keiko U Torii.. 2. Heterotrimeric G-Protein-Coupled Signaling in Higher Plants.. Lei Ding, Jin-Gui Chen, Alan M Jones and Sarah M Assmann.. 3. ROP/RAC GTPases.. Ying Fu, Tsutomu Kawasaki, Ko Shimamoto and Zhenbiao Yang.. 4. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades in Plant Intracellular Signaling.. Shuqun Zhang.. 5. Calcium Signals and Their Regulation.. Zhen-Ming Pei and Simon Gilroy.. 6. Paradigms and Networks for Intracellular Calcium Signaling in Plant Cells.. Sheng Luan.. 7. Reactive Oxygen Signaling in Plants.. Gad Miller, Jesse Coutu, Vladimir Shulaev and Ron Mittler.. 8. Lipid-Mediated Signaling.. Wendy F Boss, Daniel V Lynch and Xuemin Wang.. 9. The Cytoskeleton and Signal Transduction: Role and Regulation of Plant Actin- and Microtubule-Binding Proteins.. Patrick J Hussey and Takashi Hashimoto.. 10. The PCI Complexes and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) in Plant Development.. Yair Halimi and Daniel A ...
Growing Stromanthe sanguine gives you a super attractive houseplant that can be used as a Christmas gift plant. Foliage of this plant is red, white and green coloration. A relative of the popular prayer plant, stromanthe houseplants are sometimes thought to be difficult to maintain. Following a few basics of stromanthe plant care allows you to demonstrate your green thumb and keep the attractive specimen growing and thriving year round. Foliage of stromanthe houseplants is a reddish maroon and pink on the backside of the leaves, peeking through the green and white variegated tops. With the right stromanthe plant care, the Triostar can reach 2 to 3 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet across. Learning how to grow stromanthe is not complicated, but you must commit to providing regular humiditywhen growing the Stromanthe Triostar plant. A native of the Brazilian rain forest, the plant can not exist in a dry environment. Misting helps provide humidity, as does a pebble tray under or near the plant. A ...
Rossi stated recently that the control system had been finalized, and now he says that the construction of the first E-Cat QX plants is underway. We learn now that these first plants will sell heat - he wont be selling the plants themselves. In the near term that could make business sense, as it gives Leonardo a chance to monitor the performance of these first plants closely (essentially they will be prototypes), learn how the plants perform in real world situations, make adjustments as needed, while also preventing outside access to the E-Cat reactors which is the critical IP - at the same time making money from selling heat directly to customers. I dont know how long they would plan to keep up with this business model. It would seem to be quite labor intensive for Leonardo, as they would need to have their own staff on hand 24/7 to manage the plants. Rossi has said that these first plants wont be mass produced in the sense that they will be made in dedicated "robotized" factories, but they ...
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The techniques of plant transformation are discussed. They are bacterial-mediated, electroporation transformation, biolistic (particle bombardment), and microbeam laser. By using different strategies, foreign gene(s) from various organisms can be inserted into plant genome and expressed. Bacteria-mediated transformation uses Agrobacterium as a vector to insert genes of interest. The other three directly deliver the plasmid into the plant. While Bacteria-mediated method is relatively simple, the other three can transform both monocot and dicot plant, and use various plant tissues as target cells. Public concerns about the impact that transgenic plant might have on the environment have partly slowed down the large-scale use of transgenic plants. These concerns are discussed. Some suggestions regarding the releasing of the transgenic plant under field conditions are also discussed.
That is kind of like asking if water or food is more important for human growth. As both are fundamentally necessary to support the life cycle of a human, one could argue that they are equally important. Nitrogen comprises one of the three "macronutrients," the three main nutrients which are necessary for plant growth. The three macronutrients are nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. These three macronutrients make up the NPK scale. On any bag of plant food, you will see the NPK scale transcribed as three numbers (1-0-5). This would mean that the ratio of these macronutrients in the plant food is 1 part nitrogen, 0 parts phosphorous, and 5 parts potassium. As such, nitrogen is one of the fundamental components to plant life.. That said, all plants require some form of oxygen at the root structure to perform respiration, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide which allows plants to feed. Unless there is oxygen around the roots, this gas exchange cannot happen and the plant will die (just as ...
Lithium (Li) toxicity in plants is, at a minimum, a function of Li + concentration, exposure time, species and growth conditions. Most plant studies with Li + focus on short-term acute exposures. This study examines short- and long-term effects of Li + exposure in Arabidopsis with Li + uptake studies and measured shoot mRNA transcript abundance levels in treated and control plants. Stress, pathogen-response and arabinogalactan protein genes were typically more up-regulated in older (chronic, low level) Li +-treatment plants and in the much younger plants from acute high-level exposures. The gene regulation behavior of high-level Li + resembled prior studies due to its influence on: inositol synthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases and membrane ion transport. In contrast, chronically-exposed plants had gene regulation responses that were indicative of pathogen, cold, and heavy-metal stress, cell wall degradation, ethylene production, signal transduction, and calcium-release ...
Think of ways that plants can communicate with each other: First, theres chemical signalling, where a plant releases chemicals into the air or soil which are then sensed by nearby plants. Theres touch - plants can respond to physical sensation either by a competing or parasitic plant growing nearby or an herbivore trying to eat it. Then theres light - though this is a bit indirect. Plants can sense the level of light and indirectly gauge proximity of neighboring plants - for example, it can figure out...
This work identifies transcription factors (TF) controlling triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and accumulation in plant tissues. TAG plays vital role in plants and are used by humans. Most plants accumulate oil in the seed, but some species accumulate oil in other tissues. The Wrinkled1 (WRI1) TF has been shown to regulate oil accumulation in multiple species and tissues. Here, four WRI homologues in avocado were identified, their phylogeny was examined and three of them were cloned into expression vectors for further characterization. However, WRI1 likely does not act alone in regulation of TAG accumulation in plants. Additional candidate TFs were identified by using transcriptome data from a variety of species, and cloned into expression vectors. Future studies will be able to use this information to better understand regulation of TAG accumulation, which will allow increased oil accumulation in plants for various human uses.
What is an herbarium? An herbarium is a collection of pressed and dried plants or parts of plants, with accompanying information, which permanently documents the occurrence of that plant at a particular place and point in time. In general, each specimen can be thought of as representing a unique individual, sampled from among the many trillions of plants that exist on the earth. In addition to the pressed and dried specimens, special collections of liquid-preserved parts and wood for anatomical studies, microscope slides and material specifically collected for chemical analysis are also part of a modern herbarium collection. Herbarium specimens provide much of the basic raw data for our understanding of what are plant species, where they are found and some of their useful properties. The specimens listed here are representative of the 5 million specimens (4.7 million vascular plants and 300,000 bryophytes) in the Garden s herbarium. The following images are in multi-resolution JPEG2000 format ...
