Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Diseases of plants.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
A family of RNA plant viruses with flexuous, filamentous particles and consisting of six genera: POTYVIRUS; Ipomovirus; Macluravirus; Rymovirus; Tritimovirus; and Bymovirus. All members of the family form cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusion bodies during infection.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
A family of RNA plant viruses that infect a wide range of herbaceous and woody plant species. There are at least eight genera including POTEXVIRUS and CARLAVIRUS, both of which are highly immunogenic.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Basic functional unit of plants.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
A genus of the family BROMOVIRIDAE which infects mainly woody plants. Species are divided into ten subgroups. Tobacco streak virus is the type species.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Viruses that produce tumors.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A genus in the family NANOVIRIDAE containing multiple circular single-stranded DNA molecules. The type species is Subterranean clover stunt virus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE. Transmission is by whiteflies. Lettuce infectious yellows virus is the type species.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (1/1327)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

Physical and functional heterogeneity in TYMV RNA: evidence for the existence of an independent messenger coding for coat protein. (2/1327)

Turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA can be separated into two distinct components of 2 times 10(6) and 300 000 daltons molecular weight after moderate heat treatment in the presence of SDS or EDTA. The two species cannot have arisen by accidental in vitro degradation of a larger RNA, as they both possess capped 5' ends. Analysis of the newly synthesized proteins resulting from translation of each RNA by a wheat germ extract shows that the 300 000 molecular weight RNA can be translated very efficiently into coat protein. When translated in vitro the longer RNA gave a series of high molecular weight polypeptides but only very small amounts of a polypeptide having about the same mass as the coat protein. Thus our results suggest that the small RNA is the functional messenger for coat protein synthesis in infected cells.  (+info)

Heavy de novo methylation at symmetrical and non-symmetrical sites is a hallmark of RNA-directed DNA methylation. (3/1327)

Previous analysis of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) RNA-infected tobacco plants has suggested that an RNA-DNA interaction could trigger de novo methylation of PSTVd transgene sequences. Using the genomic sequencing technique, the methylation pattern associated with the RNA-directed DNA methylation process has been characterized. Three different PSTVd transgene constructs all showed a similar pattern of methylation. Most of the cytosines at symmetrical as well as non-symmetrical positions appeared to be methylated in both DNA strands of the viroid sequences. Heavy methylation was mostly restricted to the viroid cDNA sequences. Flanking DNA regions immediately adjacent to the viroid cDNA displayed a lower but significant level of cytosine methylation. The observation that the heavy methylation was essentially co-extensive with the length of the PSTVd cDNA sequences provided evidence that a direct RNA-DNA interaction can act as a strong and highly specific signal for de novo DNA methylation. These data also confirmed that de novo methylation was not limited to canonical CpG and CpNpG sites, but can also involve all the cytosine residues located in the genomic region where the RNA-DNA interaction takes place.  (+info)

Strong host resistance targeted against a viral suppressor of the plant gene silencing defence mechanism. (4/1327)

The 2b protein encoded by cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Cmv2b) acts as an important virulence determinant by suppressing post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a natural plant defence mechanism against viruses. We report here that the tomato aspermy cucumovirus 2b protein (Tav2b), when expressed from the unrelated tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) RNA genome, activates strong host resistance responses to TMV in tobacco which are typical of the gene-for-gene disease resistance mechanism. Domain swapping between Cmv2b, which does not elicit these responses, and Tav2b, revealed functional domains in Tav2b critical for triggering virus resistance and hypersensitive cell death. Furthermore, substitution of two amino acids from Tav2b by those found at the same positions in Cmv2b, Lys21-->Val and Arg28-->Ser, abolished the ability to induce hypersensitive cell death and virus resistance. However, in Nicotiana benthamiana, a species related to tobacco, Tav2b functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses PTGS. Thus, a viral suppressor of the host gene silencing defence mechanism is the target of another independent host resistance mechanism. Our results provide new insights into the complex molecular strategies employed by viruses and their hosts for defence, counter-defence and counter counter-defence.  (+info)

Identification of the RNA-binding sites of the triple gene block protein 1 of bamboo mosaic potexvirus. (5/1327)

The triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) encoded by open reading frame 2 of bamboo mosaic potexvirus (BaMV) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified in order to test its RNA-binding activity. UV crosslinking assays revealed that the RNA-binding activity was present mainly in the soluble fraction of the refolded TGBp1. The binding activity was nonspecific and salt concentration-dependent: activity was present at 0-50 mM NaCl but was almost abolished at 200 mM. The RNA-binding domain was located by deletion mutagenesis to the N-terminal 3-24 amino acids of TGBp1. Sequence alignment analysis of the N-terminal 25 amino acids of the TGBp1 homologues of potexviruses identified three arginine residues. Arg-to-Ala substitution at any one of the three arginines eliminated most of the RNA-binding activity, indicating that they were all critical to the RNA-binding activity of the TGBp1 of BaMV.  (+info)

Identification of a novel circular single-stranded DNA associated with cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan. (6/1327)

Recent reports have suggested that cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), a geminivirus of the genus Begomovirus, may be responsible for cotton leaf curl disease in Pakistan. However, the causal agent of the disease remains unclear as CLCuV genomic components resembling begomovirus DNA A are unable to induce typical disease symptoms when reintroduced into plants. All attempts to isolate a genomic component equivalent to begomovirus DNA B have been unsuccessful. Here, we describe the isolation and characterisation of a novel circular single-stranded (ss) DNA associated with naturally infected cotton plants. In addition to a component resembling DNA A, purified geminate particles contain a smaller unrelated ssDNA that we refer to as DNA 1. DNA 1 was cloned from double-stranded replicative form of the viral DNA isolated from infected cotton plants. Blot hybridisation using probes specific for either CLCuV DNA or DNA 1 was used to demonstrate that both DNAs co-infect naturally infected cotton plants from different geographical locations. DNA 1 was detected in viruliferous Bemisia tabaci and in tobacco plants infected under laboratory conditions using B. tabaci, indicating that it is transmitted by whiteflies. Sequence analysis showed that DNA 1 is approximately half the size of CLCuV DNA but shares no homology, indicating that it is not a defective geminivirus component. DNA 1 has some homology to a genomic component of members of Nanoviridae, a family of DNA viruses that are normally transmitted by aphids or planthoppers. DNA 1 encodes a homologue of the nanovirus replication-associated protein (Rep) and has the capacity to autonomously replicate in tobacco. The data suggest that a nanovirus-like DNA has become whitefly-transmissible as a result of its association with a geminivirus and that cotton leaf curl disease may result from a mutually dependent relationship that has developed between members of two distinct DNA virus families that share a similar replication strategy.  (+info)

Symptom attenuation by a satellite RNA in vivo is dependent on reduced levels of virus coat protein. (7/1327)

Many plant RNA viruses provide replication and encapsidation functions for one or more satellite RNAs (sat-RNAs) that can modulate the symptoms of the associated helper virus. Sat-RNA C, a virulent sat-RNA associated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), normally intensifies symptoms but can attenuate symptoms if the TCV coat protein (CP) is replaced with that of cardamine chlorotic fleck carmovirus [Kong et al. (1995) Plant Cell 7, 1625-1634] or if TCV contains an alteration in the CP initiation codon (TCV-CPm) [Kong et al. (1997b) Plant Cell 9, 2051-2063]. To further elucidate the mechanism of symptom attenuation by sat-RNA C, the composition of the CP produced by TCV-CPm (CPCPm) was determined. Our results reveal that CPCPm likely has two additional amino acids at its N-terminus compared with wild-type TCV CP. TCV-CPm produces reduced levels of CP, and this reduction, not the two additional residues at the CP N-terminus, is responsible for symptom attenuation by sat-RNA C.  (+info)

Evidence that a plant virus switched hosts to infect a vertebrate and then recombined with a vertebrate-infecting virus. (8/1327)

There are several similarities between the small, circular, single-stranded-DNA genomes of circoviruses that infect vertebrates and the nanoviruses that infect plants. We analyzed circovirus and nanovirus replication initiator protein (Rep) sequences and confirmed that an N-terminal region in circovirus Reps is similar to an equivalent region in nanovirus Reps. However, we found that the remaining C-terminal region is related to an RNA-binding protein (protein 2C), encoded by picorna-like viruses, and we concluded that the sequence encoding this region of Rep was acquired from one of these single-stranded RNA viruses, probably a calicivirus, by recombination. This is clear evidence that a DNA virus has incorporated a gene from an RNA virus, and the fact that none of these viruses code for a reverse transcriptase suggests that another agent with this capacity was involved. Circoviruses were thought to be a sister-group of nanoviruses, but our phylogenetic analyses, which take account of the recombination, indicate that circoviruses evolved from a nanovirus. A nanovirus DNA was transferred from a plant to a vertebrate. This transferred DNA included the viral origin of replication; the sequence conservation clearly indicates that it maintained the ability to replicate. In view of these properties, we conclude that the transferred DNA was a kind of virus and the transfer was a host-switch. We speculate that this host-switch occurred when a vertebrate was exposed to sap from an infected plant. All characterized caliciviruses infect vertebrates, suggesting that the host-switch happened first and that the recombination took place in a vertebrate.  (+info)

