PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Material prepared from plants.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The absence of light.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.

Activation of systemic acquired silencing by localised introduction of DNA. (1/7901)

BACKGROUND: In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing results in RNA degradation after transcription. Among tobacco transformants carrying a nitrate reductase (Nia) construct under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-Nia2), one class of transformants spontaneously triggers Nia post-transcriptional gene silencing (class II) whereas another class does not (class I). Non-silenced plants of both classes become silenced when grafted onto silenced stocks, indicating the existence of a systemic silencing signal. Graft-transmitted silencing is maintained in class II but not in class I plants when removed from silenced stocks, indicating similar requirements for spontaneous triggering and maintenance. RESULTS: Introduction of 35S-Nia2 DNA by the gene transfer method called biolistics led to localised acquired silencing (LAS) in bombarded leaves of wild-type, class I and class II plants, and to systemic acquired silencing (SAS) in class II plants. SAS occurred even if the targeted leaf was removed 2 days after bombardment, indicating that the systemic signal is produced, transmitted and amplified rapidly. SAS was activated by sense, antisense and promoterless Nia2 DNA constructs, indicating that transcription is not required although it does stimulate SAS. CONCLUSIONS: SAS was activated by biolistic introduction of promoterless constructs, indicating that the DNA itself is a potent activator of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The systemic silencing signal invaded the whole plant by cell-to-cell and long-distance propagation, and reamplification of the signal.  (+info)

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (2/7901)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (3/7901)

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

Enhanced resistance to bacterial diseases of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sarcotoxin IA, a bactericidal peptide of insect. (4/7901)

Sarcotoxin IA is a bactericidal peptide of 39 amino acids found in the common flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Many agronomically important bacteria in Japan are killed by this peptide at sub-micro molar levels, and the growth of tobacco and rice suspension cultured cells is not inhibited with less than 25 microM. Transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress the peptide, i.e. over 250 pmol per gram of fresh leaf, under the control of a high expression constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to the pathogens for wild fire disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) and bacterial soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora).  (+info)

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (5/7901)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin. (6/7901)

Cytokinins are plant hormones that regulate plant cell division. The D-type cyclin CycD3 was found to be elevated in a mutant of Arabidopsis with a high level of cytokinin and to be rapidly induced by cytokinin application in both cell cultures and whole plants. Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Results suggest that cytokinin activates Arabidopsis cell division through induction of CycD3 at the G1-S cell cycle phase transition.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phosphatidylserine synthase cDNA. Overexpression in plants alters the composition of phospholipids. (7/7901)

We describe the cloning of a wheat cDNA (TaPSS1) that encodes a phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS) and provides the first strong evidence for the existence of this enzyme in a higher eukaryotic cell. The cDNA was isolated on its ability to confer increased resistance to aluminum toxicity when expressed in yeast. The sequence of the predicted protein encoded by TaPSS1 shows homology to PSS from both yeast and bacteria but is distinct from the animal PSS enzymes that catalyze base-exchange reactions. In wheat, Southern blot analysis identified the presence of a small family of genes that cross-hybridized to TaPSS1, and Northern blots showed that aluminum induced TaPSS1 expression in root apices. Expression of TaPSS1 complemented the yeast cho1 mutant that lacks PSS activity and altered the phospholipid composition of wild type yeast, with the most marked effect being increased abundance of phosphatidylserine (PS). Arabidopsis thaliana leaves overexpressing TaPSS1 showed a marked enhancement in PSS activity, which was associated with increased biosynthesis of PS at the expense of both phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol. Unlike mammalian cells where PS accumulation is tightly regulated even when the capacity for PS biosynthesis is increased, plant cells accumulated large amounts of PS when TaPSS1 was overexpressed. High levels of TaPSS1 expression in Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) led to the appearance of necrotic lesions on leaves, which may have resulted from the excessive accumulation of PS. The cloning of TaPSS1 now provides evidence that the yeast pathway for PS synthesis exists in some plant tissues and provides a tool for understanding the pathways of phospholipid biosynthesis and their regulation in plants.  (+info)

NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression. (8/7901)

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat.  (+info)

The severity of plant poisoning depends on the type of plant consumed, the amount ingested, and individual sensitivity. Some common plants that are toxic to humans include:

1. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds contain ricin, a deadly toxin that can cause severe vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
2. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic, and ingestion can cause cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death.
3. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
4. Taxus (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew (Taxus baccata) and Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.
5. Aconitum (Aconitum spp.): Also known as monkshood or wolf's bane, all parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
6. Belladonna (Atropa belladonna): The leaves, stems, and roots contain atropine, which can cause dilated pupils, flushed skin, and difficulty urinating.
7. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Hemlock (Conium maculatum): The leaves and seeds contain coniine and gamma-coniceine, which can cause muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.
9. Lantana (Lantana camara): The berries are toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
10. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
11. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds are particularly toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
12. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves, stems, and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing.
13. Yew (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.

It is important to note that while these plants are toxic, they can also be safely used in herbal remedies when prepared and administered properly under the guidance of a qualified practitioner. It is always best to consult with a medical professional before using any herbal remedy, especially if you have a medical condition or are pregnant or breastfeeding.

1. Innate immunity: This is the body's first line of defense against infection, and it involves the recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells and proteins that are present from birth.
2. Acquired immunity: This type of immunity develops over time as a result of exposure to pathogens, and it involves the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and eliminate specific pathogens.
3. Cell-mediated immunity: This is a type of immunity that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, to fight off infection.
4. Genetic resistance: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to disease resistance, which can be influenced by their ancestry or genetic makeup.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as sunlight, clean water, and good nutrition, can also contribute to disease resistance.

Disease resistance is an important concept in the medical field, as it helps to protect against infectious diseases and can reduce the risk of illness and death. Understanding how disease resistance works can help healthcare professionals develop effective strategies for preventing and treating infections, and it can also inform public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of infectious diseases on individuals and communities.

