The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Material prepared from plants.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Antibodies that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The absence of light.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.

HUA1 and HUA2 are two members of the floral homeotic AGAMOUS pathway. (1/565)

The identities of the four floral organ types in an Arabidopsis flower are specified by the combinatorial activities of the floral homeotic A, B, and C function genes; AGAMOUS is the only known C function gene. We have identified two genes that interact with AG in the specification of floral structure, HUA1 and HUA2, from a screen for enhancers of a weak ag allele, ag-4. HUA1 and HUA2 are involved in all aspects of AG function. HUA2 encodes a novel protein that contains nuclear localization signals and signature motifs that suggest HUA2, like AG, may be a transcription factor. Molecular analyses suggest that HUA2 (and possibly HUA1) acts to facilitate AG action at the same hierarchical level as AG.  (+info)

Rac homologues and compartmentalized phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate act in a common pathway to regulate polar pollen tube growth. (2/565)

Pollen tube cells elongate based on actin- dependent targeted secretion at the tip. Rho family small GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of related processes in animal and yeast cells. We have functionally characterized Rac type Rho family proteins that are expressed in growing pollen tubes. Expression of dominant negative Rac inhibited pollen tube elongation, whereas expression of constitutive active Rac induced depolarized growth. Pollen tube Rac was found to accumulate at the tip plasma membrane and to physically associate with a phosphatidylinositol monophosphate kinase (PtdIns P-K) activity. Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PtdIns 4, 5-P2), the product of PtdIns P-Ks, showed a similar intracellular localization as Rac. Expression of the pleckstrin homology (PH)-domain of phospholipase C (PLC)-delta1, which binds specifically to PtdIns 4, 5-P2, inhibited pollen tube elongation. These results indicate that Rac and PtdIns 4, 5-P2 act in a common pathway to control polar pollen tube growth and provide direct evidence for a function of PtdIns 4, 5-P2 compartmentalization in the regulation of this process.  (+info)

Phloem transport: Are you chaperoned? (3/565)

Long-distance transport via the vasculature in plants is critical for nutrient dissemination, as well as transport of growth regulatory molecules such as hormones. Evidence is now accumulating that protein and RNA molecules also use this transport pathway, possibly to regulate developmental and physiological processes.  (+info)

The Arabidopsis FILAMENTOUS FLOWER gene is required for flower formation. (4/565)

A screen for mutations affecting flower formation was carried out and several filamentous flower (fil) alleles were identified. In fil mutants, floral primordia occasionally give rise to pedicels lacking flowers at their ends. This defect is dramatically enhanced in fil rev double mutants, in which every floral primordium produces a flowerless pedicel. These data suggest that the FIL and REV genes are required for an early step of flower formation, possibly for the establishment of a flower-forming domain within the floral primordium. The FIL gene is also required for establishment of floral meristem identity and for flower development. During flower development, the FIL gene is required for floral organ formation in terms of the correct numbers and positions; correct spatial activity of the AGAMOUS, APETALA3, PISTILLATA and SUPERMAN genes; and floral organ development.  (+info)

Polyadenylation accelerates the degradation of the mitochondrial mRNA associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower. (5/565)

In sunflower, PET1-cytoplasmic male sterility is correlated with the presence of a novel mitochondrial gene (orf522) located 3' to the atpA gene. The dicistronic atpA-orf522 transcripts are preferentially destabilized in male florets of 'restored to fertility' plants as compared with sterile plants. In this report, we show that atpA-orf522 transcripts may be polyadenylated in vivo at their 3' termini and that a tissue-specific increase in the level of polyadenylated atpA-orf522 transcripts correlates with the tissue-specific instability of atpA-orf522 mRNAs in male florets of the restored hybrid plants. In addition, we have identified two distinct ribonuclease activities in sunflower mitochondria, one of which preferentially degrades polyadenylated as compared with non-polyadenylated RNA substrates corresponding to the 3' UTR of atpA-orf522 transcripts. These in vivo and in vitro results show that polyadenylation is involved in the degradation pathway of the mitochondrial atpA-orf522 transcripts and that polyadenylation can be developmentally regulated by a nuclear gene(s) upon restoration of fertility.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a novel Mg(2+)/H(+) exchanger. (6/565)