Rice (Oryza spp.) has long been an important food staple for many traditional rice growing communities. Key developments in efforts to improve rice production such as the development of NERICA varieties have been widely recognised. Nonetheless, emerging diseases such as the Rice Yellow Mottle Virus sobemovirus (RYMV) undermine dissemination of new technologies and sustained productivity of the crop. The RYMV is highly variable and several resistance-breaking strains have been identified. Appropriate sources of resistance to RYMV should be identified and characterised in order to pyramid genes for both complete and partial resistance. In this study, reaction of nine (9) rice cultivars to RYMV virulent strain in Uganda was determined. Four upland and three lowland NERICA varieties, an O. Sativa lowland variety, Gigante and IR64 were observed. Isolates of RYMV were collected from three hot-spots in Uganda (Lira, Luweero and Iganga). The isolate from Iganga was most virulent on RYMV susceptible ...
A panel of four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used to study the immunological profile of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) genus Sobemovirus. Serological profiles of 35 representative isolates of RYMV from Borno, Gombe, Kaduna, Kano, Niger, Sokoto and Zamfara states in Northern Nigeria. All the RYMV isolates were classified into three major serogroups (SG1, SG2 and SG3) and further separated into six subgroups (Sg1a, Sg1b, Sg2a, Sg2b, Sg3a and Sg3b). The results demonstrate a significant serological variability among RYMV isolates in Northern Nigeria. The hierarchical analysis of the serological profiles data revealed high viral load in Kano, Kaduna and Gombe states, these show they are suitable locations for strategic RYMV diagnostic and field epidemiological studies
Read The readthrough region of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) coat protein encoding RNA, the second largest RNA of PMTV genome, undergoes structural changes in naturally infected and experimentally inoculated plants, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses are pathogenic to higher plants. Although plant viruses are not nearly as well understood as the animal counterparts, one plant virus has become iconic. The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This and other viruses cause an estimated US$60 billion loss in crop yields worldwide each year. Plant viruses are grouped into 73 genera and 49 families. However, these figures relate only to cultivated plants that represent only a tiny fraction of the total number of plant species. Viruses in wild plants have been poorly studied, but those studies that exist almost overwhelmingly show that such interactions between wild plants and their viruses do not appear to cause disease in the host plants. To transmit from one plant to another and from one plant cell to another, ...
Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) causes an economically important disease of potato. Serious yield and quality reductions can occur in some cultivars.
Read Complete genomic characterization of a potato mop-top virus isolate from the United States, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Pepper mild mottle virus Leaf curl virus Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses can be pathogenic to higher plants. Most plant viruses are rod-shaped, with protein discs forming a .... ...
Hordeivirus movement protein encoded by the first gene of the triple gene block (TGB1 protein, TGBp1) interacts in vivo with viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles that are considered to be a form of viral genome (non-virion transport form) capable of cell-to-cell and long-distance transport in infected plants. The structures of these RNPs have not been elucidated. The poa semilatent virus (PSLV) TGBp1 contains a structured C-terminal NTPase/helicase domain and an N-terminal extension region consisting of two domains - a completely intrinsically disordered extreme N-terminal domain and an internal domain (ID) with structure resembling a partially disordered molten globule. Here, we characterized the structures assembled in vitro by the full-length PSLV TGBp1 alone or in the presence of viral RNA. The PSLV TGBp1 was capable of multimerization and self-assembly into extended high-molecular-mass complexes. These complexes disassembled to apparent monomers upon
Rapid Diagnosis of Plant Virus Disease by TEM. Microwave Assisted Identification of Plant Virus Infection Rapid Diagnosis of Plant Virus Disease by TEM - Microwave Assisted Identification of Plant
The RNA genome of tobacco etch virus (TEV), a plant potyvirus, functions as an mRNA for synthesis of a 346-kilodalton polyprotein that undergoes extensive proteolytic processing. The RNA lacks a normal 5 cap structure at its terminus, which suggests that the mechanism of translational initiation differs from that of a normal cellular mRNA. We have identified a translation-enhancing activity associated with the 144-nucleotide, 5 nontranslated region (NTR) of the TEV genome. When fused to a reporter gene encoding ,β-glucuronidase (GUS), the 5 NTR results in an 8- to 21-fold enhancement over a synthetic 5 NTR in a transient-expression assay in protoplasts. A similar effect was observed when the 5 NTR-GUS fusions were expressed in transgenic plants. By using a cell-free translation system, the translation enhancement activity of the TEV 5 NTR was shown to be cap independent, whereas translation of GUS mRNA containing an artificial 5 NTR required the presence of a cap structure. Translation ...
ID JQ809577; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 335 BP. XX AC JQ809577; XX DT 18-JUN-2012 (Rel. 113, Created) DT 18-JUN-2012 (Rel. 113, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Apple stem grooving virus isolate BJ-ml movement protein gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Apple stem grooving virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Tymovirales; Betaflexiviridae; Trivirinae; Capillovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-335 RA Hu G.J., Hong N., Wang G.P.; RT Apple stem grooving virus isolates from Chinese pears; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-335 RA Hu G.J., Hong N., Wang G.P.; RT ; RL Submitted (21-MAR-2012) to the INSDC. RL College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, RL Shizishan No. 1, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China XX DR MD5; cec29cc7e6c2cbde6eb9d8f732fc9c7b. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..335 FT /organism=Apple stem grooving virus FT /host=pear FT /isolate=BJ-ml FT /mol_type=genomic RNA FT /country=China FT ...
ID PMTV1 preliminary; circular DNA; SYN; 5314 BP. XX AC A20700; XX DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 11, Created) DT 01-JUL-1995 (Rel. 12, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Vertebrate plasmid pMTV1 - complete. XX KW cloning vector. XX OS Cloning vector OC Artificial sequences; Cloning vehicles. XX RN [1] RC pMTV1 from mouse MTV RA ; RT Carrier-bound Recombinant Protein, Process for Producing it RT and its Use as an Immunogen and Vaccine; RL Unpublished (1991). RL Patent number WO9113155-A/4 dated Sept. 1, 1991. XX CC NM (pMTV1) CC CM (yes) CC NA (ds-DNA) CC TP (circular) CC ST () CC TY (plasmid) CC SP () CC HO (mouse) CC CP () CC FN (cloning) CC SE () CC PA (mouse) CC BR () CC OF () CC OR () XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT misc_feature 0..0 FT /note=1. mouse MTV FT -, pMTV1 FT rep_origin 0..0 FT /note=ORI pMTV1 XX SQ Sequence 5314 BP; 1438 A; 1276 C; 1309 G; 1291 T; 0 other; aaattgtaaa cgttaatatt agacataatt tatcctcaag taaggggccg aagcccctgc aattaaaatt gttgaccacc tacataccaa agacgagcgc ctttacgctt ...
Kaur, P., Appels, R., Bayer, P. E., Keeble-Gagnere, G., Wang, J., Hirakawa, H., Shirasawa, K., Vercoe, P., Stefanova, K., Durmic, Z., Nichols, P., Revell, C., Isobe, S. N., Edwards, D. & Erskine, W., 5 Sep 2017, In : Frontiers in Plant Science. 8, 10 p., 1463.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
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See on - Virology News Viruses have generally been studied either as disease-causing infectious agents that have a negative impact on the host (most eukaryote-infecting viruses), or as tools for molecular biology (especially bacteria-infecting viruses, or phage). Virus ecology looks at the more complex issues of virus-host-environment interactions. For plant viruses this includes studies…
div class=citation vocab=,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource= typeof=Book,,span property=name,,a href=,Plant viruses and virus diseases,, by F. C. Bawden ..,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem resource=,,span property=name,,a property=url href=,College of Physicians of Philadelphia,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
 Virus Ecology is a field that is gaining momentum, fueled in part by metagenomic studies from many environments previously ignored. Biodiversity studies of plant viruses show that they
Buy Plant Virus Vector Interactions by R.T. Plumb (9780120059355) from Boomerang Books, Australias Online Independent Bookstore
Transmission of Plant Viruses. Vegetative propagation, Mechanically through sap, Through seed, pollen, dodder, By specific insects, mites, nematodes, and fungi.
Revisiting the cysteine‐rich proteins encoded in the 3‐proximal open reading frame of the positive‐sense single‐stranded RNA of some monopartite lamentous plant viruses: functional dissection of p15 from grapevine virus B. ...
83062-04-8 - RNA (velvet tobacco mottle virus 2) - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The temperature-inducible expression vector containing the beet necrotic yellow vein virus(BNYVV)isolate NM coat protein gene was constructed and transferred into E. coli DH5 α. High-level expression of the specific protein was achieved by temperature induction. The results of SDSPAGE and Western blotting show that the expression product which accumulates 19.5% of the total cellular proteins estimated by Shimadzu CS-910 scanning is 21kd BNYVV coat protein.
Rhizomania is an extremely severe sugarbeet disease caused by the complex Polymyxa betae/Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV). A relatively small number of recently introduced sugarbeet cultivars...
Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), vectored by Polymyxa betae, causes rhizomania in sugar beet. For disease control, the cultivation of hybrids carrying Rz1 resistance is crucial, but is compromised by resistance-breaking (RB) strains with specific mutations in the P25 protein at amino acids 67-70 (tetrad). To obtain evidence for P25 variability from soil-borne populations, where the virus persists for decades, populations with wild-type (WT) and RB properties were analysed by P25 deep sequencing. The level of P25 variation in the populations analysed did not correlate with RB properties. Remarkably, one WT population contained P25 with RB mutations at a frequency of 11%. To demonstrate selection by Rz1 and the influence of RB mutations on relative fitness, competition experiments between strains were performed. Following a mixture of strains with four RNAs, a shift in tetrad variants was observed, suggesting that strains did not mix or transreplicate. The plant genotype exerted a clear ...
Nanovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Nanoviridae. Legume plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently six species in this genus including the type species Subterranean clover stunt virus. Diseases associated with this genus include: stunting, severe necrosis and early plant death. Group: ssDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Nanoviridae Genus: Nanovirus Faba bean necrotic stunt virus Faba bean necrotic yellows virus Faba bean yellow leaf virus Milk vetch dwarf virus Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus Subterranean clover stunt virus Viruses in Nanovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and round geometries, and T=1 symmetry. The diameter is around 18-19 nm. The genome is multipartite, and the genome components (6 or 8, depending on the genera) are circular, around 1kb in length, essentially carry only one gene, and are individually encapsidated forming small icosahedral virions (18-20 nm). Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host ...
The genetic continuity of the potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) genome was analysed after infection of tomato plants with cloned cDNAs of parental strains. During the six weeks of the experiment, several new sequence variants appeared. The sequence variants detected in the progeny population induced sequence-specific disease symptoms. The PSTVd genome therefore follows the pattern expected for typical pseudo-strains propagating in plants as a population of similar sequences. Assessing further the replicon continuity, a PSTVd cDNA mutant with a deletion in the central conserved region was constructed and proven to be non-infectious. Surprisingly, in a sub-population of potato transformants expressing the same deleted PSTVd RNA an infectious viroid was detected. This suggests specific transcript conversion followed by recovery of the full-length pathogen genome ...
The 69 nucleotide left-terminal domain (T(L)) of the potato spindle tuber RNA viroid (PSTVd) constitutes one of its five structural elements. Due to a twofold complementary sequence repeat, two possible conformations are proposed for the T(L) secondary structure; an elongated-rod and a bifurcated form. In the present study, two T(L) mutants were designed that remove the symmetry of the sequence repeats and ensure that either the bifurcated or the elongated-rod conformation is thermodynamically favored. Imino 1H and 15N resonances were assigned for both mutants and the native T(L) domain based on 1H-1H NOESY and heteronuclear 1H-15N HSQC high-resolution NMR spectra. The NMR secondary structure analysis of all constructs establishes unambiguously the elongated-rod form as the secondary structure of the native T(L) domain. Temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis and UV melting experiments corroborate these results. A combined secondary structure and sequence analysis of T(L) domains of other ...
ID JN544921; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 679 BP. XX AC JN544921; XX DT 10-JAN-2012 (Rel. 111, Created) DT 10-JAN-2012 (Rel. 111, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus isolate hz-11 coat protein gene, partial DE cds. XX KW . XX OS Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Tymovirales; Betaflexiviridae; Trivirinae; Trichovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-679 RA Wang L., Song Y., Hong N., Wang G.; RT Molecular variability of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates RT from pear in China; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-679 RA Wang L., Song Y., Hong N., Wang G.; RT ; RL Submitted (03-AUG-2011) to the INSDC. RL Huzhong Agricultural University, College of Plant Science and Technology, RL Shizishan Str. No. 1, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China XX DR MD5; 761cab46f5020172779df4c453c82687. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..679 FT /organism=Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus FT /host=pear FT ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 16:188-195...M. Isogai , Y. Saitou , N. Takahashi , T. Itabashi , M. Terada , H. Satoh , and N. Yoshikawa...© 2003 The American Phytopathological Society...To understand why transgenic Nicotiana occidentalis plants expressing a functional movement protein (MP) of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) show specific resistance to Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus (GINV), the MPs of ACLSV (50KP) and GINV (39KP) were fused to green, yellow, or cyan f...
Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi), first described in Japan in 1902, is considered a major disease of soybean in tropical and subtropical regions. In susceptible varieties the fungus causes premature defoliation, early maturation, and significant reductions (up to 80%) in yield. This disease does not yet occur in North America.
TY - THES. T1 - Chemical virology. T2 - decorating the interior of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. AU - Minten, Inge Jeannette. PY - 2011/4/4. Y1 - 2011/4/4. KW - METIS-283479. M3 - PhD Thesis - Research external, graduation external. SN - 978-90--9025926-0. PB - Radboud University Nijmegen. CY - Nijmegen. ER - ...
Groundnut Rosette Virus disease (GRD) has long been regarded a major limiting biotic constraint to groundnut production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The disease is caused by a complex of three viral components that interact in a synergistic fashion resulting into severe crop losses. A study was conducted to better understand the genetics of inheritance of GRD resistance. Nineteen groundnut genotypes among which twelve F2 families populations arising from a 3x4 North Carolina II mating design, were evaluated for their percentage disease severity (PDS) and incidence (PDI). There was significant genetic variability for resistance to GRD among the materials studied with more significant additive gene action as compared to non additive. However, since specific combining ability effects were not so consistent among the F2 family populations, evaluation and testing of progenies alongside with their parents would be more meaningful and selection in the early generations would be the most effective ...
Abstract: Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), which causes a viral disease of sugar beet known as rhizomania, is widely spread throughout the sugar beet growing areas of Poland. The analysis of the molecular variability of two separate regions, namely the part of coat protein (CP) and triple gene block (TGB) genes of the BNYVV genome, revealed very low level of nucleotide sequence diversity among the isolates (98-100% sequence identity). Sequence alignments of BNYVV isolates from Poland and other isolates available to data showed also high level of nucleotide sequence identity among these isolates. Based on multiplex RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis we distinguished types A and B of BNYVV. The sequence identity matrix between type A and B revealed 92-93% similarity. Mainly, BNYVV type A is widespread in Poland whereas type B has rarely been found. These results suggest that Polish isolates probably originated from Southern Europe rather then from Germany or France where BNYVV type B is a ...
The effects of manganese supply on plant growth and on photosynthesis and manganese concentrations in young leaves were examined in Seaton Park subterranean clover in three glasshouse water culture experiments.Plants werc grown initially with a copious supply of manganese, and transferred to solutions either with or without manganese. Sequential harvests were taken to determine the effects of developing manganese deficiency on dry matter (DM) yield of whole plants and selected characteristics [manganese, chlorophyll and photosynthetic oxygen evolution (POE)] of youngest open leaf blades (YOL). In addition, the deffect of leaf age and iron supply on POE werc examined.Manganese concentrations and POE in YOL declined markedly and rapidly in plants transferred to solutions without manganese, while chlorophyll concentrations of YOL and plant DM yield responded more weakly and more slowly. As a result, a level of manganese deficiency which depressed POE in young leaves by more than 50 per cent had no ...
Nowak, R. 1999. Walkers Mammals of the World, 6th Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Packer, C. 1983. Demographic changes in a colony of Nile grassrats (Arvicanthis niloticus) in Tanzania. Journal of Mammalogy, 64(1): 159-161. Panagiotakopulu, E. 2004. Pharaonic Egypt and the origins of the plague. Journal of Biogeography, 31: 269-275. Rabiu, S., R. Rose. 1997. A quantitative study of diet in three species of rodents in natural and irrigated savanna fields. Acta Theriologica, 42(1): 55-70. Rabiu, S., R. Rose. 2004. Crop damage and yield loss caused by two species of rodents in irrigated fields in northern Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, 50(4): 323-326. Refinetti, R. 2004. The Nile Grass Rat as a Laboratory Animal. Lab Animal, 33(9): 54-57. Rosevear, D. 1969. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). Sarra, S., D. Peters. 2003. Rice yellow mottle virus is Transmitted by Cows, Donkeys, and Grass Rats in Irrigated Rice Crops. Plant ...
Viroids are a unique class of noncoding RNAs: composed of only a circular, single-stranded molecule of 246-401 nt, they manage to replicate, move, circumvent host defenses, and frequently induce disease in higher plants. Viroids replicate through an RNA-to-RNA rolling-circle mechanism consisting of transcription of oligomeric viroid RNA intermediates, cleavage to unit-length strands, and circularization. Though the host RNA polymerase II (redirected to accept RNA templates) mediates RNA synthesis and a type-III RNase presumably cleavage of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and closely related members of the family Pospiviroidae, the host enzyme catalyzing the final circularization step, has remained elusive. In this study we propose that PSTVd subverts host DNA ligase 1, converting it to an RNA ligase, for the final step. To support this hypothesis, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) DNA ligase 1 specifically and efficiently catalyzes circularization of the genuine PSTVd ...
Comparison of Tomato Bioassay and Slab Gel Electrophoresis for Detection of Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid in Potato. G. L. Schumann, H. D. Thurston, R. K. Horst, S. O. Kawamoto, and G. I. Nemoto. Pages 1256-1259. VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. ...