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:

* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Infections
* Poor sleep

To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.

Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.

Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:

* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.

In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Genetically modified crops are genetically modified plants that are used in agriculture. The first crops provided are used for ... Some genetically modified plants are purely ornamental. They are modified for flower color, fragrance, flower shape and plant ... Genetically modified plants have been engineered for scientific research, to create new colours in plants, deliver vaccines, ... It has been proposed to genetically modify some plant species threatened by extinction to be resistant invasive plants and ...
Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are genetically modified plants that are used in agriculture. The first crops developed ... List of genetically modified crops Genetically modified crops Genetically modified food controversies Genetically modified ... Soybeans accounted for half of all genetically modified crops planted in 2014. Genetically modified soybean has been modified ... Plants that have undergone genetic modification are capable of surviving extreme weather. Genetically modified (GM) food crops ...
In 2014, 181.5 million hectares of genetically modified crops were planted in 28 countries. Half of all GM crops planted were ... Genetically modified crops are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering ... The following graph shows the area planted in GM crops in the five largest GM crop producing countries. The area planted is ... was genetically modified in some way. Seventeen countries grew a total of 55.2 million hectares of genetically modified maize ...
"US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... Genetically Modified Canola 'Escapes' Farm Fields. NPR. Retrieved 8 February 2011. Black R (August 6, 2010). "GM plants ' ... Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified ... In crop-to-crop, genetic information from a genetically modified crop is transferred to a non-genetically modified crop. Crop- ...
Some genetically modified plants are purely ornamental. They are modified for flower color, fragrance, flower shape and plant ... Genetically modified crops are genetically modified plants that are used in agriculture. The first crops developed were used ... Beckmann V, Soregaroli C, Wesseler J (July 2011). "Chapter 8: Coexistence of Genetically Modified (GM) and Non-Modified (non-GM ... It has been proposed to genetically modify some plant species threatened by extinction to be resistant to invasive plants and ...
Two years ago, China's State Forestry Administration approved genetically modified (GM) poplar trees for commercial planting. ... Genetically modified crops Genetically modified food Genetically modified organisms Plantations Regulation of the release of ... A genetically modified tree (GMt, GM tree, genetically engineered tree, GE tree or transgenic tree) is a tree whose DNA has ... testing and use of GM trees remains at an early stage in comparison to GM crops. Research into genetically modified trees has ...
"US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... They claim not to regulate the genetically modified plants, but the pesticides produced by the plants or properties that change ... the FDA reviews plants that could enter or alter the food supply and the EPA regulates the genetically modified plants with ... Most developed genetically modified plants are reviewed by at least two of the agencies, with many subject to all three. Final ...
... (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic ... Beckmann V, Soregaroli C, Wesseler J (2011). "Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the ... Genetically modified plants can also be developed using gene knockdown or gene knockout to alter the genetic makeup of a plant ... "USA :Cultivation of GM Plants in 2009, Maize, soybean, cotton: 88 percent genetically modified". GMO Compass. Archived from the ...
"US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... required between GM and non-GM cultivations for most of the GM pollen to fall to the ground before reaching non-GM plants. ... Genetically modified organisms, Genetic engineering, Biological techniques and tools, Regulation of genetically modified ... In 1986 the OSTP assigned regulatory approval of genetically modified plants in the US to the USDA, FDA and EPA. The Cartagena ...
"Questions & Answers on Food from Genetically Engineered Plants". "FDA page on Regulation of GM Plants in Animal Feed ... Genetically modified canola is a genetically modified crop. The first strain, Roundup Ready canola, was developed by Monsanto ... Genetically modified organisms in agriculture, Genetically modified organisms). ... GOX helps break down glyphosate within the plant. Genetically modified crops undergo a significant amount of regulation ...
In 2019, the USDA announced that genetically modified wheat plants engineered to resist Roundup were detected in an unplanted ... Genetically modified wheat is wheat that has been genetically engineered by the direct manipulation of its genome using ... "Genetically-Modified Wheat Earns Nod from Top Grower Australia". Bloomberg. 2022-05-06. Retrieved 2022-05-17. Heller 2006, p. ... 2001). Genetically Modified Organisms in Agriculture: economics and politics. Academic Press. ISBN 9780080488868. Retrieved ...
... including genetically modified food plants. The EPA regulates genetically modified plants with pesticide properties, as well as ... Regulation of Genetically Modified Food, page 2, Definition of "Genetically Modified": "The term "genetically modified foods" ( ... "US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... "Mexico approves planting and sale of GM crops". "Mexico: controlled cultivation of genetically modified maize". Archived from ...
Pro Plant Breeders Right Bill opinions have indicated that GMOs and the bill are unrelated. Dr. Margaret Ottah Atikpo, head of ... Genetically modified food crops were introduced into Ghana in 2013. GM crops are controversial around the world for various ... Ghana's 2011 Biosafety Act 831 permitted the introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods, and by 2014, "confined field ... They argue that genetically modified food is not conducive to good health, and is neo-colonialist in nature. That is, it hands ...
By 2009/2010, the percentage of GM beets had grown to 95%. In August 2010, commercial planting of GM sugar beets was suspended ... Genetically modified food Genetically modified crops Genetically modified food controversies Pollack, Andrew (27 November 2007 ... A genetically modified sugar beet is a sugar beet that has been genetically engineered by the direct modification of its genome ... GM Corn, GM soybeans and GM cotton are grown on many times the acreage devoted to sugar beets and these crops are most affected ...
