Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Diseases of plants.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
A family of RNA plant viruses that infect a wide range of herbaceous and woody plant species. There are at least eight genera including POTEXVIRUS and CARLAVIRUS, both of which are highly immunogenic.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Basic functional unit of plants.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Viruses that produce tumors.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A genus in the family NANOVIRIDAE containing multiple circular single-stranded DNA molecules. The type species is Subterranean clover stunt virus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE. Transmission is by whiteflies. Lettuce infectious yellows virus is the type species.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (1/1327)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

Physical and functional heterogeneity in TYMV RNA: evidence for the existence of an independent messenger coding for coat protein. (2/1327)

Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA can be separated into two distinct components of 2 times 10(6) and 300 000 daltons molecular weight after moderate heat treatment in the presence of SDS or EDTA. The two species cannot have arisen by accidental in vitro degradation of a larger RNA, as they both possess capped 5' ends. Analysis of the newly synthesized proteins resulting from translation of each RNA by a wheat germ extract shows that the 300 000 molecular weight RNA can be translated very efficiently into coat protein. When translated in vitro the longer RNA gave a series of high molecular weight polypeptides but only very small amounts of a polypeptide having about the same mass as the coat protein. Thus our results suggest that the small RNA is the functional messenger for coat protein synthesis in infected cells.  (+info)

Heavy de novo methylation at symmetrical and non-symmetrical sites is a hallmark of RNA-directed DNA methylation. (3/1327)

Previous analysis of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA-infected tobacco plants has suggested that an RNA-DNA interaction could trigger de novo methylation of PSTVd transgene sequences. Using the genomic sequencing technique, the methylation pattern associated with the RNA-directed DNA methylation process has been characterized. Three different PSTVd transgene constructs all showed a similar pattern of methylation. Most of the cytosines at symmetrical as well as non-symmetrical positions appeared to be methylated in both DNA strands of the viroid sequences. Heavy methylation was mostly restricted to the viroid cDNA sequences. Flanking DNA regions immediately adjacent to the viroid cDNA displayed a lower but significant level of cytosine methylation. The observation that the heavy methylation was essentially co-extensive with the length of the PSTVd cDNA sequences provided evidence that a direct RNA-DNA interaction can act as a strong and highly specific signal for de novo DNA methylation. These data also confirmed that de novo methylation was not limited to canonical CpG and CpNpG sites, but can also involve all the cytosine residues located in the genomic region where the RNA-DNA interaction takes place.  (+info)

Strong host resistance targeted against a viral suppressor of the plant gene silencing defence mechanism. (4/1327)

The 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Cmv2b) acts as an important virulence determinant by suppressing post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a natural plant defence mechanism against viruses. We report here that the tomato aspermy cucumovirus 2b protein (Tav2b), when expressed from the unrelated tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) RNA genome, activates strong host resistance responses to TMV in tobacco which are typical of the gene-for-gene disease resistance mechanism. Domain swapping between Cmv2b, which does not elicit these responses, and Tav2b, revealed functional domains in Tav2b critical for triggering virus resistance and hypersensitive cell death. Furthermore, substitution of two amino acids from Tav2b by those found at the same positions in Cmv2b, Lys21-->Val and Arg28-->Ser, abolished the ability to induce hypersensitive cell death and virus resistance. However, in Nicotiana benthamiana, a species related to tobacco, Tav2b functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses PTGS. Thus, a viral suppressor of the host gene silencing defence mechanism is the target of another independent host resistance mechanism. Our results provide new insights into the complex molecular strategies employed by viruses and their hosts for defence, counter-defence and counter counter-defence.  (+info)

Identification of the RNA-binding sites of the triple gene block protein 1 of bamboo mosaic potexvirus. (5/1327)

The triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) encoded by open reading frame 2 of bamboo mosaic potexvirus (BaMV) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified in order to test its RNA-binding activity. UV crosslinking assays revealed that the RNA-binding activity was present mainly in the soluble fraction of the refolded TGBp1. The binding activity was nonspecific and salt concentration-dependent: activity was present at 0-50 mM NaCl but was almost abolished at 200 mM. The RNA-binding domain was located by deletion mutagenesis to the N-terminal 3-24 amino acids of TGBp1. Sequence alignment analysis of the N-terminal 25 amino acids of the TGBp1 homologues of potexviruses identified three arginine residues. Arg-to-Ala substitution at any one of the three arginines eliminated most of the RNA-binding activity, indicating that they were all critical to the RNA-binding activity of the TGBp1 of BaMV.  (+info)

Identification of a novel circular single-stranded DNA associated with cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan. (6/1327)

Recent reports have suggested that cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), a geminivirus of the genus Begomovirus, may be responsible for cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan. However, the causal agent of the disease remains unclear as CLCuV genomic components resembling begomovirus DNA A are unable to induce typical disease symptoms when reintroduced into plants. All attempts to isolate a genomic component equivalent to begomovirus DNA B have been unsuccessful. Here, we describe the isolation and characterisation of a novel circular single-stranded (ss) DNA associated with naturally infected cotton plants. In addition to a component resembling DNA A, purified geminate particles contain a smaller unrelated ssDNA that we refer to as DNA 1. DNA 1 was cloned from double-stranded replicative form of the viral DNA isolated from infected cotton plants. Blot hybridisation using probes specific for either CLCuV DNA or DNA 1 was used to demonstrate that both DNAs co-infect naturally infected cotton plants from different geographical locations. DNA 1 was detected in viruliferous Bemisia tabaci and in tobacco plants infected under laboratory conditions using B. tabaci, indicating that it is transmitted by whiteflies. Sequence analysis showed that DNA 1 is approximately half the size of CLCuV DNA but shares no homology, indicating that it is not a defective geminivirus component. DNA 1 has some homology to a genomic component of members of Nanoviridae, a family of DNA viruses that are normally transmitted by aphids or planthoppers. DNA 1 encodes a homologue of the nanovirus replication-associated protein (Rep) and has the capacity to autonomously replicate in tobacco. The data suggest that a nanovirus-like DNA has become whitefly-transmissible as a result of its association with a geminivirus and that cotton leaf curl disease may result from a mutually dependent relationship that has developed between members of two distinct DNA virus families that share a similar replication strategy.  (+info)

Symptom attenuation by a satellite RNA in vivo is dependent on reduced levels of virus coat protein. (7/1327)

Many plant RNA viruses provide replication and encapsidation functions for one or more satellite RNAs (sat-RNAs) that can modulate the symptoms of the associated helper virus. Sat-RNA C, a virulent sat-RNA associated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), normally intensifies symptoms but can attenuate symptoms if the TCV coat protein (CP) is replaced with that of cardamine chlorotic fleck carmovirus [Kong et al. (1995) Plant Cell 7, 1625-1634] or if TCV contains an alteration in the CP initiation codon (TCV-CPm) [Kong et al. (1997b) Plant Cell 9, 2051-2063]. To further elucidate the mechanism of symptom attenuation by sat-RNA C, the composition of the CP produced by TCV-CPm (CPCPm) was determined. Our results reveal that CPCPm likely has two additional amino acids at its N-terminus compared with wild-type TCV CP. TCV-CPm produces reduced levels of CP, and this reduction, not the two additional residues at the CP N-terminus, is responsible for symptom attenuation by sat-RNA C.  (+info)

Evidence that a plant virus switched hosts to infect a vertebrate and then recombined with a vertebrate-infecting virus. (8/1327)

There are several similarities between the small, circular, single-stranded-DNA genomes of circoviruses that infect vertebrates and the nanoviruses that infect plants. We analyzed circovirus and nanovirus replication initiator protein (Rep) sequences and confirmed that an N-terminal region in circovirus Reps is similar to an equivalent region in nanovirus Reps. However, we found that the remaining C-terminal region is related to an RNA-binding protein (protein 2C), encoded by picorna-like viruses, and we concluded that the sequence encoding this region of Rep was acquired from one of these single-stranded RNA viruses, probably a calicivirus, by recombination. This is clear evidence that a DNA virus has incorporated a gene from an RNA virus, and the fact that none of these viruses code for a reverse transcriptase suggests that another agent with this capacity was involved. Circoviruses were thought to be a sister-group of nanoviruses, but our phylogenetic analyses, which take account of the recombination, indicate that circoviruses evolved from a nanovirus. A nanovirus DNA was transferred from a plant to a vertebrate. This transferred DNA included the viral origin of replication; the sequence conservation clearly indicates that it maintained the ability to replicate. In view of these properties, we conclude that the transferred DNA was a kind of virus and the transfer was a host-switch. We speculate that this host-switch occurred when a vertebrate was exposed to sap from an infected plant. All characterized caliciviruses infect vertebrates, suggesting that the host-switch happened first and that the recombination took place in a vertebrate.  (+info)