The nucleotide sequence (9306 nucleotides) of cDNA clones of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) obtained from a double-stranded RNA template, extracted from diseased plant tissue, was determined. The genome is composed of five open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative proteins with M rs of 247083, 25147, 12832, 7429 and 43712, and has a poly(A) tail. Using two oligonucleotides designed from the ASPV sequence information a 1598 bp fragment from near the 3′ terminus of the viral RNA, containing the coat protein of M r 43766, was amplified from vein yellows (VY)-infected pear plants by PCR. The sequence determined showed eight nucleotide changes resulting in five amino acid substitutions compared with the sequence of ASPV. When compared to potex-, carla-, clostero- and capillo-viruses, the ASPV genome organization appeared to be most closely related to that of potexviruses, but with a larger coat protein of M r 44K (ORF5). The predicted coat protein size was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The results
Viroids are the smallest known agents of infectious disease. They consist of only an extremely small, circular, single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule and lack the protein coat of a virus. Viroids cause certain plant diseases, including potato spindle tuber disease, but it is uncertain whether viroids also occur in animal cells. Viroids appear to be transmitted mechanically from one cell to another through cellular debris. Viroids are of considerable interest because of their subviral nature…
Poke, FS (2008) Hop mosaic virus: complete nucleotide sequence and relationship to other carlaviruses. Archives of Virology, 153 (8). pp. 1615-1619. ISSN 0304-8608 ...
Despite the non-coding nature of their small RNA genomes, the visible symptoms of viroid infection resemble those associated with many plant virus diseases. Recent evidence indicates that viroid-derived small RNAs acting through host RNA silencing pathways play a key role in viroid pathogenicity. Host responses to viroid infection are complex, involving signaling cascades containing host-encoded protein kinases and crosstalk between hormonal and defense-signaling pathways. Studies of viroid-host interaction in the context of entire biochemical or developmental pathways are just beginning, and many working hypotheses have yet to be critically tested.
I would like to know about reports on monoclonal antibodies to plant viruses. I work with ToMV ( tomato mosaic virus) and i wish to know more about it ...
Comprar Plant Viruses, de Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Editor). Global Science Books, Ltd. (Japón). Ciencia (Science), Importados
More Than 80 Of All Plant Viruses Are Transmitted By Insect Vectors With Aphids Whiteflies Plant Hoppers Spreading The Most Important Virus Diseases Of World Crops We Are Interested In Understanding The Molecular Mechanisms Of Virus Vector Interactions Regulating Acquisition Translocation And Transmission By Insect Vectors
Apple stem cells may be the next big antiaging breakthrough, say natural skin care experts. Plant stem cells, particularly from apples, may help maintain and repair tissue to keep skin looking young, according to research from a Swiss biochemistry lab, which showed that topically applying apple stem cells delays the aging process by triggering the skins ability to regenerate cells. The same lab demonstrated that apple stem cells reduce existing-wrinkle depth by up to 15 percent ...
Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) infects a wide range of plants. In this study, we assembled de novo two HSVd genomes from the transcriptome of an apricot species. To examine HSVd variation in a single tree, we sequenced 70 HSVd genomes from unique apricot and plum trees and identified 11 HSVd variants. In addition, we analysed all known 572 HSVd sequences and identified 382 non-redundant HSVd variants. Ph ...
Plant based food and water are obvious route through plant viruses can get access to human body. The other possible route of access of plant virus directly to human cells is through insects that feed on both plant and human. The insect may be vector, host or both for a virus.. ...
First of all, cold and flu viruses are not simple viruses, and they are not harmless. They kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people every year. Secondly, this would depend highly on the risk group that the virus falls in. The NIH sets strict guidelines on who can handle infectious agents. Unfortunately, I can almost guarantee you that no one is going to give you even risk group 1 plant viruses, and they are certainly are not going to give you cold or flu viruses. Risk groups range from 1 to 4. To handle risk group 2 viruses, for example, you are expected to do so in a BSL-2 or higher laboratory, and anyone maintaining stocks of virus is going to do a hefty check of you and your facilities before shipping you anything.. Furthermore, even if you did obtain the virus, you would need to store it or maintain stocks of the virus in tissue culture. Its not like you can just get an eppendorf tube of virus in saline and expect it to survive in your refrigerator at home, and its not like companies ...
Traditionally, virology has been focused in studying the pathogenic effect of viruses. In the recent years, however, this perception is changing and viruses are being studied as mutualistic
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Researchers have taken positive steps towards using plant virus-based particles for the treatment of human autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and…
Viruses are among the simplest biological systems and are highly effective vehicles to deliver genetic material into susceptible host cells. Artificial viruses can be used as model systems for providing insights into natural viruses and can be considered a testing ground for developing artificial life. Moreover, they are used in biomedical and biotechnological applications, such as delivery of nucleic acids for gene therapy and as scaffolds in material science. Recently, for the first time, we have been able to develop an artificial viral coat protein that coats individual nucleic acids in a similar way as natural viral coat proteins do. The artificial virus particles produced using these proteins protect their nucleic acid cargo and feature significant transfection efficiency. In the present project we want to build on this exciting result and achieve a further highly ambitious milestone: the replication of an artificial virus particle in E. coli, from an artificial viral genome.. This project ...
Blanca Elisa Roberson Vital Statistics at Time of DisappearanceMissing Since: August 6, 1989 from Aransas Pass, Texas Classification: Non-Family Abduction Date Of Birth: January 12, 1976
Visit Healthgrades for information on Blanca Corrales Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
ATCC offers plasmid clones of many viral genomes from both animal and plant viruses. Applications for this DNA include use as positive controls, hybridization probes, or templates for amplification.
ATCC offers plasmid clones of many viral genomes from both animal and plant viruses. Applications for this DNA include use as positive controls, hybridization probes, or templates for amplification.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracellular ingestion and salivation by aphids may cause the acquisition and inoculation of non-persistently transmitted plant viruses.. AU - Martin, B.. AU - Collar, J.L.. AU - Tjallingii, W.F.. AU - Fereres, A.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. U2 - 10.1099/0022-1317-78-10-2701. DO - 10.1099/0022-1317-78-10-2701. M3 - Article. VL - 78. SP - 2701. EP - 2705. JO - Journal of General Virology. JF - Journal of General Virology. SN - 0022-1317. ER - ...
I got this in my mail today!!! |Subject: Caution - new virus |A new virus called the C-Nile Virus cannot be killed even by |Nortons most | advanced programs. Be warned! It appears to hit those who were |born |during or before | 1953.
Characteristics of Viruses Minuscule, acellular infectious agent having either DNA or RNA Causes many infections of humans, animals, plants, and bacteria Causes most of the diseases that plague the industrialized world 10/15/11 MDufilho . 2
Blanca Lupiani wrote: , , I just downloaded NIH-Image. How do I make it run. It has the .zip , extension. What do I have to do?. Any help will be apreciated. , Tahnks in advance , Blanca Just unzip the file with Winzip which you can download from Good luck Yang ...
Cusola, O., Kivisto, S., Vierros, S., Batys, P., Ago, M., Tardy, B., Greca, L. G. G., Blanca Roncero, M., Sammalkorpi, M. & Rojas, O., 31 maaliskuuta 2019, julkaisussa: Abstracts of papers of the American Chemical Society. 257, 2 Sivumäärä. Tutkimustuotos: Lehtiartikkeli › Kokousabstrakti › Scientific › vertaisarvioitu ...
... virus infections of many other plants were discovered.[34] The importance of tobacco mosaic virus in the history of viruses ... the Russian plant virologist Joseph Atabekov discovered that many plant viruses only infect a single species of host plant.[37] ... Plant viruses[edit]. In 1882, Adolf Mayer (1843-1942) described a condition of tobacco plants, which he called "mosaic disease ... The virus was later shown to be a previously unrecognised herpes virus, which is now called Epstein-Barr virus.[55] ...
... viruses that contain a reverse transcription stage in their replication cycle. This family contains all plant viruses that ... GF virus Banana streak IM virus Banana streak MY virus Banana streak OL virus Banana streak UA virus Banana streak UI virus ... virus Cauliflower mosaic virus Dahlia mosaic virus Figwort mosaic virus Horseradish latent virus Lamium leaf distortion virus ... UL virus Banana streak UM virus Banana streak VN virus Bougainvillea chlorotic vein banding virus Cacao swollen shoot virus ...
Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E.J. (eds.). "Plant Viruses Online". Retrieved ... Wisteria vein mosaic virus (a variant of the tobacco mosaic virus) and subterranean clover stunt virus are the only two known ... USDA Plants Profile for Wisteria frutescens (American wisteria) Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information ... It infects the plant through its Ti plasmid, and then A. tumefaciens integrates a part of its DNA into the chromosome of the ...
... connections between plant cells) large enough to allow the virus to move throughout the plant. The virus can then also infect ... If virus remains a problem, other plants can be planted in that area that do not have the traits required for infection of INSV ... These plants would kill off any infected cells, not allowing the virus to spread. Furthermore, larger distance between plants ... the main symptom on plants is necrotic spots that appear on the leaves. The INSV virus infects by injecting the RNA the virus ...
August 1996). "Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database: Malva vein clearing potyvirus". Plant Viruses Online. University ... Garden plants are often called Malva sylvestris var. mauritiana and they make a cultivar group that includes: 'Bibor Felho' ' ... M. sylvestris is a vigorous plant with showy flowers of bright mauve-purple, with dark veins, standing 3-4 feet (0.91-1.22 m) ... Plants previously often described as Malva sylvestris var. malaca are now considered a cultivar group Malva sylvestris ...
Her early work in plant anatomy focused on the effect of viruses on plants, specifically on plant tissue and development. Esau ... Esau was a pioneering plant anatomist and her books Plant Anatomy (1953) and Anatomy of Seed Plants (1977) were key plant ... Plant Science Bulletin 31(5): "Women Pioneers in Plant Biology". American Society of Plant Biologists. Retrieved 4 June 2020. ... Esau, Katherine (1961). Plants, Viruses, and Insects. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. Esau, Katherine (1969). The Phloem ...
Plants have viruses too. Wilt diseases in woody plants tend to fall into two major categories, those that start with the ... The bacteria can also be transmitted from one plant to another when beetles feed on an infected plant and the bacteria becomes ... Once a plant is infected, the bacteria spread through the xylem vessels from the area of infection to the main stem, and the ... The affected plant dies suddenly as a result of toxins produced by the fungus or by the choking of vascular tissues by the ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Tombusviridae. Dianthoviruses are plant viruses. There are currently three ... Dianthovirus Carnation ringspot virus Red clover necrotic mosaic virus Sweet clover necrotic mosaic virus Viruses in ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription, using the ...
ICTV Online (10th) Report; Geminiviridae Description of Plant Viruses MicrobiologyBytes: Plant Viruses Viralzone: Geminiviridae ... Reunion virus Sugarcane streak virus Tobacco yellow dwarf virus Urochloa streak virus Wheat dwarf India virus Wheat dwarf virus ... streak virus Eragrostis streak virus Maize streak Reunion virus Maize streak virus Miscanthus streak virus Oat dwarf virus ... leaf curl virus Okra leaf curl Cameroon virus Okra mottle virus Okra yellow crinkle virus Okra yellow mosaic Mexico virus Okra ...
Bunyaviridae from Plant Viruses online Plant Viruses Online - Tomato Spotted Wilt tospovirus APSnet A Plant Disease Lesson on ... Plant viruses transmitted by thrips. European Journal of Plant Pathology 113: 119-157. Mound, L. A. 2002. So many thrips - so ... The gene encoding this protein was likely acquired by recombination from either a plant host or from another plant virus. ... To prevent spread of the virus infected plants should be immediately removed away from neighbouring plants. Control of insects ...
... the vector of the sugar cane Mosaic virus. Mosaic viruses are plant viruses. Fermín Tangüis, an agriculturist and scientist ... He had 69 cuerdas planted in coffee worked by 33 slaves." Plumey did not allow his workers to work on any other farm. Among the ...
Descriptions of Plant Viruses. ... virus Arabidopsis thaliana Tat4 virus Bombyx mori Mag virus ... pombe Tf2 virus Takifugu rubripes Sushi virus Tribolium castaneum Woot virus Tripneustis gratilla SURL virus Because of their ... Drosophila virilis Ulysses virus Fusarium oxysporum Skippy virus Lilium henryi Del1 virus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty3 virus ... elegans Cer1 virus Cladosporium fulvum T-1 virus Dictyostelium discoideum Skipper virus Drosophila buzzatii Osvaldo virus ...
... was the vector of the sugar cane Mosaic virus. Mosaic viruses are plant viruses. In the 1920s, he was appointed as Commissioner ... In 1922 he discovered the vector of the Mosaic virus of sugar cane, which was the aphid Aphis maidis. His findings were ...
... so the viroplasms of animal viruses are generally localized near the MTOC. MTOCs are not found in plant cells. Plant viruses ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... viroplasms from plant viruses have not been as studied as viroplasms from animal viruses. ... This is mostly shown for plant RNA viruses. Viroplasm is the location within the infected cell where viral replication and ...
This article is about the plant genus. For the virus related to smallpox, see Vaccinia. ... Plants of this group typically require acidic soils, and as wild plants they live in habitats such as heath, bog and acidic ... Hyam, R. & Pankhurst, R.J. (1995). Plants and their names : a concise dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0- ... Vaccinium species are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species - see list of ...
... among other studies with animal and plant viruses in the middle of the 20th century. When put in the context of present-day ... A founder virus can introduce a different phenotype for the ensuing evolution. Evolution of viruses in nature and as disease ... Attenuated RNA virus vaccines can revert to virulent forms. RNA viruses released in nature for pest control purposes can mutate ... Virus attenuation and virulence is dependent on viral genetic traits. Variant forms of a given virus may display increased ...
Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are mechanical. The infection is localized to begin with but if the virus ... Bell pepper mosaic virus (BPeMV) Brugmansia mild mottle virus Cactus mild mottle virus (CMMoV) Clitoria yellow mottle virus ... Ullucus mild mottle virus Wasabi mottle virus (WMoV) Yellow tailflower mild mottle virus Youcai mosaic virus (YoMV) aka oilseed ... Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus Maracuja mosaic virus (MarMV) Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) ...
Many plant viruses have developed mechanisms that counter the plants PTGS-systems by evolving proteins, such as p19 and NSs, ... In order to defend itself against viruses and other pathogens that introduce foreign nucleic acids into their cells, plants ... Voinnet, Olivier (2001-08-01). "RNA silencing as a plant immune system against viruses". Trends in Genetics. 17 (8): 449-459. ... Kasschau, Kristin D.; Carrington, James C. (1998-11-13). "A Counterdefensive Strategy of Plant Viruses". Cell. 95 (4): 461-470 ...
Patil, Basavaprabhu L.; Dasgupta, Indranil (2006). "Defective Interfering Dnas of Plant Viruses". Critical Reviews in Plant ... In another example, the size of several DI-DNA plant virus genomes varied from one tenth of the size of the original genome to ... This also provides the virus with more time to spread and infect new hosts. DIP generation is regulated within viruses: the ... Examples of this type of defection can be found in tomato spotted wilt virus and Flock House virus. Snapbacks defections are ...
"Experimental evolution of plant RNA viruses". Heredity. 100 (5): 478-483. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6801088. PMC 7094686. PMID ... All species (except viruses) are given a two-part name, a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the ... Viruses have enormous populations, are doubtfully living since they consist of little more than a string of DNA or RNA in a ... Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, and can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and ...
... virus-free plants can help control the spread of SCR. Plant material that has been infected by the virus should be eradicated. ... B viruses Strawberry vein chlorosis virus The symptoms of Strawberry Crinkle Virus varies between different varieties of plants ... When trading strawberry plants, it is important to verify that the plant material has meet the conditions of a virus-free ... "Detection of Strawberry crinkle virus in plants and aphids by RT-PCR using conserved L gene sequences". Plant Pathology. 51 (3 ...
Plant viruses Transmission of plant viruses Adams, M; Antoniw, J (2005). "DPVweb: An open access internet resource on plant ... as well as taxonomic and sequence data on all plant viruses. DPVweb is an aid to researchers in the field of plant virology as ... The Descriptions of Plant Viruses (DPVs) were first published by the Association of Applied Biologists in 1970 as a series of ... The site provides a single point of access for all known plant virus genome sequences making it easy to collect these sequences ...
The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... Actinidia virus 1 Alligatorweed stunting virus Blueberry virus A Megakespama mosaic virus Mint vein banding-associated virus ... Closteroviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 56 species in this family, divided ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ...
The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a ... rosette assistor virus Indonesian soybean dwarf virus Sweet potato leaf speckling virus Tobacco necrotic dwarf virus Viruses in ... Barley yellow dwarf virus GPV Barley yellow dwarf virus SGV Chickenpea stunt disease associated virus Groundnut ... Luteoviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 51 species in this family, divided ...
The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a ... mottle virus Imperata yellow mottle virus Lucerne transient streak virus Papaya lethal yellowing virus Rice yellow mottle virus ... mottle virus Sesbania mosaic virus Solanum nodiflorum mottle virus Southern bean mosaic virus Southern cowpea mosaic virus ... Sowbane mosaic virus Subterranean clover mottle virus Turnip rosette virus Velvet tobacco mottle virus "Viral Zone". ExPASy. ...
The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export, and tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The ... Nanoviridae is a family of viruses. Plants serve as natural hosts. There are currently 12 species in this family, divided among ... The recognized genera are: Babuvirus Nanovirus The unassigned species is Coconut foliar decay virus. Viruses in the family ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV Report Nanoviridae Boettcher, Stefan; Percus, Allon (2000). " ...
The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ... virus Lilac ring mottle virus Parietaria mottle virus Prune dwarf virus Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Spinach latent virus ... virus Apple mosaic virus Asparagus virus 2 Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus Blueberry shock virus Citrus leaf rugose virus ... Strawberry necrotic shock virus Tobacco streak virus Tulare apple mosaic virus Genus: Oleavirus Olive latent virus 2 Viruses in ...
Plants serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Hibiscus green spot virus 2 ... Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Plants serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ... Viruses in Higrevirus are non-enveloped, with bacilliform geometries. These viruses are about 30 nm wide and 50 nm long. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 13 August 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Viralzone: Higrevirus ICTV. ...
Plant Physiology 150:1806-1821. Kang, B.-C., I. Yeam and M.M. Jahn. (2005) Genetics of resistance to plant viruses. Ann. Rev. ... Her research interests include plant genetics and genomics especially the resistance of plants to viruses. She has concentrated ... Plant J. 39:697-714. Rose, J.K.C., S. Bashir, J.J. Giovannoni, M.M. Jahn and R.S. Saravanan. (2004) Tackling the plant proteome ... As well as plant breeding her research has involved fundamental aspects of plant physiology. As her career has developed she ...
