Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Valine Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acetolactate Synthase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.18.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Keto AcidsPlant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.ValeratesPlant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Oxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Valine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates valine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.9Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Ketol-Acid Reductoisomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate to (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate in the presence of NADP. It is involved in the biosynthesis of VALINE; LEUCINE; ISOLEUCINE; pentothenate and COENZYME A. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.89.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Isobutyrates: Aliphatic acids that contain four carbons in a branched-chain configuration. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-carboxypropane structure.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Isoleucine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates isoleucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.5.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Methylmalonate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (Acylating): An enzyme that plays a role in the VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE catabolic pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of 2-methyl-3-oxopropanate to propanoyl-CoA using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by elevated BETA-ALANINE and 3-hydropropionic acid.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Satyanarayana T, Radhakrishnan AN (1965). "Biosynthesis of valine and isoleucine in plants. 3. Reductoisomerase of Phaseolus ... This enzyme participates in valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis and pantothenate and coa biosynthesis. As of late 2007 ... Hill RK, Sawada S & Arfin SM (1979). "Stereochemistry of valine and isoleucine biosynthesis. IV Synthesis, configuration, and ...
The amino acid valine is named after this plant. Valerian has been used as a medicinal herb since at least the time of ancient ... June 1891). Isovaleramide does not appear to be a naturally occurring component of valerian plants; rather, it seems to be an ... Harrington, H.D., Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains, The University of New Mexico Press, 1967, LCCN 67-29685, p. 225 ... Other names used for this plant include garden valerian (to distinguish it from other Valeriana species), garden heliotrope ( ...
There are three aminoacylation specificities, valine, histidine and tyrosine. For example, valine binds to the tRNA-like ... The presence of tRNA-like structures has been demonstrated in many plant virus RNA genomes. These tRNA-like structures are ... Dreher TW (July 2008). "Role of tRNA-like structures in controlling plant virus replication". Virus Res. 139 (2): 217-29. doi: ... linked to regulation of plant virus replication. tRNA-like structures mimic some tRNA function, such as aminoacylation. ...
... valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation; valine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis. Proteases ... The induction of plant resistance involves xylanases, xylanase genes are found in C. cupreum. The destruction of nascent chitin ... Agricultural interest in C. cupreum has arisen due to the ability of some strains to suppress infections by plant pathogens. ... Chaetomium cupreum is able to antagonize a wide set of plant pathogens including Magnaporthe grisea, Rhizoctonia solani and ...
In some plants and bacteria, including Escherichia coli, pantothenate can be synthesised de novo and is therefore not ... These bacteria synthesize pantothenate from the amino acid aspartate and a metabolite in valine biosynthesis. In all living ...
These are found in humans, animals, plants, and bacteria. In plants, they are located in the chloroplasts in order to help with ... ALS catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine). It is a ... The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxy acid synthase, or AHAS) is a protein found in plants and ... The resulting product of this reaction, acetolactate, eventually becomes valine, leucine, and isoleucine. All three of these ...
... may be applied pre-plant incorporated, pre-plant surface, pre-emergence, or early post-emergence. The reaction starts ... Imazaquin inhibits the acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) enzyme accountable for synthesis of the amino acids valine, leucine, ... When present in soil, imazaquin is absorbed through the roots of plants where the chemical is either metabolized quickly with ... These six herbicides kill plants by inhibiting acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS). AHAS is the first enzyme in the branched- ...
Planting is done in rows or hills 80-100 cm apart, with plants spaced 40-60 cm apart in the rows. Monoculture predominates, but ... It also provides some protein, with valine and tryptophan its limiting amino acids. Cultivars vary greatly in nutritional ... The first flowers bloom around three to four months after planting, and the tubers also begin to form then. Between planting ... The plant is not known in the wild, but populations of wild Oxalis species that bear smaller tubers are known from four areas ...
All animals require sodium, but some plants do not. Plants need boron and silicon, but animals may not (or may need ultra-small ... They cannot synthesize isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. These are the ... Examples are cellulose which is an important structural component of plant's cell walls, and glycogen, used as a form of energy ... Most organisms share element needs, but there are a few differences between plants and animals. For example, ocean algae use ...