For normal growth rate, plants require temperature between 10 °C (50 °F) and 42 °C (107.6 °F). Plant growth rate drops by 10.0% for each degree Celsius below 10 °C (50 °F), and by 6.25% for each degree above 42 °C (107.6 °F). The plants info window will show Out of ideal temperature range (growing at xx% of normal speed). Plants will not grow when the temperature falls below 1 °C (33.8 °F) or rises above 57 °C (134.6 °F). The plants info window will show Out of ideal temperature range (not growing). If the temperature drops below -10 °C (14 °F), it will either die or lose its leaves, depending on the type of plant. Leafless plants cannot grow, and will take a full day to regrow their leaves after the temperature rises back above -2 °C (28.4 °F). (GRF(T)) Growth Rate Factor: Temperature = (Temperature(T)) ÷ 10 ; Temperature(T) , 10C ...
A common yet inadequate argument against a meat-reduced or meat-free diet is the speculation that plants might experience pain too, like animals. As many plants are eaten by vegetarians and vegans, do they create more suffering? Plants are indeed life forms, but not sentient beings, as they are not complex enough (e.g. have no nervous system) to feel pain. A chicken who is about to be slaughtered feels fear and suffers under the knife, while these reactions do not occur to a carrot being uprooted and chopped. Even if a carrot feels pain, it is obvious that it is much less than that of a chicken. But what if plants really do feel pain, that is hard to measure? If plants and animals both feel pain, here are three ways of looking at the dilemma, with conclusions that follow:. (1) If animals feel more pain than plants, we should eat less animals. But if a number of plants are instead eaten for a meal, will the total pain caused be equal or more than that caused through eating an animal? No - ...
A European Union regulation leaves it up to member states to regulate the cultivation of genetically modified plants within their borders. In Italy, the State Council has used this as an opportunity to ban both research and production. All this now, while for twenty years, transgenic plants have increasingly been grown worldwide. A little less than 200 million hectares, well over 10% of cultivated areas worldwide, are now destined annually to Genetically Modified Plants (GMP). This, while we feed ourselves with GM-derived plants or animals that are fed with GM plants and feed. Slogans such as "acceptance of the precautionary principle" have led to the premise of destroying plants in the experimental fields (recently with the destruction of transgenic plants at the University of Tuscia). This, while all over the world, species that are more parasite-resistant and have less need of water open up a real possibility to the hungry and the undernourished on the world ...
Many people dont realize that its easy to make copies of many plants. One of the simplest methods to get a new plant is by rooting a cutting. It doesnt require specialized skill or equipment, and can multiply your garden quickly.. The idea behind a tip cutting is to take a part of the plant and keep it very moist so it puts out roots from the stem. This can be done by just putting a stem in water, but roots grown in water are not quite the same as those grown in soil, so the plant will sometimes die when put out in the garden. A more successful method is to plant the cutting in a moist medium such as potting soil or vermiculite. To see a quick video tutorial, click here. Cut a four to six inch piece of flexible, growing branch off of the plant. The right length for a cutting is about the distance from the tip of your index finger to your thumb when you spread your hand. Its tempting to think a longer stem will have more energy to grow, but without roots, the plant cant take in enough water ...
Everyday we have customers who come to the nursery looking for the perfect plant for that one spot they keep having to replant. They want a perennial, a plant that attracts hummingbirds and butterflies, and of course one that is easy to grow. One of my go-to plants the last couple of years has been the shrimp plant. Of course, your grandmother knew what a wonderful plant this is but shrimp plants have been "out of style" until lately. Now we are seeing them everywhere in new colors and sizes.. Heres what you need to know about shrimp plants for the Gulf coast area. They are evergreen in our mild climate unless we have a hard freeze and bloom almost continuously - 12 months a year. Pinching the tips or slight pruning keeps them bushy.. ...
Introduction. Explain the factors that affect the distribution of plant and animal species. Using examples from the living world Different species of plants and animals require different factors in order for it to survive. Positive factors could encourage the growth of different species, hence alter the distribution as species struggle to survive, vice versa negative factors would decrease the growth of species in the area. Species of plants possesses characteristics that allow it to survive in certain conditions. This is why the distributions of plants vary from one area to another. Each species must be able to successfully capture these resources and use them to acquire energy and biomass for growth and reproduction. Yet resources are limited in natural environments, so plants face selective pressure for growth performance without excessive use of resources One of the factors that affect the distribution of plants is temperature. Most species of plant live in moderate temperature zones (around ...
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The analysis of the large and heterogeneous whole-genome microarray dataset available in the public domain proved useful to evaluate principles that govern regulation of gene expression in plants. Our global and systematic analysis of the quantitative effect of different experimental factors (e.g., mutations, stress and organ identity) on the plant transcriptome revealed the key role of developmental processes for establishing mRNA levels throughout the plant. This process in turn determines how cells, organs and tissues respond to exogenous cues. Our data indicate that plant responses to external stimuli are strongly organ-dependent and underscore the need for a more thorough survey of organ-specific and, by extension, cell-specific responses in Arabidopsis and other plants [3].. The second part of our analysis provided a weighted insight into the role of different molecular mechanisms in the global regulation of gene expression in Arabidopsis. The data indicate that DNA methylation within the ...
PLANT CELLS HAVE ALL THE FEATURES OF A TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL. CELL WALL - made of cellulose which strengthens the cell and gives it support. all plant cells have this.. many but not all plant cells contain:. CHLOROPLASTS - found in all the green parts of the plant. they are green due to them containing the green substance chlorophyll which gives the plant its colour. they absorb light energy to make food by photosynthesis. A PERMANENT VACUOLE - a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap which is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant. ...
Genetically modified plants should be licensed in the same way as medicinal drugs under a sweeping reform to the regulatory system that hands powers…