Price, W. C. (July 1940). "Comparative Host Ranges of Six Plant Viruses". American Journal of Botany. 57 (7): 530-541. doi: ... European plants exhibit considerable phenotypical variation, which has led to the plant acquiring many synonyms over the years ... Charters, Michael L. "Plant name: T". California Plant Names: Latin and Greek Meanings and Derivations. Retrieved ... "Verbascum thapsus". Invasive Plants of California's Wildland. California Invasive Plant COuncil. Archived from the original on ...
Virus Taxonomy-Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology Supplement. 10. Vienna ... US Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). "National Select ... Virus Taxonomy-Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press. pp. 539-48 ... Virus Taxonomy-Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp ...
Virgaviridae: a new Familie of rod-shaped plant viruses. . In: Arch Virol. . 154, Nr. 12, 2009, S. 1967-72. doi:10.1007/s00705- ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
... because aquatic plants are not as productive as long-lived terrestrial plants such as trees. Ecological trophic pyramids are ... and from viruses and bdellovibrio to blue whales. ... Plants generally have the greatest biomass. Names of trophic ... not all plant material is edible and the nutritional quality or antiherbivore defenses of plants (structural and chemical) ... In a simple predator-prey example, a deer is one step removed from the plants it eats (chain length = 1) and a wolf that eats ...
These insects suck the sap out of the plants, reducing growth. Mosaic virus is spread by greenfly, causing yellowing of leaves ... The plants are also available later in the season, as young plants or plugs. They are grown up canes, with the new shoots being ... Because of this, growers are encouraged to plant sweet peas away from fruit trees among other plants prone to early dieback or ... The sweet pea, Lathyrus odoratus, is a flowering plant in the genus Lathyrus in the family Fabaceae (legumes), native to Sicily ...
"Experimental inoculation of plants and animals with Ebola virus". Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2 (4): 321-25. doi:10.3201/eid0204.960407 ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ...
... plant matter, while laying females ate 71.9% animal matter and only 28.1% plant matter.[66] Plants generally make up the larger ... "The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species". Nature Genetics. 45 (7): ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[69] However, in 2017 a ... plant matter, most notably the grass Echinochloa crus-galli, and nonlaying females ate 37.0% animal matter and 63.0% ...
Plants - berry and juices questions.[edit]. Strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries roughly have the same lifespan, they ... The US govt made a big error in betting everything on vaccines: it desperately wants the pandemic to be over, but the virus is ... I don't recall anyone claiming their vaccine was 100 percent effective against catching the virus. ←Baseball Bugs What's up, ... similar to hydroelectric power plant? Or would the costs of maintaining the superfluidity be too high? (talk) 14 ...
"Perfect Plants (angleščina). 2019-01-04. Pridobljeno dne 2021-01-07.. *↑ "How to Apply the 1/3 Rule When Pruning Shrubs". The ... "Plant Development II: Primary and Secondary Growth". Organismal Biology (angleščina). 2016-11-11. Pridobljeno dne 2020-12-21.. ... Galun, Esra, 1927- (2007). Plant patterning : structural and molecular genetic aspects. Singapore: World Scientific. ISBN 981- ...
Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. ... Prehistoric medicine incorporated plants (herbalism), animal parts, and minerals. In many cases these materials were used ... Pharmacology developed in part from herbalism and some drugs are still derived from plants (atropine, ephedrine, warfarin, ...
Norfolk Plant Sciences About Norfolk Plant Sciences Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ... edible plants ever created.[20] Tobacco osmotic genes overexpressed in tomatoes produced plants that held a higher water ... The plant peptide hormone, systemin was first identified in tomato plants and genetic modification has been used to demonstrate ...
Usually organisms that have a higher rate of reproduction than their competitors have an evolutionary advantage. Consequently, organisms can evolve to become simpler and thus multiply faster and produce more offspring, as they require fewer resources to reproduce. A good example are parasites such as Plasmodium - the parasite responsible for malaria - and mycoplasma; these organisms often dispense with traits that are made unnecessary through parasitism on a host.[7] A lineage can also dispense with complexity when a particular complex trait merely provides no selective advantage in a particular environment. Loss of this trait need not necessarily confer a selective advantage, but may be lost due to the accumulation of mutations if its loss does not confer an immediate selective disadvantage.[8] For example, a parasitic organism may dispense with the synthetic pathway of a metabolite where it can readily scavenge that metabolite from its host. Discarding this synthesis may not necessarily allow ...
However, one of the sleepers escapes and unleashes a portion of the virus onto a bus as a test of its virulence. From a video ... Sophia informs President Martinez that she believes Thomas intends to steal uranium from a nuclear power plant to open a portal ... Meanwhile, Sean and Vicky board a plane headed back for the U.S. with the hopes of catching the virus but they arrive too late ... Leila has given up hope, but Sean begs her to fight the virus with all her might. Meanwhile, Sterling finds a report on Dr. ...
1992)[156] (incompetent host for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus) but it is important for feeding the ticks,[157] as red deer and ... ornamental plants and perennial groundcover (about a quarter), and lawns (about 30 times less).[130] Ixodes larvae and nymphs ...
The plant densities for lentils vary between genotypes, seed size, planting time and growing conditions and also from region to ... Pea seed-borne mosaic virus Product[edit]. Processing[edit]. A combination of gravity, screens and air flow is used to clean ... In West Asia and North Africa, some lentils are planted as a winter crop before snowfall. Plant growth occurs during the time ... "Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding (The). 76 (4): 530. doi:10.5958/0975-6906.2016.00071.7. ISSN 0019-5200.. ...
Plant epithet. *Sacred grove *In India. *Sacred plants *Bodhi Tree. *Lime tree ... - Educational resources for plant breeding and genomics (Inggeris) ... Selective breeding of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for growth and resistance to Taura syndrome Virus. ... juveniles of a selected line of Penaeus stylirostris are resistant to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus ...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus)ን ክትባት እንደማይከላከለው በጊዜው ከሚያውቁት ሳይንቲስቶችና የበሽታ መከላከያ ክትባት ሠሪዎች ኣንዱ በመሆናቸው በሽታው ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ሊያስከትል ከሚችለው ... 1,223] Plant Names ስመ እጸዋት. *[1,224] ዶ/ር ዓለሙ ቢፍቱ Dr. Alemu Beeftu 1992 ...
"The Plant Cell Online. 12 (7): 1031-1040. doi:10.1105/tpc.12.7.1031. ISSN 1040-4651. PMC 149047. PMID 10899972.. ... are commonly used in biomedical research for the purpose of recombinant protein expression using insect-specific viruses called ... but the species has been noted to consume over 80 different plants.[11] Armyworms earned their common name by eating all plant ... Pest of crop plants[edit]. Because of their food preferences, fall armyworm larvae can wreak havoc on a wide range of crops. ...
Plant * sw:Plant. Plasma * sw:Plasma. Plastic * sw:Plastic. Plate tectonics * sw:Plate tectonics. Plato * sw:Plato. Plough * sw ... Virus * sw:Virusi. Vladimir Lenin * sw:Vladimir Lenin. Volcano * sw:Volkeno. Volga River * sw:Volga (mto). Voltaire * sw: ...
The plant material also needs to be ground as part of this process to expose the starch to the water. ... Before conversion of starch to glucose can begin, the starch must be separated from the plant material. This includes removing ...
... (SoMV) is a pathogenic plant virus, infecting potato and grapevine. Infected species present chlorotic ... apple latent virus 2 chenopodium mosaic virus chenopodium seed-borne mosaic virus chenopodium star mottle virus ... This plant virus article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Retrieved from "" ...
"Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature 408. Páxs. 796-815. ... "Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing ...
Kron, Kathleen A; Chase, Mark W. Molecular systematics and seed plant phylogeny: a summary of a parsimony analysis of rbcL ... 1995). Molecular basis of virus evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521022897. .. ... "Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from ... "Runcaria, a Middle Devonian Seed Plant Precursor. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2011. Pristupljeno 22. 3 ...
This includes non-native invasive plant species labeled as exotic pest plants and invasive exotics growing in native plant ... 1999). "Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States". Science. ... Hierro, J.L.; R.M. Callaway (2003). "Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion". Plant and Soil. 256 (1): 29-39. doi:10.1023/A: ... Invasive plant pathogens and insect vectors for plant diseases can also suppress agricultural yields and nursery stock. Citrus ...
Huc venite iuvenes ut exeatis viri. Γνώσεσθε τὴν αλήθειαν. Gnôsesthe tên Alêtheian. ... HSVFD, Company 2, is located on the south end of campus near the water tower and the physical plant. Contrary to popular belief ...
The plant-infecting picorna-like viruses have a number of properties that are distinct from the animal viruses.The ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ... Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: Aquamavirus ...
It is likely that the refugees and ships carried the yellow fever virus and mosquitoes. The virus is transmitted by mosquito ... the poisonous root of a Mexican plant, Ipomoea purga, related to the morning glory, which was dried and powdered before ...
... can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... Plants and other organisms consume the latter.[181]. In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ... One group is exemplified by the Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 ("Pleolipoviridae") infecting halophilic archaea[137] and the ...
Mutations in maize promoters affect the expression of the promoter genes in a plant-organ-specific manner.[29] A duplication of ... MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1.[44] Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... "Plant Physiology. 173 (1): 715-727. doi:10.1104/pp.16.01504. PMC 5210749. PMID 27881725.. ... In the history of Earth, the development of Earth's aerobic atmosphere resulted in an iron deficiency in plants.[46] Compared ...
Virucide (also viricide) - an agent capable of destroying or inhibiting viruses. Vulpicide (also vulpecide)- the killing of a ... an agent that kills unwanted plants, a weed killer. Insecticide - an agent that kills unwanted insects. Larvicide (also ...
Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ... plant viruses must use strategies that are usually different from animal viruses. Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant ... Plant Viruses Online, a full list of plant viruses DPVweb, on-line plant virus database ... Plant viruses are pathogenic to higher plants. Although plant viruses are not nearly as well understood as the animal ...
... studies of plant viruses have broken paths in many fields of biology. More recently, studies of plant viruses have also been ... of infection Plant virome assembly Plant-virus coevolution Time scale of plant virus evolution Virus coinfection Virus-virus ... Rice yellow mottle virus, an RNA plant virus, evolves as rapidly as most RNA animal viruses. J Virol. 2008a;82:3584-9.PubMed ... studies of plant viruses have broken paths in many fields of biology. More recently, studies of plant viruses have also been ...
Viruses of plant pathogenic fungi.. Ghabrial SA1, Suzuki N.. Author information. 1. Plant Pathology Department, University of ... Such fungal-virus systems are valuable for the development of novel biocontol strategies and for gaining an insight into the ... The availability of viral and host genome sequences and of transformation and transfection protocols for some plant pathogenic ... Mycoviruses are widespread in all major groups of plant pathogenic fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell ...
However, scientists have discovered plant viruses from as early as 1917 containing information crucial not only for plant ...
Plant virus movement proteins.. Deom CM1, Lapidot M, Beachy RN.. Author information. 1. Department of Plant Pathology, ...
... John Leyden, The Register 2005-03-17. Utility companies are been urged to review cyber ... Gateway Security and anti-virus products) for use in the electricity generation and distribution industry.. Justin Lowe, PA ... a case where the Slammer worm affected the operation of the corporate network at Ohios inactive Davis-Besse nuclear plant and ...
... passage of virus through the cell wall; (2) entry of virus or its nucleic acid into cells and then to replicative sites in ... The processes involved in plant virus replication may include (1) ... 1979) Translation of plant virus messenger RNAs. Adv. Virus Res. 25, 1-91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Coat Protein Plant Virus Tobacco Rattle Virus Translation Initiation Site Replicative Intermediate These keywords were added by ...
The virus causes plants to produce aphid-attracting odors. At the same time, it makes the plant […] ... it changes the way host plants smell. Its a neat example of evolutionary exploitation and a lesson in how managing the ... The cucumber mosaic virus uses a clever subterfuge to spread - ... The virus causes plants to produce aphid-attracting odors. At ... The virus causes plants to produce aphid-attracting odors. At the same time, it makes the plant sickly. Bugs arrive at the ...
... Terry Hanzlik terryh at Tue Jan 17 00:38:43 EST 1995 *Previous message: Plant ... Genomic RNA of an insect virus directs synthesis of infectious virions in plants. *Previous message: Plant viruses affecting ... The flockhouse virus of the Nodaviridae (bipartitite single stranded RNA genome of 3.1 and 1.4 kb) is pathogenic to beetles in ... New Zealand, can grow vigorously in mammalian as well as drosophila cells, and can infect plants. See Selling, Allison and ...
Many plant viruses divide their coding capacity into multiple genomic segments, hence are referred to as multi‐component ... Multi‐partite plant viruses can be found in almost all major plant virus families, with different genome materials (RNA or DNA ... Plant viruses with most genome segments are plant‐infecting reoviruses, containing 10-12 double‐stranded RNA segments package ... Mielke‐Ehret N and Muhlbach H‐P (2012) Emaravirus: A novel genus of multipartite, negative strand RNA plant viruses. Viruses 4 ...
... characterization and detection of viruses infecting plants. Various methods based on biological, physico-chemical, serological ... and nucleic acid properties of the viruses are dealt in detail. ... Characterization of Plant Viruses Book Subtitle. Methods and ... plant pathology, plant biology and molecular biology, offering them a practical manual on various aspects of plant viruses. ... Characterization of Plant Viruses Methods and Protocols. Authors: Bhat, Alangar Ishwara, Rao, Govind Pratap ...
Reuters) - A nuclear power plant in Germany has been found to be infected with computer viruses, the stations operator said on ... A nuclear power plant in Germany has been found to be infected with computer viruses, but they appear not to have posed a ... Reuters) - A nuclear power plant in Germany has been found to be infected with computer viruses, but they appear not to have ... The viruses, which include "W32.Ramnit" and "Conficker," were discovered at Gundremmingens B unit in a computer system ...
However, successful virus infection can overcome antiviral RNA silencing. During the plant-virus arms race, plants have evolved ... NLR-mediated plant immunity against viruses was recognized and deployed in crop production about a hundred years ago. NLR ... Plant Dicer-like (DCL) enzymes process viral RNAs into small interfering (si)RNA to guide plant endonuclease Agonautes to ... Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. Their genomes are usually small and only encode a few products that are essential ...
Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive ... specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. ... New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant ... Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their ...
Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive. ... By linking this protein to the virus, she could follow the virus infection through the plant. In plants infected by the cowpea ... Knowledge about how viruses spread within plants could lead to strategies for obtaining virus-resistant plants. ### ... A virus can quickly and completely infect a plant by spreading through the plants vascular system. This is analogous to human ...
A viral pathogen that typically infects plants has been found in honeybees and could help explain their decline. Researchers ... Notably, about 5% of known plant viruses are pollen-transmitted and thus potential sources of host-jumping viruses. RNA viruses ... Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Chronic Paralysis Virus (CPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV), ... Pathogenic plant virus jumps to honeybees. American Society for Microbiology. Journal. mBio. Keywords. *AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ...
Dragonfly virus strikes U.S. power plants. Cyberattacks seek to control or even sabotage Americas energy grid. By F. Michael ... WASHINGTON - U.S. and European energy companies have become the target of a "Dragonfly" virus out of Eastern Europe that goes ... gas pipelines and power plants - all with the click of a computer mouse. ...
Earlier this week 13 Chrysler plants went dark for up to 50 minutes when an attack by the malicious yet extremely effective ... this week 13 Chrysler plants went dark for up to 50 minutes when an attack by the malicious yet extremely effective Zotob virus ...
Plant viral pathogens Is the Subject Area "Plant viral pathogens" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Plant-insect interactions Is the Subject Area "Plant-insect interactions" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Biosecurity Implications of New Technology and Discovery in Plant Virus Research * View Page ...
The shells of a common plant virus, inhaled into a lung tumor or injected into ovarian, colon or breast tumors, not only ... Simple shell of plant virus sparks immune response against cancer. Published Wednesday 23 December 2015 Published Wed 23 Dec ... "Simple shell of plant virus sparks immune response against cancer." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 23 Dec. 2015. Web. ... The shells of a common plant virus, inhaled into a lung tumor or injected into ovarian, colon or breast tumors, not only ...
Knowledge about how viruses spread within plants could lead to strategies for obtaining virus-resistant plants. The research ... By linking this protein to the virus, she could follow the virus infection through the plant. In plants infected by the cowpea ... A virus can quickly and completely infect a plant by spreading through the plant s vascular system. This is analogous to human ... and the plant gradually dies. It is estimated that on a worldwide scale, plant viruses cause more than fifty thousand million ...
Georgia lab sleuths plant viruses. Over the past decade alone, viruses have cost farmers hundreds of millions of dollars in ... Unfortunately, that same weather is perfect for plant diseases, too.. Over the past decade alone, viruses have cost farmers ... Since it was a new virus and no one else was doing any kind of work on that particular virus, we decided for us to save some of ... By the 1990s, it was at epidemic levels, particularly on peanut and tobacco plants, said Alex Csinos, a CAES plant pathologist. ...
The epidemiology of plant virus diseases concernsthe cyclical development of virus diseases within plant populations in time ... Most plant viruses are transmitted by vectors, mainly insects.. *A noticeable number of plant viruses have been found to pass ... Thresh JM (1986) Plant virus disease forecasting. In: MacLean GD, Garrett RG and Ruesink WG (eds) Plant Virus Epidemics: ... The epidemiology of plant virus diseases concerns the cyclical development of virus diseases within plant populations in time ...
... Dataset homepage. Citation. Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information. Korean Plant ... As plant virus research is the science which requires expensive equipments such as electron microscopy and ultracentrifuge, it ... The process such as virus images, symptoms, or identification that using expensive electron microscopy is needed experts ... Virus Database. Occurrence dataset accessed via on 2021-05-17. Description. ...
Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that ... The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, ... This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant ... including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the ...
The company has 1,483 employees at the plant. ... plant in Council Bluffs have tested positive for the virus, ... 224 workers at Council Bluffs plant test positive for virus By DAVID PITT ... The company has 1,483 employees at the plant. "More than half of individuals who tested positive did not show any symptoms and ... have revealed that 224 employees of a Tyson beef and pork processing plant in Council Bluffs have tested positive for the virus ...
A herbal remedy is effective against the Ebola virus. The natural compound silvestrol reduces the number of pathogens in ...