Rice (Oryza spp.) has long been an important food staple for many traditional rice growing communities. Key developments in efforts to improve rice production such as the development of NERICA varieties have been widely recognised. Nonetheless, emerging diseases such as the Rice Yellow Mottle Virus sobemovirus (RYMV) undermine dissemination of new technologies and sustained productivity of the crop. The RYMV is highly variable and several resistance-breaking strains have been identified. Appropriate sources of resistance to RYMV should be identified and characterised in order to pyramid genes for both complete and partial resistance. In this study, reaction of nine (9) rice cultivars to RYMV virulent strain in Uganda was determined. Four upland and three lowland NERICA varieties, an O. Sativa lowland variety, Gigante and IR64 were observed. Isolates of RYMV were collected from three hot-spots in Uganda (Lira, Luweero and Iganga). The isolate from Iganga was most virulent on RYMV susceptible ...
A panel of four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used to study the immunological profile of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) genus Sobemovirus. Serological profiles of 35 representative isolates of RYMV from Borno, Gombe, Kaduna, Kano, Niger, Sokoto and Zamfara states in Northern Nigeria. All the RYMV isolates were classified into three major serogroups (SG1, SG2 and SG3) and further separated into six subgroups (Sg1a, Sg1b, Sg2a, Sg2b, Sg3a and Sg3b). The results demonstrate a significant serological variability among RYMV isolates in Northern Nigeria. The hierarchical analysis of the serological profiles data revealed high viral load in Kano, Kaduna and Gombe states, these show they are suitable locations for strategic RYMV diagnostic and field epidemiological studies
Read The readthrough region of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) coat protein encoding RNA, the second largest RNA of PMTV genome, undergoes structural changes in naturally infected and experimentally inoculated plants, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses are pathogenic to higher plants. Although plant viruses are not nearly as well understood as the animal counterparts, one plant virus has become iconic. The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This and other viruses cause an estimated US$60 billion loss in crop yields worldwide each year. Plant viruses are grouped into 73 genera and 49 families. However, these figures relate only to cultivated plants that represent only a tiny fraction of the total number of plant species. Viruses in wild plants have been poorly studied, but those studies that exist almost overwhelmingly show that such interactions between wild plants and their viruses do not appear to cause disease in the host plants. To transmit from one plant to another and from one plant cell to another, ...
Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) causes an economically important disease of potato. Serious yield and quality reductions can occur in some cultivars.
Read Complete genomic characterization of a potato mop-top virus isolate from the United States, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Pepper mild mottle virus Leaf curl virus Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses can be pathogenic to higher plants. Most plant viruses are rod-shaped, with protein discs forming a .... ...
Hordeivirus movement protein encoded by the first gene of the triple gene block (TGB1 protein, TGBp1) interacts in vivo with viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles that are considered to be a form of viral genome (non-virion transport form) capable of cell-to-cell and long-distance transport in infected plants. The structures of these RNPs have not been elucidated. The poa semilatent virus (PSLV) TGBp1 contains a structured C-terminal NTPase/helicase domain and an N-terminal extension region consisting of two domains - a completely intrinsically disordered extreme N-terminal domain and an internal domain (ID) with structure resembling a partially disordered molten globule. Here, we characterized the structures assembled in vitro by the full-length PSLV TGBp1 alone or in the presence of viral RNA. The PSLV TGBp1 was capable of multimerization and self-assembly into extended high-molecular-mass complexes. These complexes disassembled to apparent monomers upon
Rapid Diagnosis of Plant Virus Disease by TEM. Microwave Assisted Identification of Plant Virus Infection Rapid Diagnosis of Plant Virus Disease by TEM - Microwave Assisted Identification of Plant
The RNA genome of tobacco etch virus (TEV), a plant potyvirus, functions as an mRNA for synthesis of a 346-kilodalton polyprotein that undergoes extensive proteolytic processing. The RNA lacks a normal 5 cap structure at its terminus, which suggests that the mechanism of translational initiation differs from that of a normal cellular mRNA. We have identified a translation-enhancing activity associated with the 144-nucleotide, 5 nontranslated region (NTR) of the TEV genome. When fused to a reporter gene encoding ,β-glucuronidase (GUS), the 5 NTR results in an 8- to 21-fold enhancement over a synthetic 5 NTR in a transient-expression assay in protoplasts. A similar effect was observed when the 5 NTR-GUS fusions were expressed in transgenic plants. By using a cell-free translation system, the translation enhancement activity of the TEV 5 NTR was shown to be cap independent, whereas translation of GUS mRNA containing an artificial 5 NTR required the presence of a cap structure. Translation ...
ID JQ809577; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 335 BP. XX AC JQ809577; XX DT 18-JUN-2012 (Rel. 113, Created) DT 18-JUN-2012 (Rel. 113, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Apple stem grooving virus isolate BJ-ml movement protein gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Apple stem grooving virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Tymovirales; Betaflexiviridae; Trivirinae; Capillovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-335 RA Hu G.J., Hong N., Wang G.P.; RT Apple stem grooving virus isolates from Chinese pears; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-335 RA Hu G.J., Hong N., Wang G.P.; RT ; RL Submitted (21-MAR-2012) to the INSDC. RL College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, RL Shizishan No. 1, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China XX DR MD5; cec29cc7e6c2cbde6eb9d8f732fc9c7b. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..335 FT /organism=Apple stem grooving virus FT /host=pear FT /isolate=BJ-ml FT /mol_type=genomic RNA FT /country=China FT ...
ID PMTV1 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 5314 BP. XX AC A20700; XX DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 11, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Vertebrate plasmid pMTV1 - complete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC pMTV1 from mouse MTV RA ; RT Carrier-bound Recombinant Protein, Process for Producing it RT and its Use as an Immunogen and Vaccine; RL Unpublished (1991). RL Patent number WO9113155-A/4 dated Sept. 1, 1991. XX CC NM (pMTV1) CC CM (yes) CC NA (ds-DNA) CC TP (circular) CC ST () CC TY (plasmid) CC SP () CC HO (mouse) CC CP () CC FN (cloning) CC SE () CC PA (mouse) CC BR () CC OF () CC OR () XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT misc_feature 0..0 FT /note=1. mouse MTV FT -, pMTV1 FT rep_origin 0..0 FT /note=ORI pMTV1 XX SQ Sequence 5314 BP; 1438 A; 1276 C; 1309 G; 1291 T; 0 other; aaattgtaaa cgttaatatt agacataatt tatcctcaag taaggggccg aagcccctgc aattaaaatt gttgaccacc tacataccaa agacgagcgc ctttacgctt ...
Kaur, P., Appels, R., Bayer, P. E., Keeble-Gagnere, G., Wang, J., Hirakawa, H., Shirasawa, K., Vercoe, P., Stefanova, K., Durmic, Z., Nichols, P., Revell, C., Isobe, S. N., Edwards, D. & Erskine, W., 5 Sep 2017, In : Frontiers in Plant Science. 8, 10 p., 1463.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
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See on - Virology News Viruses have generally been studied either as disease-causing infectious agents that have a negative impact on the host (most eukaryote-infecting viruses), or as tools for molecular biology (especially bacteria-infecting viruses, or phage). Virus ecology looks at the more complex issues of virus-host-environment interactions. For plant viruses this includes studies…
div class=citation vocab=,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource= typeof=Book,,span property=name,,a href=,Plant viruses and virus diseases,, by F. C. Bawden ..,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem resource=,,span property=name,,a property=url href=,College of Physicians of Philadelphia,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
 Virus Ecology is a field that is gaining momentum, fueled in part by metagenomic studies from many environments previously ignored. Biodiversity studies of plant viruses show that they
Buy Plant Virus Vector Interactions by R.T. Plumb (9780120059355) from Boomerang Books, Australias Online Independent Bookstore
Transmission of Plant Viruses. Vegetative propagation, Mechanically through sap, Through seed, pollen, dodder, By specific insects, mites, nematodes, and fungi.
Revisiting the cysteine‐rich proteins encoded in the 3‐proximal open reading frame of the positive‐sense single‐stranded RNA of some monopartite lamentous plant viruses: functional dissection of p15 from grapevine virus B. ...
83062-04-8 - RNA (velvet tobacco mottle virus 2) - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The temperature-inducible expression vector containing the beet necrotic yellow vein virus(BNYVV)isolate NM coat protein gene was constructed and transferred into E. coli DH5 α. High-level expression of the specific protein was achieved by temperature induction. The results of SDSPAGE and Western blotting show that the expression product which accumulates 19.5% of the total cellular proteins estimated by Shimadzu CS-910 scanning is 21kd BNYVV coat protein.
Rhizomania is an extremely severe sugarbeet disease caused by the complex Polymyxa betae/Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV). A relatively small number of recently introduced sugarbeet cultivars...
Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), vectored by Polymyxa betae, causes rhizomania in sugar beet. For disease control, the cultivation of hybrids carrying Rz1 resistance is crucial, but is compromised by resistance-breaking (RB) strains with specific mutations in the P25 protein at amino acids 67-70 (tetrad). To obtain evidence for P25 variability from soil-borne populations, where the virus persists for decades, populations with wild-type (WT) and RB properties were analysed by P25 deep sequencing. The level of P25 variation in the populations analysed did not correlate with RB properties. Remarkably, one WT population contained P25 with RB mutations at a frequency of 11%. To demonstrate selection by Rz1 and the influence of RB mutations on relative fitness, competition experiments between strains were performed. Following a mixture of strains with four RNAs, a shift in tetrad variants was observed, suggesting that strains did not mix or transreplicate. The plant genotype exerted a clear ...
Nanovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Nanoviridae. Legume plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently six species in this genus including the type species Subterranean clover stunt virus. Diseases associated with this genus include: stunting, severe necrosis and early plant death. Group: ssDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Nanoviridae Genus: Nanovirus Faba bean necrotic stunt virus Faba bean necrotic yellows virus Faba bean yellow leaf virus Milk vetch dwarf virus Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus Subterranean clover stunt virus Viruses in Nanovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and round geometries, and T=1 symmetry. The diameter is around 18-19 nm. The genome is multipartite, and the genome components (6 or 8, depending on the genera) are circular, around 1kb in length, essentially carry only one gene, and are individually encapsidated forming small icosahedral virions (18-20 nm). Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host ...
The genetic continuity of the potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) genome was analysed after infection of tomato plants with cloned cDNAs of parental strains. During the six weeks of the experiment, several new sequence variants appeared. The sequence variants detected in the progeny population induced sequence-specific disease symptoms. The PSTVd genome therefore follows the pattern expected for typical pseudo-strains propagating in plants as a population of similar sequences. Assessing further the replicon continuity, a PSTVd cDNA mutant with a deletion in the central conserved region was constructed and proven to be non-infectious. Surprisingly, in a sub-population of potato transformants expressing the same deleted PSTVd RNA an infectious viroid was detected. This suggests specific transcript conversion followed by recovery of the full-length pathogen genome ...
The 69 nucleotide left-terminal domain (T(L)) of the potato spindle tuber RNA viroid (PSTVd) constitutes one of its five structural elements. Due to a twofold complementary sequence repeat, two possible conformations are proposed for the T(L) secondary structure; an elongated-rod and a bifurcated form. In the present study, two T(L) mutants were designed that remove the symmetry of the sequence repeats and ensure that either the bifurcated or the elongated-rod conformation is thermodynamically favored. Imino 1H and 15N resonances were assigned for both mutants and the native T(L) domain based on 1H-1H NOESY and heteronuclear 1H-15N HSQC high-resolution NMR spectra. The NMR secondary structure analysis of all constructs establishes unambiguously the elongated-rod form as the secondary structure of the native T(L) domain. Temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis and UV melting experiments corroborate these results. A combined secondary structure and sequence analysis of T(L) domains of other ...
ID JN544921; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 679 BP. XX AC JN544921; XX DT 10-JAN-2012 (Rel. 111, Created) DT 10-JAN-2012 (Rel. 111, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus isolate hz-11 coat protein gene, partial DE cds. XX KW . XX OS Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Tymovirales; Betaflexiviridae; Trivirinae; Trichovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-679 RA Wang L., Song Y., Hong N., Wang G.; RT Molecular variability of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates RT from pear in China; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-679 RA Wang L., Song Y., Hong N., Wang G.; RT ; RL Submitted (03-AUG-2011) to the INSDC. RL Huzhong Agricultural University, College of Plant Science and Technology, RL Shizishan Str. No. 1, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China XX DR MD5; 761cab46f5020172779df4c453c82687. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..679 FT /organism=Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus FT /host=pear FT ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 16:188-195...M. Isogai , Y. Saitou , N. Takahashi , T. Itabashi , M. Terada , H. Satoh , and N. Yoshikawa...© 2003 The American Phytopathological Society...To understand why transgenic Nicotiana occidentalis plants expressing a functional movement protein (MP) of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) show specific resistance to Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus (GINV), the MPs of ACLSV (50KP) and GINV (39KP) were fused to green, yellow, or cyan f...
Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi), first described in Japan in 1902, is considered a major disease of soybean in tropical and subtropical regions. In susceptible varieties the fungus causes premature defoliation, early maturation, and significant reductions (up to 80%) in yield. This disease does not yet occur in North America.
TY - THES. T1 - Chemical virology. T2 - decorating the interior of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. AU - Minten, Inge Jeannette. PY - 2011/4/4. Y1 - 2011/4/4. KW - METIS-283479. M3 - PhD Thesis - Research external, graduation external. SN - 978-90--9025926-0. PB - Radboud University Nijmegen. CY - Nijmegen. ER - ...
Groundnut Rosette Virus disease (GRD) has long been regarded a major limiting biotic constraint to groundnut production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The disease is caused by a complex of three viral components that interact in a synergistic fashion resulting into severe crop losses. A study was conducted to better understand the genetics of inheritance of GRD resistance. Nineteen groundnut genotypes among which twelve F2 families populations arising from a 3x4 North Carolina II mating design, were evaluated for their percentage disease severity (PDS) and incidence (PDI). There was significant genetic variability for resistance to GRD among the materials studied with more significant additive gene action as compared to non additive. However, since specific combining ability effects were not so consistent among the F2 family populations, evaluation and testing of progenies alongside with their parents would be more meaningful and selection in the early generations would be the most effective ...