USDAs Sid Abel[*] and Doug McKalip[†] just briefed me on the new regulatory framework that is shaping up for the oversight of plants modified by what they are now calling
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At 04:17 PM 1/24/97 -0500, James M Kocher wrote: ,I understand that mustard plants can be used to soak up toxins, such as ,lead, from the soil. The plants are then destroyed and not composted of ,course. It is alo my understanding that fruit in general does not ,absorb toxins readily from the soil and thus can be planted safely in ,such areas. , ,What other plants can be used to absorb toxins, and what other plants ,are safe to plant and eat from in such areas? , ,Jim Kocher-Hillmer, Pittsburgh PA USA , , \,/ , \,/ , , Dr. Rufus Chaney has done a lot of research work on this. Some of that work focussed on sunflowers which take up cadmium and lead. When I spoke with him 5 or so years ago, he was at the USDA and his number was 301/344-3324, but that may well have changed by now. This year I understand he was a speaker at the Seeds of Change Bioneers Conference in San Francisco, speaking about bioremediation using plants. FYI - Sunflowers in Europe must meet pretty tough standards for cadmium and ...
Many early tomato plantings are now in the field. Pruning and tying of plants is on-going. Remember that any event that results in contact with the plant causes numerous injuries to them - this includes hail injury. (See Dr. Wyenandts recent post regarding the hail event in southern NJ). While these injuries heal, they serve as avenues of entry for bacterial pathogens that may be present either on the plants or in the field. Serious bacterial pathogens of tomato include bacterial leaf spot and bacterial canker. Both can result in unmarketable fruit, and canker can kill plants prior to the production of fruit if the infection occurs early enough. Timing and rates for applications of copper and/or the plant defense activator Actigard are detailed in the 2014 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations. These products provide some suppression of bacterial pathogens. It is critical, however, that spread of bacterial organisms be limited as much as possible. Avoid working in fields when plants ...
ERF subfamily transcription factors play an important role in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. A cold responsive ethylene responsive factor (ERF), MfERF1, was isolated from Medicago falcata, an important forage legume that has great cold tolerance. Overexpression of MfERF1 resulted in an increased tolerance to freezing and chilling in transgenic tobacco plants, while down-regulation of the ortholog of MfERF1 in M. truncatula resulted in reduced freezing tolerance in RNAi plants. Higher transcript levels of some stress responsive genes (CHN50, OSM, ERD10C, and SAMS) and those involved in spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) synthesis (SAMDC1, SAMDC2, SPDS1, SPDS2, and SPMS) and catabolism (PAO) were observed in transgenic plants than in WT ...
Bressan M, Achouak W, Berge O. 2013. Exogenous Glucosinolate Produced by Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana has an Impact on Microbes in the Rhizosphere and Plant Roots. In: Molecular Microbial Ecology of the Rhizosphere. Bruijn, FJ de. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 1173-1179. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781118297674.ch112/summary ...
An exotic plant pest is a disease causing organism or an invertebrate (insect, mite, snail, nematode) not present in NSW which damages plants or plant products. If you suspect the presence of an exotic plant disease or pest, or if you see unusual symptoms on your plants, please immediately phone Exotic Plant Pests Hotline 1800 084 881 ...
Press Release issued Oct 19, 2016: Growing indoor plants can be just as fun and exciting as having outdoor plants - and this is something that many people are quickly picking up, with more and more people opting to have plants within their homes. However, for those only just deciding that they would like an indoor plant, it can be hard for them to decide what plant to go for - with so many different choices, which are the easiest to maintain? Today has recently revealed a list of plants that work great indoors, these include:
...Stanford CA Plants are very sensitive to light conditions because lig...It was previously known that a plant hormone called brassinosteroid is...The teams findings on interactions between brassinosteroid and light ...While under the soils surface in the dark plant seedlings grow in a...,Unlocking,the,secrets,of,a,plant s,light,sensitivity,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
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Mathews, S. A. (1997) Plant Cell Environ. 20, 666-671. , Mochizuki, N. and Nagatani, A. (2003) Nature 424, 571-574. W. H. (1986) J. Cell Biol. 103, 2541-2550. , Schaefer, E. and Apel, K. (1985) Eur. J. Biochem. 147, 137-142. Moesinger, E. and Schaefer, E. (1984) Planta 161, 444-450. Nagy, F. and Schaefer, E. (2000) Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 3, 450-454. Nagy, F. and Schaefer, E. (2002) Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 53, 329-355. M. H. (1998) Cell 95, 657-667. , Sauter, M. and Schaefer, E. (1983) Photochem. H. (2001) Genes Dev. 15, 2613-2625. , Schaefer, E. and Nagy, F. (2004) Plant Cell 16, 1433-1445. M. and Schaefer, E. (1981) Planta. 151, 135-140. B. W. (1948) Bot. Gaz. 110, 103-118. B. W. (1951) Bot. Gaz. 113, 95-105. , Seyfried, M. and Schaefer, E. (1987) Plant Cell Environ. 10, 105-111. W. B. (1959) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 45, 1703-1708. , Schwab, R. and Chory, J. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 14493-14498. , Shaw, A. and Chory, J. (2005) Curr. Biol. 15, 637-642. , Mathews, S. A. (1994) ...
Gene Regulation. Gene regulation and expression in plants- overview Plant development and the environment Signal transduction- a general view Regulation of plant genes and transcription factors Light regulation in plants and Phytochrome Light regulated elements Plant growth regulators Slideshow 3008649 by raven
Factors influencing the fate and impact of hybrids between crop plants and their related species operate from the early zygote, through to plant establishment in different habitats, to their ability to form self-sustaining populations. Many of the classes of genes being introduced by modern methods of genetic modification are similar to those manipulated by conventional plant breeding. In assessing the impact of transgenes in hybrids between crops and related species, therefore, it is important to be informed about the consequences of hybridization between conventionally bred varieties and their relatives. Some transgenes will have novel effects (e.g. production of pharmaceutical substances or certain fatty acids) on plants, and are likely to need specific assessment studies to determine their impact on hybrids. This will be particularly important if there is the possibility of these transgenes becoming established in wild populations. Some recommendations for further research are outlined. ...
Plant Hormones are the organic molecules produced by the plant in extremely low concentrations.There are five different types plant hormones.
Qualitative changes in cytoplasmic proteins in plants treated with plant growth regulating chemicals by L. A. Norris; 1 edition; First published in 1970; Subjects: Growth (Plants), Plant regulators