All cells in microbes, fungi, plants and mammals employ RNA silencing. However, viruses are known to fight back using RNA ... In plants, it serves as an antiviral defense, and small RNA pathways serve as a defense against viruses and other invading ... Through RNA silencing, plant cells recognize this viral genetic material, remember and copy it so that other cells in the ... Invading viruses carry genetic material that controls the host cells machinery and tricks it into producing proteins and new ...
The team re-engineered plant viruses to produce high levels of specially designed "virus-like" nanoparticles in tobacco plants ... in a tobacco plant using an engineered plant virus. Researchers are enlisting plants in the battle against norovirus, swine flu ... Purification from plant extracts is simpler because there are no infectious agents to clean up. There are no viruses in plants ... "Tobacco Plants Yield The First Vaccine For The Dreaded Cruise Ship Virus." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 19 Aug. ...
A short account is given of a new technique, the protoplast-culture of plant viruses. The omiss ... In the sixth edition of Plant Viruses, each section has been brought up to date and some additions made. ... Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Virus Particles. Plant Viruses in situ in Plant and Vector ... Assembly of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Particle. Incomplete Viruses. Satellite Viruses. Viroids ...
  • Plant defenses against viral infection include, among other measures, the use of siRNA in response to dsRNA. (
  • The structure of a virus is given by its coat of proteins, which surround the viral genome. (
  • Blawid R, Silva JMF, Nagata T. Discovering and sequencing new plant viral genomes by next-generation sequencing: description of a practical pipeline. (
  • The availability of viral and host genome sequences and of transformation and transfection protocols for some plant pathogenic fungi will contribute to progress in fungal virology. (
  • Bisaro, D. M. and Siegel, A. (1980) A new viral RNA species in tobacco rattle virus-infected tissue. (
  • Erikson, J. W. and Bancroft, J. B. (1981) Melting of viral RNA by coat protein : assembly strategies for elongated plant viruses. (
  • Furthermore, those with ssRNA genomes may encode viral proteins on the genome strand ([+] sense RNA viruses), the complementary strand ([−] sense RNA viruses) of the genomic RNA or both (ambisense RNA viruses). (
  • Plant viruses impose a serious threat on agriculture, which motivates extensive breeding efforts for viral resistant crops and inspires lasting interests on basic research to understand the mechanisms underlying plant immunity against viruses. (
  • Plants evolved multilayers of defense mechanisms to defeat viral infection. (
  • Plant Dicer-like (DCL) enzymes process viral RNAs into small interfering (si)RNA to guide plant endonuclease Agonautes to repress viral gene expression. (
  • NLR proteins function as receptors inside plant cells and trigger rapid host defense upon recognition of viral avirulence products, usually associated with hypersensitive response. (
  • Besides NLR and DCL triggered viral immunity, translation inhibition is also involved in plant resistance against viruses. (
  • In addition, recessive resistance to virus is also identified, such as PVY resistance conferred by certain allele of translation initiation factor eIF4E, which is not compatible with viral protein genome-linked (VPg) protein. (
  • We welcome research papers, short communications, reviews, and methods focused on the mechanisms of different forms of plant immunity against virus and application of these knowledge in engineering viral resistant crops. (
  • Plant viruses recruit cellular translation factors not only to translate their viral RNAs but also to regulate their replication and potentiate their local and systemic movement. (
  • New possible targets for antiviral strategies have also been identified following the characterization of other plant translation factors (eIF4A-like helicases, eIF3, eEF1A and eEF1B) that specifically interact with viral RNAs and proteins and regulate various aspects of the infection cycle. (
  • Understanding the mechanisms that control the development of natural viral resistance and the emergence of virulent isolates in response to these plant defense responses will provide the basis for the selection of new sources of resistance and for the intelligent design of engineered resistance that is broad-spectrum and durable. (
  • A viral pathogen that typically infects plants has been found in honeybees and could help explain their decline. (
  • Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Chronic Paralysis Virus (CPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV), Deformed Wing Bee Virus (DWV), Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV) and Sacbrood Virus (SBV) are other known causes of honeybee viral disease. (
  • The increasing prevalence of TRSV in conjunction with other bee viruses is associated with a gradual decline of host populations and supports the view that viral infections have a significant negative impact on colony survival," these researchers conclude. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Plant viral pathogens" applicable to this article? (
  • And no disease has caused more problems than the tomato spotted wilt virus, the disease that prompted the viral lab's creation. (
  • Every crop we put in fields is susceptible to many viruses in Georgia," said Stephen Mullis, a research professional with the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, who oversees the viral lab. (
  • Through RNA silencing, plant cells recognize this viral genetic material, remember and copy it so that other cells in the organism can be warned to destroy the virus. (
  • These results demonstrate that the virus-specific member of the HSP70 family of molecular chaperones functions in intercellular translocation and represents an additional type of a plant viral-movement protein. (
  • He was able to detect and isolate the viral DNA which had replicated inside the plant. (
  • The mobility of animals increases the mechanisms of viral transmission that have evolved, whereas plants remain immobile and thus plant viruses must rely on environmental factors to be transmitted between hosts. (
  • Vectors either transmit the virus propagative transmission, which results in an amplification of the virus by replication within the cells of the vector, or non-propagative transmission which simply carries the virus between the plants without viral replication. (
  • Nevertheless, the rigidity of the cell wall of plant cells, not only poses a problem for transmission of the viruses between different plant hosts, but also acts to prevent viral transmission between cells. (
  • Here, we review the tools utilized by positive-sense single-stranded (+ss) RNA plant viruses to initiate non-canonical translation, focusing on cis -acting sequences present in viral mRNAs. (
  • Finally, future research perspectives on the unusual translational strategies of +ssRNA viruses are discussed, including parallelisms between viral and host mRNAs mechanisms of translation, particularly for host mRNAs which are translated under stress conditions. (
  • Viral mRNA translation is a paradigmatic illustration of this, as the hallmark of viruses is that their genomes do not code for a protein synthesis apparatus. (
  • 2013 ), and in fact the host range of a given virus may be determined by its ability to efficiently translate viral mRNAs using host translation factors, as we have shown recently for a plant virus (Truniger et al. (
  • These Proceedings evolved from the OECD Co-operative Research Programme workshop on 'Potential ecological impact of transgenic plants expressing viral sequencies', held at the Agricultural Biotechnology Center in Gödöllö, Hungary on 24-26 April 1997. (
  • This viral hijacking of WRKY20 spatiotemporally redeployed plant chemical immunity within the leaf and had the asymmetrical benefiting effects on the begomoviruses and its whitefly vectors while negatively affecting two nonvector competitors. (
  • The rapid identification of virally-infected crops allowing containment is essential to limit such threats, but plant viral diseases can be extremely challenging to diagnose. (
  • Many viral studies have used a metagenomic approach for studying biodiversity, where environmental samples are analyzed for virus sequences after some enrichment for viruses, but plant virologists have used a different approach, where individual plants have been sampled [4] . (
  • Understanding capsid assembly following recombinant expression of viral structural proteins is critical to the design and modification of virus-like nanoparticles for biomedical and nanotechnology applications. (
  • This study represents the first evidence that honeybees exposed to virus-contaminated pollen could also be infected and raises awareness of potential risks of new viral disease emergence due to host shift events. (
  • They describe the subtle interplay between three components of the viral infection process, the virus itself, the plant cell hosts infected by the virus and the vectors that act as go-betweens-an intricate system evolving over some 450 million years. (
  • Using this approach, the team was able to broaden the recognition ability of a sensor protein that normally detects the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae to detect two different viral pathogens, turnip mosaic virus and tobacco etch virus, expanding the disease resistance of the plant. (
  • The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b protein not only inhibits anti-viral RNA silencing but also quenches transcriptional responses of plant genes to jasmonic acid, a key signalling molecule in defence against insects. (
  • And there is evidence accumulating to suggest certain Potyviridae multiply in plants and fungi, and someone in our institute is convinced a certain relatively obscure plant virus is in fact also a phage. (
  • Viruses of plant pathogenic fungi. (
  • Mycoviruses are widespread in all major groups of plant pathogenic fungi. (
  • All cells in microbes, fungi, plants and mammals employ RNA silencing. (
  • The application of bacteria, fungi and viruses to achieving this goal has received increasingly great attention over the last three decades. (
  • We know how important bacteria and fungi are for the health of plants. (
  • These viruses are known to infect both plants and fungi and are extremely persistent, plaguing "their hosts from generation to generation by transmission through seeds and can remain in their hosts for very long time periods," Roossinck's team explains in a paper published in the Journal of Virology . (
  • Wild plants are almost always colonized by a number of microbes, including fungi, bacteria and viruses. (
  • While analyzing cobs, the scientists isolated three nearly complete genomes of a previously unknown virus of the family Chrysoviridae, which infect plants and fungi. (
  • most farmers consider viruses and fungi potential threats to their crops, these microbes can help wild plants adapt to extreme conditions, according to a Penn State virologist. (
  • Interestingly, in filamentous brown Fungi and other higher Fungi, zoospore formation is frequently associated with reactivation of species-specific persistent virus replication. (
  • After the discovery of a novel plant-fungus-virus three-way mutualistic symbiosis that allows plants to grow in geothermal soils in Yellowstone National Park her interests expanded to include viruses of fungi. (
  • She is an expert in virus diversity and biodiversity, and has done extensive work on complex interactions between beneficial viruses and their hosts that are involved in adaptation of plants and fungi to extreme environments. (
  • Fungi have genes that produce proteins, called effectors, which cause disease in plants. (
  • Viruses are justly feared as ingenious pathogens, causing diseases in everything they invade, including virtually all bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. (
  • Viruses are unique from bacteria and fungi because they are not classified as living organisms. (
  • Hull R (2001) Matthew's Plant Virology, 4th edn. (
  • Given its scope, the book will be a valuable resource for every laboratory, student and teacher, and for everyone interested in plant virology, plant pathology, plant biology and molecular biology, offering them a practical manual on various aspects of plant viruses. (
  • Having obtained his PhD from the ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, he has 28 years of research experience in Plant Virology and has contributed significantly to the identification, characterization, diagnostics and management of viruses. (
  • He received his PhD in Plant Virology from Gorakhpur University in 1986 and pursued his postdoctoral research at the University of Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA (1994) and at Cedex, Montpellier, France (1998). (
  • Gildow's research focuses on plant virology and insect transmission of plant viruses , with an emphasis on virus transmission by aphids. (
  • For the past century, plant virology and the American Phytopathological Society have a deeply intertwined history. (
  • What follows is a brief review of the origins of our understanding of "the nature of the virus," deciphering the basis of host-pathogen interaction, and vignettes of the early TMV workers who developed many of the tools and techniques that have become part of the definition of what it is "to be" a virologist or "to do" virology. (
  • The researchers, who report their findings in the current issue of the Journal of Virology , noted that chrysoviruses are persistent plant viruses that are transmitted from generation to generation through seeds and can remain in their hosts for very long time periods. (
  • Mahtab Peyambari et al, A 1,000-Year-Old RNA Virus, Journal of Virology (2018). (
  • Recent advances in the field of virology, however, suggest that viruses play a more significant and complex role than previously appreciated, and may be essential to the functioning of diverse ecosystems. (
  • Recent studies in the field of virology have shown that viruses are sometimes beneficial to the organisms they infect. (
  • This volume is of relevance to researchers working in the fields of plant parasitology, plant pest control or plant virology. (
  • Daubert, S. D., Bruening, G. and Najarian, R. C. (1978) Protein bound to the genome RNAs of cowpea mosaic virus. (
  • El Manna, M. M. and Bruening, G. (1973) Polyadenylate sequences in the ribonucleic acids of cowpea mosaic virus. (
  • Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic virus could not penetrate the vascular system of some tobacco plants. (
  • Plants from the tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana died when the researchers infected a leaf of the plant with cowpea mosaic virus. (
  • Santos Silva discovered that the cowpea mosaic virus could even penetrate the vascular system via the existing channel connections without enlarging them. (
  • In plants infected by the cowpea mosaic virus, the leaves become yellow and rot, and the plant gradually dies. (
  • That something--the hard coating of cowpea mosaic virus--caused no detectible side effects, which are a common problem with traditional therapies and some immunotherapies. (
  • The cowpea virus-based nanoparticles act like a switch that turns on the immune system to recognize and fight against the tumor - as well as to remember it," said Nicole Steinmetz, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Case Western Reserve, appointed by the Case Western Reserve School of Medicine. (
  • The cowpea virus shell, with its infectious components removed, acts as the adjuvant--a substance that triggers and may enhance or prolong antigen-specific immune responses. (
  • They used cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) constructs developed in the Lomonossoff lab at the John Innes Centre. (
  • Come hear the John Innes Centre Professor talk about the blurred lines between basic and translational research, using the tobacco and cowpea mosaic viruses as examples. (
  • The scientific team is led by the University of Verona with the help of the John Innes Centre who developed constructs of the cowpea mosaic virus to target diabetes. (
  • We chose to investigate the use of Affimer reagents, artificial binding proteins and a model plant virus Cowpea Mosaic virus (CPMV) empty virus like particles (eVLPs). (
  • Cowpea mosaic virus also carried its payload 30 centimeters deep below the surface, but it can only carry a fraction of the payload that Tobacco mild green mosaic virus can carry. (
  • The second most common structure amongst plant viruses are isometric particles. (
  • Strikingly, most of characterised dsRNA viruses have 10-12 genome segments packaged in the same virus particles. (
  • Finally, the genomes of multi‐component DNA plant viruses are almost always single‐stranded, circular, and each of the segments (up to eight) is packaged in separate particles. (
  • Nanoviruses are small viruses with up to eight single‐stranded, circular DNA genomes separately packaged in isometric particles. (
  • Morphology and Ultrastructure of the Virus Particles. (
  • Geminiviruses are small plant viruses characterized by a covalently closed circular single stranded (ss) DNA encapsidated in twined (geminate) particles. (
  • Immune cells would steer the vaccine particles into the lymph system and spleen, which would produce antibodies to the virus and, more importantly, HER2 protein, thereby providing a long-lasting protective immunity to HER2+ cancer. (
  • Researchers have taken positive steps towards using plant virus-based particles for the treatment of human autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • It is relatively simple to filter virus particles from water but isolating them from a slurry is far more complicated. (
  • Peptides were also inserted into the peptide sequence of the tomato bushy stunt virus to obtain the chimeric particles and use it against rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Lab testing showed that the plant-made virus particles, which naturally bind to receptors on cancer cells , were taken in by human breast cancer cells . (
  • Here, we use plant-based transient expression of the Bluetongue virus (BTV) structural proteins, VP3 and VP7, to obtain high yields of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encapsidating core-like particles (CLPs) from leaves. (
  • The infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants with the recombinant GFP-PVX and mCherry-PVX particles was documented by fluorescence imaging, structural analysis and genetic characterization to determine the stability of the chimeras and optimize the molecular farming protocols. (
  • Thus, RNA viruses are a likely source of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases," explain these researchers. (
  • Unfortunately, that same weather is perfect for plant diseases, too. (
  • The epidemiology of plant virus diseases concerns the cyclical development of virus diseases within plant populations in time and space. (
  • The main factors that influence the epidemiology of plant virus diseases involve the viruses, the plant hosts and the vectors. (
  • Knowledge of these factors is fundamental to the choice and improvement of control methods to prevent or eliminate plant virus diseases. (
  • Plant viruses are a concern for agriculture as virus diseases can cause qualitative and/or quantitative losses of yield. (
  • Understanding of epidemiological processes is fundamental to the choice and improvement of control methods to eliminate the diseases that viruses cause. (
  • Researchers are enlisting plants in the battle against norovirus, swine flu , bird flu , and other leading infectious diseases. (
  • In both projects, researchers will manipulate plant viruses the size of nanoparticles to deliver protection from these killer diseases but in very different ways. (
  • More than 20% of virus diseases are spread via seed where the virus is mostly in the cells required for growth, but some are in the seed coat. (
  • All virus diseases will be transferred from infected parent plants through new bulbs, corms, tubers, stolons, and cuttings. (
  • If successful it could pave the way for the development of plant viruses for the clinical treatment of human autoimmune diseases. (
  • 'Prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases with plant virus nanoparticles' appears in Science Advances. (
  • This is an opportunity for further research on plant viruses being used for the clinical treatment of human autoimmune diseases. (
  • Affimer reagents as tools in diagnosing plant virus diseases. (
  • In the first case, scientists took advantage of the natural ability of Agrobacterium to transfer some of its wild genes to plant cells causing the diseases known as crown gall or hairy roots, and replace them by other genes expressing traits of agronomic interest. (
  • RNA viruses have extremely high mutation rates and thus represent a significant source of these infectious diseases. (
  • Opuntia diseases occasionally occur, and one of the more common is Sammons' Opuntia virus. (
  • A single virus may cause diseases in more than one plant species, and the symptoms in each plant may be distinct. (
  • Testing of these herbal extracts against live Ebola virus by the U.S. Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) in Fort Detrick, Maryland in their BSL-4 laboratory found that it "demonstrated an ability to inhibit infection of culture cells with an authentic Ebola/Zaire virus. (
  • More recently virus research has been focused on understanding the genetics and molecular biology of plant virus genomes, with a particular interest in determining how the virus can replicate, move and infect plants. (
  • Baltimore, D. (1971) Expression of animal virus genomes. (
  • These include viruses with either RNA or DNA genomes, in either single‐stranded (ss) or double‐stranded (ds) conformations. (
  • Plant virus genomes can be non‐segmented (monopartite) or segmented (multi‐partite). (