The pungency of those plants is due to mustard oils produced from glucosinolates when the plant material is chewed, cut, or ... or valine. (Most glucosinolates are actually derived from chain-elongated homologues of these amino acids, e.g. glucoraphanin ... allowing them to identify the proper host plant. The glucosinolates are also found in seeds of these plants. About 132 ... The plants contain the enzyme myrosinase, which, in the presence of water, cleaves off the glucose group from a glucosinolate. ...
Free 3-NPA and glucosides that derive from 3-NPA and isoxazolin-5-one also occur in many genera of leguminous plants (Fabaceae ... Essential amino acids as valine serve as precursors for the production of the hemolymph toxins of Chrysomelina leaf beetles. ... Due to the specialization of leaf beetles to a certain host plant, the composition of the larval secretion is species-dependent ... For instance, the red poplar leaf beetle (Chrysomela populi) consumes the leaves of poplar plants, which contain salicin. This ...
HMG-CoA is also found in other eukaryotes such as insects, plants and fungi. The cytosolic form is the starting point of the ... This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, valine, leucine and isoleucine ...
Only green plants and most microbes are able to synthesize all of the 20 standard amino acids that are needed by all living ... The other amino acids, valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine, threonine and tryptophan for adults and ... In microorganisms and plants, the enzyme serine acetyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of acetyl group from acetyl-CoA onto L ... Most microorganisms and plants obtain the sulfur for synthesizing methionine from the amino acid cysteine. Furthermore, the ...
None of the diets in these regions is completely based on plants, but plants form the bulk of the food eaten. Although it has ... Specifically restricting consumption of the three branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine is sufficient to ... there is neither a need to mix animal and plant food together nor a need to complement specific plant foods, such as rice and ... However, not all plant material is base forming, for example, nuts, grains and grain products add to the acid load. In the ...
Duggleby RG, McCourt JA, Guddat LW (2008). "Structure and mechanism of inhibition of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase". Plant ... They function by interfering with biosynthesis of the amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine. Some of the brand names of ... A number of sulfonylureas are also used as herbicides ("weedkiller"), because they can interfere with plant biosynthesis of ...
After they have exhausted the resources of the plant they have hatched on, later instars may move to another plant. H. erato is ... valine, proline, histidine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, and tryptophan. Females typically carry larger ... However, selection by quality generally depends on host plant abundance and availability. Host plants include a wide variety of ... Individual plant choice is based on internode length, terminal bud presence, shoot size, and leaf area, in order to confer ...
Stinson RA, Spencer MS (1969). "Beta alanine aminotransferase (s) from a plant source". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1): ... This enzyme participates in 4 metabolic pathways: alanine and aspartate metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation ...
Alpha-elicitins are highly acidic, with a valine residue at position 13, whereas beta-elicitins are basic, with a lysine at the ... They are toxic proteins responsible for inducing a necrotic and systemic hypersensitive response in plants from the Solanaceae ...
In plants, this enzyme is involved in the synthesis of branched, long-chain hydrocarbons. The overall catabolic reaction ... L-valine, and L-leucine, acting on their deaminated derivatives (L-alpha-keto-beta-methylvalerate, alpha-ketoisovalerate, and ...
The plants are dioecious, have small flowers without perianth, and the stigma is at least weakly secretory. Gunnerales ... characters shared with the core of the eudicots are cyanogenesis via phenylalanine, metabolic pathways of isoleucine or valine ... The Gunnerales are an order of flowering plants. In the APG III system (2009) and APG IV system (2016) it contains two genera: ... The Myrothamnaceae are a reviviscent shrub of arid habitats, and the hydathodes are poorly developed and secrete plant resin. ...
Plant cell culture medium) RPMI (Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium), for lymph cells The Nutrient Requirements of Cells. ... 146.2 mg NaCl 7.4 g L-Isoleucine 2.6 mg KCl 285 mg L-Leucine 13.1 mg Na2HPO4 290 mg L-Proline 11.5 mg KH2PO4 83 mg L-Valine 3.5 ...
Valine (Val, V) As in the standard code, initiation is most efficient at AUG. In addition, GUG and UUG starts are documented in ... The bacterial, archaeal and plant plastid code is the DNA code used by bacteria, archaea, prokaryotic viruses and chloroplast ...
Like valine and isoleucine, leucine is a branched-chain amino acid. Because the products of its breakdown are acetyl-CoA and ... Plants and microorganisms synthesize leucine from pyruvic acid with a series of enzymes: Acetolactate synthase Acetohydroxy ... hydrophobic amino acid valine also includes the initial part of this pathway. In healthy individuals, approximately 60% of ...