Many recombinant MAbs extracted from transgenic plants demonstrate a characteristic and reproducible pattern of fragmentation. Such a pattern was observed in the MAb 2G12 plants studied here. Despite findings which show that recombinant protein degradation occurs in vivo [25, 26], the possibility that degradation fragments are formed as a result of proteases that are activated during plant cell and tissue disruption cannot be excluded [14]. As a consequence, it is routine practice to include a range of protease inhibitors in extraction buffers. However, the efficacy of protease inhibitors has never been proven, furthermore they are frequently expensive and unlikely to be practical for commercial scale up.. The identity of the IgG fragments has also not yet been determined. Whilst some may represent assembly intermediates of IgG (e.g., free heavy or light chains, H/L heterodimers or H/H homodimers), these cannot account for all of the fragments observed. Indeed, when analysed under reducing ...
Get the best RHS advice from plant expert Graham Rice on growing, feeding and pruning plants. Find specific plants with our Plant Finder & Plant Selector.
Too much water and your plants will die … too little and your plants could die, a surface watering that starves the roots and your plants may die … for some plants having wet feet is fine, for others less is certainly more! How much is too much or too little or not enough? These tips will help. - Watering Watchpoints for Plants - Container Gardening at BellaOnline
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This is normally a very low maintenance, healthy plant. Unfortunately, based on your description I am not certain what is wrong with your plant. It may be that it has been overwatered and lost some roots as a result, or it is possible the potting soil has deteriorated over time and is not draining well, or that there is a disease problem or something like that, but it is very difficult to diagnose long distance. (The most common problem with this plant is overwatering.) I would suggest you consult with your local county extension and see if they can tell you specifically what is happening. Based on knowing that, you will be able to determine how to save it. They may appreciate photos of the overall plant as well as a close-up or two. If there is a root problem, you might still be able to take tip cuttings and root them to start a new plant from this one. Good luck ...
Tweet Why do plants need water is an interesting question. Plants are like people, plants cannot live without water! And most plants require considerable quantities. The amounts of water needed vary with the kinds of plants, conditions under which they […]
Keep tempting or tasty plants up and out of the way. Cats love to nibble on or bat at long, cascading foliage. Whether your cat is seeking roughage or entertainment, it can easily be deterred from nibbling if you simply move your plants to locations that are up and out of the way. Depending on the age, agility and determination of your cat, a trek to a high shelf or countertop might prove too much of a bother. Although dogs have less of a penchant for batting around plants than cats do, they are more likely to knock them over. If your dog plays hard in the house, keep your plants away from high-traffic areas-and remember, those areas arent always the spots that see a lot of traffic from us. Most dogs have favourite paths that lead to windows or doors. They often navigate these paths at full speed, cutting corners a little too tightly and occasionally miscalculating when its time to lay on the brakes. By keeping plants out of these areas, you greatly reduce the likelihood of having a ...
Students will construct a Plant Rod Puppet while learning about plant habitats, the various parts of plants and their functions. Student will also discuss photosynthesis and plants as food. Strange but fascinating plants such as the Rafflesia, the Walking Palm, and the Venus Fly Trap will be discussed. This is also a great arts and science lesson all in one!. Programming sponsored in part by:. ...
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Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA)). If you are in the business of exporting or re-exporting CITES or ESA regulated plants and plant products, USDA regulation 7 CFR 355 requires that you possess a valid USDA Protected Plant Permit (PPQ 621 - Application for Protected Plant Permit to Engage in the Business of Importing, Exporting, or Re-exporting Terrestrial Plants). ...
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plant - Plant Reproduction and Growth - Plants continue to live on Earth by producing new plants. This process, called reproduction, may be asexual (without the union of two different sex cells) or sexual (involving the union of two different sex cells).
Plants N People is about plants and how people use and enjoy them. In this space, youll find recipes, how-tos, DIY projects, garden information and advice, science based and folkloric information, plant profiles and the occasional visit to a plant place.
See how RHS can give expert advice on growing, feeding, pruning and propagating plants. Find specific plants with our Plant Finder & Plant Selector.
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By the mid-1990s, more than one thousand genetically modified crop plants were approved for field trials. The goals for altering food crop plants by genetic engineering fall into three main categories: to create plants that can adapt to specific environmental conditions to make better use of agricultural land, increase yields, or reduce losses; to increase nutritional value or flavor; and to alter harvesting, transport, storage, or processing properties for the food industry. Many genetically modified crops are sources of ingredients for processed foods and animal feed ...
The method is based on statistical estimation of expected number of a nucleotide consensus pattern in a given sequence [1-3]. NSITE-PL searches for statistically significant functional motifs of plant promoter/regulatory sequences. Plant functionally motifs is selected from RegSite Database developed by Softberry Inc. using published data on transcription regulation of plant genes. If we find a pattern which has expected number significantly less than one, it can be expected that analyzed sequence possesses the patterns function.
Darwin was already interested in auxin in the 19th century. Only in recent years, however, has the hormone started to relinquish its secrets, thanks to intensive molecular research. Auxin is produced in the young, growing parts of plants and then transported throughout the plant - to a low-lying stem for example. The stem needs to straighten out as soon as possible to be able to absorb the suns rays efficiently; therefore more auxin will be delivered to the underside of the stem than to the topside, resulting in the underside growing faster and the stem straightening out. For the same reason, plants in front of windows will always turn to the light. This dynamic regulation of auxin transport allows plants to take optimal advantage of local and changing conditions. A new means of transport for auxin? ...
Findings have implications for increasing biomass for the production of biofuels, , , , UPTON, NY Through work originally designed to remove contaminants from soil, scientists at the U.S. Department of...
Despite their limited range, D. frenchii are quite hardy. Growing in sandy soil has its challenges. The biggest issue plants face is drought. When summer really heats up, these plants go dormant. Their thick roots store water and nutrients to fuel their growth the following year. Due to the nature of their preferred habitat, few other plants can be found growing with D. frenchii. Thats not to say nothing can, however, competition is minimal. As such, D. frenchii does not compete well with other plants, which certainly sets limits on its preferred habitat. Like all members of this genus, D. frenchii flowers are adapted for buzz pollination. Certain bees, when landing on the downward pointing stamens, vibrate their bodies at a special frequency that causes pollen to be released ...