  • RNA viruses tend to be particularly dangerous because they lack the 3'-5' proofreading function which edits out errors in replicated genomes. (
  • However, the infection didn't show up as an outward symptom of the disease, and to prove the plant was infected Delwart sequenced the genomes of newly-grown leaves on the plant. (
  • We also describe other translation strategies used by plant viruses to optimize the usage of the coding capacity of their very compact genomes, including leaky scanning initiation, ribosomal frameshifting and stop-codon readthrough. (
  • The great majority have an RNA genome, which is usually small and single stranded (ss), but some viruses have double-stranded (ds) RNA, ssDNA or dsDNA genomes. (
  • Roossinck's team determined the age of the virus via carbon dating and managed to extract three nearly complete genomes of the new chrysovirus. (
  • However, persistent viruses have very stable genomes. (
  • Since it was a new virus and no one else was doing any kind of work on that particular virus, we decided for us to save some of our crops from the destruction from this virus we needed to start our own laboratory on site to take care of the needs and requirements of the researchers that were studying the disease. (
  • Weeds and other wild plants play a key role as alternative virus reservoirs and as a source of novel viruses which can potentially infect crops. (
  • Control strategies basically focus on the elimination of virus sources and the avoidance of spatio-temporal coincidences between viruses, vectors and crops. (
  • New GM crops it has pressed to build on South Africa's main maize and cotton GM crops include sweet potatoes in Kenya, which are resistant to the feathery mottle virus and also disease-resistant bananas. (
  • However tobacco, as all other successful crops, is often subject to continuous cultivation as monocultures (planting large tracts of a single crop, often times year-after-year in the same plot of land). (
  • It is in cultivated plants, mainly food crops, that virus infection is of most concern. (
  • Pathogen-specific viruses can be successfully used to fight a disease that decimates some of the world's major food crops, a new study has found. (
  • The Native American tribes that inhabited the area planted a variety of crops, including maize, beans, and squash. (
  • CGMMV is a soil-borne plant virus which affects cucurbit crops such as watermelons, pumpkins, zucchinis and cucumbers, but is not harmful to humans. (
  • Genetically modified crops are generated through a process known as genetic engineering, in which genes of interest are transferred to plants without the need of natural crossing. (
  • The Ancestral Puebloans who lived in the canyon planted crops such as maize, beans and squash. (
  • Roger Plumb has spent more than 30 years working on the epidemiology and transmission of plant viruses, mainly of temperate cereals but also of tropical and subtropical crops. (
  • The deployment of virus-resistant crops often leads to the emergence of resistance-breaking (RB) pathogens that suppress the yield benefit provided by the resistance. (
  • To transfer this immunity, de Wit's research group cross-fertilised wild species containing these immune genes with crops such as tomato plants. (
  • Plant viruses can be just as devastating for agricultural crops and the security of food supply as some of the world's most notorious viruses, SARS-CoV-2 among them, have been for the human population. (
  • Virologists at the James Hutton Institute and its forerunner research organisations have studied a wide variety of viruses that infect a range of crops in the UK and around the world. (
  • Chemical pesticides are commonly sprayed on crops to repel insects and maximize plant health. (
  • Of the more than 200 described species of the genus Brevipalpus only three were identified as vectors of several destructive plant viruses since 1940, causing losses on a variety of crops with damages of tens of millions of dollars. (
  • Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). (
  • but as Terry Hanzlik pointed out, flock house nodavirus infects plants (done in your institution) AND insects, and can multiply in cells of a number of animal cell lines. (
  • In the PNAS study, Mescher's team showed how aphids - tiny, ubiquitous insects that feed on plant sap - preferred infected squash plants, though they left shortly after landing. (
  • Most plant viruses are transmitted by vectors, mainly insects. (
  • Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. (
  • Here, we show that Begomovirus , the largest genus of plant viruses and transmitted exclusively by whitefly, reprogram plant immunity to promote the fitness of the vector and suppress performance of nonvector insects (i.e., cotton bollworm and aphid). (
  • Plants in a non-agricultural setting interact with many other living entities such as animals, insects, and other plants, as well as their physical environment. (
  • and plant-feeding insects ( [3] , and references therein). (
  • This chapter examines the deep issues concerning the origin and evolution of land plants, insects, and their viruses together. (
  • The chapter examines the relationship of algae to the evolution of higher green plants and considers the oceanic crustaceans along with their viruses and the evolution of terrestrial insects. (
  • The chapter presents the overall patterns of host plant evolution and then addresses the evolution of host insects. (
  • Due to their enormous numbers, hexapods will be the main focus of this discussion of viruses and the origin of insects. (
  • The major groups of viruses of insects are clearly distinct from those found in both plants and animals. (
  • New understanding about the complexity of virus-host interactions that involve plants and insects show that viruses can manipulate the activities of insects that are vectors and pollinators. (
  • A wound can happen naturally, like when roots branch, or they can be introduced when a plant is damaged by nematodes, insects, or pruning. (
  • Sap-feeding insects like leafhoppers, planthoppers, aphids, and whiteflies can transfer viruses from one plant to another. (
  • This suggested that it might affect interactions between infected plants and aphids, insects that transmit CMV. (
  • Viruses in wild plants have been poorly studied, but those studies that exist almost overwhelmingly show that such interactions between wild plants and their viruses do not appear to cause disease in the host plants. (
  • Gaard, G. and DeZoeten, G. A. (1979) Plant virus uncoating as a result of virus cell wall interactions. (
  • The interactions between these factors are complex and depend on the species, strain and isolate of the virus, its host range and the ability of the vector to disseminate the virus. (
  • From these initial studies, plant biologists gained a wealth of information from gene silencing mechanisms and their complex pathways including their mutual multiserial interactions that they express. (
  • Viruses in wild plants have not been well-studied, but the interactions between wild plants and their viruses often do not appear to cause disease in the host plants. (
  • Virus ecology looks at the more complex issues of virus-host-environment interactions. (
  • Viruses may impact any of these interactions [1] . (
  • This book describes, for the main vector groups, the current state of knowledge of what happens to viruses in their passage through their vectors and what interactions within the vector determine whether or not they are passed on to new plants. (
  • Buy Plant Virus Vector Interactions by R.T. Plumb from Australia's Online Independent Bookstore, Boomerang Books. (
  • We'd like to know what you think about it - write a review about Plant Virus Vector Interactions book by R.T. Plumb and you'll earn 50c in Boomerang Bucks loyalty dollars (you must be a Boomerang Books Account Holder - it's free to sign up and there are great benefits! (
  • Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens 30602. (
  • Journal of Plant Pathology 94: 7-19. (
  • Govind Pratap Rao is a Principal Scientist (Plant Pathology) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. (
  • One consequence of such high replication rates are populations of RNA viruses thought to exist as "quasispecies," clouds of genetically related variants that appear to work together to determine the pathology of their hosts. (
  • Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The Beginning of Plant Pathology. (
  • This is a commonly accepted premise in plant pathology - resistance to a disease is found in the area native for the particular plant species (1). (
  • The credit goes to a team of scientists led by Marilyn Roossinck, a professor of plant pathology and environmental microbiology at Pennsylvania State University. (
  • It's clear from these remains that maize was a major food source for the inhabitants," said lead researcher Marilyn Roossinck, professor of plant pathology and environmental microbiology, College of Agricultural Sciences, Penn State. (
  • In 1995, Advances in Botanical Research was merged with Advances in Plant Pathology to provide one comprehensive resource for the plant science community, with equal coverage of plant pathology and botany in both thematic and mixed volumes. (
  • Now edited by J.A. Callow (University of Birmingham, UK), supported by an international Editorial Board, Advances in Botanical Research publishes in-depth and up-to-date reviews on a wide range of topics which will appeal to post-graduates and researchers in plant sciences including botany, plant biochemistry, plant pathology and plant physiology. (
  • He recently retired as Head of Plant Pathology and Deputy Director from IACR-Rothamsted where he continues to work as a Lawes Trust Senior Fellow. (
  • Currently she is a member of the Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, and a Professor of Virus Ecology, in the Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology at the Pennsylvania State University. (
  • Citation: 'Deceptive chemical signals induced by a plant virus attract insect vectors to inferior hosts. (
  • These sources of genetic diversity, coupled with large population sizes, further facilitate the adaption of RNA viruses to new selective conditions such as those imposed by novel hosts. (
  • Canto T, Aranda MA and Fereres A (2009) Climate change effects on physiology and population processes of hosts and vectors that influence the spread of hemipteran‐borne plant viruses. (
  • Virus infection of plants alters pollinator preference: A payback for susceptible hosts? (
  • Interestingly, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and its economic hosts in the Solanaceae , such as tobacco and tomato, also find their origins in the Americas. (
  • Since viruses are obligate intracellular parasites they must develop direct methods of transmission, between hosts, in order to survive. (
  • Intensive virus research on molecular and biological characterization of viruses and the interaction with their plant hosts is the basis of products as a service for science and development. (
  • and viruses that provide a clear benefit to their plant hosts (mutualists). (
  • However, the study of viruses in non-crop hosts is only now being done, and the results are showing that contrary to the learned opinion of some scientists, we know very little about the viruses in plants [3] . (
  • 3. Viruses that occur on naturally infected weed hosts or originate in an adjoining infected susceptible crop. (
  • The role that viruses have played in the evolution of their hosts has seldom been addressed in the context of either plant or insect evolution. (
  • While intracellular life cycle, species-level genetic variation, and pathogenesis of the virus in honeybee hosts remain to be determined, the increasing prevalence of TRSV in conjunction with other bee viruses from spring toward winter in infected colonies was associated with gradual decline of host populations and winter colony collapse, suggesting the negative impact of the virus on colony survival. (
  • The tree topology indicated that the TRSVs from arthropod hosts shared a common ancestor with those from plant hosts and subsequently evolved as a distinct lineage after transkingdom host alteration. (
  • Because of the virus dependence on cellular translation factors, it is perhaps not surprising that many natural plant recessive resistance genes have been mapped to mutations of translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms, eIFiso4E and eIFiso4G. (
  • This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists. (
  • Scientists have long known that viruses can survive for hundreds or thousands of years - after all, latent smallpox virus genes were discovered in 400-year-old mummies back in 1990. (
  • It has been possible to define additional strategies for crop improvement through the introduction and stable integration of heterologous genes in plant cells with the knowledge of the regulation of the important agronomic characteristics. (
  • However, Agrobacterium is not able to infect all plants in a very efficient way, as a consequence, new systems for direct transfer of genes to plants emerged. (
  • Although breakdowns are well known for plant genes conferring total, i.e. qualitative, resistance to the virus, they are still poorly understood for plant genetic factors conferring partial, i.e. quantitative resistance. (
  • Although it is possible, scientists need to work hard to achieve it, and growers need to grow plants with enough immune genes to prevent new outbreaks of disease. (
  • Luckily, some plants also have immune genes that produce receptors to recognise the effectors and so defend themselves against the fungus. (
  • As they evolve, wild plants also spontaneously develop new immune genes through mutation and recombination, in a manner somewhat comparable to that of our own immune genes, which produce antibodies. (
  • Plants with new immune genes can therefore continue to defend themselves against the pathogen, so that the fungus has no chance. (
  • They search for immune genes in wild plants which they transfer to the cultivated plants, either through cross-fertilisation or genetic modification. (
  • For example, he has identified more than ten effector proteins in the Cladosporium fulvum fungus, and ten immune genes in the wild tomato plant that recognise these effectors. (
  • To give an example, the resistance of a plant with just one immune gene is broken through 10 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 times faster than that of a plant with five immune genes', explains Professor de Wit. (
  • Their sizes vary enormously, from a virus like Ebola, carrying a tiny handful of genes, to recently discovered giant viruses. (
  • A comprehensive portfolio of methods and approaches is available for discovery of "unknown" viruses, the identification of viruses, their isolates and strains and the detection of viruses in plant materials. (
  • the amiRNA targets were fully conserved in all three isolates, indicating virus replication on some transgenics was not a result of mutational escape by the virus. (
  • The DSMZ Plant Virus Department has made great efforts in the past years to further expand the existing range of high quality antisera, comprehensively characterized virus isolates and excellent services. (
  • Several amino acid changes in the envelope glycoprotein gp120, but not in gp41, of the mutant virus isolates were observed. (
  • Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. (
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. (
  • As a rule, viruses do not encode HSP70s, although many have been demonstrated to recruit cellular HSP70s to aid virion assembly or genome replication (see examples in refs. (
  • Using transfection of the isolated plant protoplasts with the corresponding RNA transcripts, we have demonstrated that HSP70h is not involved in the processes of BYV RNA replication and transcription ( 20 , 21 ). (
  • The secondary bacteria, however, may affect the movement, persistence and replication of the viruses, thereby influencing the vectoring efficacy or specificity of the insect in respect to these plant viruses. (
  • molecular weigth 316), was isolated from Larrea tridentata and found to be able to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat-regulated transactivation in vivo, induce protection of lymphoblastoid CEM-SS cells from HIV (strain IIIB) killing, and suppress the replication of five HIV-1 strains (WM, MN, VS, JR-CSF, and IIIB) in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, all in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • Most RNA viruses, with short generation times and error-prone replication, evolve rapidly. (
  • According to the virus-first hypothesis, RNA molecules capable of enzymatic activity and self-replication preceded cellular forms at the dawn of life. (
  • According to the reduction hypothesis, viruses came from small primordial cells that lost their cellular elements in the course of evolution, while retaining their genetic material and the machinery required for replication. (
  • We and others have previously shown that a variety of plant lectins exert a pronounced inhibitory activity against HIV replication in cell cultures ( 4 , 5 , 18 ). (
  • The mode of transmission is a major factor influencing the effects of pathogens on plants,' said Mark Mescher, a Penn State University chemical ecologist. (
  • The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. (
  • Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. (
  • This is an increasingly popular approach to producing pharmaceuticals as it minimizes possible contamination by human pathogens, which plants don't carry. (
  • After all, making a plant immune to one form of fungus is not too hard but, just like flu viruses, fungal plant pathogens continue to develop new variants as they adapt to and elude the plant's immune system. (
  • However, until recently plant breeders were only able to look at the outside of a plant (is it healthy or not), and the pathogens produced such huge quantities of spores that any success was short-lived. (
  • Together with other research groups, such as that run by Jonathan Jones at the Sainsbury Laboratory in Norwich, he laid the foundation for the use of molecular technology in the study of the interaction between plants and their pathogens. (
  • Plants detect pathogens indirectly by sensing the damage they cause within a cell. (
  • Viruses are among the smallest and simplest pathogens. (
  • Almeida RPP, Bennett GM, Anhalt MD, Tsai C-W, O'Grady P. Spread of an introduced vector-borne banana virus in Hawaii. (
  • Local context drives infection of grasses by vector-borne generalist viruses. (
  • Delayed planting has been suggested to reduce density of the bean leaf beetle Cerotoma trifurcata (Förster), the principal vector of Bean pod mottle virus. (
  • Do Secondary Bacterial Endosymbionts of Aphids Affect the Vector Specificity or Transmission Efficiency of Plant Viruses? (
  • Hence, the aim of this primary study is to investigate the effect of secondary bacterial endosymbionts of Sitobion avenae clones in respect of the vector specificity and transmission efficiency of barley yellow dwarf virus, as well as to highlight in general the role of secondary bacteria in virus transmission. (
  • One study showed that an invasive grass species resulted in increased populations of the aphid vector for plant viruses that was detrimental to a native grass species [11] . (
  • The widespread occurrence of the virus and its vector, the potential major impacts on yield, and the impracticality of managing the mites add to the priority of breeding virus-resistant varieties and developing alternative methods of virus control through development of virus-resistant transgenic wheat. (
  • Most plant viruses need an insect vector for transmission, but in almost all cases the virus does not replicate in that insect. (
  • Most viruses that infect plants need an intermediary (vector) for their spread between plants. (
  • Natural mixed infections of plant viruses are frequent, often leading to unpredictable variations in symptoms, infectivity, accumulation and/or vector transmissibility. (
  • An introductory and a concluding chapter present a state-of-the-art report on the knowledge of the viruses transmitted by Brevipalpus, and their relationship to the mite vector. (
  • Cocking, E. C. (1966) An electron-microscopic study of the initial stages of infection of isolated tomato fruit protoplasts by tobacco mosaic virus. (
  • Cocking, E. C. and Pojnar, E. (1969) An electron microscope study of the infection of isolated tomato fruit protoplast by tobacco mosaic virus. (
  • Merkens, W. S. W., De Zoeten, G. A. and Gaard, G. (1972) Observation on ectodesmata and the virus infection process. (
  • However, successful virus infection can overcome antiviral RNA silencing. (
  • By linking this protein to the virus, she could follow the virus infection through the plant. (
  • The routine screening of bees for frequent and rare viruses "resulted in the serendipitous detection of Tobacco Ringspot Virus, or TRSV, and prompted an investigation into whether this plant-infecting virus could also cause systemic infection in the bees," says Yan Ping Chen from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland, an author on the study. (
  • The results of our study provide the first evidence that honeybees exposed to virus-contaminated pollen can also be infected and that the infection becomes widespread in their bodies," says lead author Ji Lian Li, at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science in Beijing. (
  • This tagged virus was competent in cell-to-cell movement, producing multicellular infection foci similar to those formed by the wild-type BYV. (
  • To reveal the function of HSP70h in closterovirus infection, we have employed a reverse-genetic approach on a cDNA clone of a prototype closterovirus, beet yellows virus (BYV). (
  • In Texas, state health investigators said Wednesday they have identified 114 cases of COVID-19 "associated" with a JBS Beef plant and are working to determine whether there's an ongoing source of infection. (