The potatoes were modified to express the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) gene from the Galanthus (snowdrop) plant, which ... A genetically modified potato is a potato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. Goals of modification ... The genetically modified Innate potato was approved by the United States Department of Agriculture in 2014 and the US FDA in ... In 1995, Monsanto introduced the NewLeaf variety of potato which was their first genetically modified crop. It was designed to ...
GM India, GM Uzbekistan and Isuzu Thailand at its Port Melbourne plant. Variations include displacements from 1.8 L to 2.4 L. ... Applications: Isuzu Faster FS Lublin, modified C22NED engine The 2,405 cc (146.8 cu in) version has an 87.5 mm (3.44 in) bore ... "Detailed GM & Cosworth difference photos". Vauxsport. Retrieved 13 April 2008. "Porous GM Head Info". Scoobler. Archived from ... Many General Motors subsidiaries, including Daewoo, GM do Brasil, GM Powertrain, and Holden have used this design. By 1986, the ...
... also modified for GMC Truck models) 1958-1965 Chevrolet W (also referred to as "Turbo-Thrust") 1961-1963 GM Aluminum V8 (now ... Buchanan Street and the Grand Trunk Railway in Detroit then later became GM truck Plant No. 7 in 1926 to manufacture front and ... now marketed as GM Vortec V6) 1979-2010 GM 60-Degree V6 (developed by Chevrolet) 1994-2005 GM 54-Degree L-81 V6 (used in the ... 1998-2002 Northstar LX5 2003-2011 GM High Value 2004-present GM High Feature From the 1950s through the 1970s, each GM division ...
In the July 2021 the Philippine Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Plant Industry approved GM Brinjal for 'direct use as food ... The genetically modified brinjal event is termed Event EE 1, and Mahyco have also applied for approval of two brinjal hybrids. ... The genetically modified brinjal is a suite of transgenic brinjals (also known as an eggplant or aubergine) created by ... The brinjal is an important food crop for India, and the potential commercialization of a genetically modified variety has ...
"Press Announcements - FDA takes several actions involving genetically engineered plants and animals for food". ... Genetically modified fish (GM fish) are organisms from the taxonomic clade which includes the classes Agnatha (jawless fish), ... There is much doubt among the public about genetically modified animals in general. It is believed that the acceptance of GM ... "Genetically modified salmon becomes first to be approved for human consumption - but it won't have to be labelled as GM". The ...
Engine production started in April 2012 at GM's Tonawanda Engine plant. The new combustion system developed with GM's ... Following the GM-Fiat agreement, the 2.2 L engine is also used in Fiat Croma unmodified Alfa Romeo 159 heavy modified with ... This engine family replaced the GM Family II engine, the GM 122 engine, the Saab H engine, and the Quad 4 engine. It is ... "GM Online Order / Reference Guide". "2022 GMC Acadia Ditches 2.5L Four-Cylinder Engine". GM Authority. 3 May 2021. Retrieved ...
Almost all transgenic plants contain a few common building blocks that make unknown GMOs easier to find. Even though detecting ... The detection of genetically modified organisms in food or feed is possible by biochemical means. It can either be qualitative ... StarLink corn recall Schreiber, G.A. "Challenges for methods to detect genetically modified DNA in foods" (PDF). Food Control. ... The Cantons of Switzerland perform tests to assess the presence of genetically modified organisms in foodstuffs. In 2008, 3% of ...
Application of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and other bacteria can help protect crops from insect infestation and plant diseases ... Genetically modified bacteria were the first organisms to be modified in the laboratory, due to their simple genetics. These ... Bacteria were the first organisms to be genetically modified in the laboratory, due to the relative ease of modifying their ... Genetically modified bacteria are used to produce large amounts of proteins for industrial use. Generally the bacteria are ...
... announced a tender for contracts to develop genetically modified plant viruses for an approach involving their dispersion into ... The terms genetically modified virus and genetically engineered virus are used synonymously. Genetically modified viruses are ... The genetically modified viruses described in the work plan and other public documents are of a class of genetically modified ... When the whole genetically modified viral genome is integrated it is then referred to as a genetically modified provirus. Where ...
Nigro, D.N.; Stewart, R.G.; Apple, S.A. (March 1982). Support and Power Plant Documentation for the Gas Turbine Powered Bus ... the modified RTS-II turbine buses for MTA required a boxy cover at back of the bus to accommodate the relocated air ... reuniting road vehicle gas turbine development in GM.: 382 The final evolution of the GM gas turbine engine was the GT-404, ... The GM Whirlfire gas turbine engines were developed in the 1950s by the research division of General Motors Corporation and ...
Key S, Ma JK, Drake PM (June 2008). "Genetically modified plants and human health". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. ... Genetically modified food Genetically modified crops Genetically modified food controversies "Roundup Ready System". Monsanto. ... Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop. Specific maize strains have been genetically engineered to ... Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the two main property rights regimes equivalent ...
Plant Physiology, 147: 487-493 Genetically modified organism "Sarah Evanega". CALS. Retrieved 2021-12-19. "Box". ... GM Crops & Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain, 3: 104-110. Davidson SN. (2012) Genetically Engineered Plants ... "Modified" food truck, which travels across the country to deliver edible samples of genetically modified foods. Evanega hopes ... "Ep 52: To GM or not to GM: GMOs in a Changing World - with guest Dr. Sarah Evanega". SparkDialog. 2018-10-16. Retrieved 2021-12 ...
... genetically modified humans beings; cyborgs; digital intelligences; intellectually enhanced, previously non-sapient animals; ... any species of plant or animal which has been enhanced to possess the capacity for intelligent thought; and other advanced ...
Somerville, Chris (2000-08-01). "The Genetically Modified Organism Conflict". Plant Physiology. 123 (4): 1201-1202. doi:10.1104 ... He directed the Department of Plant Science at the Carnegie Institution for Science at Stanford University and then the Energy ... His interest in this plant was partly stimulated by a review article written by George Rédei. Many trainees from Somerville's ... Somerville, Chris (2000-01-07). "The twentieth century trajectory of plant biology". Cell. 100 (1): 13-25. doi:10.1016/S0092- ...