Cellular functions require adequate homeostasis of several divalent metal cations, including Mg(2+) and Zn(2+). Mg(2+), the most abundant free divalent cytoplasmic cation, is essential for many enzymatic reactions, while Zn(2+) is a structural constituent of various enzymes. Multicellular organisms have to balance not only the intake of Mg(2+) and Zn(2+), but also the distribution of these ions to various organs. To date, genes encoding Mg(2+) transport proteins have not been cloned from any multicellular organism. We report here the cloning and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana transporter, designated AtMHX, which is localized in the vacuolar membrane and functions as an electrogenic exchanger of protons with Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) ions. Functional homologs of AtMHX have not been cloned from any organism. Ectopic overexpression of AtMHX in transgenic tobacco plants render them sensitive to growth on media containing elevated levels of Mg(2+) or Zn(2+), but does not affect the total amounts of these minerals in shoots of the transgenic plants. AtMHX mRNA is mainly found at the vascular cylinder, and a large proportion of the mRNA is localized in close association with the xylem tracheary elements. This localization suggests that AtMHX may control the partitioning of Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) between the various plant organs.  (+info)

PLENA and FARINELLI: redundancy and regulatory interactions between two Antirrhinum MADS-box factors controlling flower development. (7/565)

We report the discovery of an Antirrhinum MADS-box gene, FARINELLI (FAR), and the isolation of far mutants by a reverse genetic screen. Despite striking similarities between FAR and the class C MADS-box gene PLENA (PLE), the phenotypes of their respective mutants are dramatically different. Unlike ple mutants, which show homeotic conversion of reproductive organs to perianth organs and a loss of floral determinacy, far mutants have normal flowers which are partially male-sterile. Expression studies of PLE and FAR, in wild-type and mutant backgrounds, show complex interactions between the two genes. Double mutant analysis reveals an unexpected, redundant negative control over the B-function MADS-box genes. This feature of the two Antirrhinum C-function-like genes is markedly different from the control of the inner boundary of the B-function expression domain in Arabidopsis, and we propose and discuss a model to account for these differences. The difference in phenotypes of mutants in two highly related genes illustrates the importance of the position within the regulatory network in determining gene function.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of APETALA1 by LEAFY. (8/565)

Plants produce new appendages reiteratively from groups of stem cells called shoot apical meristems. LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) are pivotal for the switch to the reproductive phase, where instead of leaves the shoot apical meristem produces flowers. Use of steroid-inducible activation of LFY demonstrated that early expression of AP1 is a result of transcriptional induction by LFY. This AP1 induction is independent of protein synthesis and occurs specifically in the tissues and at the developmental stage in which floral fate is assumed. Later expression of AP1 appears to be only indirectly affected by LFY.  (+info)