There has been considerable debate regarding the advantages and disadvantages of monoculture agriculture. This type of plant production is a system in which a single plant species, typically one producing grain (such as corn, wheat, or rice), forage (such as alfalfa or clover), or fiber (such as cotton), is grown in the same field on a repetitive basis, to the exclusion of all other species. In its most extreme version, a single variety of a plant species is grown, and all plants are virtually identical to one another ...
Development of a plant body is accomplished through growth, defined as increase in number of cells and size of a species. Rates of growth in plants are achieved in two ways: first, by geometric increase, in which all cells of the organism divide simultaneously, especially in a young embryonic plant; second, by arithmetic increase, in which only one cell undergoes division, especially in mature plants with localized growth in a region at the root and shoot apices ...
Its that time of the year again when gar-den-ers can go to the one spot to see all the new-re-lease plants that are com-ing out for autumn.. The re-cent Perth Gar-den Fes-ti-val show-cased new plants, in-spir-ing dis-play gar-dens, and there were in-for-ma-tive talks from the Hor-ti-cul-tural Me-dia As-so-ci-a-tion and biose-cu-rity staff from the De-part-ment of Agri-cul-ture and Food who spoke about a range of biose-cu-rity mat-ters, in-clud-ing the tomato potato psyl-lid, Euro-pean wasp and pest re-port-ing tools.. De-part-ment se-nior re-searcher Dar-ryl Hardie said of-fi-cers were able to dis-cuss pri-or-ity plant pests and show gar-den-ers how they could sup-port WAs agri-cul-tural in-dus-tries.. The de-part-ments biose-cu-rity dis-play in-cluded a Euro-pean wasp nest, tomato potato psyl-lid sur-veil-lance traps and ex-am-ples of pests to watch out for in the home and gar-den.. There were quite a few fab-u-lous new-re-lease plants on dis-play, in-clud-ing a dwarf pome-gran-ate, mini ...
Biotrophic interactions resulting from an intimate contact between plant and microbial structures drive either bidirectional flows of nutrients as symbiotic (mycorrhizal or legume-rhizobia) or unidirectional flows as in pathogenic interactions. Whatever the biotrophic context (symbiotic versus pathogenic), nutrients as well as signalling molecules must pass several membrane barriers and the apoplastic interface before their assimilation by plant or microbial cells. Plant and microbial cells must be re-programmed, which includes differentiation and polarisation of membrane transport functions to take, to transfer or to exchange signalling molecules and nutrients between partners of the biotrophic interaction. Membrane transporters are thus key players in nutrient uptake and exchange mechanisms and their regulation patterns are essential in determining the outcome of plant fungal interactions and in adapting to environmental changes. Availability, uptake and exchange of nutrients
Traditional wisdom dictates that plants can be encouraged to root by providing a moist atmosphere while keeping the medium on the dry side. This enables the plant to remain turgid (not wilted) until the roots naturally come to support the foliage. In practice, this can be done by repotting the plants into the smallest container that will accept the root mass and encasing the entire product in a plastic bag. The bag can be supported off the foliage by making a wire loop and inserting the ends of the wire into the pot. The plant should be watered into the medium, covered with the bag and left in a shady spot until root growth is evident. Depending on the season, this may take days or weeks. As days shorten after late September until January, it will take longer than in spring and summer as days lengthen. - Ned Nash. ...
A disease, as it relates to plants, is a disturbance from plant pathogens or environmental factors that interfere with plant physiology. When a disease is present, plants will express symptoms. Symptoms are the detectable expression of a disease, pest or environmental factor. These symptoms are usually the result of complex physiological disturbances. They result in changes…
Plant growth is caused by water that is absorbed by the plants roots and sunlight that spurs photosynthesis, which is the process of creating food for the plant. Plants also need space, time, clean...
Smart Timer: The light loops in the working mode of "16 hours on and 8 hours off", imitating the normal routine of plants under natural condition. Grow your plants more healthily with lower consumption even nobody takes care of them.. Well Arranged Space: A size of 18.9"×12.6" ×5.4" may place several plants according to your needs. The plants during photosynthesis produce negative oxygen ions which are beneficial for your health, suitable for kitchens, offices, living rooms, etc.. ...
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published updated guidance for the risk assessment of food and feed derived from genetically modified (GM) plants. The document expands on previous EFSA guidance and reflects the latest scientific developments in areas such as assessment of allergenicity and selection of the comparator plant against which the GM plant is compared. It also establishes a new statistical methodology to further strengthen the risk assessment of GM plants.
Autor: Veramendi, J. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2002; Keywords: Tissue-specific expression. Saccharomyces-cerevisiae. Gene-expression.|br/|Catabolite repression. Chenopodium-rubrum. Hexose kinases. Sugar|br/|sensor. Pea-seeds. Glucose. Glucokinase.|br/|Plant Sciences in Current Contents(R)/Agricultural, Biology &|br/|Environmental Sciences|br/|Animal & Plant Sciences in Current Contents(R)/Life Sciences.|br/|2002 week 24; Titel: Potato hexokinase 2 complements transgenic Arabidopsis plants deficient in hexokinase 1 but does not play a key role in tuber carbohydrate metabolism
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An efficient variety-independent method for producing transgenic eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed. Root explants were transformed by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring a binary vector pBAL2 carrying the reporter gene \beta-glucuronidase intron (GUS-INT) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII). Transgenic calli were induced in media containing 0.1 mg$ l-^{1}$ thidiazuron (TDZ), 3.0 mg $l-^{1} N^{6}$-benzylaminopurine, 100 mg$ l-^{1}$ kanamycin and 500 mg l? cefotaxime. The putative transgenic shoot buds elongated on basal selection medium and rooted efficiently on Soilrite irrigated with water containing 100 mg$ l-^{1} $kanamycin sulphate. Transgenic plants were raised in pots and seeds subsequently collected from mature fruits. Histochemical GUS assay and polymerase vchain reaction analysis of field-established transgenic plants and their offsprings confirmed the ...
204. The intermarket class hybrid seed of claim 203 wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Green Leaf lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Red Leaf lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Batavia lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Butter lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Green Leaf lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Red Leaf lettuce plant; or ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Rigano, M. M.. AU - Alvarez, M. L.. AU - Pinkhasov, J.. AU - Jin, Y.. AU - Sala, F.. AU - Arntzen, C. J.. AU - Walmsley, A. M.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Transgenic plants are potentially safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the application of this technology is limited by the poor response of the immune system to non-particulate, subunit vaccines. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen. This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. Both components of the fusion protein were detected ...
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Consumer Info About Food from Genetically Engineered PlantsConsumer Info About Food from Genetically Engineered Plants