In plants, the enzyme can work in either direction depending on environment and stress. Transgenic plants expressing microbial ... Leucine l-isoleucine l-valine Guanosine diphosphate Additionally, Mice GLDH shows substrate inhibition by which GLDH activity ... Plant. 33 (5): 1981-90. doi:10.1007/s11738-011-0801-1. Lightfoot DA, Bernhardt K, Mungur R, Nolte S, Ameziane R, Colter A, ... Genes for Plant Abiotic Stress. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 167-182. ISBN 0-8138-1502-9. Botman D, Tigchelaar W, Van Noorden CJ ( ...
Ana Valine - Ana Valine Mark Schroeder - Instant Nathan Affolter, Thomas Affolter - Plant Girl Lisa Jackson - Savage Nikos ...
One of the first dietitians was the English doctor George Cheyne. He himself was tremendously overweight and would constantly eat large quantities of rich food and drink. He began a meatless diet, taking only milk and vegetables, and soon regained his health. He began publicly recommending his diet for everyone suffering from obesity. In 1724, he wrote An Essay of Health and Long Life, in which he advises exercise and fresh air and avoiding luxury foods.[10] The Scottish military surgeon, John Rollo, published Notes of a Diabetic Case in 1797. It described the benefits of a meat diet for those suffering from diabetes, basing this recommendation on Matthew Dobson's discovery of glycosuria in diabetes mellitus.[11] By means of Dobson's testing procedure (for glucose in the urine) Rollo worked out a diet that had success for what is now called type 2 diabetes.[12] The first popular diet was "Banting", named after the English undertaker William Banting. In 1863, he wrote a booklet called Letter on ...
The plant is a stemless or sub-coalescent, soft, hairy annual herb. It is cultivated by spreading seeds in November in well ... The amino acids reported in the seed-are valine. alanine, glycine, glutamic acid, cystine. lysine, leucine and tyrosine. ... Common Natural Medicinal Plant Drugs Cold and Cough : Senega, Ipecac, Squill, Glycyrrhiza and Ginger contain expectorant ... The plants are cut just above the ground, dried and seeds are separated by thrashing. ...
This points to a role of the enzyme not only in Valine but possibly also in Isoleucine metabolism. At4g20930 knock-down plants ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Physiology Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant ... copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.. Abstract. In plants, amino acid catabolism ... However, the metabolic pathways for BCAA breakdown are largely unknown so far in plants. A systematic search for Arabidopsis ...
Plant Physiol. 135 (1): 71-84. doi:10.1104/pp.103.038059. PMC 429334 . PMID 15122013. Valine N-monooxygenase at the US National ... L-valine + O2 + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-hydroxy-L-valine + NADP+ + H2O (1b) N-hydroxy-L-valine + O2 ... Valine N-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.118, CYP79D1, CYP79D2) is an enzyme with systematic name L-valine,NADPH:oxygen ... N-dihydroxy-L-valine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (E)-2-methylpropanal oxime + CO2 + H2O (spontaneous reaction) Valine ...
valine (văl´ēn), organic compound, one of the 22 α-amino acids [1] commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer ... MICHAEL ALLABY "valine ." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences . . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Feb. 2020 ,https://www.encyclopedia.com,. ... MICHAEL ALLABY "valine ." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences . . Encyclopedia.com. (February 25, 2020). https://www.encyclopedia. ... valine An essential amino acid, rarely, if ever, limiting in foods, one of the branched‐chain amino acids.. ...
History of ant-plant relationships. Using phylogenetic analysis, researchers report that ants used plants for food and nesting ... The l-valine yield achieved with VAMF (pKBRilvBNCED, pTrc184ygaZHlrp) was as high as 0.378 g of l-valine per gram of glucose. ... Second, l-valine production was enhanced by increasing the carbon flux toward l-valine formation. The availability of pyruvate ... Surprisingly, l-valine production was not affected in the VygaZH strain. This result suggests that other l-valine exporters ...
Kagan ZS, Poliakov VA, Kretovich VL (1968). "[Soluble valine dehydrogenase from roots of plant seedings]". Biokhimiia. 33 (1): ... In enzymology, a valine dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.4.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-valine + H2O + ... "Biosynthesis of valine by reductive amination of its keto analogue in plants". Enzymologia. 30 (6): 343-66. PMID 6005410. ... Other names in common use include valine dehydrogenase (nicotinanide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), and valine dehydrogenase ...