View Mump 0506 20 Z+mustang Rally Pac Install+bulb - Photo 8931101 from 1966 Ford Mustang - Project 66 - Reproduction Mustang Gauges - Install A Rally-Pac
View Mump 1212 14 1964 1 2 1973 Mustang Value Guide 1967 Mustang Value Table.PNG - Photo 42513952 from 1964 ½-1973 Mustang Value Guide
Among the many celebrated muscle cars, and indeed cars in general, in American car history is the Ford Mustang. Classified as a pony car, this is a car which has enchanted generations of car lovers and even casual car enthusiasts, and has epitomized American automotive pride. Today, the Mustang remains a symbol of power and respect on the road, and still, millions of people around the world appreciate this head-turner. With the first generation Mustang (1964-1973) came the beginning of the muscle car era, and indeed, it signified the beginning of the American love affair with fast cars. Though Fords competitors also began to produce their own muscle cars, many did not stand the test of time like the Mustang.. ...
All these were VIN-identified as 1965 designs, but a number of modifications were made at the standard opening of the brand-new design year (start August 1964), consisting of the addition of back-up lights on some designs, the intro of alternators to change generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu into 289 cu in. When it comes to at least some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp 170 cu in Falcon engine, the rush into production consisted of some unusual peculiarities, such as a horn ring bearing the Ford Falcon logo underneath a trim ring emblazoned with Ford Mustang. These characteristics made sufficient difference to require designation of the 121,538 earlier ones as 1964 1/2 model-year Mustangs, a difference that has withstood with perfectionists. Mustangs For Sale in Keenesburg CO are easy to find now with online shopping.. The 1973 OPEC oil embargo brought with it more stringent contamination laws and the desire for fuel-efficiency. This was likewise the first ...
All these were VIN-identified as 1965 designs, however a number of modifications were made at the standard opening of the new design year (beginning August 1964), including the addition of back-up lights on some designs, the intro of generators to replace generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu into 289 cu in. When it comes to a minimum of some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp 170 cu in Falcon engine, the rush into production consisted of some uncommon quirks, such as a horn ring bearing the Ford Falcon logo beneath a trim ring emblazoned with Ford Mustang. These attributes made sufficient distinction to call for designation of the 121,538 earlier ones as 1964 1/2 model-year Mustangs, a difference that has sustained with purists. Mustangs For Sale in Cosby TN are easy to find now with online shopping.. The 1973 OPEC oil embargo brought with it more rigid contamination laws and the desire for fuel-efficiency. This was also the very first time in automobile ...
All these were VIN-identified as 1965 designs, however a number of modifications were made at the standard opening of the new design year (beginning August 1964), including the addition of back-up lights on some designs, the intro of generators to replace generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu into 289 cu in. When it comes to a minimum of some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp 170 cu in Falcon engine, the rush into production consisted of some uncommon quirks, such as a horn ring bearing the Ford Falcon logo beneath a trim ring emblazoned with Ford Mustang. These attributes made sufficient distinction to call for designation of the 121,538 earlier ones as 1964 1/2 model-year Mustangs, a difference that has sustained with purists. Mustangs For Sale in Cosby TN are easy to find now with online shopping.. The 1973 OPEC oil embargo brought with it more rigid contamination laws and the desire for fuel-efficiency. This was also the very first time in automobile ...
All of these were VIN-identified as 1965 designs, however a number of changes were made at the standard opening of the brand-new design year (beginning August 1964), including the addition of back-up lights on some models, the introduction of alternators to replace generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu in to 289 cu in. In the case of at least some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp 170 cu in Falcon engine, the rush into production included some unusual quirks, such as a horn ring bearing the Ford Falcon logo design beneath a trim ring emblazoned with Ford Mustang. These qualities made adequate difference to call for designation of the 121,538 earlier ones as 1964 1/2 model-year Mustangs, a distinction that has withstood with purists. Mustangs For Sale in Alvin TX are easy to find now with online shopping.. The 1973 OPEC oil embargo brought with it more strict contamination laws and the desire for fuel-efficiency. This was likewise the very first time in vehicle ...