Abstract: Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), which causes a viral disease of sugar beet known as rhizomania, is widely spread throughout the sugar beet growing areas of Poland. The analysis of the molecular variability of two separate regions, namely the part of coat protein (CP) and triple gene block (TGB) genes of the BNYVV genome, revealed very low level of nucleotide sequence diversity among the isolates (98-100% sequence identity). Sequence alignments of BNYVV isolates from Poland and other isolates available to data showed also high level of nucleotide sequence identity among these isolates. Based on multiplex RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis we distinguished types A and B of BNYVV. The sequence identity matrix between type A and B revealed 92-93% similarity. Mainly, BNYVV type A is widespread in Poland whereas type B has rarely been found. These results suggest that Polish isolates probably originated from Southern Europe rather then from Germany or France where BNYVV type B is a ...
The effects of manganese supply on plant growth and on photosynthesis and manganese concentrations in young leaves were examined in Seaton Park subterranean clover in three glasshouse water culture experiments.Plants werc grown initially with a copious supply of manganese, and transferred to solutions either with or without manganese. Sequential harvests were taken to determine the effects of developing manganese deficiency on dry matter (DM) yield of whole plants and selected characteristics [manganese, chlorophyll and photosynthetic oxygen evolution (POE)] of youngest open leaf blades (YOL). In addition, the deffect of leaf age and iron supply on POE werc examined.Manganese concentrations and POE in YOL declined markedly and rapidly in plants transferred to solutions without manganese, while chlorophyll concentrations of YOL and plant DM yield responded more weakly and more slowly. As a result, a level of manganese deficiency which depressed POE in young leaves by more than 50 per cent had no ...
Nowak, R. 1999. Walkers Mammals of the World, 6th Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Packer, C. 1983. Demographic changes in a colony of Nile grassrats (Arvicanthis niloticus) in Tanzania. Journal of Mammalogy, 64(1): 159-161. Panagiotakopulu, E. 2004. Pharaonic Egypt and the origins of the plague. Journal of Biogeography, 31: 269-275. Rabiu, S., R. Rose. 1997. A quantitative study of diet in three species of rodents in natural and irrigated savanna fields. Acta Theriologica, 42(1): 55-70. Rabiu, S., R. Rose. 2004. Crop damage and yield loss caused by two species of rodents in irrigated fields in northern Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 50(4): 323-326. Refinetti, R. 2004. The Nile Grass Rat as a Laboratory Animal. Lab Animal, 33(9): 54-57. Rosevear, D. 1969. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). Sarra, S., D. Peters. 2003. Rice yellow mottle virus is Transmitted by Cows, Donkeys, and Grass Rats in Irrigated Rice Crops. Plant ...
Viroids are a unique class of noncoding RNAs: composed of only a circular, single-stranded molecule of 246-401 nt, they manage to replicate, move, circumvent host defenses, and frequently induce disease in higher plants. Viroids replicate through an RNA-to-RNA rolling-circle mechanism consisting of transcription of oligomeric viroid RNA intermediates, cleavage to unit-length strands, and circularization. Though the host RNA polymerase II (redirected to accept RNA templates) mediates RNA synthesis and a type-III RNase presumably cleavage of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and closely related members of the family Pospiviroidae, the host enzyme catalyzing the final circularization step, has remained elusive. In this study we propose that PSTVd subverts host DNA ligase 1, converting it to an RNA ligase, for the final step. To support this hypothesis, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) DNA ligase 1 specifically and efficiently catalyzes circularization of the genuine PSTVd ...
Comparison of Tomato Bioassay and Slab Gel Electrophoresis for Detection of Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid in Potato. G. L. Schumann, H. D. Thurston, R. K. Horst, S. O. Kawamoto, and G. I. Nemoto. Pages 1256-1259. VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. ...
The nucleotide sequence (9306 nucleotides) of cDNA clones of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) obtained from a double-stranded RNA template, extracted from diseased plant tissue, was determined. The genome is composed of five open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative proteins with M rs of 247083, 25147, 12832, 7429 and 43712, and has a poly(A) tail. Using two oligonucleotides designed from the ASPV sequence information a 1598 bp fragment from near the 3′ terminus of the viral RNA, containing the coat protein of M r 43766, was amplified from vein yellows (VY)-infected pear plants by PCR. The sequence determined showed eight nucleotide changes resulting in five amino acid substitutions compared with the sequence of ASPV. When compared to potex-, carla-, clostero- and capillo-viruses, the ASPV genome organization appeared to be most closely related to that of potexviruses, but with a larger coat protein of M r 44K (ORF5). The predicted coat protein size was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The results
Viroids are the smallest known agents of infectious disease. They consist of only an extremely small, circular, single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule and lack the protein coat of a virus. Viroids cause certain plant diseases, including potato spindle tuber disease, but it is uncertain whether viroids also occur in animal cells. Viroids appear to be transmitted mechanically from one cell to another through cellular debris. Viroids are of considerable interest because of their subviral nature…
Poke, FS (2008) Hop mosaic virus: complete nucleotide sequence and relationship to other carlaviruses. Archives of Virology, 153 (8). pp. 1615-1619. ISSN 0304-8608 ...
Despite the non-coding nature of their small RNA genomes, the visible symptoms of viroid infection resemble those associated with many plant virus diseases. Recent evidence indicates that viroid-derived small RNAs acting through host RNA silencing pathways play a key role in viroid pathogenicity. Host responses to viroid infection are complex, involving signaling cascades containing host-encoded protein kinases and crosstalk between hormonal and defense-signaling pathways. Studies of viroid-host interaction in the context of entire biochemical or developmental pathways are just beginning, and many working hypotheses have yet to be critically tested.
I would like to know about reports on monoclonal antibodies to plant viruses. I work with ToMV ( tomato mosaic virus) and i wish to know more about it ...
Comprar Plant Viruses, de Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Editor). Global Science Books, Ltd. (Japón). Ciencia (Science), Importados
More Than 80 Of All Plant Viruses Are Transmitted By Insect Vectors With Aphids Whiteflies Plant Hoppers Spreading The Most Important Virus Diseases Of World Crops We Are Interested In Understanding The Molecular Mechanisms Of Virus Vector Interactions Regulating Acquisition Translocation And Transmission By Insect Vectors
Apple stem cells may be the next big antiaging breakthrough, say natural skin care experts. Plant stem cells, particularly from apples, may help maintain and repair tissue to keep skin looking young, according to research from a Swiss biochemistry lab, which showed that topically applying apple stem cells delays the aging process by triggering the skins ability to regenerate cells. The same lab demonstrated that apple stem cells reduce existing-wrinkle depth by up to 15 percent ...
Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) infects a wide range of plants. In this study, we assembled de novo two HSVd genomes from the transcriptome of an apricot species. To examine HSVd variation in a single tree, we sequenced 70 HSVd genomes from unique apricot and plum trees and identified 11 HSVd variants. In addition, we analysed all known 572 HSVd sequences and identified 382 non-redundant HSVd variants. Ph ...
Plant based food and water are obvious route through plant viruses can get access to human body. The other possible route of access of plant virus directly to human cells is through insects that feed on both plant and human. The insect may be vector, host or both for a virus.. ...
First of all, cold and flu viruses are not simple viruses, and they are not harmless. They kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people every year. Secondly, this would depend highly on the risk group that the virus falls in. The NIH sets strict guidelines on who can handle infectious agents. Unfortunately, I can almost guarantee you that no one is going to give you even risk group 1 plant viruses, and they are certainly are not going to give you cold or flu viruses. Risk groups range from 1 to 4. To handle risk group 2 viruses, for example, you are expected to do so in a BSL-2 or higher laboratory, and anyone maintaining stocks of virus is going to do a hefty check of you and your facilities before shipping you anything.. Furthermore, even if you did obtain the virus, you would need to store it or maintain stocks of the virus in tissue culture. Its not like you can just get an eppendorf tube of virus in saline and expect it to survive in your refrigerator at home, and its not like companies ...
Traditionally, virology has been focused in studying the pathogenic effect of viruses. In the recent years, however, this perception is changing and viruses are being studied as mutualistic
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Researchers have taken positive steps towards using plant virus-based particles for the treatment of human autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and…
Viruses are among the simplest biological systems and are highly effective vehicles to deliver genetic material into susceptible host cells. Artificial viruses can be used as model systems for providing insights into natural viruses and can be considered a testing ground for developing artificial life. Moreover, they are used in biomedical and biotechnological applications, such as delivery of nucleic acids for gene therapy and as scaffolds in material science. Recently, for the first time, we have been able to develop an artificial viral coat protein that coats individual nucleic acids in a similar way as natural viral coat proteins do. The artificial virus particles produced using these proteins protect their nucleic acid cargo and feature significant transfection efficiency. In the present project we want to build on this exciting result and achieve a further highly ambitious milestone: the replication of an artificial virus particle in E. coli, from an artificial viral genome.. This project ...
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ATCC offers plasmid clones of many viral genomes from both animal and plant viruses. Applications for this DNA include use as positive controls, hybridization probes, or templates for amplification.
ATCC offers plasmid clones of many viral genomes from both animal and plant viruses. Applications for this DNA include use as positive controls, hybridization probes, or templates for amplification.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracellular ingestion and salivation by aphids may cause the acquisition and inoculation of non-persistently transmitted plant viruses.. AU - Martin, B.. AU - Collar, J.L.. AU - Tjallingii, W.F.. AU - Fereres, A.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. U2 - 10.1099/0022-1317-78-10-2701. DO - 10.1099/0022-1317-78-10-2701. M3 - Article. VL - 78. SP - 2701. EP - 2705. JO - Journal of General Virology. JF - Journal of General Virology. SN - 0022-1317. ER - ...
I got this in my mail today!!! |Subject: Caution - new virus |A new virus called the C-Nile Virus cannot be killed even by |Nortons most | advanced programs. Be warned! It appears to hit those who were |born |during or before | 1953.
Characteristics of Viruses Minuscule, acellular infectious agent having either DNA or RNA Causes many infections of humans, animals, plants, and bacteria Causes most of the diseases that plague the industrialized world 10/15/11 MDufilho . 2
Blanca Lupiani wrote: , , I just downloaded NIH-Image. How do I make it run. It has the .zip , extension. What do I have to do?. Any help will be apreciated. , Tahnks in advance , Blanca Just unzip the file with Winzip which you can download from Good luck Yang ...
Cusola, O., Kivisto, S., Vierros, S., Batys, P., Ago, M., Tardy, B., Greca, L. G. G., Blanca Roncero, M., Sammalkorpi, M. & Rojas, O., 31 maaliskuuta 2019, julkaisussa: Abstracts of papers of the American Chemical Society. 257, 2 Sivumäärä. Tutkimustuotos: Lehtiartikkeli › Kokousabstrakti › Scientific › vertaisarvioitu ...
... is the movement of plant viruses between organisms. Viruses are known to infect both plant cells ... MicrobiologyBytes: Plant viruses Vectors of Plant Viruses Descriptions of Plant Viruses (Wikipedia introduction cleanup from ... These differences, combined with the fact that plants are immobile, have resulted in plant viruses relying on the wind and soil ... enabling the virus to be passed between different host plants. The main difference, from the point of view of a virus, is the ...
Plant Viruses Online, a full list of plant viruses DPVweb, on-line plant virus database Plant virus symptoms Danish Institute ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ... Plant viruses can be pathogenic to higher plants. Most plant viruses are rod-shaped, with protein discs forming a tube ... Plant virus transmission from generation to generation occurs in about 20% of plant viruses. When viruses are transmitted by ...
Plant Viruses Online Database on Watermelon Mosaic 2 Mosaic Virus Disease of Vine Crops Fact Sheet Description of Plant Viruses ... Plant Viruses Online. University of Idaho. "About Plant Viruses". Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. ... Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) also known as Marrow mosaic virus (Raychaudhuri and Varma, 1975; Varma, 1988), Melon mosaic virus ... in many different plants. The virus itself is referred to as Watermelon Mosaic Virus II or WMV-2 and is an isolate of the U.S. ...
... of plant viruses, many countries have strict importation controls on any materials that can harbour dangerous plant viruses or ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ... the virus spread throughout East Africa. Human activity introduced plant viruses to native crops. The citrus tristeza virus ( ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ...
... (ClYMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potexvirus and the virus family Alphaflexiviridae. ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Clover yellow mosaic virus Descriptions of Plant Viruses Family Groups - The Baltimore ... "About Plant Viruses". Archived from the original on 2014-10-10. Retrieved 2014-10-08. "Clover yellow mosaic virus, complete ... 2005 Plant Pathology 54:568 "New Disease Reports - the first identification of two viruses infecting trailing verbena in the UK ...
... via Web Archive Descriptions of Plant Viruses: Celery mosaic virus Plant Viruses Online - VIDE Database: ... Celery mosaic virus (CeMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae . In California ... Apium virus Y, and Panax virus Y form a distinct clade. "About Plant Viruses". Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. ... plants infected with celery mosaic virus early in their development do not produce usable crops. Plants infected by the virus ...
... (CoNV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the genus nepovirus that infects Theobroma cacao en natura causing ... doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1972.tb02946.x. Kenten, R. H. (1977). "Cacao necrosis virus". Description of Plant Viruses. Rothamsted ... distantly related to Tomato black ring virus and very distantly related to Grapevine chrome mosaic virus. Cacao necrosis virus ... The pathogen is not soil or air borne, as viruses are obligate parasites. There is no treatment for plants once infected with ...
... (LVX) is a pathogenic ssRNA(+) plant virus of the family Alphaflexiviridae and the order Tymovirales. LVX is ... Asjes, C.J. (1991). Control of air-borne field spread of tulip breaking virus, lily symptomless virus and lily virus X in ... Asjes, C.J. (1991). Control of air-borne field spread of tulip breaking virus, lily symptomless virus and lily virus X in ... lily symptomless virus) and a potexvirus (lily virus X) from lily plants. Journal of General Virology, 71, 917-924. Memelink, J ...
... (BNYVV) is a plant virus, transmitted by the plasmodiophorid Polymyxa betae. The BNYVV is a ... "Beet necrotic yellow vein virus". Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Retrieved 29 November 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple ... In this case, rhizomania doesn't cause the plant to die which allows the virus is able to make its way to the leaves resulting ... Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Nebraska; Extension Plant Pathologist, Colorado State University; Extension Plant ...
It is an RNA-containing virus with rod-shape particles. It can be found in many wild plant species. This virus does not itself ... Wikispecies has information related to Ribgrass mosaic virus. Descriptions of Plant Viruses v t e (CS1 maint: uses authors ... N. Oshima & B. D. Harrison (October 1975). "Ribgrass mosaic virus". Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Retrieved 25 November 2015 ... Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ...