Wholesale Various High Quality L-valine Products from Global L-valine Suppliers and L-valine Factory,Importer,Exporter at ... Tags: Food Grade And Medicine Grade L-valine/cas: 72-18-4 , Best Price L-valine 72-18-4 , Valine 72-18-4 , View larger image ... Tags: L Valine , Food Grade L Valine , 25kg Drum L Valine , View larger image ... Tags: L-valine Bcaa Powder , Instant L-valine Powder , Instant Valine , View larger image ...
A kinetic analysis was made of l-valine uptake in protoplast-derived cells (mesophyll protoplasts cultured for 6 days) and in ... suspension-cultured cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv Xanthi). Cells from wild-type and Val(r)-2 mutant plants were ... Title: Plant physiology Volume: 84 ISSN: 0032-0889 ISO Abbreviation: Plant Physiol. Publication Date: 1987 Jul ... Kinetics of l-Valine Uptake in Suspension-Cultured Cells and Protoplast-Derived Cells of Tobacco: Comparison of Wild-Type and ...
Find the best plant and animal food sources for amino acids and discover how these essential amino acids can reduce anxiety, ... After all, BCAAs are already found in the animal and plant foods listed in this article for leucine, isoleucine, and valine. ... you can also obtain essential amino acids from plant-based foods. While its true that most plant foods dont contain all nine ... Valine also has stimulant activity and has been said to help maintain mental and physical stamina, while its role in the ...
They are widely used in the cultivation of rhizomatous functional plants; such as Codonopsis Radix, that is a famous Chinese ... refers to organics that can inhibit the cell division of plant stem tip sub-apical meristem cells or primordial meristem cell. ... Mikkelsen, M.D.; Halkier, B.A. Metabolic engineering of valine and isoleucine-derived glucosinolates in Arabidopsis expressing ... Plant growth retardant (PGR) refers to organics that can inhibit the cell division of plant stem tip sub-apical meristem cells ...
Genceutic Naturals, Plant Head Protein, Chocolate, 1.8 lb (810 g) (Discontinued Item) 11 Reviews ... Genceutic Naturals, Plant Head, Real Meal, Vanilla, 2.3 lb (1050 g) 20 ... Genceutic Naturals, Plant Head Protein, Chocolate, 1.8 lb (810 g) (Discontinued Item) By. Genceutic Naturals. ... Genceutic Naturals, Plant Head Protein, Chocolate, 1.8 lb (810 g) (Discontinued Item) By. Genceutic Naturals. ...
Sunwarrior, Classic Protein, Organic Plant-Based, Chocolate, 1.65 lb (750 g). By. Sunwarrior. ... Sunwarrior, Classic Protein, Organic Plant-Based, Chocolate, 1.65 lb (750 g). By. Sunwarrior. ... Sunwarrior, Classic Protein, Organic Plant-Based, Chocolate, 1.65 lb (750 g) 9 Reviews ... Sunwarrior is committed to making the best plant-based proteins and superfood supplements. Our mission to illuminate body, mind ...
... that subcellular metabolome analysis is essential to unambiguously unravel regulatory strategies being involved in plant- ... Valine; Spe, Spermidine; Put, Putrescine; Pla, Plastid; Cyt, Cytosol; Vac, Vacuole. ... Plant Cultivation and Sampling. Plants of the A. thaliana accessions Col-0, Cvi and Rsch were cultivated in a growth chamber ... In addition to plants grown under ambient conditions (22°C), we also analyzed leaf material of cold acclimated plants (7 days ...
Market Research Report 2017 aims at providing comprehensive data on boc-d-valine market globally and regionally (Europe, ... plants capacity and production. *amount and structure of demand. *export and import ... 6. BOC-D-VALINE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Boc-d-valine prices in Europe. 6.2. Boc-d-valine prices in Asia 6.3. Boc-d-valine prices in ... Boc-d-valine prices in other regions. 7. BOC-D-VALINE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. Boc-d-valine market by application sphere. 7.2. Boc-d ...
Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on l-valine methyl ester hydrochloride ... L-valine methyl ester hydrochloride market forecast. 6. L-VALINE METHYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. L-valine methyl ... plants capacity and production. *consumption volume and structure. *export and import. *market prices trends ... L-valine methyl ester hydrochloride prices in other regions. 7. L-VALINE METHYL ESTER HYDROCHLORIDE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. L- ...