All these were VIN-identified as 1965 models, but several modifications were made at the traditional opening of the brand-new design year (start August 1964), including the addition of back-up lights on some models, the intro of generators to change generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu in to 289 cu in. When it comes to at least some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp 170 cu in Falcon engine, the rush into production consisted of some unusual quirks, such as a horn ring bearing the Ford Falcon logo design beneath a trim ring emblazoned with Ford Mustang. These qualities made enough difference to require designation of the 121,538 earlier ones as 1964 1/2 model-year Mustangs, a difference that has withstood with perfectionists. Mustangs For Sale in Tampa FL are easy to find now with online shopping.. The 1973 OPEC oil embargo brought with it more stringent contamination laws and the desire for fuel-efficiency. This was also the first time in automobile history ...
All these were VIN-identified as 1965 models, however a number of changes were made at the conventional opening of the brand-new design year (beginning August 1964), consisting of the addition of back-up lights on some models, the intro of generators to change generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu into 289 cu in. When it comes to at least some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp 170 cu in Falcon engine, the rush into production consisted of some uncommon peculiarities, such as a horn ring bearing the Ford Falcon logo design below a trim ring emblazoned with Ford Mustang. These attributes made adequate difference to call for designation of the 121,538 earlier ones as 1964 1/2 model-year Mustangs, a difference that has actually withstood with perfectionists. Mustangs For Sale in Dubois WY are easy to find now with online shopping.. The 1973 OPEC oil embargo brought with it more rigid contamination laws and the desire for fuel-efficiency. This was likewise the first ...
Paul Andersen explains the major plants structures. He starts with a brief discussion of monocot and dicot plants. He then describes the three main tissues in plants; dermal, ground and vascular. He also describes the plant cells within each of these tissues; epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerencyma, xylem and phloem.. Plant Structure Worksheet - Leya Joykutty ...
A summary of Leaf in s Plant Structures. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Plant Structures and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
JK ENGG. CO. - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of PLANT STRUCTURE FABRICATION based in Sonipat, India
Over the years, Mustangs have been offered with a myriad of gear ratios, so figuring out which ones are in your car can be tough. Especially with late model Mustangs, it can be difficult to figure out what gears your Mustang has since Ford has offered everything from 3.31s to 3.73s from the factory 2011 and up. Typically, the stock ratio is on the build sheet, or could be on a sticker on the door panel or glove compartment. You can also find the gear ratio stamped into the differential cover or written on to it from the factory, but these arent always visible and can be difficult to locate. Using a VIN decoder can help and as a last resort you can go to a dealer and have them check to tell you.. If you suspect the gears already may have been changed, you can MacGyver it by jacking up the rear end, spin the tire one time and count how many revolutions the driveshaft made (its a good idea to use white-out or a sharpie to make a reference point on the driveshaft). Or, remove the differential ...
Tony D. Branda Shelby & Mustang Parts has been your source of restoration parts and accessories for 1965-73 Mustangs, 1965-70 Shelby and Cobras since 1975. Our selection of Classic Mustang Parts and Accessories is one of the largest in the country. If you cant find what you are looking for on our website, dont hesitate to contact us. Our friendly and knowledgeable staff is always willing to help ...
Theres been recent speculation that the Ford Motor Company [NYSE:F] was planning to debut a new specialty Mustang at the Los Angeles Auto Show, which it was co-developing with Italian designer Fabrizio Giugiaro from ItalDesign. This image that turned up on Mustang Forums reveals a suspicious looking car with the classic Mustang shape, but with much...
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It is well known that Ford Mustang is a symbol for power and strength and the new Mustang GT and Mustang Boss 302 models from 2011 till 2014 are typical
We look back at Muscle Mustangs & Fast Fords top Mustangs of 2015. Stangs include a 2005 Ford Mustang GT, 1986 Ecoboost and more.
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This title provides a strong introduction to plant biology, clearly explaining how plants structures enable them to make food, grow, survive challenging environments, and reproduce ...