... (NTNV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Tombusviridae, which infects plants of the genus ... Brunt.Narcissus tip necrosis virus. Descriptions of Plant Viruses. September 1976 MINUTES OF THE 7th MEETING OF THE ICTV ... Narcissus tip necrosis virus. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University ... Viral plant pathogens and diseases, Tombusviridae, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
... let alone a virus, came surprisingly late - a decade after the end of World War I. "Plant virus" to plant pathologists at the ... Tulip breaking virus (TBV), tulip top-breaking virus (TTBV), tulip bandbreaking virus (TBBV), Rembrandt tulip-breaking virus ( ... Also known as the tulip break virus, lily streak virus, lily mosaic virus, or simply TBV, Tulip breaking virus is most famous ... Tulip breaking virus is one of five plant viruses of the family Potyviridae that cause color-breaking of tulip flowers. These ...
"Turnip yellow mosaic virus". Descriptions of Plant Viruses. June 1970. Broadbent, L.; Heathcote, G. D. (December 1958). " ... ICTVb Description Plant Viruses Online - Turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ... Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) is an isometric Tymovirus of the family Tymoviridae. Its host range is confined almost ...
Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Find Viruses: Narcissus ICTV Virus Taxonomy: 2013 release. Narcissus yellow stripe virus " ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2013 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014. v t e ( ... 2012). Virus taxonomy : classification and nomenclature of viruses : ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of ... Narcissus yellow stripe potyvirus (NYSV) is a plant pathogenic Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae which infects plants of the ...
... (NCLV) is a plant pathogenic virus. It infects Narcissus plants. The term 'latent' refers to the ... Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Find Viruses: Narcissus Zheng, HY; Chen, J; Adams, MJ; Chen, JP (August 2006). "Complete ... Uniprot NcLaVgp1 Narcissus common latent virus, USDA Narcissus common latent virus, EPPO Global Database v t e (Articles with ... This Carlavirus should not be confused with the similarly named Narcissus latent virus which is a Macluravirus, and is ...
... (TSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Bromoviridae, in the genus Ilarvirus. It has a wide host ... "CABI - Invasive Species Compedium". Scott, S.W. (December 2001). "Tobacco streak virus". Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Clemson ... Once the virus becomes systemic, it can be transmitted by vectors. TSV requires a living plant to survive for a period of time ... As with many plant viruses, diagnosis is very difficult because TSV has very wide host range and has different effects ...
Yamamura, Y; Scholthof, HB (1 September 2005). "Tomato bushy stunt virus: a resilient model system to study virus-plant ... Martelli, G.P.; Russo, M.; Rubino, L. (December 2001). "Tomato bushy stunt virus". Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Association ... "Can Plant Viruses Cross the Kingdom Border and Be Pathogenic to Humans?". Viruses. 7 (4): 2074-2098. doi:10.3390/v7042074. PMC ... TBSV has been used as a model system in virology research on the life cycle of plant viruses, particularly in experimental ...
Brunt AA (1970). "Cacao yellow mosaic virus". Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Association of Applied Biologists. ICTVdB - The ... Cacao yellow mosaic virus (CYMV) is a virus in the family Tymoviridae that infects cacao trees in Sierra Leone. CYMV, like ... Viral plant pathogens and diseases, Cacao diseases, Tymoviridae, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ... Universal Virus Database: Cacao yellow mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method v t e (Articles with short description ...
... Nayudu, M V. Plant Viruses. 2008. Research Gate, www. ... One option is to use a strain of plant that is resistant to this virus. Since this is a virus fungicides will have no effect on ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... "First Report of Brome Mosaic Virus (BMV) and Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) Co-Infection in Triticale Plants in Poland." ...
The virus can be indirectly spread to other plants because the virus can also aggregate in the seeds. Likewise, BSMV can be ... The best way to control the virus is to plant with clean seed, since the virus is spread through infected seed. BMSV is also ... Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), of genus Hordevirus, is an RNA viral plant pathogen whose main hosts are barley and wheat. ... Barley stripe mosaic virus is not known to be transmitted through vectors. Rather, BSMV is confined to only plant tissues, of ...
... (CPMMV) is a pathogenic plant virus. According to the Handbook of Plant Virus Diseases, the pathogen is ... Sutic, Dragoljub D.; Ford, Richard E.; Tosic, Malisa T. (1999). Handbook of Plant Virus Diseases. CRC Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0 ... Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
This is a result of the virus using the plant as a host, as the plant's energy is diverted to the virus rather than to the ... "Aphid Transmission of Plant Viruses", Plant Viruses, CRC Press, pp. 177-204, doi:10.1201/9781351075787-7, ISBN 978-1-351-07578- ... is the most efficient transmitter of the virus. By feeding on the sap of the carrot plant, aphids injest the virus of the host ... "Plant Viruses and Virus Diseases. By F. C. Bawden". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 48 (6): 426. doi:10.1021/j150438a008. ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potyvirus and the virus family Potyviridae. Like other ... Plant Viruses Online - Bean yellow mosaic potyvirus ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Bean yellow mosaic virus Family ... "Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) Inclusions". Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Plant Virus Descriptions ... Symptoms in these plants include mosaic, leaf malformation and leaf mottling. This virus makes two kinds of viral inclusions, ...
... (PVY) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Potyviridae, and one of the most important plant viruses ... Virus concentration throughout the plant is high and this greatly increases the chance of uptake by aphids. Infection of plants ... Delgado-Sanchez, S. and Grogan, R.G. (1970). Potato virus Y. CMI/AAB Descriptions of plant viruses. 37: CMI/AAB, Kew, Surrey, ... De Bokx, J.A. and Huttinga, H. (1981). Potato virus Y. In: CMI/AAB Descriptions of plant viruses 37: 242. Wellesbourne, UK: ...
... (CPMMV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Betaflexiviridae that infects yardlong beans, ... Handbook of Plant Virus Diseases. CRC Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-8493-2302-7. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Cowpea mild ... Brunt, A. A.; Atkey, P. T.; Woods, R. D. (1983). "Intracellular occurrence of cowpea mild mottle virus in two unrelated plant ... According to the Handbook of Plant Virus Diseases, the pathogen is found in "China, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, ...
The virus can be detected in each part of the host plant. The virions are mainly found in the cytoplasm of the infected plant ( ... This reduced the susceptibility of the plants to infection by AMV and the plants would be less of a reservoir of virus for ... Jaspars E.M.J.; Bos L. (1980). "Alfalfa mosaic virus". AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Hyo Won Jung; Hye Jin Jung; Wan Soo ... Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), also known as Lucerne mosaic virus or Potato calico virus, is a worldwide distributed phytopathogen ...
The natural host of the virus tends to remain in the Oryzeae tribe of plants. The virus only impacts a few plant species, ... Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) is a plant pathogenic virus, belonging to the genus Sobemovirus. The genome is a positive-sense ... RYMV is one of the better-studied plant-virus pathosystems. RYMV is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. There is a high ... CABI recommends planting the crop as early as possible can avoid the peak period of insect vectors of the virus. In addition, ...
... the plant virus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) measures 300x18 nm in size; it forms a hollow rod. The plant virus Potato virus X ( ... some examples of plant viruses include Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, Red clover necrotic mottle virus, Physalis mosaic virus, ... Plant virus nanoparticles are non-infectious to mammalian cells also proved by Raja muthuramalingam et al. 2018. Plant viruses ... The following viruses have an icosahedral symmetry and measure between 25-30 nm: plant virus Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), ...
Santi L, Huang Z, Mason H (September 2006). "Virus-like particles production in green plants". Methods. 40 (1): 66-76. doi: ... Adolph KW, Butler PJ (November 1976). "Assembly of a spherical plant virus". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of ... Virus-like particles (VLPs) are molecules that closely resemble viruses, but are non-infectious because they contain no viral ... "Ebola Virus-like Particles Prevent Lethal Ebola Virus Infection" (PDF). United States Army Medical Research Institute of ...
... (BBSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Comoviridae. It infects species in the Fabaceae family ... The virus is transmitted through seeds and also plant weevils, such as Apion vorax. It is a positive-sense single stranded RNA ... Sastry, K. Subramanya; Mandal, Bikash; Hammond, John; Scott, S. W.; Briddon, R. W. (2019). Encyclopedia of Plant Viruses and ... Infected broad bean plants exhibit mottling and the seeds of infected plants can display a necrotic pattern on the seed coat. ...
Church planting and evangelism, raising of lay and pastoral leadership and discipleship remain the core of his ministry. He ... In March 2021, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, said that Ndukuba's call for "the virus" of homosexuality to be " ... Sherwood, Harriet (6 March 2021). "Justin Welby condemns Nigerian archbishop's gay 'virus' comments". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 ...
These native plants could not survive, as the barberry had transformed the soil itself. She thus showed that just one plant can ... She extensively studied the spread of the West Nile virus. Ehrenfeld investigated how the Berberis thunbergii (Japanese ... "The Barberry War: To plant or destroy? That is the question. - DIG IT! Magazine". Retrieved 2022-10-17. " ... Joan G. Ehrenfeld (1 October 2003). "Effects of Exotic Plant Invasions on Soil Nutrient Cycling Processes". Ecosystems. 6 (6): ...
The plant hired non-Hutterite staff to process the poultry for market. This plant helped to secure demand for the colonies' ... The groups were taking steps to minimize the spread of the virus. One news report defined the business operations of colonies ... "Turkey Plant Celebrates Grand Opening". Keloland.Com. Retrieved April 3, 2014. Tompkins, Caitlin (March 8, 2015). "Hutterites ...
At least 22 species of pathogenic human bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoans, as well as five species of helminthic worms, ... plant materials, soiled clothing, and glossy paper with starch sizing. They are particularly fond of fermenting foods. They ...
"1760-1840 Planting the Imperial Postal System in British North America", A Chronology of Canadian Postal History, National ... "Benjamin Franklin's Fight Against A Deadly Virus". Retrieved September 27, 2021 - via The Conversation. One article posited ...
The fungus itself is observed in only the root tissue of the virus-infected plants. Once the fungus invades the plant roots it ... The virus begins to inoculate plants with symptoms beginning to show when temperatures are under 25℃, with the most severe ... Removing and disposing infected plants from the soil can help disinfect soil from the virus. Also, cleaning machinery between ... Once a plant is infected with MNSV the infection persists until plant death. If no infection occurs, MNSV can survive in soil ...
Inhabitants of the province plant rice, white corn, bananas, root crops, sugar cane, coconut and abacá. They also plant various ... In 2003, Abaca bunchy top virus threatened the abaca industry in the province. Almost all of the abaca-producing municipalities ... People in Southern Leyte also go into abaca planting. The province is one of the major producer of abaca fiber in the country ... Bernard, San Juan, Hinunangan and Silago were greatly affected by the deadly virus except from the municipalities at Panaon ...
Kryten attempts to isolate the virus and amputate Lister's left arm in an attempt to stop the virus from killing him, but this ... fewer words than he had shared with his rubber plant. In the same episode, Lister mentions that he had always been crazy about ... In "Epideme" (1997), Lister is infected by the Epideme virus (voiced by Gary Martin) after it transfers from the corpse of one ... Kochanski then temporarily stops Lister's heart, and tricks the virus into jumping to Caroline's arm, which Kochanski had ...
Lev reveals that he was partially responsible for the computer virus; he was hired to construct a text message cell phone virus ... planting gardens. Kerry Bishé as Lily Palmer Caroline Dhavernas as Becky Snider Adrian Grenier as James Palmer Gaby Hoffmann as ... When he later attempted suicide, he used his virus to send a "Goodbye World" text to the entire country, not knowing that Lily ... whom they suspected to be involved with the virus. In town, bikers have taken over the local store and gouge the locals. Laura ...
E virus and the introduction of a new therapeutic protocol of the Hepatitis E as well as Hepatitis C using herbal plants. His ... Hema Gupta; Bhanu Iyenger; Badri Nath Tandon (February 1993). "Localization of a new enteric non-A, non-B [HEV] virus in target ...
Large scale industrial plants were established based on New Zealand's abundant natural gas. A new range of products for export ... After successfully containing the virus, the New Zealand economy had sharp growth in what is known as a V-shaped recovery and ... and the expansion of the New Zealand Steel plant at Glenbrook. The Tiwai Point Aluminium Smelter, which opened in 1971, was ...
Ohlrogge JB, Jaworski JG (June 1997). "Regulation of Fatty Acid Synthesis". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ... Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... while plants and cyanobacteria have two. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem II uses light energy to remove ... Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 50: 47-65. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.47. PMID 15012203. ...
20 million to build a nitrate plant of its own. Preparedness supporters were downcast, the antiwar people were jubilant. The ... Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 8 (5): 538-46. doi:10.1111/irv.12267. PMC 4181817. PMID 24975798. Woodward, David R. ...
... not all plant material is edible and the nutritional quality or antiherbivore defenses of plants (structural and chemical) ... and from viruses and bdellovibrio to blue whales. Charles Elton pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food ... In a simple predator-prey example, a deer is one step removed from the plants it eats (chain length = 1) and a wolf that eats ... For example, certain plant species in the Castilleja and Plantago genera have been found to produce defensive compounds called ...
Alleman M, Doctor J (June 2000). "Genomic imprinting in plants: observations and evolutionary implications". Plant Molecular ... that is to say genes that are inserted into the genome by viruses, among imprinted genes. It has also been postulated that if ... In both plants and mammals there are two major mechanisms that are involved in establishing the imprint; these are DNA ... Forms of genomic imprinting have been demonstrated in fungi, plants and animals. In 2014, there were about 150 imprinted genes ...
These viruses appear to have acquired a 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease (ExoN) which has allowed for an increase in genome size. In ... In animals they range more than 3,300-fold, and in land plants they differ by a factor of about 1,000. Protist genomes have ... This has also been described as the "Eigen paradox". An exception to the rule of small genome sizes in RNA viruses is found in ... It has been proposed that the small size of RNA viruses is locked into a three-part relation between replication fidelity, ...
Least concern plants, Garden plants, Plants described in 1783). ... a putative species of virus in the genus Badnavirus. Aucuba ... It became widely cultivated as the "gold plant" by 19th-century gardeners. The plants being grown were female, and it was a ... Goldstrike' - Male plant with leaves heavily speckled in yellow. 'Picturata' - Female plant with yellow foliage fringed with ... This plant is valued for its ability to thrive in the most difficult of garden environments, dry shade. It also copes with ...