Valine 1,390 mg. Taste, potency & digestibility in one complete 100% plant-based protein. Good for your body. Good for the ... 21 g plant protein. Branched chain amino acids 4500 mg. Glutamine 3350 mg. Enzyme blend 100 mg. Non GMO promise. Gluten free. ... Use once daily as a supplemental source of plant protein. Keep tightly closed; store in a cool, dry place away from light, heat ... Four of the worlds most potent plant protein sources, fortified with key amino acids and digestive enzymes to create an ...
Botanical-online is an informative page that describes, among other topics, the traditional uses of plants from a therapeutic ... More information: Foods rich in valine. Valine supplements. Although you can take supplements of valine, it is recommended to ... What is valine?. Valine is an essential amino acid that the body can not synthesize and therefore must be provided by the diet. ... Contraindications of valine. - Pregnant women or people suffering from liver and kidney should not take supplements of valine ...
36,365), Hawkins and Sullivan counties, NE Tenn., on the Holston River near the Va. line; inc. 1917. Industries include one of ... the largest printing and bookbinding plants in the United States. Chemicals, plastics, paper, concrete, and glass are also ...
... methionine and isoleucine metabolism are very efficiently interconnected in plants. As both threonine and methionine serve as ... Wittenbach V, Abell L (1999) Inhibitors of valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis. In: Singh BK (ed) Plant amino acids: ... Rhodes D, Hanson AD (1993) Quaternary ammonium and tertiary sulfonium compounds in higher-plants. Ann Rev Plant Phys Plant Mol ... I. Large-scale changes in the accumulation of growth- and defense-related plant mRNAs. Plant Physiol 125:683-700PubMedCrossRef ...
Tryptophan-cysteine-glutamic acid-valine-cysteine motif. WCGPC. Tryptophan-cysteine-glycine-proline-cysteine motif ... Completion of the thioredoxin profile of higher plants. J Plant Physiol 149:317-321CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Banze M, Follmann H (2000) Organelle-specific NADPH thioredoxin reductase in plant mitochondria. J Plant Physiol 156:126-129 ... in seed plants. Plant Sci 258:21-28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Front Plant Sci 4:310PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Valine is an essential amino acid, hence it must be ingested, usually as a component of proteins. It is synthesized in plants ... Valine (abbreviated as Val or V)[1] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2. L-Valine is one of 20 ... Along with leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid. It is named after the plant valerian. In sickle-cell ... valine aminotransferase. Synthesis. Racemic valine can be synthesized by bromination of isovaleric acid followed by amination ...
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Industries include one of the largest printing and bookbinding plants in the United States. Chemicals, plastics, paper, ... 36,365), Hawkins and Sullivan counties, NE Tenn., on the Holston River near the Va. line inc. 1917. Industries include one of ... the largest printing and bookbinding plants in the United States. Chemicals, plastics, paper, concrete, and glass are also ...
Valine. 1068 mg. Original Formula: Chocolate Flavor. Supplement Facts. Amount per 1 Scoop (29g). Servings per container ... What does Plant Protein+ do?. Fuel your healthy day with 20 grams of vegan protein per serving. Plant Protein+ is packed with ... The Organic Plant Protein+ Difference. How do you pick the best plant protein for you? Whether youre whipping up a breakfast ... Plant protein unlocked™ How do you like your protein powder? From pancakes to protein shakes to this delicious smoothie bowl- ...
... valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and threonine). It also has about 250 mg of calcium, 2 g of potassium, and 15 mg of iron in ... Fresh maca root contains about 1% glucosinolates-plant chemicals found in many plants in the family Brassicaceae (broccoli, ... The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our ... Maca Plant Summary. Main Preparation Method: eaten fresh/dried, or in capsules.. Main Actions (in order): tonic (tones, ...