Last updated November 21, 2013 Plant Incorporated Protectants (PIPs) / Genetically Modified Plants "With BioDirect, Monsanto ... Such sprays do not modify the genome of the target plant. The RNA can be modified to maintain its effectiveness as target ... Plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) incorporate genetic material from other species (i.e. GM crops). Their use is ... a plant in the presence of this product naturally induces systemic resistance (ISR) to allow the plant to defend itself against ...
Anderson, RD; Crawley, GM; Hassell, M (1982). "Variability in the abundance of animal and plant species". Nature. 296 (5854): ... Karandinos proposed two similar estimators for n. The first was modified by Ruesink to incorporate Taylor's law. n = ( t d m ) ... I. Dispersion as a factor in the study of changes in plant populations. Ann Bot N.s. vi: 351 Greig-Smith, P (1952). "The use of ... Xu, X-M; Madden, LV (2013). "The limits of the binary power law describing spatial variability for incidence data". Plant ...
The 2013 award to Chilton, Fraley and Montagu drew criticism from opponents of genetically modified crops. In 2014, three ... plant science, seed science, plant pathology, crop protection, food technology, food safety, policy, research, infrastructure, ... "World Food Prize Laureate Dr Robert Fraley to Donate Award to Support Advancement in Plant Science". News Source: Sara Miller; ...
... a genetically modified tomato, was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human ... Kanamycin is toxic to chloroplasts and is deadly for some plants. When researchers exposed tomato plants to high levels of ... According to the existing policy at the time, genetically modified products were only required to be labeled if there was a ... Don Grierson was involved in the research to make the genetically modified tomato. Due to the characteristics of the tomato, it ...
Here, organisms such as yeast, plants or bacteria are genetically modified to make them more useful in biotechnology and aid ... Ohlrogge JB, Jaworski JG (June 1997). "Regulation of Fatty Acid Synthesis". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ... while plants and cyanobacteria have two. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem II uses light energy to remove ... Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 50: 47-65. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.47. PMID 15012203. ...
Alleman M, Doctor J (June 2000). "Genomic imprinting in plants: observations and evolutionary implications". Plant Molecular ... Reciprocal heterozygotes have a genetically equivalent, but they are phenotypically nonequivalent. Their phenotype may not be ... and modifying it to express the gene Igf2, which is normally only expressed by the paternal copy of the gene. Parthenogenetic/ ... In both plants and mammals there are two major mechanisms that are involved in establishing the imprint; these are DNA ...
The money will provide non-genetically modified seeds to community gardens across North America. Young has toured with help ... "Adrienne Young: Planting the Earth, Growing Herself" by Elizabeth Blair, broadcast July 9, 2007 on All Things Considered NPR. " ... edible and medicinal wild plants, and more. See for more information. Her music, created with ...
A newer smallpox and monkeypox vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara has been approved, but with limited availability. ... Closure of World's Only Manufacturing Plant for Monkeypox Vaccine Raises Questions About World's Ability to Meet Rising Demand ... exercise at the Munich Security Conference simulating hypothetical public health responses to the release of a genetically ... Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (MVA-BN). The UKHSA has begun using Imvanex as post-exposure prophylaxis for close ...
Mark Lynas (28 August 2013), The True Story About Who Destroyed a Genetically Modified Rice Crop Archived 17 October 2013 at ... Greenpeace views the construction of Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant in Finland as an example of the problems on building new ... In June 2016, 107 Nobel laureates signed an open letter urging Greenpeace to end its opposition to genetically modified ... such as fines and suspended sentences for destroying a test plot of genetically modified wheat and, according to the Peruvian ...
... as a Mechanism for Invasive Aquatic Plant Management in Florida". Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 53: 95-104. Estes, J. A ... modified limbs for propulsion and steering; tail flukes and dorsal fins for propulsion and balance. Marine mammals are adept at ... the cetaceans genetically and morphologically fall firmly within the Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates). The term " ... West Indian manatees eat up to 60 different species of plants, as well as fish and small invertebrates to a lesser extent. Sea ...
biological engineering food science Genetically modified organism Genetically modified food Genetically modified crops "Become ... Understanding of plant developmental cycles governs how and when plants are harvested, impacts storage environments, and ... By understanding plants and animals on the molecular level, scientists are able to engineer them with specific goals in mind. ... Modified atmosphere (MA) storage refers to any atmosphere different from normal air, typically made by mixing CO2, O2, and N2. ...
... wore garments made from goat skins or woven from plant fibers called Tamarcos, which have been found in the tombs of ... Guanches were found to the genetically very similar to the Kelif el Boroud people. Fregel et al. 2019 examined the mtDNA of 48 ... It was modified, according to Juan Núñez de la Peña, by the Castilians into "Guanches". Though etymologically being an ancient ... It was determined that the examined Guanches were genetically similar between the 7th and 11th centuries AD, and that they ...
B&W was also involved in genetically modifying tobacco (notably the controversial Y1 strain). B&W was founded in Winston ( ... Commonwealth Brands, which would also buy the Reidsville plant, started as Commonwealth Tobacco Company in 1991 and changed its ... "Brown & Williamson Closes Deal to Sell Plant to Commonwealth". Greensboro News & Record. 1996-11-02. p. B8. Canadian Press (10 ... plant and nine of the brands acquired in the American Tobacco purchase. Lorillard Tobacco Company agreed on November 28, 1995, ...
"Man gets genetically-modified pig heart in world-first transplant". BBC News. January 10, 2022. Retrieved January 11, 2022. " ... June 30 The Supreme Court rules that the Environmental Protection Agency is limited in its capacity to regulate power plants' ... Notably, $52 billion would go towards the development of integrated circuits and semiconductor fabrication plants. The House ...