Piat announced that the bishops have asked for 100 thousand trees to be planted to commemorate the visit. Francis then dined in ... Finally, in the Government Palace in Lima, the pope criticized the "social virus" that affects Peru, corruption, during his ...
The disease is caused by the monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus in the genus Orthopoxvirus. The variola virus, the causative ... Closure of World's Only Manufacturing Plant for Monkeypox Vaccine Raises Questions About World's Ability to Meet Rising Demand ... The BBC also made it clear that the genetic sequences of the virus, as far as is known, date back to a West African strain. On ... Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. There is no known cure. A study in 1988 found that the ...
... also has certain characteristics that impact its plant virus composition. A study published in Virus Evolution ... USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Ruellia humilis". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data ... "Determinants of taxonomic composition of plant viruses at the Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, Oklahoma". Virus ... The results showed that the host identity effects has a much more consistent impact on the composition of the plant virus than ...
"About Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses and Their Inclusions / Science / Plant Industry / Divisions ... "Diagnosis / Florida Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses and Their Inclusions / Science / Plant Industry / Divisions & Offices ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: White clover mosaic virus Descriptions of Plant Viruses Family Groups - The Baltimore ... White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potexvirus and the family Alphaflexiviridae. WClMV ...
"Winter vomiting virus warning for England". BBC News. 16 July 2021. "Covid-19: UK daily cases surpass 50,000 and F1 fans return ... "Covid: Vaccine plant bomb hoaxer jailed and Christmas food shortages warning". BBC News. 24 November 2021. Retrieved 27 ... Ronapreve, a drug that uses a pair of laboratory created COVID antibodies to treat the virus, is approved for use in the UK. It ... The UK Health Security Agency believes the dog caught the virus from its owner, but stresses that such instances are rare. The ...
Nadal took part in Thailand's "A Million Trees for the King" project, planting a tree in honour of King Bhumibol Adulyadej on a ... Two weeks prior to the Australian Open, Nadal officially withdrew from the tournament citing a stomach virus. Nadal's ...
Many Mesostigmata are free-living predators of invertebrates that live in soil and litter, on the soil surface or on plants. ... It harms bees both directly by feeding on fat body tissue, and indirectly by transmitting viruses. Similarly, the red mite ( ... Size of these mesostigmatans decreases with soil depth: plant litter and humus have large species such as Veigaia (Veigaiidae ... In agriculture, soil-dwelling mesostigmatans are important predators of nematodes, springtails and insect larvae, while plant- ...
... and Proteinblot Techniques and their Use in Monitoring Total Enzyme and Soluble Protein Alterations in Plant Virus ... Qualitative zymoblot is of great potential use in diagnosis of human, animal and plant diseases. If a pathogen demonstrates a ... Wagih, E.E. and Wagih, M.E. (1996). The Zymoblot Technique: Potential in Plant Physiology. Proc. 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on ... technique was made quantitative by densitometry and successfully used to monitor peroxidase activity in virus infected plants. ...
Understanding of plant developmental cycles governs how and when plants are harvested, impacts storage environments, and ... Though bacteria are often the focus of food safety processes, viruses, protozoa, and molds are also known to cause food-borne ... By understanding plants and animals on the molecular level, scientists are able to engineer them with specific goals in mind. ... Among the most notable applications of such genetic engineering is the creation of disease or insect resistant plants, such as ...
Ra's manipulates the Outsiders, planting the cyborg Kaliber in their ranks in order to get to Sofia, in order to keep them busy ... But, due to long exposure to the Joker virus, they will suffer from the effects permanently. Meanwhile, John "Smiley" Bender Jr ...
108 Effects of Elevated Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Native and Cultivated Plants of Southern Africa Food Insects Site includes ... and the caterpillars themselves are susceptible to infection from a virus that has a high mortality rate. The worms' main ... Quoted ch.17 DeFoliart 2003) "Insect and host plant species of Central Africa: scientific names". Retrieved 18 October ... Larvae eat a wide range of plants including mopane, Carissa grandiflora, Diospyros, Ficus, Rhus, Sclerocarya caffra, Terminalia ...
Sand flies also require sugar from plants as their energy source. Plants from the family Fabaceae are preferentially selected ... Using DNA and Recombinant Canarypox Virus Induces Immune Responses Consistent With Protection Against Leishmania Infantum." ... Both genders will consume sugar-rich foods, such as nectar, honey dew, and plant sap, but females will feed on a wide range of ... Both males and females feed on sugars from plants and aphids, but only adult females feed on the blood of other mammals. The ...
The Plant Protection Act (PPA) (USDA); The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (VSTA) (USDA); The Public Health Service Act (PHSA)(FDA); The ... Environmental assessments of biotechnology-derived plants are carried out by the CFIA's Plant Biosafety Office (PBO). The ... it must be assessed under the Plant Protection Act by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) agency within the ... including genetically modified food plants. The EPA regulates genetically modified plants with pesticide properties, as well as ...
"Both the plant virus and the insect virus have evolved to manipulate the aphid. Our work shows they are in cahoots to promote ... ARS Home » Office of Communications » DOF » Plant, Insect Viruses Work Together To Spread Disease ... Plant, Insect Viruses Work Together To Spread Disease. In what may be a first for science, researchers with the Agricultural ... Michelle Heck, an ARS research molecular biologist, was leading research into poleroviruses, a type of plant virus spread by ...
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A virus that typically infects plants was found in honey bees and could help explain their decline, researchers in the U.S. and ... A virus that typically infects plants was found in honey bees and could help explain their decline, researchers in the U.S. and ... Routine screening of bees for frequent and rare viruses turned up the tobacco ringspot virus, or TRSV, prompting the ... researchers to investigate whether the plant pathogen could infect bees, the society said in an online statement. ...
Kings e-Book Plants Virus. Sci/Tech Briefs admin · May 5, 2009 · 0 Comment * ... Home Sci/Tech Briefs Kings e-Book Plants Virus ... If The Virus is successful, King said he will release the third ... story of 1.5 million people who unwittingly download an e-book planted with a malicious computer virus. ... Bangor, Maine ( - Novelist Stephen King, who expects 1.5 million people to download his e-book, The Plant, ...
Keywords: insights, challenges, developments, microbe interactions with plants, virus interactions with plants ... Keywords: insights, challenges, developments, microbe interactions with plants, virus interactions with plants ... Insights in Microbe and Virus Interactions with Plants: 2022 Insights in Microbe and Virus Interactions with Plants: 2022 ...
... plants use mechanisms such as antiviral RNA silencing that viruses fight against using silencing-repressors. Plants could also ... However, some viruses have acquired the capacity to escape these defense barriers. In their combats, ... of such resistance mechanisms will probably helps to propose new means to enhance plant resistance against viruses. ... Another successful mechanism of resistance is the hypersensitive response, where plants engineer R genes that recognize ...
An email virus planted by hackers have been found in the computer systems of a shipping firm, some with millions of dollars ... An email virus planted by hackers have been found in the computer systems of a shipping firm, some with millions of dollars ... An email virus planted in the computer systems of a medium sized shipping firm allegedly redirected millions of dollars in ... Home Open Access News Technology News Email virus planted by hackers target shipping vessels ...
This raises the possibility that under natural conditions some viruses might enhance competitiveness of susceptible plants and ... the dissemination of susceptible plant pollen and may compensate for a decreased yield of seeds on the virus-infected plants. ... Mathematical modeling suggests that if self-fertilization by infected plants, as well as pollen transfer from these plants ( ... inhibit the emergence of resistant plant strains. We speculate that it may be in a virus interest to pay back a susceptible ...
Meat processing workers are particularly susceptible to the virus because they typically stand shoulder-to-shoulder on the line ...
For the most part, safeguards put in place after the initial wave of the virus appear to have prevented the kinds of large ... But industry and union officials say workers live in communities where the virus is surging, making it difficult to stop ...
Virus hits Genzyme plant - Virus Infected Hamster Ovary Cells This is a little different as we all read about computer viruses ... Home » Medically Related » Pharma/FDA News » Virus hits Genzyme plant - Virus Infected Hamster Ovary Cells ... The plant had issues back in 2008 with a warning letter from the FDA. The plant makes drugs that treat enzyme deficiencies, so ... Virus hits Genzyme plant, halting production of orphan drugs: Scientific American Blog ...
North Carolina health officials scrapped a plan to identify meatpacking plants with outbreaks of COVID-19 after some county ... However, a June investigation by ProPublica into meatpacking plants including the Tyson plant reported that the total cases ... has gotten dozens of calls from concerned workers since March at a single plant - the Mountaire Farms chicken plant in Siler ... At the plant, 570 workers have tested positive for the coronavirus.(Jacob Biba , Jacob Biba for Carolina Public Press Public ...
The virus quickly spread throughout the plant and more and more employees exhibit symptoms as they were forced to work in a ... Lawsuit Filed Against Processing Plant Over Lack of Virus Protections. Sara E. Teller - December 7, 2020 ... familiesfederalHastinglawsuitmeatpackingNebraskaNoahs ArkpandemicplantPPEprocessingprocessing plantprotectionssuitvirus ... The plant has made no effort to physically distance workers from one another while they are in the plant. Every day, they stand ...
The virus family Potyviridae includes more than 30 percent of known plant virus species, most of which are of great ... Scientists Discover Hidden Gene in Major Plant Virus Family. May 30, 2008 ... agricultural significance such as the potato virus Y, turnip mosaic virus and wheat streak mosaic virus. Scientists from the ... have discovered a tiny gene present in all members of this virus family. Without this gene, the viruses are harmless. ...
Cajal bodies and the nucleolus are required for a plant virus systemic infection. Title. Cajal bodies and the nucleolus are ... Printed from /publications/cajal-bodies-and-nucleolus-are-required-plant-virus-systemic-infection on 02/12/22 11:09:52 PM ...
Effects of the virus satellite gene βC1 on host plant defense signaling and volatile emission. In: Plant Signaling and Behavior ... Effects of the virus satellite gene βC1 on host plant defense signaling and volatile emission. Plant Signaling and Behavior. ... Effects of the virus satellite gene βC1 on host plant defense signaling and volatile emission. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 8( ... Effects of the virus satellite gene βC1 on host plant defense signaling and volatile emission, Plant Signaling and Behavior, ...
... was detected between cells of the 3a protein transgenic plants, but not in the control plants. These results are consistent ... is the putative movement protein of viral progeny in infected plants. An analysis of transgenic tobacco plants constitutively ... in the cell-to-cell spread of the virus. ... encoded by RNA 3 of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), ... Martelli G. P., Russo M. 1985; Virus-host relationships. Symptomatological and ultrastructural aspects. In The Plant Viruses 1 ...
... plant diseases and disorders, plant viruses, squashes, tomatoes, viruses, Southeastern United States. Abstract:. Mixed virus ... Virus-virus interactions in a plant host and in a hemipteran vector: Implications for vector fitness and virus epidemics. ... Taken together, these results indicate that mixed infection of viruses in host plants and acquisition of multiple viruses by ... Vector acquisition of multiple viruses from multiple host plants could also differentially affect vector fitness and virus ...
VIRUSES AND VIROIDS OF STONE FRUITS IN ALGERIA ... of Plant Pathology. Formerly Rivista di patologia vegetale ...
Some plant virus studies are using thousands of individual plants so that each sequence can be traced back to its precise host ... The finding of so many new plant viruses that do not cause any obvious symptoms in wild plant hosts certainly changes our ... For plant viruses, these studies are still relatively new, but are already indicating that our current knowledge grossly ... 2012) Plant virus metagenomics: Biodiversity and ecology. Annual Review of Genetics, 46 (1). pp. 359-369. ...
Distribution and Movement of Viruses in Plant. Distribution and Movement of Viruses in Plant Distribution and Movement of ... Viruses in Plant 1. After introduction into cell, virus moves towards site of
Lily symptomless virus (LSV) is a major virus that decreases plant growth vigor and the quality of cut flowers, yet infected ... effectively eliminated the virus and induced a fast and efficient micropropagation technique for virus-free mother plant stock. ... Line 499 produced LSV-free plants without heat treatment, but line 599 produced LSV-free plants only after heat treatment. ... The virus-free lily bulblets grew vigorously in vitro and acclimatized promptly. It is suggested that thermotherapy given to in ...
... to test workers at the Perdue plant there and the Amick processing plant in Hurlock, Maryland, Hogan said. Maryland now has 262 ... site would be opened at Perdue Stadium on the states Eastern Shore in response to outbreaks at poultry processing plants. The ... lab-confirmed virus cases associated with poultry workers, Hogan said. ... to test workers at the Perdue plant there and the Amick processing plant in Hurlock, Maryland, Hogan said. Maryland now has 262 ...
Previous post Plants can Gamble - Risk Sensitivity in Pea Plants Next post Plant Behavior ... Plant Sense Electric Fields via TPC1 - Potential Impacts for Better Understanding of Ebola Virus. August 21, 2016. Resources ... ...
Transient plant-based expression systems are a rapid and highly scalable means of producing such African horse sickness virus ( ... in Nicotiana benthamiana dXT/FT plants. Plant produced chimeric AHSV-6 VLPs were found to be safe for administration into 6 ... Following optimisation of a large scale VLP purification procedure, the safety and immunogenicity of the plant-produced, triple ... alternate safe and effective vaccination strategies such as virus-like particles (VLPs) are being investigated. ...
Gramene 2018: unifying comparative genomics and pathway resources for plant research. * xenoGI: reconstructing the history of ... Gramene 2018: unifying comparative genomics and pathway resources for plant research. * xenoGI: reconstructing the history of ... SyMAP - Synteny browser for plant genomes, including Medicago and Soybean. Comparison of Brachypodium with rice and sorghum ( ... SyMAP - Synteny browser for plant genomes, including Medicago and Soybean , Wishful Blog by Wishfulthemes ...
... including nine new viruses, thirteen viruses new for Germany. In addition to plant viruses, virus associated nucleic acids were ... Currently used plant virus diagnostics methods are described with a focus on HTS for virus detection using different enrichment ... Plant virus identification and virus-vector-host interactions. by Yahya Zakaria Abdou Gaafar ... Keywords: Plant virus identification; High-throughput sequencing; Nanovirus; Virus-aphid interactions; Electrical penetration ...
... Plant Protect. Sci., 53: 25-31.. download PDF. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) originates from Asia where it is ... 2013): Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the ... Jones D.R. (2003): Plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109: 195-219. ...
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  • A bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria. (
  • What is a key way for these scientists to distinguish viruses from bacteria? (
  • Viruses have ribosomes, bacteria do not. (
  • Bacteria have true membrane bound organelles, viruses do not. (
  • Wastewater treatment plant processes are designed to inactivate or remove human disease-causing organisms (pathogens), including bacteria, viruses, protozoa (such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium), and helminthes (parasitic worms). (