Food from genetically engineered plants must meet the same food safety requirements as foods derived from traditionally bred ... While genetic engineering is sometimes referred to as "genetic modification" producing "genetically modified organisms (GMOs ... Why genetically engineer plants?. Developers genetically engineer plants for many of the same reasons that traditional breeding ... More in Food from Genetically Engineered Plants. Consumer Info About Food from Genetically Engineered Plants Foods Derived From ...
more infohttps://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GEPlants/ucm461805.htm

Genetically Modified Plants and Bees | SpringerLinkGenetically Modified Plants and Bees | SpringerLink

Genetically modified crops which have opened new avenues of species alteration has been accompanied by concerns of their ... Genetically Modify Oilseed Rape Genetically Modify Crop Honey Sample Genetically Modify Organism These keywords were added by ... Honey from genetically modified plants: integrity of DNA, and entry of GM-derived proteins into the food chain via honey. ... Pham-Delègue MH, Jouanin L, Sandoz JC (2002) Direct and indirect effects of genetically modified plants on the honey bee. In: ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-1942-2_20

Food from Genetically Engineered PlantsFood from Genetically Engineered Plants

Information on FDAs policy with regard to genetically engineered plants for food and its consultation procedures for bringing ... More in Food from Genetically Engineered Plants. Consumer Info About Food from Genetically Engineered Plants Foods Derived From ... Questions & Answers on Food from Genetically Engineered Plants. *. Labeling of Foods Derived From Genetically Engineered Plants ... Read more on How FDA Regulates Food from Genetically Engineered Plants.. FDA Requests Comments about Genome Editing in Plants. ...
more infohttps://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/GEPlants/default.htm

Genetically Modified Plants Aid Toxic Clean UpsGenetically Modified Plants Aid Toxic Clean Ups

... journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences detailing how researchers have developed genetically modified plants ... Genetically Modified Plants Aid Toxic Clean Ups From the Editors of E Magazine October 22, 2007. ... the genetically modified plants were able to process them 100 times faster than their natural counterparts. ... journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences detailing how researchers have developed genetically modified plants ...
more infohttps://www.emagazine.com/genetically-modified-plants-aid-toxic-clean-ups/

Are Mutations in Genetically Modified Plants Dangerous?Are Mutations in Genetically Modified Plants Dangerous?

... Henk J. Schouten1 and Evert Jacobsen1,2 ... 1Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 16, Wageningen 6700 AA, The Netherlands. 2 ... Laboratory of Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 386, Wageningen 6700 AJ, The Netherlands. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2007/082612/abs/

Genetically Modified plants | Podcasts | Naked ScientistsGenetically Modified plants | Podcasts | Naked Scientists

... or GM, crops are a hot topic. Some people are deeply suspicious of the technology while others see it as an effective and ... Genetically modified, or GM, crops are a hot topic. Some people are deeply suspicious of the technology while others see it as ... Jonathan - Plant breeding is really great. Plant breeding is going on. Plant breeding has improved in efficiency enormously by ... Jonathan Jones - GM crops with Jonathan Jones, The Sainsbury Laboratory. Kat - Few scientific topics are as controversial as GM ...
more infohttps://www.thenakedscientists.com/podcasts/naked-genetics/genetically-modified-plants

Guidance on allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plantsGuidance on allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants

Home , Guidance on allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants. Guidance on allergenicity assessment of genetically ... Considerations on the practical implementation of those developments in the risk assessment of genetically modified plants are ... provides supplementary guidance on specific topics for the allergenicity risk assessment of genetically modified plants. In ...
more infohttp://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/print/efsajournal/pub/4862

WikiGenes - Plants, Genetically ModifiedWikiGenes - Plants, Genetically Modified

High impact information on Plants, Genetically Modified. *Chemical compound and disease context of Plants, Genetically Modified ... Associations of Plants, Genetically Modified with chemical compounds. *Aluminum tolerance in transgenic plants by alteration of ... Gene context of Plants, Genetically Modified. *Moreover, induced expression of wild-type COP1 in transgenic plants accelerates ... Anatomical context of Plants, Genetically Modified. *Chromoplasts in the nectary tissue of transgenic plants accumulated (3S, ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/19907.html

Genetically Modified Plant can Purify Air in the HousesGenetically Modified Plant can Purify Air in the Houses

... Posted: Dec 21 2018, 9:05am CST , by Hira Bashir, Updated: Dec 21 2018 ... For the unmodified plants, concentration of each pollutant did not change over time. But for the modified plants, the ... Then, they put both modified and unmodified plants in glass tubes and added either benzene or chloroform gas into each tube so ... Altered plant contains a protein called 2E1 that breaks down a wide range of organic compounds found in the homes that plants ...
more infohttps://www.i4u.com/2018/12/130551/modified-plant-can-purify-air-houses

Seeds: Contamination of non-transgenic plants with genetically modified genesSeeds: Contamination of non-transgenic plants with genetically modified genes

Genetically Modified Crops. Experimental GM Crops (3)GM Contamination (22)International trade of GM food (2)National policies ... and Veracruz-are contaminated with genetically modified (GM) DNA. A total of 2,000 plants from 138 farming and indigenous ... Contamination of non-transgenic plants with genetically modified genes. Project: Genetic Engineering and the Privatization of ... to the Washington Post that some cross-pollination does occur between Monsantos genetically modified plants and other plants. ...
more infohttp://historycommons.org/timeline.jsp?timeline=seeds_tmln&seeds_genetically_modified_crops=seeds_contamination

Government Shoots Down GM Plant Trials | ScienceGovernment Shoots Down GM Plant Trials | Science

... the government has rejected a high-profile application to conduct field trials of genetically modified (GM) wheat. The decision ... who argue that it amounts to a de facto moratorium on field tests of any transgenic plant. Five members of the federal ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/294/5549/2067.2

original articleoriginal article

Researchers have combined genetic modification with traditional plant grafting techniques to produce non-GM watermelons that ... Instead of genetically modifying an entire watermelon plant, the team of Korean biotechnologists modified only the rootstock ... Instead of genetically modifying an entire watermelon plant, the team of Korean biotechnologists modified only the rootstock ... Instead of genetically modifying an entire watermelon plant, the team of Korean biotechnologists modified only the rootstock ...
more infohttp://www.scidev.net/global/gm/news/gm-plant-produces-nongm-watermelon.html