... and introduced a virus into them which mutated the already genetically modified Agents, who became mindless and enraged, going ... That's when the Agency unveiled Project Sunburst, in which a large bomb of direct sunlight is planted and detonated inside " ...
Plant genomes are known to encode at least seven families of UBLs in addition to ubiquitin: SUMO, RUB (the plant homolog of ... UBLs that do not exhibit covalent conjugation (Type II) often occur as protein domains genetically fused to other domains in a ... Additionally, ubiquitin can itself be modified by UBLs, known to occur with SUMO and NEDD8. The best-characterized ... Some UBL families and their associated regulatory proteins in plants have undergone dramatic expansion, likely due to both ...
The place where Gaticas lives is surrounded by genetically modified soybean plantations that have been regularly sprayed with ... campaigned the in the central Argentine province of Córdoba against the construction of a large corn seed processing plant for ...
Sinister genetically modified her with Magneto's DNA. Later on, she joins the Nasty Boys who were also working for Mr. Sinister ... and an unnamed lady who can control plants. Daredevil / Matt Murdock can be seen as a dartboard in the episode "No Mutant Is an ... genetically engineered by Apocalypse masquerading as a member of the Friends of Humanity). War Machine is also briefly seen ...
Contribution of pPLAIIα to drought tolerance using genetically modified arabidopsis plants: II. Effects on photosynthetic ... protein in the protection of the photosynthetic metabolism during drought stress using genetically modified Arabidopsis plants ... Plant Symposium of the SEB: Oxidative stress and cell death in plants: mechanisms and implications, Florence, Italy, 26-28 June ... Y(II) can be more sensitive to some types of plant stress than FV/FM, such as heat stress. Other plant mechanism measuring ...
Since these clones are considered genetically modified organisms (GMO), the widespread use of this technology is still limited ... "Algatechnologies establishes a pilot plant in Kibbutz Ketura, and commercializes the work of Prof. Sammy Boussiba from the Sde ... using genetically modified microalgae. Boussiba, S.; Resh, C.M.; Gibson, J. (1984). "Ammonia uptake and retention in some ... He recently (2010-2013) managed the GIAVAP project- Genetically improved Algae for Valuable Products, in which ten European and ...
Harris realizes that Section 15's target is not Prince Shada, but Bressler, who has developed a genetically modified breed of ... he remembers that he and Liz were in Berlin three months earlier to plant a bomb in Prince Shada's suite. Now aware of his own ...
Identify an agrarian problem-greenhouse gas emissions, overuse of antibiotics and dangerous pesticides, genetically modified ... Changing one's diet to replace 50 percent of animal products with edible plants like legumes, nuts and tubers results in a 30 ... He is an avid runner McWilliams, James E. (2013-06-23). "The Importance of Being Unsure". Eating Plants Blog. Archived from the ...
Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980) Genetically modified organisms can be patented. According to the court a living, ... in an industry or a plant or a place of business is lawful. Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, 315 U.S. 568 (1942) Fighting words- ... The Environmental Protection Agency must consider costs when it regulates power plants under the Clean Air Act. West Virginia v ...
In April 2020, plants were genetically engineered to glow more brightly using genes from the bioluminescent mushroom ... "Analysis of biodistribution and engraftment into the liver of genetically modified mesenchymal stromal cells derived from ... The gene that makes the tails of fireflies glow has been added to mustard plants. The plants glow faintly for an hour when ... "Plants with genetically encoded autoluminescence". Nature Biotechnology. 38 (8): 944-946. doi:10.1038/s41587-020-0500-9. ISSN ...
Head G, Hull RH, Tzotzos GT (2009). Genetically Modified Plants: Assessing Safety and Managing Risk. London: Academic Pr. p. ... at least one of which is needed for plant transformation. The genes to be introduced into the plant are cloned into a plant ... By modifying the plasmid to express the gene of interest, researchers can insert their chosen gene stably into the plants ... The transferred DNA is piloted to the plant cell nucleus and integrated into the host plants genomic DNA.The plasmid T-DNA is ...
ISBN 978-981-19-0932-0. Birk Y (2003). Plant Protease Inhibitors: Significance in Nutrition, Plant Protection, Cancer ... However, the modified Michaelis-Menten equation assumes that binding of the inhibitor to the enzyme has reached equilibrium, ... This is often the case, since such pathogens and humans are genetically distant.) Medicinal enzyme inhibitors often have low ... The residues modified are those with side chains containing nucleophiles such as hydroxyl or sulfhydryl groups; these include ...
The manufactured product Posilac, which was approved in the United States in 1993, was Monsanto's first genetically-modified ... silages of diverse plants, crop residues such as pea regrowth, straw or seed hulls, residues from other production such as ... is growth hormone produced using microbes with modified (recombinant) DNA. ...
So far, scientists have not been able to genetically modify a grapevine that is immune to GVA. However, they are still working ... This means if an infected plant is close to a healthy plant, the leaves touching will not transmit the virus. Another way the ... List of viruses Genetically Modified Grapevines and DNA Grapevine virus B Grapevine varieties Grapevine leafroll-associated ... This means if an infected plant is close to a healthy plant, the leaves touching will not transmit the virus. Another way the ...
Genetically modified amylopectin potato varieties have been developed. As genetic engineering is a controversial public opinion ... Two types of potato plant varieties are developed using different methods: one using traditional breeding techniques and ...
Differentiation of arthropod communities by plant species Bipartite plot for the COI gene, showing from which plants each ... Modified text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ... The analysis of eDNA has great potential, not only for monitoring common species, but to genetically detect and identify other ... plants, protozoa and insects. The environmental source of such extracellular DNA is proposed to be plant litter but also other ...
"The Amoral Logic of Anti-Hurt (Modified Negative Utilitarianism)". Archived from the original on 2018-07-01. Retrieved 2015-09- ... even bacteria and plants and insects, but should this be impossible the world destroyer might have at least ensured a pain free ... "life-long happiness can be genetically pre-programmed." A similar reply to the similar claim that negative utilitarianism would ...