  • Mycorrhizal fungi, nitrogen free living bacteria, and phosphate solubilizing bacteria are important microbial groups that have been recognized as plant growth promoting microorganisms. (
  • Viruses, bacteria and plant names will be added from other Clarivate databases such as BIOSIS Previews ® . (
  • There are three branches of life according to the Woese model - bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes (which include us, plants, fungi, and so on). (
  • This is the main difference between a virus and a bacteria, as a virus can replicate in either one or both of these environments. (
  • Every cell of every plant contains enzymes that dissolve fungus, bacteria, and viruses. (
  • Collectively, viruses from 85 different families were reliably detected in these studies, including capsidless RNA viruses that replicate in fungi , oomycetes , and plants . (
  • Thyme ( Thymus vulgaris ) Oil is well known to be highly effective for control of plant pathogenic bacterium, fungi and viruses, as well as sucking insects. (
  • Antimicrobial resistance has also emerged in viruses, fungi, and parasites. (
  • This two-dose COVID-19 vaccine is the first plant-based vaccine authorized for use in humans, according to this study from June 2022 in The New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • The exact plant they use is called Nicotiana Benthmiana, a close relative of tobacco, according to a June 2022 study in The New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • Medicago's vaccine method is different-it starts by introducing the genetic code for making the spike protein into plants, not humans, according to the June 2022 study in The New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • All of these spike proteins then start clumping together to form molecules that look like viruses, according to the same June 2022 study. (
  • The spike protein portion of the Coronavirus genome is introduced into the plant so that the plant's cellular machinery can synthesize multiple spike proteins, according to an article from February 2022 in Cellular and Molecular Immunology . (
  • According to a 2022 review , experts associate a diet involving healthy, plant-based foods with a lower risk and severity of COVID-19. (
  • A person has tested positive for avian influenza A(H5) virus (H5 bird flu) in the U.S., as confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and reported by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment on April 28, 2022. (
  • During January 13, 2022, through April 27, 2022, USDA APHIS reported more than 899 detections of wild birds infected with HPAI A(H5N1) virus in 33 states [1]. (
  • On February 9, 2022, USDA APHIS confirmed the first outbreak of HPAI A(H5N1) virus in a commercial turkey flock in Indiana [2]. (
  • On April 20, 2022, an adult in Colorado developed fatigue following exposure to presumptive H5N1 virus-infected poultry while participating in poultry depopulation activities during April 18-22, 2022. (
  • The specimen was forwarded to the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for further testing, was received at CDC on April 27, 2022, and confirmed as influenza A(H5) virus using RT-PCR the same day. (
  • A second respiratory specimen from the same patient was collected on April 26, 2022, and tested negative for influenza viruses on April 27, 2022, by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Laboratory Services. (
  • Specimens from close contacts of the A(H5)-positive individual and persons who participated in depopulation activities at the same facility were collected on April 20, 2022, and tested negative for influenza viruses. (
  • CDC has been monitoring for illness among people exposed to H5N1 virus-infected birds since these outbreaks were detected in U.S. wild birds and poultry in late 2021 and into 2022. (
  • Virus Infection of Plants Alters Pollinator Preference: A Payback for Susceptible Hosts? (
  • Within a month of Martinez going to work at the Mountaire plant, at least 153 workers had tested positive for infection, emails from DHHS officials show. (
  • Previous studies indicate that the virus satellite gene βC1 accounts for the visible symptoms of infection and inhibits the constitutive expression of jasmonic acid (JA)-a phytohormone involved in plant defense against whiteflies-and of some JA-regulated genes. (
  • Mixed virus infection in host plants can differentially alter the plant phenotype, influence vector fitness, and affect virus acquisition and inoculation by vectors than single-virus infection. (
  • For the first facet, this study examined the effects of single and mixed infection of cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV, a begomovirus) and cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, a crinivirus) infecting squash on whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius MEAM1) host preference and fitness. (
  • Mixed infection of CuLCrV and CYSDV in squash plants severely altered their phenotype than single infection. (
  • Taken together, these results indicate that mixed infection of viruses in host plants and acquisition of multiple viruses by the vector could have implications for virus accumulation, virus acquisition, vector preference, and epidemics that sometimes are different from single-virus infection or acquisition. (
  • The protective effect of these RNA molecules was tested on tissue-cultured orchids during the potting stage, which is the stage where the orchids are most vulnerable to virus infection. (
  • Several studies have investigated wastewater treatment plant workers for evidence of infection or prevalence of antibodies (antibodies are proteins that are produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances). (
  • This modified strain protects greenhouse cucumbers against aggressive forms of the virus through cross-protection, which is a plant defense mechanism against viral infection. (
  • Delta antigen was subsequently determined to be an RNA virus covered by HBV surface antigens, [ 2 ] a distinct hepatotrophic virus occurring in patients in conjunction with HBV infection. (
  • As a defective RNA virus requiring concurrent HBV infection to provide its virion coat of HBV envelope proteins, HDV infection will occur either as simultaneous coinfection with both viruses or as superinfection of a hepatitis B carrier from a person carrying both HBV and HDV. (
  • If the variegation is caused by something other than a virus infection or other malady, variegated plants are valued in the landscape for their unique appearance and eye-catching colors. (
  • Recently, news stories on an experimental drug for Ebola virus infection ( Zmapp ™*) described it as a "serum," a term that is rarely used today. (
  • For example, the authors of a recent article suggested that tolerance-based treatment of HIV infection -focused on increasing the infected patient's ability to remain well despite high HIV load (host tolerance) rather than reducing viral load (host resistance)-could be "evolution-proof," although evolution of the virus toward greater virulence remains a possibility. (
  • Treatment of Ebola virus infection with a recombinant inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor: a study in rhesus monkeys. (
  • The purpose of this HAN Health Advisory is to notify public health workers, clinicians, and the public of the potential for human infection with this virus and to describe the CDC's recommendations for patient investigation and testing, infection control including the use of personal protective equipment, and antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. (
  • Whether the detection of H5 virus in the original respiratory specimen is a result of transient surface contamination of the individual's nasal passages or represents infection, cannot be determined at this point. (
  • Because avian influenza A viruses have the potential to change and gain the ability to spread easily among people, monitoring for human infection and person-to-person transmission is extremely important for public health. (
  • Other people involved in the culling operation in Colorado have tested negative for H5 virus infection, but they are being retested out of an abundance of caution. (
  • People with close or lengthy unprotected contact (not wearing respiratory or eye protection) with infected birds or places that sick birds or their mucous, saliva, or feces have touched, may be at greater risk of H5N1 virus infection. (
  • Illnesses in people from bird flu virus infections have ranged from mild (e.g., eye infection, upper respiratory symptoms) to severe illness (e.g., pneumonia) that can result in death. (
  • The 3a protein, encoded by RNA 3 of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), is the putative movement protein of viral progeny in infected plants. (
  • Viral metagenomics is the study of viruses in environmental samples, using next generation sequencing that produces very large data sets. (
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered a safe and effective alternative to live attenuated vaccines for many viral diseases [ 25 ]. (
  • Different viral enrichment approaches were tested to optimise a tool that would detect a broad range of different viruses and that can be used as a generic, reliable and cost-effective strategy for virus diagnostics. (
  • Furthermore, three viral enrichment approaches for plant viruses and viroids detection by HTS were compared. (
  • Chapter 4 describes the comparison of three different viral enrichment approaches for virus discovery by HTS. (
  • However, its success relies on the ability of viral vectors to infect the plant species of interest. (
  • Tamiflu blocks the viral surface protein so that viruses that have already reproduced in the host cell cannot spread. (
  • Over the last decade, viral metagenomic studies have resulted in the discovery of thousands of previously unknown viruses . (
  • Adenoviruses are not the only viral vectors that can be used: pharmaceutical giant Merck says it is working on a potential COVID vaccine using an engineered vesicular stomatis virus , previously used successfully in its Ebola vaccine. (
  • An online presentation by Professor John P. Carr entitled 'Viral manipulation of plant-vector interactions' is now available to watch on the CONNECTED Vimeo channel. (
  • Aphid-borne Viral Spread Is Enhanced by Virus-induced Accumulation of Plant Reactive Oxygen Species[J]. Plant Physiology,2019,179:143-155. (
  • The best 28 candidates were then placed in Petri dishes on cell cultures infected with respiratory pathogens, including drug-resistant strains of influenza virus. (
  • These substances inhibit two pathogens responsible for lung infections: influenza viruses and pneumococci ( Streptococcus pneumoniae ). (
  • Although they are pathogens, viruses should not be considered pathogenic microorganisms since they are not alive. (
  • 7 There have been no other published reports of infections of wastewater treatment plant workers with bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or HIV, or other enveloped viruses such as Ebola or influenza. (
  • With plant pathogens, it attacks and breaches their cellular membranes, causing their death. (
  • The company offers a comprehensive portfolio of validated, easy-to-use diagnostics for identifying plant pathogens, plant hormones and transgenic traits. (
  • Although they are pathogens, viruses should not the entity insect, which comprises several different life be considered pathogenic microorganisms since they are stages, with a single one of these stages, such as pupa, not alive. (
  • Development of plant promoter expression vectors and their use for analysis of differential activity of nopaline synthase promoter in transformed tobacco cells. (
  • Moreover, the interactions of aphid vectors of nanoviruses with infected plants were investigated and the effect of NSP on aphid feeding behaviour were closely observed. (
  • The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is a cryptic species complex containing some important agricultural pests and virus vectors. (
  • Prof. Carr focuses on a series of examples of lab work, mostly using cucumber mosaic virus as a model, investigating how some viruses appear to be able to modify the biochemistry and defence status of the host plant in ways that alter interactions between host plants and insect vectors, and how these changes might accelerate virus transmission. (
  • Weeds are notorious for harboring important plant viruses and their insect vectors. (
  • The virus family Potyviridae includes more than 30 percent of known plant virus species, most of which are of great agricultural significance such as the potato virus Y, turnip mosaic virus and wheat streak mosaic virus. (
  • Following optimisation of a large scale VLP purification procedure, the safety and immunogenicity of the plant-produced, triple chimeric AHSV-6 VLPs was confirmed in horses, the target species. (
  • Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) originates from Asia where it is persistently transmitted by indigenous cryptic species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci . (
  • The virus has recently invaded Spain, Tunisia, and Italy, and to investigate whether whitefly species new to the Mediterranean are involved, 35 populations were collected during 2015 from different crops in different regions of southern Spain. (
  • 2013): Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory. (
  • One year later a second species of the genus Torradovirus was identified in tomato crops in Mexico and named Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV) (marchitez means withered)Very recently a third torradovirus species was identified from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. (
  • This new virus, for which the name tomato chocolàte virus is proposed is now the third virus species for the new genus torradovirus, all of which infect tomato. (
  • A species of whitefly that transmits cassava mosaic virus has been detected in South Africa for the first time. (
  • Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an appealing reverse-genetic strategy that allows gene functional analysis in species not amenable to stable genetic transformation. (
  • Symptoms of the disease vary greatly depending on the species of plant infected, the season and local conditions. (
  • A clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, virion, and virus species. (
  • In 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) decided that the category of virus species should be used in virus classification together with the categories of genus and family. (
  • We also discuss recent proposals to introduce a nonlatinized binomial nomenclature for virus species. (
  • Virus classification places the viruses in a series of classes or taxonomic categories with a hierarchical structure, the ranks being the species, genus, family, and order. (
  • In a recent test of Asian tiger mosquitoes collected in Brazil, researchers found fragments of Zika virus RNA, raising concerns that it may be carried by species other than Zika's known primary vector, the yellow fever mosquito. (
  • In addition to this market expansion, Agdia considers pursuing new markets, such as plant species identification at seed and seedling stages of development. (
  • A Viruses versus Virus Particles or Virions clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, A virus is a general term which denotes any number of virion, and virus species. (
  • 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (for instance, its host, vector, and infectivity) that arise by (ICTV) decided that the category of virus species should be virtue of a relation with other objects. (
  • One stage in this cycle is the virus particle or viri- discuss recent proposals to introduce a nonlatinized bino- mial nomenclature for virus species. (
  • There are over 7,000 species of viruses in the world, with many more emerging every year. (
  • Soil, oceans, and skies are filled with potential sources of the new species of viruses. (
  • Some scientists argue that there must be a virus or bacterium that cause infectious diseases, and claim that there is likely a heretofore undiscovered microbe causing neurodegeneration that most scientists claim are caused by PrPRes. (
  • Plum pox virus (also known as sharka or Potyvirus ) is one of the most destructive diseases of stone fruits in the world. (
  • One survival strategy of plants and other organisms is to use their own metabolic products to ward off pests, predators and diseases. (
  • by download Seed borne plant virus diseases 2013 is a last journal. (
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  • Diagnosis and Epidemiology of plant viruses and other diseases. (
  • The plant and its policies of putting profits above its employees' health has been deemed a public nuisance by those bringing the lawsuit because the" transmission of COVID-19 within and outside the plant would cause widespread disease, hospitalizations, and death, not only among Noah's Ark workers, but also their family members and members of the public with whom they interact. (
  • This virus causes a severe disease in tomato, inducing heavy necrosis in leaves and fruits. (
  • Infected plant material is the most likely way that the disease would enter Australia. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Protection induced in chick embryos against Ranikhet disease virus by some plant extracts or their fractions. (