These mustangs all exhibit a frame overo phenotype. [url=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Frame_Overo_Mustangs.jpg]Open Source Photo[/url]
The February issue of National Geographic Magazine has an article, by Alexandra Fuller, about the governments round up of Mustangs on behalf of cattle ranchers, headed, "Spirit of the Shrinking West: Mustangs."
I am restoring my 1982 Mustang and have encountered some cracking on the front nose piece and air dam. These plastic or fiberglass parts have many small...
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The 2014 Ford Mustang is facing a complete redesign next year. Is this a good time to buy a Mustang? Find out in our comprehensive review.
This used 2014 Ford Mustang GT Convertible is in stock and for sale in Columbus, MS. View photos and learn more about this 2014 Mustang on Edmunds.
Mustang 이온 교환 멤브레인 크로마토그래피 장치는 1회용 또는 여러 번 사용할 수 있수 있으며, 스케일 업 가능한 장치로써 바이오공정에서 유연성을 제공합니다. 고용량을 빠른 유속으로 대량 처리할 수 있으며 사용이 간편하고 작게 설계되어 버퍼 소비량이 적고 전체 공정 경제성을 개선합니다. Mustang 멤브레인 제품은 크기가 큰 타깃 분자(플라스미드 DNA, 바이러스 벡터 등)의 포획 및 오염물질 제거에 효과적으로 적용할 수 있습니다.. 사용자 혜택:. ...
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Wikimedia Commons includes effects participated to ebook plant structure a colour Schyns. do up change in Wiktionary, the Startling research. Cambridge University Press.
Our Superman Muscle Costume will take him from hero to superhero. Superman costume for toddlers features a red and blue Superman jumpsuit with padded chest, torso and arm muscles.
Shop our horse supplies for Pack Equipment at ValleyVet.com; products that promote the health and well being of your horse. Order now or request a free Horse supply catalog. Shop Horse Supplies in our Pack Equipment department online made by Mustang Manufacturing. Shop, sign-up and save, or request your free Horse Supplies catalog.
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The Bureau of Land Management takes the wild mustangs and burros, off the over-populated western range of the U.S. and are calling all horse lovers to adopt them into their family.
Hey i thought you guys might like to see my car in a drag race vs a wrx. The car is pretty much stock but was able to get a 14.1 out of it. Not to bad
I have a 1995 Mustang with a V6 engine and need a hubcap. I attached a picture. I checked on Ebay and Craigs List and found nothing. A local hubcap
This car is an outstanding value, compared to the Challenger and Camaro competion. It has way better sight lines from the drivers seat and power to weight ratio is much better. The 2013 model year upgrades and improvements are impressive compared t
City of Hope has landed a grant to expand a phase 1 trial of Mustang Bios CAR-T in patients with brain tumors. The $12.8 million grant equips the team to expand arms that are assessing different routes of administration of the IL13Rα2‐specific autologous CAR-T cells.
1. Dianthin 30 and dianthin 32, two proteins isolated from the leaves of Diathus caryophyllus (carnation), were purified to homogeneity by chromatography on CM-cellulose. 2. The mol.wt. of dianthin 30 is 29 500 and that of dianthin 32 is 31 700. Both dianthins are glycoproteins containing mannose. 3. Dianthins inhibit protein synthesis in a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes, with an ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 9.15 ng/ml (dianthin 30) and 3.6 ng/ml (dianthin 32). They act by damaging ribosomes in a less-than-equimolar ratio. Protein synthesis by intact cells is partially inhibited by dianthins at a concentration of 100 microgram/ml. 4. Dianthins mixed with tobacco-mosaic virus strongly decrease the number of local lesions on leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. ...
The balance between reactions involving free radicals and processes which ameliorate their effect plays an important role in the regulation of plant senescence. In this study a method was developed to isolate peroxisomes and mitochondria from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Ember) petals. Based on electron microscopy and marker enzyme levels, the proportion of peroxisomes to mitochondria increases during senescence. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) content of these fractions was examined. Mitochondria and peroxisomes were shown to contain two electrophoretically distinct SODs, a manganese-, and an ironcontaining SOD. The Mn- and Fe-SOD were found to have relative molecular weights of 75,000 and 48,000 and isoelectric points of 4.85 and 5.00, respectively. The presence of a Fe-SOD in mitochondria and peroxisomes is unique because this enzyme is usually located in chloroplasts. The activity of these two isoenzymes decreased during senescence in mitochondria but remained high in peroxisomes ...
Learn how to grow Snapdragon flowers from gardening experts at Burpee Seeds. Find out the ideal conditions for growing snapdragon annuals in your garden. Burpee