Safety aspects of genetically modified foods of plant origin : report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Foods Derived ... Application of the principles of substantial equivalence to the safety evaluation of foods or food components from plants ... SACTob statement of principles guiding the evaluation of new or modified tobacco products / Scientific Advisory Committee on ... on the Application of the Principles of Substantial Equivalence to the Safety Evaluation of Food or Food Components from Plants ...
The Blogtreesgenetically modified foodUSDA. Genetically Engineered Trees and Glowing Synthetic Plants? No Thanks. ... More importantly, what most of us know instinctively is that GE trees (and glowing mustard plants) are quite simply, an ... That we are even engaged in this debate over growing genetically engineered trees to supply this misguided, manufactured demand ... The International "Campaign to STOP Genetically Engineered Trees", which has called for an international ban on commercial ...
... of the amount of cocaine made by coca plants, weight per weight. ... Once these genetically modified tobacco plants reached maturity ... Scientists genetically modify bacteria that is immune to ALL viruses *UK researchers given green light to genetically modify ... Scientists modify plant mitochondrial DNA for the first time *The way humans modify environments makes them more likely to ... The modified plants produced 25% of the amount of cocaine made by coca plants, weight per weight. ...
Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 s … ... Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants Gregory S Ladics et al. Transgenic Res. ... Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants Gregory S Ladics 1 , Andrew Bartholomaeus ... Volunteer Plants Occurrence and the Environmental Adaptability of Genetically Modified Fodder Corn upon Unintentional Release ...
... leading to the accumulation of formaldehyde in the GM soybean plants, but not in the non-GM plants. This matters because ... The notion of the substantial equivalence of GM glyphosate-tolerant soy plants with their non-GM parents has come under renewed ... could cause toxic effects on human and animal consumers of GM soy. The authors conclusion is that GM soy and non-GM soy may ... Time and again, GM crops have been shown to have an unexpectedly different composition to their non-GM counterparts. This is ...
A biotech company out of San Francisco was responsible for 5,000 genetically modified trees that were just planted in Georgia ... A biotech company out of San Francisco was responsible for 5,000 genetically modified trees that were just planted in Georgia ... Genetically Modified Trees Planted In U.S. Come With Controversy. ...
GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the ... In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified ( ... safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The g … ... In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant ...
Results of search for su:{Plants, Genetically modified.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... SACTob statement of principles guiding the evaluation of new or modified tobacco products / Scientific Advisory Committee on ... SACTob statement of principles guiding the evaluation of new or modified tobacco products.; SACTob principes directeurs pour l ... SACTob statement of principles guiding the evaluation of new or modified tobacco products.; Declaración de principios que rigen ...
Genetically Modified. Such headings may describe either animals or plants, for instance. Be advised that using the new Animals ...
Researchers genetically modified an indoor houseplant to purify certain airborne toxins commonly found in the home that have ... They found that the genetically modified plants cleared out 4.7 times more benzene than the wild-type plants. The genetically ... Genetically modified houseplant cleans indoor air. At a Glance. *Researchers genetically modified an indoor houseplant to ... They molecularly confirmed which plant lines contained the added gene.. The team next tested whether these genetically modified ...
Population management of genetically modified animals. *Physical plant standards. *The topics listed in Appendix A, Selected ... and physical plant. In particular, new scientific information related to the following topics is solicited: *The macro- and ...
... are more receptive to GM plants and animals. After banning GM crops in 1998, the European Union allows the cultivation of GM ... In Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that a genetically modified bacterium can be patented because it is the ... The researchers were able to genetically modify an H5N1 avian flu virus so that it can be transmitted by air between mammals. ... He claims that he used CRISPR-Cas 9 technology to modify the CCR5 gene to give the girls immunity to HIV. The announcement ...
genetically modified food. Food made from plants or animals whose genes have been changed in the laboratory. These changes may ... Having to do with plants or plant parts, or dietary supplement products made from plants. botanist. A scientist who studies the ... A plant used in cooking, in tea, and for medicinal purposes.. herbal. Having to do with or made from medicinal or edible plants ... Edible substances, excluding organic food, genetically modified food, functional food, and dietary supplements. copper. In ...
PLANTS GENET MODIFIED. Entry Term(s). GMO Plants Genetically Engineered Plants Genetically Modified Plants Plants, Transgenic ... Organisms, Genetically Modified [B05.620] * Animals, Genetically Modified [B05.620.136] * Microorganisms, Genetically-Modified ... PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.. Terms. Plants, Genetically Modified Preferred ... Plants, Transgenic (1992-2001). See Also. Food, Genetically Modified. Genetic Engineering. Plantibodies. Salt-Tolerant Plants. ...
Scientists take the gene for a desired trait in one plant or animal, and they insert that gene into ... foods have had their DNA changed using genes from other plants or animals. ... Genes can also be moved from an animal to a plant or vice versa. Another name for this is genetically modified organisms, or ... Understanding new plant varieties. ...
... as well as various other genetically-modified and non-genetically-modified vegetables and fruits (Cimino et al. 2017). ... Approximately 90% of the corn and 50% of the soybeans planted in the USA have been treated with neonicotinoids (Douglas 2015). ... Neonicotinoids are a class of insecticides used in growing genetically-modified corn, soybeans, cotton, sunflowers, and canola ... After a comprehensive review of all stored specimen datasets, this data file was modified to remove records (15-,20% of records ...
... produced by genetically modified tobacco plants.. Now molecular methods are enabling much closer inspection of pathogen-host ... Nevertheless, immunology, not chemistry, was the starting point for this cocktail of three genetically engineered monoclonal ...