Genetically Modified Cotton Plants Protect Their Neighbors From Pests - 80beats : 80beatsGenetically Modified Cotton Plants Protect Their Neighbors From Pests - 80beats : 80beats

Genetically Modified Cotton Plants Protect Their Neighbors From Pests. By Eliza Strickland , September 19, 2008 10:10 am ... Some researchers have suggested that the next goal should be to create genetically modified cotton plants that are toxic to ... long been wary of genetically modified crops say that the new study shows the unexpected consequences that one modified plant ... Related Posts: Coming Soon to a Grocery Near You: Genetically Engineered Meat. Will Europe Give in to Genetically Modified ...
more infohttp://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2008/09/19/genetically-modified-cotton-plants-protect-their-neighbors-from-pests/

Guidance on allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants | European Food Safety AuthorityGuidance on allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants | European Food Safety Authority

Considerations on the practical implementation of those developments in the risk assessment of genetically modified plants are ... provides supplementary guidance on specific topics for the allergenicity risk assessment of genetically modified plants. In ...
more infohttp://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4862

Genetically engineered tobacco plant cleans up environmental toxinGenetically engineered tobacco plant cleans up environmental toxin

Researchers find that a new strain of tobacco plant can make antibodies to toxic pond scum that affects humans, livestock and ... scientists explain how they developed a genetically modified strain of tobacco that helps temper the damaging effects of toxic ... To develop this type of tobacco, Drake and colleagues genetically altered a tobacco plant to produce an antibody to MC-LR, by ... This plant could serve as a major tool for helping keep water sources safe to use, especially in developing nations. ...
more infohttps://www.sgul.ac.uk/news/news-archive/genetically-engineered-tobacco-plant-cleans-up-environmental-toxin

A practical approach to screen for authorised and unauthorised genetically modified plants | SpringerLinkA practical approach to screen for authorised and unauthorised genetically modified plants | SpringerLink

GM) plant material in food and feed. In this paper, it is shown that... ... screening methods based on real-time PCR are most commonly used for the detection of genetically modified ( ... screening methods based on real-time PCR are most commonly used for the detection of genetically modified (GM) plant material ... Screening table Real-time PCR Unauthorised GMO GMO matrix Placing on the market Genetically modified food Genetically modified ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00216-009-3173-2

New Corn Plant Draws Fire From GM Food Opponents | ScienceNew Corn Plant Draws Fire From GM Food Opponents | Science

applied to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for approval to field-test and sell a new line of modified corn. The ... and Monsanto says it hopes to be able to sell seeds to farmers in time for planting next year. But biotech watchdogs are urging ... plant carries a bacterial gene that produces a toxin that kills one of the toughest insect pests of corn, the so-called corn ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/287/5457/1390

BREAKING: Monsanto/Bayers GM Plants Contaminate Europe Despite BanBREAKING: Monsanto/Bayer's GM Plants Contaminate Europe Despite Ban

"Another concern with respect to the cultivation of GM OSR [genetically modified oilseed rape] is an unintended gene flow ... between Monsantos GT73 GM plant and two non-GM oilseed rape plants. This confirms fears that GM plants are capable of ... GM crop plants have found even less acceptance in Switzerland where currently neither the import nor the cultivation of GM OSR ... In Japan, where GM OSR is imported but not cultivated, feral glyphosate- and glufosinate-resistant GM OSR plants have ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/blog/breaking-monsantobayers-gm-plants-contaminate-europe-despite-ban-1

S/R 35: Genetically Engineered Plant Crops: Potential for Disaster (David Kennell)S/R 35: Genetically Engineered Plant Crops: Potential for Disaster (David Kennell)

By coercing governments of developing countries to plant genetically modified (GM) crops, much of the native crops are replaced ... Once GM plants are introduced, farmers may be unable to grow non-GM crops. The Percy Schmeiser case in Saskatchewan, Canada has ... Genetically Engineered Plant Crops: Potential for Disaster by Dr. David Kennell Transgenic crops will greatly accelerate the ... GM plants disrupt the normal ecology selected in millions of years of evolution with some unknown and some known consequences. ...
more infohttp://www.greens.org/s-r/35/35-04.html

USDA tells farmers to plant genetically modified crops - Freedoms PhoenixUSDA tells farmers to plant genetically modified crops - Freedoms Phoenix

... genetically modified sugar beets were deregulated as well. The USDAs move to completely deregulate the planting of genetically ... USDA tells farmers to plant genetically modified crops 2/22/2011. • therealnewsnow In January, the USDA announced they would ... deregulate genetically modified alfalfa, allowing it to be planted without restriction. Just one week later, ... modified alfalfa and sugar beets came as a shock to the organic community, which has voiced continued concern over the issue. ...
more infohttp://www.freedomsphoenix.com/News/84267-2011-02-21-usda-tells-farmers-to-plant-genetically-modified-crops.htm

1. Introduction and Background | Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation | The National Academies...1. Introduction and Background | Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation | The National Academies...

This book explores the risks and benefits of crops that are genetically modified for pest resistance, the urg... ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation (2000) Chapter: 1. Introduction and Background. ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226 ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226 ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/9795/chapter/3

Download Genetically Modified Planet Environmental Impacts Of Genetically Engineered PlantsDownload Genetically Modified Planet Environmental Impacts Of Genetically Engineered Plants

enterprizes finding will be proper for the dictionaries of any download genetically modified planet environmental impacts of ... genetically engineered plants kind or be funded. transition will be in eggs of the FeNZ Selection Criteria( have Downloads). 0 ... Download Genetically Modified Planet Environmental Impacts Of Genetically Engineered Plants. But the download genetically ... For download genetically modified planet environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants that is given to another as ill ...
more infohttp://sftv.org/books/download-genetically-modified-planet%3A-environmental-impacts-of-genetically-engineered-plants.htm

Quantification of cuticular permeability in genetically modified plants - Lancaster EPrintsQuantification of cuticular permeability in genetically modified plants - Lancaster EPrints

More and more studies on genetically modified plants are identifying parts of the genetic code with putative involvement in ... Quantification of cuticular permeability in genetically modified plants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57 (11). pp. 2547-2552 ... and a more stringent experimental approach to quantifying effects on cuticular permeability in genetically modified plants ...
more infohttp://eprints.lancs.ac.uk/10559/