  • To understand how plant cells monitor and respond to osmotic change from water stress, we isolated a cDNA from dehydrated Arabidopsis plants. (plantcell.org)
  • Analysis of new mutations affecting overall plant architecture, leaf development and flowering time in Arabidopsis has allowed us to clone and characterise LHP1 , the Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) homologue. (biologists.org)
  • Here we investigate how a new chromatin-associated plant component controls major developmental changes in Arabidopsis . (biologists.org)
  • Molecular Basis of Imidazolinone Herbicide Resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana var Columbia," Plant Physiol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The expression of several plant plasma membrane aquaporins in yeast, including PIP2;1 from Arabidopsis (where PIP is plasma membrane intrinsic protein), enhanced the toxicity of H 2 O 2 and increased the fluorescence of dye-loaded yeast when exposed to H 2 O 2 . (portlandpress.com)
  • In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , 35 aquaporin homologues are encoded in the genome, and several of them conduct urea or ammonia in addition to water [ 4 , 5 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Boc-D-Valine (CAS 22838-58-0) Market Research Report 2017 aims at providing comprehensive data on boc-d-valine market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • L-Valine methyl ester hydrochloride (CAS 6306-52-1) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on l-valine methyl ester hydrochloride market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • A diet with foods that contain valine is not suitable for people with maple syrup urine disease , so called because the urine of patients remembers the smell of this syrup, but also other symptoms such as vomiting , refusal to eat, drowsiness, seizures, etc. (botanical-online.com)
  • Maximum Vibrance marries fully balanced vegetable protein to certified organic vitamins and minerals of plant origin, and then blends them into a mass of specially selected and certified organic plant foods that provide a complete array of nutrients necessary for optimal health. (totaldiscountvitamins.com)
  • Balance Plant Protein can also be added to foods to boost your protein intake. (healthpost.co.nz)
  • Lines CL121, CL141 and CFX51 and any rice lines derived from them may be imported and/or released, provided no inter-specific crosses are performed, provided the intended use is similar and provided it is known following thorough characterization that these plants do not display any additional novel traits and are substantially equivalent to currently commercialized rice, in terms of their potential environmental impact and livestock feed safety. (gc.ca)
  • The invention provides for transgenic plants transformed with expression vectors containing a DNA sequence encoding ferulic acid esterase I from Aspergillus, preferably A. niger. (patentgenius.com)
  • Since chloroplasts and mitochondria are the two key power houses of plant cells and many components of the energy generating systems (photosystems in chloroplasts and respiratory chain in mitochondria) are encoded by both nuclear and organelle genomes, transcription data of organelle genomes are required to depict a clear picture on plant energy biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This lack of knowledge of the broad changes in metabolite patterns during development limits our efficiency to manipulate the cellular or molecular aspects of plant development with intent to influence yield or sustainability of production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been successfully applied to the study of molecular phenotypes of plants in response to abiotic stress in order to find particular patterns associated to stress tolerance. (mdpi.com)
  • Although an uncommon ingredient in animal diets, gelatin can be used successfully in valine dose-titration studies because it contains only 2.55 grams valine/100 grams CP. (wattagnet.com)
  • Vigorously mix 39 grams (two level scoops) of Life's Basics® Plant Protein plus Greens to approximately 8 fluid ounces of water or your beverage of choice. (priceplow.com)
  • With RAWFUSION you are getting 21 grams of an allergen, GMO & animal FREE custom bio-fermented plant protein fusion that is loaded with Pea Protein Isolate, Brown Rice Sprouted and Artichoke Protein Concentrate swirled in a delicious Chocolate matrix. (fitnessfirstusa.com)
  • The most amazing thing about moringa is that all parts of this plant including its bark, roots, leaves, flowers, seeds, sap and pods are a storehouse of nutrients and antioxidants. (realfarmacy.com)
  • The recovery of Z. marina initiated in this coastal bay system may be unique in seagrass recovery studies because of how the recovery was initiated (seeds rather than adult plants), how rapidly it occurred (years rather than decades), and the explicit demonstration of how one meadow modulated water clarity and altered sediments as it developed and expanded. (virginia.gov)
  • This Decision Document has been prepared to explain the regulatory decision reached under the guidelines Dir95-03 " Guidelines for the Assessment of Livestock Feed from Plants with Novel Traits " and Dir94-08 " Assessment Criteria for Determining Environmental Safety of Plants with Novel Traits " . (gc.ca)
  • This Decision Document has been prepared to explain the regulatory decision reached under the regulatory directive 94-08 Assessment Criteria for Determining Environmental Safety of Plants with Novel Traits and the companion document BIO 2003-12 The Biology of Lens Culinaris (Lentil) and the regulatory directive 95-03 Guidelines for the Assessment of Plants with Novel Traits as Livestock Feed. (gc.ca)
  • Numerous medicinal plants and their formulations are used for liver disorders in ethno-medical practice as well as traditional system of medicine in India [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Two months after inoculation, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses identified metabolites in both shoot and roots in both plants. (scirp.org)