  • The symptoms were described as a mixture of dark green and light green areas, reflecting typical symptoms of a Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection on tobacco (Fig. 1A). (
  • TMV is extremely stable in leaf material and touching a healthy tobacco plant can be sufficient to establish an infection (26,27). (
  • A more problematic cause of colour change is infection by disease-causing viruses or virus-like viroids and phytoplasmas, of which there are hundreds. (
  • Virus infection may result in a variety of symptoms - leaf colour variegation (which may be mottling, stripes or sport) is just one. (
  • As we know from human virus epidemics, animal viruses are almost impossible to control except by avoiding exposure, mounting our own immune system to fight off the infection or by vaccination. (
  • This study addressed the effect of mixed infection on infectivity, pathogenicity and accumulation of CaMV and TuMV in Arabidopsis thaliana plants inoculated mechanically with cDNA infectious clones. (
  • Biodiversity studies of plant viruses show that they are abundant in wild plants, most are new to science, and most have persistent life-styles, meaning that they maintain their infection for many generations and lack horizontal transmission. (
  • Indiana University scientists led by Roger Innes have modified a plant gene that normally fights bacterial infection to confer resistance to a virus. (
  • hybrid and Galanthus nivalis ) inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of human lymphocytic cells in the higher nanogram per milliliter range and suppress syncytium formation between persistently HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells and uninfected CD4 + T cells. (
  • The discovery of plant viruses causing disease is often accredited to A. Mayer (1886) working in the Netherlands demonstrated that the sap of mosaic obtained from tobacco leaves developed mosaic symptom when injected in healthy plants. (
  • In 1898, Martinus Beijerinck, who was a Professor of Microbiology at the Technical University the Netherlands, put forth his concepts that viruses were small and determined that the "mosaic disease" remained infectious when passed through a Chamberland filter-candle. (
  • Advances in plant virus evolution: translating evolutionary insights into better disease management. (
  • Burdon JJ, Chilvers GA. Host density as a factor in plant-disease ecology. (
  • The factors involved in plant virus disease epidemiology, their main components and some of the significant interrelationships exemplified by the pathosystem greenhouse‐grown tomato/whitefly‐transmitted viruses. (
  • Dale JL (1987) Banana bunchy top: an economically important tropical plant virus disease. (
  • Plant Disease 74: 404-411. (
  • Plant Disease Reporter 59: 770-772. (
  • The recent outbreak of H1N1 influenza virus has once again reminded us of the ability of disease-causing agents to mutate into new and dangerous forms," Arntzen points out. (
  • Plant viruses are virtually off the radar screen in terms of human health," says Friedland, who first started investigating a role for plant viruses to see if he could find an agent that could initiate a spontaneous autoimmune response against amyloid [beta], a protein component of the brain plaques associated with Alzheimer disease. (
  • As the Society emerged as a distinct entity in the first decade of the 20th century, viruses were also making their mark as newly described and discovered agents of disease. (
  • As a result of intensive cultivation, tobacco depletes the soil of essential nutrients and the plants become more susceptible to disease. (
  • This new disease caused the plants to take on 'a leaden-gray' color and the tobacco 'was extremely bitter to the taste' (10). (
  • Fortunately, trees and Australian native plants have few virus disease problems and, interestingly, viruses in wild-growing plants don't seem to develop disease, although they have not been studied as well as cultivated plants. (
  • Viruses are named based on the first plant on which it is studied, followed by the most obvious symptom of the disease on that plant, followed by the virus group to which it belongs. (
  • Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterium affects several plants including tomatoes, potatoes and banana. (
  • In 1898, Martinus Beijerinck, who was a Professor of Microbiology at the Technical University the Netherlands, put forth his concepts that viruses were small and determined that the "mosaic disease" remained infectious when passed through a Chamberland filter-candle .This was in contrast to bacteria microorganisms, which were retained by the filter. (
  • Viruses have generally been studied either as disease-causing infectious agents that have a negative impact on the host (most eukaryote-infecting viruses), or as tools for molecular biology (especially bacteria-infecting viruses, or phage). (
  • This was based on over 100 years of studying the disease-causing viruses of crop plants. (
  • The first virus ever studied, Tobacco mosaic virus , was found in a search for the causal agent of a mosaic disease in tobacco [2] . (
  • In addition, while relatives of known acute plant viruses are found, they generally do not cause any apparent disease in wild plants, even though they may cause disease in experimental plants [6] , or nearby crop plants. (
  • Invasives may carry viruses in inapparent infections that cause disease in their native competitors, or they may be more tolerant than natives of viruses that are already in the environment [10] . (
  • The project team sought to determine whether using Papaya mosaic virus nanoparticles as an adjuvant in a malaria vaccine would result in better protection against the disease when compared to alum, the adjuvant most often used in vaccines. (
  • Persistent viruses typically do not cause disease and rarely are detected. (
  • The plant breeders can also better predict whether a plant will be able to resist a pathogen, because they can see how an effector causes disease in a plant with no corresponding immune receptor. (
  • For example, candidate vaccine and diagnostic components against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, bovine papillomavirus and sheep scab mite disease have been produced using such systems. (
  • Sammons' Opuntia virus can be spotted in light yellow rings that appear on the pads of the cactus, earning the disease the alternate name of ringspot virus. (
  • Prior to this people have always seen viruses as disease-causing entities," Varsani says. (
  • It is important to understand that not all viruses cause disease-some can replicated within a host without causing harm to the host. (
  • Pathogenic viruses (that is, viruses that do cause disease) are not always host specific. (
  • Viruses are often transmitted from one plant to another by vectors , e.g., organisms that transmit disease. (
  • Gardeners typically know viruses by their descriptive names that reference the disease they cause, in part because their full scientific classification is somewhat complicated. (
  • An extract of these plant compounds were then provided to the USAMRIID for testing against live Ebola virus in their BSL-4 laboratory, one of only 6 labs in the country designated to contain an infectious disease such as the Ebola virus. (
  • We believe Morehouse School of Medicine and PROMETRA international can play an important role in addressing the Ebola virus disease and possibly other health problems in Africa," he concluded. (
  • During research carried out in the Netherlands, Marilia Santos Silva discovered that some tobacco plants die if a virus infects them, whereas others survive. (
  • The virus often infects many tissues, if not the whole plant, where it can continue to replicate. (
  • It is a positive-stranded, enveloped RNA virus that infects the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and animals. (
  • This is likely to be spread by aphids (image courtesy of The Utah Department of Agriculture and Food, Division of Plant Industry). (
  • Removing infected dying plants and destroying them so that vectors such as aphids do not spread the virus to healthy plants. (
  • Using electrical penetration graph methodology we found that higher proportions of aphids showed sustained phloem ingestion on CMV-infected plants than on CMVD2b-infected or mock-inoculated plants although this did not increase the rate of growth of individual aphids. (
  • RNA silencing was first discovered in transgenic plants, where it was termed co-suppression or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). (
  • Transgenic and non-transgenic plants inoculated with SCMV in the greenhouse. (
  • However, scientists have discovered plant viruses from as early as 1917 containing information crucial not only for plant scientists, but for those in ecology, human health and bioterrorism. (
  • Samples mostly come from research plots, where scientists conduct tests to learn more about viruses and discover ways farmers can treat or prevent them. (
  • As a matter of surprise, plant scientists, during the last decade of twentieth century, developed enthusiasm toward mechanism of gene silencing by virtue of plant transformation experiments, in which the introduction of a transgene into genome led to the silencing of transgene and homologous endogene [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Scientists have successfully revived a 700-year-old virus that was frozen within ancient caribou feces, using it to infect a modern-day plant. (
  • Scientific knowledge of ancient viruses is limited due to poor preservation and low concentrations, but genetic engineering is helping scientists replicate ancient viruses, and study how they interact with contemporary plants. (
  • Scientists knew the virus' host was an amoeba and tried seeing if the ancient virus could prove infectious. (
  • To study if phages could be used to control plant pathogenic R. solanacearum bacterium, the scientists set up a laboratory, greenhouse and field studies to test the efficacy of phage combinations in the tomato plant and the soil in which they were growing. (
  • While this is not the first time that scientists have retrieved an RNA virus from ancient samples - a handful of these viruses were found during archaeological digs over the years - the Zea mays chrysovirus precedes the others by a few hundred years. (
  • Scientists at the Institute are looking at how plant viruses can be used to develop vaccines and diagnostics. (
  • Scientists attempt to deliver pesticides deeper underground using a plant virus: Can farmers trust this risky technique? (
  • The genetically encoded coat proteins of virus nanoparticles (VNPs) can be reprogrammed to incorporate new sequences for specific functions. (
  • Plant viruses are known to have self-assembling nanostructures with versatile and genetically programmable shells. (
  • Currently, the production of genetically modified plants occupies a prominent place in both, basic and applied plant research. (
  • Human activity, especially agricultural activity in the last 10,000 years, has generated large, closely spaced, and genetically homogeneous plant populations, which have frequently been introduced into new habitats. (
  • This technology, which does not use genetically modified plants, involves taking the isolated genetic sequences of the protein of interest and introducing it into plants with non-infectious plant virus components, and after a few days, these sequences drive the rapid and high yield synthesis of the candidate proteins which can then be extracted from the plant. (
  • In this investigation, we sought to develop and study genetically-engineered virus-based biomaterials that incorporate green or red fluorescent proteins. (
  • The most common vectors for plant viruses are homopterans, with their piercing and sucking mouthparts. (
  • Detection of transcript properties and location of the gene encoding the virus inclusion body protein. (
  • Sixty percent of its gene content doesn't resemble anything on Earth ," Chantal Abergel at Aix-Marseille University told Nature about the virus. (
  • Test the protective effect of the coat protein of satellite panicum mosaic virus on the stability of plant virus-derived gene expression vectors. (
  • Test the effect of RNA silencing suppressors on the performance of plant virus-derived gene expression vectors. (
  • Determine the effect of host species background on the performance and stability of plant virus-derived gene expression vectors. (
  • The DNA to be introduced into plant cells is physically attached to metal microparticles that are then propelled against the plant cells, using the gene gun. (
  • A herbal remedy is effective against the Ebola virus. (
  • Ebola virus antigen-positive cells (red) in lung of an insectivorous bat as determined by immunohistochemistry. (
  • Rabbit anti-Ebola virus serum, napthol/fast red with hematoxylin counterstain, original magnification x 250). (
  • May 6, 2015 (Atlanta, GA) - The Andrew J. Young Foundation in partnership with Morehouse School of Medicine and PROMETRA International will hold a press conference to announce the groundbreaking preliminary lab results of indigenous African plant-based extracts against the Ebola virus on Wednesday, May 13, 2015 at 9:00 a.m. in Studio C of the Georgia Public Broadcasting building located at 260 14th Street, NW in Atlanta, Georgia 30318. (
  • Following the Summit, Ambassador Young, Dr. Gbodossou and Dr. Floyd sought assistance from the Task Force on Global Health to identify a BSL-4 laboratory in which to conduct scientific research of an indigenous African plant-based product (supplied by PROMETRA and used by African traditional healers for generations) on live Ebola cells. (
  • The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (
  • Genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement of Cucumber mosaic virus vary in different host plants. (
  • de Assis Filho F, Sherwood J. Evaluation of seed transmission of turnip yellow mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • Butler, P. J. G. and Durham, A. C. H. (1977) Tobacco mosaic virus protein aggregation and the virus assembly. (
  • Covey, S. N. and Hull, R. (1981) Transcription of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA. (
  • Gerola, F. M., Bassi, M., Favali, M. A. and Betto, E. (1969) An electron microscope study of the penetration of tobacco mosaic virus into leaves following experimental inoculation. (
  • Hull, R. and Shepherd, R. J. (1977) The structure of cauliflower mosaic virus genome. (
  • The cucumber mosaic virus uses a clever subterfuge to spread - it changes the way host plants smell. (
  • Mescher, who describes the transmission of the cucumber mosaic virus in a study published Monday in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , specializes in the chemical cues plants use to communicate. (
  • Fauquet C and Fargette D (1990) African cassava mosaic virus: etiology, epidemiology and control. (
  • Gooding GV Jr (1975) Inactivation of tobacco mosaic virus on tomato seed with trisodium orthophosphate and sodium hypochlorite. (
  • Assembly of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Particle. (
  • Since the original discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein (MP) ( 25 ), proteins potentiating this process have been identified in diverse groups of plant viruses (for recent reviews see refs. (
  • The virus in question is the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which attacks both tobacco and a large range of vegetables. (
  • In her second project, Steinmetz will use another of nature's nanoparticles the tobacco mosaic virus to deliver clot-busters directly to clots that cause a heart attack or stroke. (
  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). (
  • Shown at the left is the leaf symptoms of cucumber mosaic virus (image courtesy of ). (
  • For example, apple mosaic virus is the common name of the apple mosaic ilarvirus, and tulip breaking virus is the common name of the tulip breaking potyvirus. (
  • Shown here is rose mosaic virus. (
  • This has been observed with cucumber mosaic virus. (
  • Tobacco mosaic virus can even survive in dead infected tobacco leaves in cigarettes. (
  • Although plant viruses are not as well understood as their animal counterparts, one plant virus has become very recognizable: tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the first virus to be discovered. (
  • The previous record holder for oldest plant virus, a barley stripe mosaic virus found in North African barley, was about 750-years-old," shows an article from the journal Nature . (
  • The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus almost shut down the watermelon industry during a 2014 outbreak. (
  • New Zealand authorities confirmed the detection of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) on a batch of watermelons from the Northern Territory two weeks ago, and suspended cucurbit imports on August 20. (
  • Fruit that has not ripened correctly, because of the Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus. (
  • Now, with the purified and refolded antigen produced, the team will be able to start the immunization protocol and assess the ability of the Papaya Mosaic Virus nanoparticles adjuvant to provide protection against a challenge with the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi. (
  • Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is a persistent threat to wheat production, necessitating novel approaches for protection. (
  • A rod-shaped plant invader, known as tobacco mosaic virus, had revealed itself-the first virus on record. (
  • The images in this group show electron micrographs of epidermal and mesophyll cells in thin sections of maize leaves infected with Maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae). (
  • This jpg image is of a mesophyll leaf cell from a maize plant infected with Maize mosaic virus (MMV), and is identical to the unlabeled tif file CIL:12416. (
  • Tobacco mild green mosaic virus outperformed most of the other nanoparticles tested in the study. (
  • The first known virus was the tobacco mosaic virus, which was discovered in 1898. (
  • Cucumber mosaic virus can cause a range of symptoms from a mild mosaic to severe deformation and stunting. (
  • Rose mosaic virus causes leaf discolorations including white or yellow spots or lines that may only appear occasionally depending on conditions. (
  • The researchers plan to link HER2 epitopes, which are peptides they believe can elicit protective immunity against cancer, to potato virus X. Potato virus X is a non-toxic nanoparticle, but would be recognized as a foreign invader by the body. (
  • Steinmetz grows the potato X virus in tobacco plants and will begin growing it in leaf lettuces and other plants. (
  • In another project, Salles wants to test the effect of viruses on the potato microbiome, using a large number of different potato breeds. (
  • Seedpiece transmitted viruses are common for many potato viruses. (
  • Specifically, we engineered the filamentous plant virus Potato virus X (PVX) to display green fluorescent protein (GFP) or mCherry as N-terminal coat protein (CP) fusions, producing a 1 : 3 fusion protein to CP ratio. (
  • When these researchers investigated bee colonies classified as "strong" or "weak," TRSV and other viruses were more common in the weak colonies than they were in the strong ones. (
  • The shells of a common plant virus, inhaled into a lung tumor or injected into ovarian, colon or breast tumors, not only triggered the immune system in mice to wipe out the tumors, but provided systemic protection against metastases, researchers from Case Western Reserve University and Dartmouth University report. (
  • Researchers at the University of Maryland's A. James Clark School of Engineering and College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, have discovered a common plant virus allows for large increases in battery life using existing lithium ion batteries. (
  • Because TMV is a virus it is very good at self-renewal, and the researchers have used that fact to incorporate it into lithium ion batteries. (
  • By replicating an age-old virus from ancient Canadian caribou feces (aCFV), researchers with the Blood Systems Research Institute in San Francisco say they have learned that viruses can remain infectious for centuries, reported. (
  • The researchers also used other VNPs, engineering tomato bushy stunt virus with peptides associated with rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Researchers studying the ruins of Canyon de Chelly National Monument, a famous Native American archaeological site in Arizona, have managed to uncover a previously known plant virus, which incidentally is the oldest one ever found. (
  • Examining 1,000-year-old corn cobs from an ancient ruin in Arizona, researchers found a previously unknown virus -- the oldest plant virus ever reported. (
  • Researchers studying ancient corncobs found at a Native American archeological site have recovered a 1,000-year-old virus, the oldest plant virus ever reported. (
  • In the journal ACS Nano , researchers report they have harnessed this well-honed ability-minus the part that makes us sick-to develop virus-like nanoparticles to deliver drugs straight to affected cells. (
  • The researchers wanted to try making the virus-shell nanoparticles using plants. (
  • For a number of years, Hutton researchers have examined and developed tobacco plants as 'factories' to successfully synthesise many different protein-based products which can have utility in diagnostic kits and as vaccine components as well as creating structures to produce new biomaterials. (
  • Science Daily explains that the researchers experimented with different plant viruses to see which ones could deliver pesticides deep within the soil, hoping that doing so would mean the pesticides could reach their target audience directly. (
  • We had a serious outbreak of tomato spotted wilt virus in the early 1990s. (
  • Shown here are the leaf and fruit symptoms of tomato spotted wilt virus (images courtesy of North Carolina Co-operative Extension). (
  • and wilting, also caused by tomato spotted wilt virus. (