Results of search for su:{Plants, Genetically modified} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... SACTob statement of principles guiding the evaluation of new or modified tobacco products / Scientific Advisory Committee on ... SACTob statement of principles guiding the evaluation of new or modified tobacco products.; SACTob principes directeurs pour l ... SACTob statement of principles guiding the evaluation of new or modified tobacco products.; Declaración de principios que rigen ...
A modified life-table analysis system for cohort studies. J Occup Med 25:115-1246687607. Medline, Google Scholar ... Liss GM 1989. Mortality and Cancer Morbidity among Transformer Manufacturing Workers. Toronto:Ontario Ministry of Labour Policy ... Cancer mortality in workers employed at a transformer manufacturing plant. Am J Ind Med 25:425-4378160660. Crossref, Medline, ... Mortality among Workers Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in an Electrical Capacitor Manufacturing Plant in Indiana: ...
Plants, Genetically Modified Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Jinkerson RE, Jonikas MC. Jinkerson RE, et al. Plant J. 2015 May;82(3):393-412. doi: 10.1111/tpj.12801. Epub 2015 Mar 16. Plant ... Pratheesh PT, Vineetha M, Kurup GM. Pratheesh PT, et al. Mol Biotechnol. 2014 Jun;56(6):507-15. doi: 10.1007/s12033-013-9720-2. ...
Europe itself may not need genetically modified organisms but Africa, for example, does. Genetically modified crops are not ... Recent legislation in Europe ruled that genome precision-engineered plants will fall under the same legislation as transgenic ... But in Europe the whole argument of the importance and the safety of genetically modified organisms has been lost. I really ... My favorite example is genetically modified organisms. In North America the climate surrounding that particular topic is a ...
Plants, Genetically Modified Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Ho WW, Weigel D. Ho WW, et al. Plant Cell. 2014 Feb;26(2):552-64. doi: 10.1105/tpc.113.115220. Epub 2014 Feb 14. Plant Cell. ... Hanano S, Goto K. Hanano S, et al. Plant Cell. 2011 Sep;23(9):3172-84. doi: 10.1105/tpc.111.088641. Epub 2011 Sep 2. Plant Cell ... Only plants that overexpress a chimeric gene with segment B of the fourth exon of CEN in the TFL1 background are late flowering ...
This same method could be modified to direct hESCs to make other types of stem cells that could then be used to make heart, ... as well as in mice genetically engineered to develop breast cancer, and it did so more effectively than the chemotherapy drug ... a natural product derived from the plant Piper longum (long pepper). Piperlongumine inhibited tumor growth in mice that were ... and colleagues from the University of California Los Angeles and the University of Tennessee first tested 51 genetically ...
PLANTS GENET MODIFIED. Entry Term(s). GMO Plants Genetically Engineered Plants Genetically Modified Plants Plants, Transgenic ... Organisms, Genetically Modified [B05.620] * Animals, Genetically Modified [B05.620.136] * Microorganisms, Genetically-Modified ... PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.. Terms. Plants, Genetically Modified Preferred ... Plants, Transgenic (1992-2001). See Also. Food, Genetically Modified. Genetic Engineering. Plantibodies. Salt-Tolerant Plants. ...
See also Animals, Genetically Modified See also Organisms, Genetically Modified See also Plants, Genetically Modified ...
15, Pages 1722: Assessment of Benefits and Risk of Genetically Modified Plants and Products: Current Controversies and ...
Also, yeast strains that can naturally produce substantial amounts of these oils have been genetically engineered. ... Some plant-based foods, such as flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and canola oil, contain alpha-linolenic acid, which the body ...
R345: "On the Use of Genetically Modified Food Plants to Combat Hunger in the World", Pontifical Academy of Sciences ...
corros... 0 I 25 gm. Potass, iodide 10 , gm. Aqua 100 c. c. Syr. Sarsap. Co 100 , c. c. Mix. In order to {five a conception of ... 1892 (?}-Medicinal Plants Indigenous to, and Naturalized in the United States, Millspaugh. 1892- The Higher Seed Plants of the ... Bract-A more or less modified leaf subtending a flower or belonging to an inflorescence, or sometimes cauline. Bulb-A ... Tree-A perennial woody plant with a single permanent or self-supporting trunk or stem. In general a plant must be about twenty ...
  • This study not only reports a near-complete biosynthetic pathway of cocaine and provides new insights into the metabolic networks of tropane alkaloids (cocaine and hyoscyamine) in plants but also enables the heterologous synthesis of tropane alkaloids in other (micro)organisms, entailing significant implications for pharmaceutical production," the authors said. (
  • This research acknowledges the complexity of biological organisms and indicates how systems biology could potentially be used to model and predict potential unexpected perturbations from GM. (
  • The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. (
  • Organisms, Genetically Modified. (
  • Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences have not only identified two missing enzymes for the biosynthesis of the tropane skeleton in cocaine but also inserted the corresponding genes that express these enzymes into Nicotiana benthamiana , a close relative of the tobacco plant native to Australia. (
  • Once these genetically modified tobacco plants reached maturity, the researchers were stunned to find 400 nanograms of cocaine per milligram of dried leaf. (
  • Researchers Shiva Ayyadurai and Prabhakar Deonikar used a computational systems biology approach to model the effects of the genetic engineering process on key biochemical pathways affecting plant physiology. (
  • The researchers analyzed data on GM soybeans engineered to express the CP4 EPSPS protein, which makes the soybeans tolerant to Roundup. (
  • Researchers genetically modified an indoor houseplant to purify certain airborne chemicals commonly found in the home that have been linked to cancer. (
  • Researchers genetically modified a common houseplant, pothos ivy, to remove chloroform and benzene from the air around it. (
  • The researchers spent years injecting a synthetic version of the gene for 2E1 into pothos ivy plants and cultivating new plant lines from those that incorporated the gene. (
  • Researchers at the US Stanford University School of cally modified to produce the precursor protein of Medicine have found a particular protein in the pan- insulin preserved the insulin-producing beta-cells creas that could hint at how diabetes develops during in the animals' pancreas. (
  • Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. (
  • Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. (
  • The meeting featured presentations on the molecular basis of plant genome variability in general, unintended changes at the molecular and phenotypic levels, and the development and use of hypothesis-driven evaluations of unintended effects in assessing conventional and GM crops. (