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Risk Assessment Report of the Genetic Modification Advisory Committee (GMAC) for an Application for Approval for Commercial Import of Cut Flowers of Novel Flower Colour Varieties of Genetically Modified Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L ...
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The effects of plant growth regulators GA3 50 mg. L-1, NAA 100 mg. L-1, CCC 1500 mg.L-1 and SADH 3000 mg.L-1 on stem anatomy of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Ângela Gigante were studied. Two sets of experiments were carried out in greenhouse during two separte periods. Anatomical studies , revealed that growth promotors induced increased xylem thickness and increased the number of tracheary elements while the growth retardants decreased xylem thickness and induced fiber formation ...
4. Buchanania microphylla Engler, Monogr. Phan. 4: 185. 1883. 小叶山檨子 xiao ye shan xian zi Trees, 5-9 m tall; young branches minutely ferruginous pubescent, later glabrescent. Petiole 8-14 mm, puberulent; leaf blade obovate, 4-12 × 2-5 cm, minutely pubescent along midrib on both sides, base rounded to broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex rounded to retuse, lateral veins 12-20 pairs, reticulate venation pattern prominent on both sides. Inflorescences paniculate, terminal, minutely ferruginous pubescent, with numerous branches. Flowers light yellow; pedicel ca. 1 mm, minutely pubescent. Calyx lobes ovate, ca. 1 mm, minutely pubescent to subglabrous abaxially. Petals oblong, ca. 2.5 × 1 mm, glabrous, revolute in open state. Stamens 10; filaments linear, ca. 1 mm; anthers oblong, shorter than filaments, ca. 0.5 mm. Ovary conical, ca. 0.5 mm, densely hispid. Young fruit lens-shaped, glabrous. Fl. Apr, fr. Jun.. Lowland and hill forests. Hainan [Philippines].. ...
Introducing the brand new HPI Racing 2015 Ford Mustang RTR Spec 5 RS4 Sport 3! Bringing the awesomeness of Vaughn Gittin Jrs RTR Spec 5 into your hands in 1/10th scale RC form, the latest RS4 Sport 3 kit is Ready to Rock your RC world! The super realistic Ford Mustang RTR Spec 5 body is coupled with a set of replica HRE Tech 7 wheels for over the top scale realism. Under the hood, this 1/10th scale Mustang is equipped with the latest HPI Racing Touring Car chassis, the RS4 Sport 3. With full time shaft driven 4WD, a fully sealed drivetrain, waterproof 2.4 GHz electronics/radio gear, fully independent double wishbone suspension and adjustable oil filled shocks its Ready to Rock in any condition.. To grab the attention of all RC and motorsport enthusiasts, this RS4 Sport 3 features the latest Ford Mustang styling, tuned and tweaked by drift champion Vaughn Gittin Jr. to become the awesome Ford Mustang RTR Spec 5. The car is also fitted with replica green RTR by HRE Tech 7 wheels wrapped with ...
All of these were VIN-identified as 1965 designs, however a number of modifications were made at the conventional opening of the new design year (beginning August 1964), consisting of the addition of back-up lights on some designs, the introduction of generators to replace generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu into 289 cu in. When it comes to a minimum of some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp 170 cu in Falcon engine, the rush into production consisted of some unusual quirks, such as a horn ring bearing the Ford Falcon logo beneath a trim ring emblazoned with Ford Mustang. These qualities made enough difference to warrant classification of the 121,538 earlier ones as 1964 1/2 model-year Mustangs, a distinction that has actually withstood with perfectionists. Mustangs For Sale in Washington DC are easy to find now with online shopping.. The 1973 OPEC oil embargo brought with it more stringent contamination laws and the desire for fuel-efficiency. This was ...
All of these were VIN-identified as 1965 designs, however a number of modifications were made at the conventional opening of the new design year (beginning August 1964), consisting of the addition of back-up lights on some designs, the introduction of generators to replace generators, and an upgrade of the V8 engine from 260 cu into 289 cu in. When it comes to a minimum of some six-cylinder Mustangs fitted with the 101 hp 170 cu in Falcon engine, the rush into production consisted of some unusual quirks, such as a horn ring bearing the Ford Falcon logo beneath a trim ring emblazoned with Ford Mustang. These qualities made enough difference to warrant classification of the 121,538 earlier ones as 1964 1/2 model-year Mustangs, a distinction that has actually withstood with perfectionists. Mustangs For Sale in Washington DC are easy to find now with online shopping.. The 1973 OPEC oil embargo brought with it more stringent contamination laws and the desire for fuel-efficiency. This was ...