  • Tomato plants grown in the field in Murcia (Spain) in 2003 showed symptoms that could not be attributed to any known virus. (
  • Tomato spotted wilt virus causes yellow or brown rings to form on tomato plant leaves and/or fruit, wilting, and sometimes lopsided growth. (
  • In the past few decades, there has been a significant advance in the number, sophistication, and quality of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools for the genetic characterization of virus populations. (
  • This has broadened current knowledge on the mechanisms that generate genetic diversity and on the evolutionary forces and ecological factors that shape the genetic structure and dynamics of plant virus populations. (
  • Bujarski J. Genetic recombination in plant-infecting messenger-sense RNA viruses: overview and research perspectives. (
  • Invading viruses carry genetic material that controls the host cell's machinery and tricks it into producing proteins and new viruses. (
  • Discussion encompasses climate change and food security, genetic engineering for acid soil tolerance in plants, mitogen-activated protein kinases in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants, and the roles of plant viruses (maybe they're not always villains), as well as the specifics of rice, pearl millet, bamboo, groundnuts, and chickpeas, among other topics. (
  • We demonstrate that genetic material from ancient viruses associated with caribou fecal matter was cryogenically preserved for at least seven centuries, and that the cloned DNA genome of one of these viruses replicated and spread systematically in an extant plant ," Eric Delwart wrote in a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (
  • The experiments were performed according to standard protocols using one virus strain, BYDV-PAV, and four S. avenae clones harbouring different bacterial and genetic profiles. (
  • The biotechnology revolution in the past decade made possible for plant breeders access new sources of genetic variability for the development of superior cultivars. (
  • The genetic manipulation of plants allows their adaptation to different environmental stresses, whether biotic or abiotic. (
  • Two mechanisms can explain this result : either (i) an increase of genetic drift in the virus population, or (ii) a decrease of the selection advantage of the RB mutant. (
  • The graphic illustrates the staggering amount of genetic material contained in viruses. (
  • Even bacteria can catch viruses. (
  • Bacterial viruses (also called bacteriophages) can play an important role in maintaining a healthy community of bacteria in our gut and can do the same in sea water. (
  • In a review article, Joana Falcao Salles, Professor of Microbial Community Ecology at the University of Groningen, argues that it is very likely that they are important for plant health: plants need bacteria around their roots to provide them with all kinds of nutrients and other compounds. (
  • In marine environments and in our own gut, bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) are important in regulating the microbiome. (
  • Yet, their effect on bacteria living around the roots of plants has hardly been studied. (
  • But bacteria themselves are affected by bacteriophages, viruses that infect them. (
  • We know that soil bacteria are important for plants as well,' says Salles. (
  • However, in the few millimetres of soil around plant roots, plants stimulate the growth of bacteria. (
  • Plants release carbon sources for the bacteria and the bacteria provide nutrients and protection for the roots. (
  • An important but neglected component of the rhizosphere communities are viruses (hexagonal structures in the figure) that infect bacteria (rod shape cells in purple and blue. (
  • Rivalling some bacteria in size, giant viruses can carry elements of the machinery required for translation, throwing their status as non-living entities into question. (
  • Persistent plant viruses, which have been poorly studied and have very few known phenotypes (see point 5), make up about half of all viruses found in wild plants. (
  • However, in a second tobacco species, Nicotiana tabacum, only the infected leaf turned yellow and the rest of the plant remained unharmed. (
  • One sample is typically a leaf, stem or whole plant placed in a zip-close bag. (
  • These bulbs produce deformed plants with leaf lesions and damaged flowers. (
  • However, these figures relate only to cultivated plants that represent only a tiny fraction of the total number of plant species. (
  • This was expanded and in 1999 there were 977 officially recognized, and some provisional, plant virus species. (
  • Modern agriculture has caused the dissemination of exotic plant species, viruses and vectors into foreign environments. (
  • The emergence of novel virus species and strains has been increasing worldwide in the past two decades. (
  • The most recent report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses, a group that approves scientific names for viruses, lists only about 900 species of plant viruses [5] . (
  • Invasive species of plants can be aided in their invasions by plant viruses in a number of different ways. (
  • The result is that all the plants of the same species in a particular area become diseased. (
  • During the plant-virus arms race, plants have evolved effector triggered immunity (ETI) mediated by the nucleotide binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR). (
  • NLR-mediated plant immunity against viruses was recognized and deployed in crop production about a hundred years ago. (
  • It is well studied that MAP kinase cascade, and plant hormone signaling pathway play important roles in NLR mediated antiviral immunity. (
  • An image is rising of higher redundancy of human type I IFNs for protecting immunity to viruses in pure situations than was initially anticipated. (
  • These findings counsel that numerous type I IFN-independent mechanisms of human cell-intrinsic immunity to viruses have but to be found. (
  • this resistance was classified as immunity when extracts failed to transmit from inoculated leaves to test plants. (
  • Blanc S, Drucker M and Uzest M (2014) Localizing viruses in their insect vectors. (
  • When an insect vectors a persistently transmitted plant virus, this virus should pass through the insect gut into the haemolymph. (
  • Plant viruses have the advantage in that they are unable to replicate in mammals making them safer for medical applications. (
  • In the present study, we showed that a plant-pathogenic RNA virus, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), could replicate and produce virions in honeybees, Apis mellifera , resulting in infections that were found throughout the entire body. (
  • Advances in Virus Research 89: 201-275. (
  • Advances in Virus Research 87: 37-74. (
  • Advances in Virus Research 33: 301-325. (
  • In 1999, the Institute for Scientific Information released figures showing that Advances in Botanical Research has an Impact Factor of 4.378, placing it 8th in the highly competitive category of Plant Sciences. (
  • The virus causes plants to produce aphid-attracting odors. (
  • Commercial fields of citrus trees affected by citrus tristeza virus, an aphid‐transmitted closterovirus. (
  • Our findings suggest that the 2b protein could indirectly affect aphid-mediated virus transmission. (
  • To transmit from one plant to another and from one plant cell to another, plant viruses must use strategies that are usually different from animal viruses. (
  • Expression systems based on plants may provide solutions to overcome these challenges, because they provide highly scalable production of recombinant proteins at low cost and have a low risk of introducing adventitious human or animal viruses or prions [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • Since then, enormous efforts were devoted to cloning the NLR receptor and elucidating the signaling cascade involved in virus resistance. (
  • The partial functional redundancy of these isoforms allows specific mutation or knock-down of one isoform to provide virus resistance without hindering the general health of the plant. (
  • Sanfaçon, H. Plant Translation Factors and Virus Resistance. (
  • The degree of resistance to the plant lectins was invariably correlated with an increasing number of mutated glycosylation sites in gp120. (
  • AMD3100), and chicoric acid, which also explains the lack of cross-resistance of plant lectin-resistant viruses to any other HIV inhibitor including T-20 and the blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)-derived mannose-specific cyanovirin. (
  • The plant lectins represent a well-defined class of anti-HIV (microbicidal) drugs with a novel HIV drug resistance profile different from those of other existing anti-HIV drugs. (
  • The flockhouse virus of the Nodaviridae (bipartitite single stranded RNA genome of 3.1 and 1.4 kb) is pathogenic to beetles in New Zealand, can grow vigorously in mammalian as well as drosophila cells, and can infect plants. (
  • Part V discusses cloning, sequencing, sequence analysis and the production of infectious clones, while the last part (Part VI) provides biotechnological approaches for the management of viruses. (
  • The development raises the possibility that global warming could resurrect other infectious viruses. (
  • Delwart says studying the origins of certain viruses is good preparation to respond to ancient viruses if they do happen to become unfrozen and infectious. (
  • The inclusion of non-infectious plant virus parts into the sequence greatly enhances the stability and level of production of these proteins in plants. (
  • 2006) Molecular ecology and emergence of tropical plant viruses. (
  • Other mechanisms include a role of invasive plants in the ecology of plant virus vectors. (
  • Following a postdoctoral fellowship at Cornell University, where she began studying plant viruses, she moved to the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation as a principal investigator, and focused her research on plant virus evolution and ecology. (
  • She and her team have been studying virus ecology and experimental evolution for 25 years using plant and fungal viruses as models, and have published a number of seminal papers in this area. (
  • Virus Ecology is a field that is gaining momentum, fueled in part by metagenomic studies from many environments previously ignored. (
  • A new review article appearing in the journal Nature Reviews Microbiology highlights the evolution and ecology of plant viruses. (
  • These differences, combined with the fact that plants are immobile, have resulted in plant viruses relying on the wind and soil to transmit seeds as well as vectors. (
  • Technical problems may also have affected studies into soil viruses, she adds: 'We have the technology to identify viruses in ocean water and in our gut. (
  • This virus is extremely difficult to eradicate from soil once it is present on a farm, so it is unfortunate for that farm that they are still getting outbreaks of the virus,' Ms Fullelove said. (
  • Australian biosecurity controls only regard plant matter and soil as viable methods to spread the virus, whereas New Zealand authorities include fruit. (
  • Plant viruses can be transmitted by contaminated soil, water, or farming machinery as well as by specific insect, nematode and fungus vectors. (
  • The latest in a long list of agricultural ideas guaranteed to cause immeasurable environmental harm is the concept of using plant viruses to deliver pesticides deep within the soil, supposedly to reduce pesticide use, keep plants healthy and ward off pests. (
  • Is pumping the soil full of viruses and pesticides a good idea? (
  • The major insect pests of the rice plant: proceedings. (
  • They are widespread plant pests and hence of economic importance. (
  • Most plant viruses encode a protein to suppress this response. (
  • Understanding the virus genetics and protein functions has been used to explore the potential for commercial use by biotechnology companies. (
  • Plant closteroviruses encode a homolog of the HSP70 (heat shock protein, 70 kDa) family of cellular proteins. (
  • Because viruses and virioids are very simple "organisms" with DNA or RNA coated by a protein layer. (
  • We described the rapid production of the domain III (DIII) of the envelope (E) protein in plants as a vaccine candidate for West Nile Virus (WNV). (
  • For this work, Frank Sainsbury and colleagues copied the core protein shell of the Bluetongue virus, a pathogen that affects ruminant animals. (
  • Eclectic volumes in the serial are supplemented by thematic volumes on such topics as Plant Protein Kinases, and Plant Trichomes. (
  • This protein is no longer recognised by the immune receptor, so that the pathogen can enter the plant and develop. (
  • When this altered pathogen produces spores, these spores will all make the new protein and therefore also no longer be recognised by the plant as an invader. (
  • Dr Andrew Love, a research leader within the Institute's Cell and Molecular Sciences department, said: "There is now great interest in exploiting my group's expertise in this technology together with a soon to be established highly-controlled plant growth containment facility and also an integrated protein isolation system, in order to potentially produce a large-scale novel protein production pipeline. (
  • 2016 ). From a strategic point of view, understanding how viruses translate their own proteins may significantly contribute to the identification of therapeutic (Robert et al. (
  • For more than one century, studies of plant viruses have broken paths in many fields of biology. (
  • Cheung TK and Poon LLM (2007) Biology of Influenza A virus. (
  • It should also be of great interest to biologists studying arthropod structure, host-plant parasite interaction, or reproductive biology. (
  • The recent boom in technology allowing humans to manipulate plant viruses may provide new strategies for production of value-added proteins in plants. (
  • The overall aim of the project is to determine conditions that improve the performance and stability of virus vectors for optimum expression of foreign proteins in plants. (
  • Virus Research 162: 184-202. (
  • Medina RA and Garcia‐Sastre A (2011) Influenza A viruses: new research developments. (
  • Dr Rao has 32 years of research experience, and has made significant contributions to the characterization of plant viruses and phytoplasmas. (
  • Mikko Hypponen, chief research officer for Finland-based F-Secure, said that infections of critical infrastructure were surprisingly common, but that they were generally not dangerous unless the plant had been targeted specifically. (
  • As plant virus research is the science which requires expensive equipments such as electron microscopy and ultracentrifuge, it recently shows dramatic increases by the help of molecular biological analysis technologies. (
  • In another instance earlier this year, a French research couple found a 30,000-year-old virus frozen in the Siberian tundra. (
  • The research team led by the University of York and Nanjing Agricultural University investigated the role of pathogen-specific viruses called phages in controlling the notorious pathogen. (
  • She is the lead author of a review paper in Trends in Microbiology, which argues for more research into the role of bacteriophages in plant health. (
  • An Italian research team investigated the design and synthesis of plant virus nanoparticles with peptides associated with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • The new discovery came as the research team examined ancient plant material from Antelope House, an Ancestral Puebloan ruin located at Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona. (
  • Partly thanks to the research carried out by Pierre de Wit, they can look inside the plant, and therefore also look at larger numbers of plants. (
  • Plant viruses can be useful as well as harmful, however, and new biotechnology research at the James Hutton Institute is pointing the way to how plant viruses can be harnessed to produce vaccines. (
  • and translational research by Dr Stuart MacFarlane and others on virus diagnostics for a range of commercially important soft fruit viruses. (
  • The application of plant virus-derived nanostructures in materials science, biomedical research and engineering has recently been promoted by the development of fluorescence-labeled viruses for optical imaging in tissue culture and preclinical animal models. (
  • Over 50% of known plant viruses are rod-shaped (flexuous or rigid). (
  • Notably, about 5% of known plant viruses are pollen-transmitted and thus potential sources of host-jumping viruses. (
  • Many of the viruses from these environments are known plant viruses, and probably entered the environment through animal ingestion of plants and subsequent passing of the viruses through the gut. (
  • About 5% of known plant viruses are pollen transmitted, and these are potential sources of future host-jumping viruses. (
  • More recently, studies of plant viruses have also been pioneer in population genomics. (
  • In sum, we provide an overview of current understanding on the population genomics of plant viruses at every level of population organization. (
  • The key note Address entitled "Genomics of Plant viruses and their application in detection of viruses and their management" was delivered by Dr. (
  • Multi‐component, (+) sense RNA viruses could comprise up to five genome segments, whereas (−) sense RNA viruses can have up to eight. (
  • Multi‐partite plant viruses can be found in almost all major plant virus families, with different genome materials (RNA or DNA) and configurations (single‐stranded or double‐stranded), and varying virion shapes. (
  • Plant viruses with most genome segments are plant‐infecting reoviruses, containing 10-12 double‐stranded RNA segments package together in the same non‐enveloped, multi‐layer capsids. (
  • The most widely used methods for introducing transgenes into the genome of plants are Agrobacterium mediated transformation and microprojectile bombardment. (
  • DNA that penetrates the plant cell can be integrated into the plant genome. (
  • State officials have only confirmed some outbreaks at plants when asked by reporters. (
  • ANCHORAGE, Alaska - COVID-19 outbreaks have shut down operations at two of Alaska's largest seafood processing plants in the Aleutian Islands. (
  • Several facilities have temporarily closed due to virus outbreaks, including a Smithfield Foods plant in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, a JBS USA plant in Worthington, Minnesota, and a Redwood Farms Meat Processors in Estherville, Iowa. (
  • The content is divided into six main parts, the first of which presents techniques used in the biological characterization and transmission of viruses, while Part II covers purification and techniques concerning the physico-chemical properties of viruses. (
  • Plant viruses, like those infecting humans and other animals are spread by some sort of contact. (
  • A prevalent virus in waste water is Pepper mild mottle virus [7] , a virus also found in human feces, and reported to be associated with intestinal distress in humans [8] , although, since this virus is also found in most preparations of hot peppers, it seems more likely that the intestinal distress is caused by the ingestion of hot peppers. (
  • And, what are the potential risks of injecting viruses into plants that will later be consumed by humans? (
  • Viruses will have an impact on these bacterial communities. (
  • In it, she describes the role of bacterial viruses in modifying the microbial community in sea water and in the gut. (
  • Phylogenetic studies and structure/function properties of channel proteins have led to the hypothesis that the complex K + channels in animals and plants evolved from a simple bacterial precursor channel ( Anderson and Greenberg, 2001 ). (
  • The envisaged plant-based vaccine synthesis facility could have significant advantages over traditional bacterial, yeast and insect cell vaccine production systems: the plant-based pipeline is safer, cheaper and more scalable, and can yield clinical-grade material in 4-8 weeks rather than in the many months required for traditional approaches. (
  • The process such as virus images, symptoms, or identification that using expensive electron microscopy is needed expert's sophisticated participation, so if when one found a loss or damage through data or implementation, it is necessary that one must be repeat these steps. (
  • There were no outward symptoms on the plant because tobacco wasn't the virus' original host. (
  • Viruses may infect all parts of the plant but symptoms are generally most obvious on young foliage. (
  • Many viruses have a wide host range, not just the plant it is first studied on, and the symptoms can vary. (
  • Symptoms consisted of necrotic spots at the top of the plant, starting at the base of the leaflets. (
  • By the 1990s, it was at epidemic levels, particularly on peanut and tobacco plants, said Alex Csinos, a CAES plant pathologist. (
  • Their virus nanoparticles (VNPs) can be programmed to incorporate sequences for specific functions. (
  • New Zealand has temporarily suspended the importation of Australian cucurbits, except those grown in Queensland, after a plant virus was found on a consignment of Australian watermelons. (
  • However, whichever varieties you choose, all our raspberry plants are certified stock, grown from virus-tested parent material in the UK are guaranteed and are ready to order now. (
  • Patio varieties such as Ruby Beauty - which is container grown - can be planted at any time they are not carrying fruit. (
  • Thanks to plant breeding, tomatoes have been grown in the Netherlands without the need for fungicides for many years. (
  • Such fungal-virus systems are valuable for the development of novel biocontol strategies and for gaining an insight into the molecular basis of fungal virulence. (
  • Viruses are often mutualistic in plants, as are the viruses of the fungal endophytes that colonize plants. (
  • It is this that often makes it difficult to grow plants that remain immune to a fungal pathogen over many years. (