  • Therefore, we at the Integrated Plant Protection Unit aim to generate knowledge towards the development of sustainable pest and disease management solutions based on conceptual theory and empirical eco-evolutionary, molecular and genetic data that can meet the needs of current and evolving plant production systems. (
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) was identified in the 1970s in the hepatocyte nuclei of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) disease. (
  • The variegated appearance makes insects thing the plant is already suffering from a pest infestation or some disease so the insects leave the plant alone. (
  • Development of Plant-Based Vaccines for Prevention of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease in Poultry. (
  • Anyone with an interest in plant virus vector-borne disease can be a network member. (
  • While there are many viruses that cause disease, the most common types are human and animal infections. (
  • Ebola virus disease - Democratic Republic of the Congo. (
  • A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Ebola Virus Disease Therapeutics. (
  • The current COVID-19 pandemic and the Ebola virus disease are just two of the major shocks that Liberia's health system has experienced. (
  • Avian influenza viruses can be classified as either "low pathogenic" avian influenza viruses or "highly pathogenic" avian influenza viruses (HPAI), based on molecular characteristics and the ability of the virus to cause disease in birds. (
  • The magnitude of the epidemic of ebola virus disease has prompted global interest and urgency in the discovery of measures to mitigate the impact of the disease. (
  • Google and other databases to select about 150 publications on ebola and ebola virus disease using text word searches to generate the specific terms. (
  • CORRECTS SPELLING TO PERDUE, NOT PURDUE In this photo taken with a drone, local hospital officials have reported a spike in COVID-19 cases at the Perdue poultry processing plant on the Eastern Shore Wednesday April 29, 2020, in Accomac, Va. Coronavirus cases among workers at poultry plants on Virginia's Eastern Shore have become an increasing concern for local health officials. (
  • We summarize herein the results of 24 VANA-based studies, focusing on plant and insect samples conducted over the last decade (2010 to 2020). (
  • When the aphid immune's system is turned down, it allows an aphid virus called a densovirus to infect the insect at very high levels. (
  • Routine screening of bees for frequent and rare viruses turned up the tobacco ringspot virus, or TRSV, prompting the researchers to investigate whether the plant pathogen could infect bees, the society said in an online statement . (
  • The virus poses no threat to humans but can infect a large number of plants in the Prunus family. (
  • In fact, a team of researchers at California's Scripps Research Institute have engineered a deadly new bird flu strain that can infect humans on the pretense of learning what such a virus could do in order to prepare for it. (
  • The risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in U.S. birds and poultry is believed to be low at this time because these viruses do not normally infect humans easily, and even if a person is infected, the viruses do not spread easily to other people. (
  • Evolution has equipped plants with defense mechanisms to counterattack virus infections. (
  • But industry and union officials say workers live in communities where the virus is surging, making it difficult to stop infections inside the factories. (
  • Virus infections may also cause patterns on a plant's foliage that looks like variegation. (
  • the spread of the omicron variant boosted COVID-19 infections, raising fears that FDA inspectors as well as local plant personnel could be exposed to the virus from such interactions. (
  • Johnson E, Jaax N, White J, Jahrling P. Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus. (
  • Ancestors of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses first emerged in southern China and led to large poultry outbreaks in Hong Kong in 1997, which resulted in 18 human infections. (
  • These poultry outbreaks were controlled, but HPAI A(H5N1) viruses were not eradicated in birds, and the virus reassorted and reemerged in 2003 to spread widely in birds throughout Asia, and later in Africa, Europe, and the Middle East, causing sporadic human infections. (
  • Since that time, additional infections in birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N2, H5N8 viruses and with a newly identified H5N1 virus have been reported in the western states of California, Idaho, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Nevada. (
  • No human infections with these viruses have been reported to date. (
  • In general human infections with avian influenza viruses are rare and most often occur after people are in direct or close contact with an infected bird. (
  • Illnesses in humans from avian influenza virus infections have ranged in severity from mild to severe. (
  • While no human infections with these HPAI H5N8, H5N2, or this new H5N1 virus have been reported worldwide, similar viruses (like Asian-origin H5N1, for example) have infected people in the past. (
  • The H5N1 virus recently isolated from a U.S. wild bird is a new mixed-origin virus (a reassortant) that is genetically different from the Asian-origin avian H5N1 viruses that have caused human infections with high mortality. (
  • More than 880 human infections with earlier H5N1 viruses have been reported since 2003 worldwide, however, the predominant H5N1 viruses now circulating among birds globally are different from earlier H5N1 viruses. (
  • however, human infections can happen when enough virus gets into a person's eyes, nose, or mouth, or is inhaled. (
  • Signals that could raise the public health risk might include multiple reports of H5N1 virus infections in people from exposure to birds, or identification of spread from one infected person to a close contact. (
  • careful consideration of all available plant protection methods and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of populations of harmful organisms and keep the use of plant protection products and other forms of intervention to levels that are economically and ecologically justified and reduce or minimise risks to human health and the environment. (
  • The largest of these organisms, known as giant viruses, seemed to blur the line between being alive and not. (
  • In 2021, the plant-based food market value rose to an all-time high of more than $7 billion, growing by more than 50% in three years. (
  • The first case internationally occurred in December 2021 in the United Kingdom in a person who did not have any symptoms and who raised birds that became infected with H5N1 virus. (
  • Occident de la download Seed borne plant virus complex observations, ' Smithsonian, March 12, 2017. (
  • Face à une létalité reconnue être élevée pour cette dernière, cette étude s'est focalisée sur les épidémies survenues à Mweka (2007 et 2008), à Isiro (2012), à Boende (2014) et à Likati (2017) afin de décrire les différents éléments de réponse mis en place lors de chacune de ces épidémies et identifier ceux qui ont une influence significative sur l'ampleur de l'épidémie. (
  • Due to safety concerns with the current live, attenuated AHS vaccine, alternate safe and effective vaccination strategies such as virus-like particles (VLPs) are being investigated. (
  • The virus has spherical particles of approximately 28 nm in diameter which are composed of three coat proteins and harbour two ssRNA's of approximately 8 and 5 kb. (
  • The virus has spherical particles of approximately 28 nm in diameter which are composed of three coat proteins and harbour two ssRNA{\textquoteright}s of approximately 8 and 5 kb. (
  • In addition, viruses (including Ebola) will associate with particles and organic material in patient waste and be protected from disinfectant, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of the disinfectant. (
  • These molecules, called virus-like particles (VLPs), form in the leaves of the plant and are the antigen in Medicago's vaccine. (
  • This virus is characterized by flexuous particles containing a 10 kb positive-sense RNA. (
  • An N- proximal sequence of the alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein is necessary for association with cell walls in transgenic plants. (
  • A non-structural protein of alfalfa mosaic virus in the walls of infected tobacco cells. (
  • In Chapter 2, the discovery and characterisation of two new viruses i.e., alfalfa associated nucleorhabdovirus from Medicago sativa (Austria) and caraway yellows virus from Carum carvi (Germany)are described. (
  • Mutational analysis of cis - acting sequences and gene function in RNA 3 of cucumber mosaic virus. (
  • these include pea early browning virus (PEBV), bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), a pseudorecombinant strain of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and apple latent spherical virus (ALSV). (
  • For the most part, safeguards put in place after the initial wave of the virus appear to have prevented the kinds of large outbreaks that sickened hundreds of workers and forced automakers, meat processors and other businesses to halt production last spring. (
  • ANNAPOLIS, Md. (AP) - Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan announced Wednesday that a coronavirus testing site would be opened at Perdue Stadium on the state's Eastern Shore in response to outbreaks at poultry processing plants. (
  • The magnitude of this outbreak, coupled with its association with water obtained from a municipal water plant that was operating within existing state and federal regulations, emphasized the need for a) improved surveillance by public health agencies to detect and prevent such outbreaks and b) coordination among interested groups and agencies to respond appropriately to such outbreaks. (
  • Visualization and characterization of tobacco mosaic virus movement protein binding to single-stranded nucleic acids. (
  • Molecular characterization and biological function of the movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic plants. (
  • Cell-to-cell trafficking of macromolecules through plasmodesmata potentiated by the red clover necrotic mosaic virus movement protein. (
  • Pea enation mosaic virus 1 and 2, TuYV, and PNYDV were the most common viruses in the German pea fields. (
  • Orchids are economically important flowers that are vulnerable to cymbidium mosaic virus (CYMMV). (
  • Cite this: D Is for Delta: A Primer on Hepatitis D Virus - Medscape - Jul 02, 2013. (
  • Analysis of the full length sequence revealed that the virus could not be placed in any known plant virus genus. (
  • The new virus was named Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), and placed in the newly created, and recently ICTV ratified, genus Torradovirus. (
  • The genus is Pelargonium, though there is a completely different group of plants with the genus name Geranium, which are commonly called Cranesbills. (
  • These relational used in virus classification together with the categories of properties, also called emergent properties, are characteris- genus and family. (
  • The virus is the type-member of the Potyvirus genus, which the largest among the plant virus groups. (
  • 70 recognized flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae , genus Flavivirus ) are arthropod-borne, and include some of the world's most historically- and medically-important viruses including Yellow fever (YFV) and the Dengue (DENV) viruses. (
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. (
  • Transient plant-based expression systems are a rapid and highly scalable means of producing such African horse sickness virus (AHSV) VLPs for vaccine purposes. (
  • Trials found the vaccine, which is produced with the help of plants, to be 70% effective at preventing coronavirus-related illness. (
  • Although there are multiple COVID-19 vaccines on the market, a vaccine developed in collaboration with Canadian biotechnology company Medicago and pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline has one unique quality: It's plant-based. (
  • Here's what it means for a vaccine to be plant-based, how plant-based vaccines work, and the potential benefits of this new technology. (
  • What Is a Plant-based Vaccine? (
  • In fact, when it comes to immunization, "plant-based" simply means researchers recruited plants to produce part of the vaccine, Brian Ward, MD , Medical Officer at Medicago, said. (
  • How Is the Plant-based COVID-19 Vaccine Different? (
  • For example, some-like the Johnson & Johnson vaccine-use a modified virus to introduce the spike protein to our cells, according to the CDC. (
  • These will establish whether the vaccine actually protects against the virus in the real world. (
  • ustekinumab decreases effects of influenza virus vaccine quadrivalent, adjuvanted by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • adalimumab decreases effects of influenza virus vaccine quadrivalent, adjuvanted by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • altretamine decreases effects of influenza virus vaccine quadrivalent, adjuvanted by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • CDC is taking routine preparedness and prevention measures, which includes an existing candidate vaccine virus that could be used to make vaccine for people if one were needed. (
  • Cold Chain and Virus Free chloroplast-made Booster Vaccine to Confer Immunity Against Different Polio Virus Serotypes. (
  • In addition to plant viruses, virus associated nucleic acids were also detected. (
  • In 2007 a new virus was reported in tomato crops in the South-East of Spain. (
  • Do not exceed 0.25% (1 qt/100 gallons) on newly planted crops or crops with thin leaf wax such as tomatoes and cucumbers. (
  • And sanitation will be very important this year for preventing the spread Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) infecting lettuce crops. (
  • Yes, the virus remains dormant, like a latent gene waiting to be turned on and mutate its host organism. (
  • A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. (
  • A wonder-plant Artemisia Annua (sweet wormwood) can Cure Corona Virus, Malaria and Dengue Fever? (
  • Starting in January, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) detected highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus in wild birds in the United States followed by multiple detections in U.S. commercial poultry and backyard bird flocks [1,2]. (
  • An analysis of transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing the CMV 3a protein showed that the protein is accumulated in leaves at every stage of development. (
  • Movement of fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labelled dex- tran with a mean molecular mass of 10000 Da, and an approximate Stokes' radius of 2·3 nm, was detected between cells of the 3a protein transgenic plants, but not in the control plants. (
  • These results are consistent with the idea that the CMV 3 a protein is involved in the modification of plasmodesmata and, therefore, in the cell-to-cell spread of the virus. (
  • In this study, we demonstrated that transient co-expression of the four AHSV capsid proteins in agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana dXT/FT plants not only allowed for the assembly of homogenous AHSV-1 VLPs but also single, double and triple chimeric VLPs, where one capsid protein originated from one AHS serotype and at least one other capsid protein originated from another AHS serotype. (
  • Like Bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype Orbivirus [ 6 ], the subcore of AHSV is composed of 120 copies of structural protein VP3 and is covered by a layer of VP7 trimers forming the core particle. (
  • Here we describe the use of a bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based vector for silencing of endogenous genes in common bean as well as for protein expression. (
  • Quantitative real time PCR showed that the expression levels of the virus transcript in plants inoculated with both CYMMV and double stranded CYMMV coat protein RNA was significantly lower than plants inoculated with virus alone and was comparable to that of the non-infected plants. (
  • The successful production of this multiple-subunit protein demonstrated that plants are the optimal system for the production of recombinant proteins of various sizes and complexity, which can be employed for various applications including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines to combat current and future pandemics. (
  • One stage in this cycle is the virus particle or virion, which is characterized by intrinsic properties such as size, mass, chemical composition, nucleotide sequence of the genome, and amino acid sequence of protein subunits, among others. (
  • [ 6 ] HDAg is the only protein expressed by the virus. (
  • A virus consists of genetic material and a protein coat. (
  • Since 2010, Agdia has been developing plant pathogen detection assays on the AmplifyRP ® platform. (
  • We believe our experiences and successes in development of isothermal plant pathogen assays will provide a seamless path for detection of plant genes. (
  • Agdia has been a leading provider of plant pathogen diagnostics since 1981. (
  • Today we offer the most comprehensive and trusted portfolio of plant pathogen and GMO testing solutions around the world. (