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A coordinated supply of the whole plant with sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) requires mechanisms to regulate not only uptake and assimilation but also long-distance transport of both nutrients in the phlo
Its time once again to look back at the full year of Ford Mustang news and see which posts were the most popular in terms of traffic here on Mustang Heaven. Some of the Most Popular Posts will be obvious while others might have you scratching your head but in the end the page views tell the story. For 2012 I wrote 191
Its time once again to look back at the full year of Ford Mustang news and see which posts were the most popular in terms of traffic here on Mustang Heaven.
In order to appreciate the unique role that plants play in the worlds ecosystems, it is important to understand plant structure and development. This sequence allows students to consider plants from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue and organ level. It illustrates how evolutionary forces have resulted in exquisite adaptations in plant form and function.. 1. BIO/MBI 116 Biological Concepts: Structure, Function (4) (MPF), ...
Williams McKie founded Mustang 34 years ago to sell booze to folks driving to Dallas. Now, his widow and another feller are debating its fate. In the 1970s, attorney William McKie had a brilliant idea: Hed turn the town of Mustang, some 60 miles away in Navarro County, into a...
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In this issue, we present a summary of diseases that occur in snapdragons. Remember: Product controls are based on research trials and do not reflect an endorsement of any sort.. To learn more about diseases affecting snapdragons, please click on the PDF link below.. ...
Composite Structures. 77 (3): 288-295. doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.07.023. Dy Phon, Pauline (2000). Plants Used In Cambodia/ ... In Cambodia, where it is planted as decorative along avenues and in public parks, it is known as sla barang' ("Western palm"). ... Roystonea regia is the host plant for the royal palm bug, Xylastodoris luteolus, in Florida. It also serves as a larval host ... Roystonea regia has been planted throughout the tropics and subtropics as an ornamental. The seed is used as a source of oil ...
Huang, Y.-N., A. S. Whittaker, and N. Luco, "A seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants, (I) methodology," ... "NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures VOlume II: Part 3 Resource Papers" (PDF). fema.gov ... Whittaker, A. S., P. Sollogoub, and M.-K. Kim, "Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants: Past, present and future," Nuclear ... Huang, Y.N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N. (2011). "A seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants, (I) methodology ...
28.7 Residential structures. . . . . . . $12.4 Nonresidential plant & equipment . $11.8 Inventories . . . . . . . . . . . . $ ... Structures and equipment . . . . . . $5.6 Federally owned or financed . . . $2.2 Federally owned . . . . . . . . . . .$1.0 ...
Structure and Movement". Cilia and Flagella: Structure and Movement. ISBN 0-7167-3136-3. Pazour GJ (October 2004). " ... McCann HC, Guttman DS (2008). "Evolution of the type III secretion system and its effectors in plant-microbe interactions". The ... For surface structures, see below. Each of the outer 9 doublet microtubules extends a pair of dynein arms (an "inner" and an " ... Other structures, more uncommon, are the paraflagellar (or paraxial, paraxonemal) rod, the R fiber, and the S fiber. ...
"Shoshone Hydroelectric Plant". historic-structures.com. Retrieved 2019-03-04. "Irrigation: McPhee Dam & Reservoir". Dolores ... "Nucla Station power plant, New Horizon Mine and part of Craig Station power plant closing". The Denver Channel. 2016-09-02. ... "Ray Nixon Power Plant". sourcewatch.org. Retrieved 2019-03-02. "2 More Western Utilities Move to Close Coal Plants Early, ... "Martin Drake Power Plant". Colorado Springs Utilities. Retrieved 2019-03-02. "Martin Drake Power Plant". sourcewatch.org. ...
Thin-Walled Structures. 40 (7): 651-664. doi:10.1016/S0263-8231(02)00018-6. "RWE cancels plans for new coal plants, including ... These plants were added to the grid in 1974. At that time the plants at Niederaussem produced a total of 2,700 megawatts. In ... It is the second-largest brown coal power plant in operation in Germany, with total output capacity of 3,864 MW and a net ... Between 1968 and 1971 three further power plants with improved technology were developed. With the building of the two 600 MW ...
As such, one element of the contract is that the final assembly of the trains will take place in the US, at their plant in Salt ... Structures (RTS). Simmons-Boardman Publishing. June 5, 2015. "TEX Rail Set To Become Reality, But…". CBS DFW. June 28, 2016. "D ... http://www.sltrib.com/news/business/2017/10/13/stadler-breaks-ground-on-railcar-manufacturing-plant-expected-to-employ-1000-in- ...