  • Such significant changes in formaldehyde and glutathione concentrations, if borne out by analytical testing of GM crops, could cause toxic effects on human and animal consumers of GM soy. (
  • Time and again, GM crops have been shown to have an unexpectedly different composition to their non-GM counterparts. (
  • SACTob statement of principles guiding the evaluation of new or modified tobacco products. (
  • But despite the wide appeal of this drug, scientists are still figuring out how this complex tropane alkaloid is produced in the coca plant. (
  • In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled "Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants" was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 scientists from academia, government, and the agro-biotech industry. (
  • In order for these tests to be carried out, the GMO seeds and seeds of the closest non-GM relative would have to be made available to the scientists by the developer company prior to regulatory assessment. (
  • Genetically Engineered Trees and Glowing Synthetic Plants? (
  • Public opinion is unequivocally opposed to genetically engineered trees. (
  • The International "Campaign to STOP Genetically Engineered Trees", which has called for an international ban on commercial release of GE trees cheered their effectiveness as a "barrier. (
  • A biotech company out of San Francisco was responsible for 5,000 genetically modified trees that were just planted in Georgia in the hopes to fight climate change. (
  • To enhance their ability to remove VOCs, plants, including trees, have been genetically modified to produce cytochrome P450 2E1 (2E1), a key enzyme in mammals that helps clear toxins from the body. (
  • 19. Engineering the plant genome: prospects of selection systems using non-antibiotic marker genes. (
  • PLANTS , or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING . (
  • They then genetically modified N. benthamiana by adding two newly identified genes, as well as four already-known ones. (
  • 4. A modified MultiSite gateway cloning strategy for consolidation of genes in plants. (
  • 5. pSiM24 is a novel versatile gene expression vector for transient assays as well as stable expression of foreign genes in plants. (
  • 16. Development of series of gateway binary vectors, pGWBs, for realizing efficient construction of fusion genes for plant transformation. (
  • In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. (
  • In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. (
  • The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. (
  • 15. Green fluorescent protein as a vital elimination marker to easily screen marker-free transgenic progeny derived from plants co-transformed with a double T-DNA binary vector system. (
  • Do GM soybean plants accumulate formaldehyde? (
  • The results of the computational analysis suggest that these enzymes induce oxidative stress, leading to the accumulation of formaldehyde in the GM soybean plants, but not in the non-GM plants. (
  • All plants, as well as all bacteria and animals, make formaldehyde. (
  • But in non-GMO plants, according to the analysis, the formaldehyde remains at near-zero levels, as it is naturally cleared through a process of formaldehyde detoxification. (
  • At the same time, in non-GMO plants, glutathione, an anti-oxidizing agent, supports the detoxification of formaldehyde and is naturally replenished. (
  • 20. Fluorescent protein fusions for protein localization in plants. (
  • To test whether this gene could be used in indoor houseplants to more effectively purify indoor air for VOCs, a team led by Dr. Stuart E. Strand at the University of Washington genetically modified the common houseplant pothos ivy ( Epipremnum aureum ) to produce 2E1. (
  • They molecularly confirmed which plant lines contained the added gene. (
  • 9. Creation and validation of a widely applicable multiple gene transfer vector system for stable transformation in plant. (
  • Such headings may describe either animals or plants, for instance. (
  • Population management of genetically modified animals. (
  • for example, a common observation was that no system for genetic modification, including conventional methods of plant breeding, is without unintended effects. (
  • In this case, the difference is not the glyphosate residues in the GM soy but the disruptions to biochemical pathways caused by the genetic engineering process. (
  • Plants into which genetic material from another species has been transferred. (
  • Plants use carbon dioxide to make their food, and they use phenol to help make components of their cell walls," he explains. (
  • Sheng-Xiong Huang of the Kunming Institute of Botany in China and colleagues found that two key enzymes, En CYP81AN15 and En MT4, are fundamental to the key chemical pathway that Erythroxylum novogranatense (the coca plant) uses to make cocaine. (
  • That's approximately 25% of the amount found in the natural coca plant. (
  • They found that the genetically modified plants cleared out 4.7 times more benzene than the wild-type plants. (
  • The objectives of the meeting were to explore current knowledge and identify areas requiring further study on unintended effects in plants and to discuss how this information can inform and improve genetically modified (GM) crop risk assessments. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Plants, Genetically modified. (
  • Cocaine is one of the most commonly used (and abused) plant-derived drugs in the world. (
  • 2. Delivery of multiple transgenes to plant cells by an improved version of MultiRound Gateway technology. (
  • These should include transcriptomics, metabolomics and proteomics analyses to identify changes caused by the GM process. (
  • The modified plants produced 25% of the amount of cocaine made by coca plants, weight per weight. (
  • Subsidies are flowing into the construction of hundreds of bioenergy "renewable energy" projects, including plans to convert massive coal plants to burn biomass, efforts to convert wood into ethanol and other transport fuels, as well as a suite of other biomass based chemicals and products. (
  • 8. The Cre-loxP recombination-based reporter system for plant transcriptional expression studies. (
  • Strand says that 2E1 can be beneficial for the plant, too, as it turns chloroform into carbon dioxide and chloride ions, and benzene into a chemical called phenol. (
  • But even before cocaine reached peak glamour in American culture in the 1980s, the natives that occupied modern-day Bolivia, Peru, and Columbia had been using the coca plant as a medicine for well over 8,000 years, chewing the leaves to improve mood, suppress appetite, or as an anesthetic. (
  • 10. Development of a Gateway-compatible two-component expression vector system for plants. (
  • 17. Peripheral infrastructure vectors and an extended set of plant parts for the Modular Cloning system. (