  • To date, H5N1 viruses have been found in U.S. commercial and backyard birds in 29 states and in wild birds in 34 states. (
  • CDC has tracked the health of more than 2,500 people with exposures to H5N1 virus-infected birds and this is the only case that has been found to date. (
  • Infected birds shed H5N1 viruses in their saliva, mucous and feces. (
  • The only previous human case associated with this group of H5N1 viruses produced in no symptoms. (
  • Spread of earlier H5N1 viruses from one infected person to a close contact in the past have happened very rarely and have not led to sustained person-to-person spread. (
  • Local, state and federal health partners are working together to prevent spread of this H5N1 virus among birds and people. (
  • CDC also is monitoring H5N1 viruses for genetic changes that have been associated with adaptation to mammals, which could indicate the virus is adapting to spread more readily from birds to people. (
  • Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China virus spreads together with its invasive vector, the silverleaf whitefly B biotype, which exhibits higher growth rates on infected plants. (
  • For the second facet, this study evaluated the effects of individual or combined acquisition of tomato-infecting tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, a begomovirus) and squash-infecting CuLCrV on whitefly host preference and fitness. (
  • Viruliferous (CuLCrV and/or TYLCV) whiteflies preferred to settle on non-infected tomato and squash plants. (
  • Southern tomato virus from S. lycopersicum from Germany (new MinION approach was described) 4. (
  • Juárez M., Tovar R., Fiallo-Olivé E., Aranda M. A., Gosálvez B., Castillo P., Moriones E., Navas-Castillo J. (2014): First Detection of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus Infecting Zucchini in Spain. (
  • HDV is an RNA virus circulating as a spherical particle with an RNA core and a capsid of small, medium, and large HBV envelope proteins (surface antigen). (
  • Another successful mechanism of resistance is the hypersensitive response, where plants engineer R genes that recognize specifically their assailants. (
  • A simple and general method for transferring genes into plants. (
  • Agdia, Inc. (Elkhart, IN) has announced an expanded field of use for their AmplifyRP ® isothermal amplification technology that now allows detection of genetically modified traits and native plant genes. (
  • Viruses belong to Confusion sometimes arises when a virion is called the biology because they possess genes, replicate, evolve, and virus, as, for instance, when one refers to "the picture of are adapted to particular hosts, biotic habitats, and ecolog- the virus" or to the process of "purifying the virus. (
  • This finding strongly supports a scenario in which giant viruses emerged from much smaller viruses after acquisition of many genes from diverse cellular hosts, potentially over long time periods. (
  • Virologists that work on detecting new animal and human viruses have successfully extracted two 700-year-old viruses from frozen remains of caribou faeces in the north of Canada. (
  • The availability of this vector is an important advance for the common bean research community not only because it provides a rapid means for functional studies in common bean, but also because it does so without generating genetically modified plants. (
  • The expanded utility of AmplifyRP ® allows Agdia to increase their product offerings for the testing of genetically modified plants and plant products. (
  • Plant virus movement proteins. (
  • Plants can produce a large quantity of recombinant proteins rapidly and economically. (
  • This code acts like an instruction manual: the plant cells read it and then use the information to start pumping out spike proteins in surplus, Dr. Ward said. (
  • One of these giant viruses (part of the Mimiviridae family) was able to produce enzymes that had the ability to interact with 19 amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. (
  • However, how the plant is specifically manipulated by CMV or how CMV proteins interact with each other is of more specialist interest to people working on cucumoviruses. (
  • Viruses are extremely small and only contain enough genetic material to code for essential proteins required for replication within the host cell. (
  • Since viruses, like other biological entities, are concrete objects located in time and space, their classification is a purely conceptual construction, based on the use of abstract categories that have no spatiotemporal localization ( 1 ) . (
  • ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis in many developing countries. (
  • A virus becomes part of a living purely conceptual construction, based on the use of system only after it has infected a host cell and its genome abstract categories that have no spatiotemporal localiza- becomes integrated with that of the cell. (
  • These individuals are being monitored for symptoms and additional respiratory specimens are being obtained and re-tested for influenza viruses. (
  • Migratory waterfowl and shore birds may carry avian influenza viruses that do not usually make them sick. (
  • Part one focuses on the plant virus identification and describes the discovery and characterisation of new viruses, divergent strains and isolates from new virus hosts or geographical locations. (
  • River, Barmah Forest and Rift Valley fever suburbs of Townsville and in all four viruses(3,4) and multiple isolates during the localities from February to August 1990. (
  • The closest relatives of this virus are Far-Eastern TBEV isolates. (
  • Beet soil borne virus and beet cryptic virus 2 from Beta vulgaris subsp. (
  • A 3 inch layer of mulch will help to maintain soil moisture and studies have shown that mulched plants grow faster than non-mulched plants. (
  • Supplement the existing soil with organic fertilizer before planting and use a liquid fertilizer every couple of weeks. (
  • In 160 cases, they were able to establish an unequivocal connection between the reported healing effect and a given plant, fungus, lichen or moss and collect the biological material. (
  • 2007. Delivery of macromolecules to plant parasitic nematodes using a tobacco rattle virus vector . (
  • Viruses parasitic on plants. (
  • We briefly describe the changes in virus classification that were introduced in that report. (
  • We briefly describe the changes in virus instance, as a replicating nucleic acid in the host cell or classification that were introduced in that report. (
  • Since viruses, like other biological entities, are concrete stituents of cells, such as organelles or macromolecules, objects located in time and space, their classification is a can be said to be alive. (
  • Virus classification places the viruses in a series cated only through the metabolic activities of infected of classes or taxonomic categories with a hierarchical cells, and they occupy a unique position in biology. (
  • It also covers the virus-vector-host interactions with focus on the model system nanoviruses-aphid-host used in this research. (
  • Prof. Carr's research interests at the University of Cambridge's Department of Plant Sciences include plant-virus-insect interactions, and natural and engineered resistance to plant viruses. (
  • European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109: 195-219. (
  • Plant Pathology Professor Dr. Cyril Broderick has stated his belief that the Ebola virus was manufactured and then released intentionally in Africa as a weaponized virus. (
  • On the first day of April, when confirmed cases of COVID-19 had barely broken 1,500 in North Carolina, Marisela Martínez started a housekeeping job through a subcontractor at the Mountaire Farms poultry plant in Siler City. (
  • Both health directors oversaw counties where case counts had rapidly increased inside poultry plants. (
  • Maryland now has 262 lab-confirmed virus cases associated with poultry workers, Hogan said. (
  • Poultry industry plants in southern Delaware have refused to say how many employees have been infected, but Sussex County has the highest number of COVID-19 cases in the state. (
  • Coronavirus cases among workers at poultry plants on Virginia's Eastern Shore also have become an increasing concern for local health officials. (
  • Detection of A(H5) virus in one person who was involved in culling of poultry does not change the human health risk assessment, which remains low for the general public. (
  • The U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are the lead federal departments for avian influenza outbreak investigation and control in wild birds, and USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service is the lead agency for such activities in domestic birds such as poultry. (
  • Michelle Heck , an ARS research molecular biologist, was leading research into poleroviruses, a type of plant virus spread by aphids, when she and Cornell University graduate students Jenny Wilson and Patricia Pinheiro made the surprising discovery. (
  • Aphids are resistant to many commonly used insecticides, so chemical treatment is not effective in killing them and blocking the spread of viruses," Heck said. (
  • By the time a farmer notices aphids in the field, it is too late to block the spread of these viruses by aphids. (
  • Plum pox virus is spread by grafting diseased stock onto other trees, and then between trees by aphids that suck sap. (
  • Treat all plants surfaces, upper and lower, thoroughly - and check for aphids hiding in curled, distorted leaves. (
  • Image Credit: Comstock/Comstock/Getty Images These plants technically grow as frost-tender perennials in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 through 11, … Spray all over the plant, and target aphid colonies to get rid of aphids permanently. (
  • Aphids can also transmit viruses between plants. (
  • Aphids are a garden and houseplant pest that will produce extensive damage to plants if left uncontrolled. (
  • Aphids can attack a million bells plant by sucking the sap of the… Aphids. (
  • Q. Does the volatiles interfere and confuse the settling of aphids in the assay- plants are quite closely placed? (
  • Q. Do you think the result of your study is also applicable to other viruses vectored by aphids? (
  • There is no cure or treatment for the virus and all infected trees in an area must be destroyed. (
  • Trees reach full bearing five to six years after planting. (
  • In what may be a first for science, researchers with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have found an example of plant and insect viruses working together to increase their spread. (
  • A virus that typically infects plants was found in honey bees and could help explain their decline, researchers in the U.S. and China wrote in a study in the American Society of Microbiology's online journal mBio . (
  • Alterations in the sequence of the pipo gene, while leaving the polyprotein amino acid sequence unaltered, were found to be lethal for the viruses. (
  • We found that JA induction in response to wounding was reduced in plants expressing βC1. (
  • No differences in CuLCrV load were found between singly- and mixed-infected squash plants, and acquisition of CuLCrV by whiteflies did not vary between singly- and mixed-infected squash plants. (
  • Plant produced chimeric AHSV-6 VLPs were found to be safe for administration into 6 month old foals as well as capable of eliciting a weak neutralizing humoral immune response in these target animals against homologous AHSV virus. (
  • A few studies evaluated the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, parainfluenza virus, and hepatitis C. Studies found a significantly higher prevalence of anti-hepatitis B virus antibodies in wastewater treatment plant workers, but other risk factors were not taken into account, such as sexual behavior, injection drug use, or possible exposure in the healthcare environment. (
  • Harvard researchers found that plant-based diets could decrease the risk of getting a severe case of the virus. (
  • Simply swapping fatty meat and dairy products for a low-fat plant-based diet led to a significant decrease in advanced glycation end-products-inflammatory compounds found to a greater degree in animal products than plants," says lead study author Hana Kahleova, MD, Ph.D., director of clinical research at the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. (
  • In addition, the study found that a healthy, plant-based diet may particularly benefit people with higher socioeconomic deprivation. (
  • Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. (
  • Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most common and destructive viruses found in potato. (
  • Gil-Salas F.M., Morris J., Colyer A., Budge G., Boonham N., Cuadrado I.M., Janssen D. (2007): Development of real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) in the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. (
  • Here we present new details of the effects of on plant signaling and defense, obtained with (non-host) transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. (
  • Plant Signaling and Behavior , 8 (3), e23317.1-e23317.7. (
  • Currently used plant virus diagnostics methods are described with a focus on HTS for virus detection using different enrichment and platforms. (
  • Double stranded (dsRNA), ribosomal RNA depleted total RNA (ribo-depleted totRNA) and small RNA (sRNA) enrichment approaches were compared for the detection of viruses and a viroid representing different genomes i.e., ssRNA [(+ve) and (-ve) senses], DNA and a viroid. (
  • Finally, strengths and weaknesses of the VANA approach are summarized and perspectives of applications in detection , epidemiological surveillance, environmental monitoring , and ecology of plant viruses are provided. (
  • Their products are marketed as AmplifyRP ® XRT and AmplifyRP ® Acceler8 ® , and include assays for detection of Xylella fastidiosa, Clavibacter sepedonicus, Plum pox virus and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, in plant tissue. (
  • They are identical, but a virus can mutate to avoid detection. (
  • reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated it was positive for influenza A virus but negative for contemporary seasonal human H1pdm09 and H3 influenza A virus subtypes. (
  • 1 Reported case fatality rates (CFR) differ based on virus subtypes: 20-40% for the Far-Eastern subtype, 6-8% for the Siberian subtype and 1-2% for the European subtype. (
  • The virus was designed to only attack specific software and specific hardware in a specific uranium enrichment plant at Natanz, Iran. (
  • The fire at the Natanz uranium-enrichment plant fueled speculation of a possible act of sabotage as Iranian officials struggled to explain what happened. (
  • Clinical manifestations and case management of Ebola haemorrhagic fever caused by a newly identified virus strain, Bundibugyo, Uganda, 2007-2008. (
  • However, some viruses have acquired the capacity to escape these defense barriers. (
  • This result implies that βC1 acts on conserved plant regulation mechanisms and might impair the entire JA defense pathway. (
  • Variegation is a form of defense for many plants. (
  • This practice is the best defense against transmission of the COVID-19 virus. (
  • Furthermore, transformed N. benthamiana plants exhibited elevated emissions of the volatile compound linalool, suggesting that βC1 also influences plant-derived olfactory cues available to vector and non-vector insects. (
  • Read more … These tiny insects also create a favorable environment for sooty molds to coat the leaves of a plant, depriving it of sunlight. (
  • The longer a harvested crop remains above ground, more insects can build up and move to adjacent plant hosts-especially in dry and warm weather. (
  • Scientists from the Iowa State University, working with colleagues from the University College Cork in Ireland, have discovered a tiny gene present in all members of this virus family. (
  • Without this gene, the viruses are harmless. (
  • Plant Gene Silencing Humana Press Inc. (
  • In particular, the potato leafroll virus can reduce the worldwide potato yield by more than 50 percent, causing the loss of 20 million tons of crop each year. (
  • New understanding of such resistance mechanisms will probably helps to propose new means to enhance plant resistance against viruses. (
  • Details for: Plant resistance to viruses. (
  • While plant-based vaccines may sound like the latest iteration of veganism, that's not the case. (
  • Antigens are the part of viruses (and vaccines) that spur our immune systems into action, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). (
  • Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) was detected for the first time infecting Vicia faba, V. sativa and Lens culinaris in Austria and Germany, and for the first time in Denmark and the Netherlands. (
  • Plant Viruses: Exploiting Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems. (
  • Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. (
  • Viruses are replicated only through the metabolic activities of infected cells, and they occupy a unique position in biology. (
  • Functional Plant Biology. (
  • The status of viruses has been a controversial point in biology, which hits at the very core of how we define life . (
  • The common viruses are incapable of this feat of biology and they need to invade and use living cells to reproduce. (