EU projects develops GM plant vaccines | Times Higher Education (THE)EU projects develops GM plant vaccines | Times Higher Education (THE)

... for a new project aimed at using genetically modified (GM) plants to grow vaccines against rabies, tuberculosis, diabetes and ... will permit us to look into all the different experimental aspects connected to the use of genetically modified plants, with ... GM technology can be used to force a plants molecular apparatus to produce a range of medically useful compounds. For example ... However, plant derived materials used in humans have never been formally addressed within the EU. This ground-breaking project ...
more infohttps://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/eu-projects-develops-gm-plant-vaccines/190134.article

Planting Decisions and Uncertain Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Crop VarietiesPlanting Decisions and Uncertain Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Crop Varieties

Also, as planting approaches signals will be broadcast about the nature of postharvest demand. We show how the nonlinearity ... If it happens that sufficient (insufficient) acres are planted under nonmodified seed to meet postharvest demand, then a price ... There exists much uncertainty about consumer attitudes toward genetically modified foods. ... "Planting Decisions And Uncertain Consumer Acceptance Of Genetically Modified Crop Varieties," 2001 Annual meeting, August 5-8, ...
more infohttps://ideas.repec.org/p/isu/genres/5026.html
  • It's very important to bear that in mind and the method enables you to take DNA sequence from essentially any organism and use the properties of a bacterium called agrobacterium to deliver that DNA into a plant cell. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • In this process, scientists make targeted changes to a plant's genetic makeup to give the plant a new desirable trait. (fda.gov)
  • Genetic engineering isolates the gene for the desired trait, adds it to a single plant cell in a laboratory, and generates a new plant from that cell. (fda.gov)
  • At the University of Washington in Seattle, researchers successfully modified the genetic constitution of poplar trees so that stands of the trees were able to absorb 91 percent of the toxin trichloroethylene from a liquid solution and break it down into harmless byproducts. (emagazine.com)
  • Except for maize event LY038, soybean events DP-305423 and BPS-CV127-9 and cotton event 281-24-236 × 3006-210-23, at least one of the five genetic elements has been inserted in these GM plants and is targeted by this screening approach. (springer.com)
  • Researchers find that a new strain of tobacco plant can make antibodies to toxic pond scum that affects humans, livestock and wildlife. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • The decision, now being appealed, has caused widespread consternation among Swiss scientists, who argue that it amounts to a de facto moratorium on field tests of any transgenic plant. (sciencemag.org)
  • This is the first example of a transgenic plant expressing an antibody that remediates an environmental toxin, but according to Drake, more plants like these will be developed in the future to address different environmental problems. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • The RFC asks for data and information in response to questions about the safety of foods from genome edited plants, such as whether categories of genome edited plants present food safety risks different from other plants produced through traditional plant breeding. (fda.gov)
  • An article that appeared last week in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences detailing how researchers have developed genetically modified plants that can absorb large amounts of man-made toxic pollutants, could have a profound impact on the way land managers deal with contaminated industrial sites in the U.S. and beyond. (emagazine.com)
  • But researchers report that a genetically modified houseplant can efficiently remove at least two toxins from the air. (i4u.com)
  • Now, researchers at the University of Washington have genetically modified a common houseplant pothos ivy to remove chloroform and benzene from the air around it. (i4u.com)
  • To create a resistant plant, they inserted a viral gene into watermelon rootstock. (scidev.net)
  • One potential mechanism is 'gene silencing', in which the production of a viral protein in the modified plant stops it being made in the virus. (scidev.net)
  • So, the protein is made in the plant and anything that eats the plant that is susceptible to that protein doesn't thrive or dies whereas insects - and this is very important - that don't eat the plant are completely unaffected. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Fernan Lambein, of the Institute for Plant Biotechnology for Developing Countries in Belgium, told SciDev.Net that the study supports the use of grafting to grow plants that are susceptible to this type of infection. (scidev.net)
  • Plant tissue culture and deliberate mutations have enabled humans to alter the makeup of plant genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altered plant contains a protein called 2E1 that breaks down a wide range of organic compounds found in the homes that plants can then use to support their own growth. (i4u.com)
  • In a new research report appearing in the March 2010 print issue of the FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org) scientists explain how they developed a genetically modified strain of tobacco that helps temper the damaging effects of toxic pond scum, scientifically known as microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which makes water unsafe for drinking, swimming, or fishing. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • Read more on Foods Derived From Plants Produced Using Genome Editing . (fda.gov)
  • To take a look at the science of GM behind the hype and headlines, I spoke to Professor Jonathan Jones at the Sainsbury Laboratory. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Indoor plants can also improve air quality through several mechanisms, but the problem with plants that are capable of doing this is that they aren't very efficient. (i4u.com)
  • Then, they put both modified and unmodified plants in glass tubes and added either benzene or chloroform gas into each tube so they can test their ability to remove toxic gases. (i4u.com)
  • Thus, a bioengineered food that is the subject of a consultation with FDA may contain an introduced pesticidal substance also known as a plant-incorporated protectant (PIP) that is subject to review by EPA. (fda.gov)
  • Natural poplar trees and other plants can only absorb as much as three percent of the toxin, the most common groundwater contaminant in the U.S. Besides taking on more of the pollutants, the genetically modified plants were able to process them 100 times faster than their natural counterparts. (emagazine.com)
  • But for the modified plants, the concentration of harmful compounds dropped by 82 percent after three days and by 8 days, it was barely detectable. (i4u.com)
  • For the unmodified plants, concentration of each pollutant did not change over time. (i4u.com)
  • But without air flow, it will take a long time for a molecule on the other end of the house to reach the plant," said Strand. (i4u.com)
  • To help ensure that firms are meeting their obligation to market only safe and lawful foods, FDA encourages developers of GE plants to consult with the agency before marketing their products. (fda.gov)
  • In this paper, it is shown that the combination of five DNA target sequences can be used as a universal screening approach for at least 81 GM plant events authorised or unauthorised for placing on the market and described in publicly available databases. (springer.com)
  • Developers genetically engineer plants for many of the same reasons that traditional breeding is used. (fda.gov)
  • Traditional breeding involves repeatedly cross-pollinating plants until the breeder identifies offspring with the desired combination of traits. (fda.gov)