The cycle time for the whole plant was reached with down to five calendar days per structure. The load out cycle was achieved ... The three-legged structure reaches from the sea bed up to typically 20m above the sea water level, keeping the bolted flange on ... Comparable to other lattice structures like Jackets, the Tripod is fixed with piles in the sea bed. The number of three legs ... "Fundaments and foundation structures". offshore-windenergie.net. Archived from the original on October 2, 2014.CS1 maint: unfit ...
2008). "Structures of Phytoreoviruses". Segmented Double-stranded RNA Viruses: Structure and Molecular Biology. Caister ... The virus is transmitted via a vector (insect mechanical inoculation in plant by leafhoppers). Transmission routes are vector ... Most of our knowledge about phytoreovirus assembly and structure is based on structural data accumulated in RDV studies. Group ... their folds and the overall capsid structure are similar to those of other Reoviridae. Phytoreoviruses are unique among ...
Structure. 2 (6): 461-464. doi:10.1016/S0969-2126(00)00046-0. PMID 7922023. Welinder KG (1992). "Superfamily of plant, fungal ... The crystal structures of a number of these proteins show that they share the same architecture - two all-alpha domains between ... Haem peroxidases include two superfamilies: one found in bacteria, fungi, and plants, and the second found in animals. The ... Class III consists of the secretory plant peroxidases, which have multiple tissue-specific functions: e.g., removal of hydrogen ...
The steel structure thus reached a height of 308.7 m (1,013 ft). The final 516 panes of glass were added shortly after, topping ... It is fitted with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, operating on natural gas from the National Grid. Fuel is efficiently ... The Shard's steel structure was topped out on 30 March 2012, when its 66-metre (217 ft), 500-tonne spire was winched into place ... It survived by eating scraps of food left by builders working on the incomplete structure. The fox was captured and taken to ...
Protein domain structure uncovers the origin of aerobic metabolism and the rise of planetary oxygen. Structure 20(1): 67-76. ... Caetano-Anollés G, Gresshoff PM (1991) Plant genetic control of nodulation. Annual Review in Microbiology 45:345-382. Wang M, ... "Study of protein structures reveals key events in evolutionary history". Phys.org. March 10, 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2012. CS1 ... His team is currently exploring the role of structure and organization in the coevolution of proteins and functional RNA (e.g ...
Ohrnberger, Klaus H.; Marzotto, Tito R. (August 2016). "Transforming a Historic Auto Plant". Structure. "Chrysler Media Info". ... The plant currently operates two shifts with over 4,000 employees. The plant was designed by the architectural firm Hutton & ... Windsor Assembly Plant (WAP) is a FCA Canada automobile factory in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. The factory opened in 1928 and ... A deal with Volkswagen resulted in the plant assembling the Routan (RM) on the same platform as the Dodge Grand Caravan and ...
Structure. 5 (3): 403-14. doi:10.1016/s0969-2126(97)00197-4. PMID 9083109. Li X, Su RT, Hsu HT, Sze H (January 1998). "The ... molecular chaperone calnexin associates with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase from oat seedlings". The Plant Cell. 10 (1): 119-30. doi: ...
"The Tetrameric Plant Lectin BanLec Neutralizes HIV through Bidentate Binding to Specific Viral Glycans". Structure. 25 (5): 773 ... Crystal structures of BanLec suggest that the lectin has two saccharide binding sites. In 2010, BanLec was reported to be a ... BanLec expression can be induced by the plant hormone methyl jasmonate. BanLec exists as a homodimer of two identical 15 kDa ... Meagher JL, Winter HC, Ezell P, Goldstein IJ, Stuckey JA (October 2005). "Crystal structure of banana lectin reveals a novel ...
Ohrnberger, Klaus H.; Marzotto, Tito R. (August 2016). "Transforming a Historic Auto Plant" (PDF). Structure.. ... Based in Hamilton, Ontario, the firm is responsible for notable structures in the city and elsewhere, (e.g. McLaughlin Motor ... Ontario Chrysler Power Plant, constructed during the period of 1928 to 1935 Hotel Norton Palmer, built 1930 Windsor Assembly ... Plant, constructed for General Motors in 1928 Hill, Robert G. (2016). "Souter, William Russell". Biographical Dictionary of ...
Gutzeit, Herwig (2014). Plant Natural Products: Synthesis, Biological Functions and Practical Applications. Wiley. pp. 19-21. ... Inuzuka, Kozo (1961). "π Electronic structure of cinnamaldehyde". Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan. 34 (11): 1557-60. ... Li, Zhi; Nair, Satish K. (2015-11-03). "Structural Basis for Specificity and Flexibility in a Plant 4-Coumarate:CoA Ligase". ... Koukol, J.; Conn, E. E. (1961-10-01). "The metabolism of aromatic compounds in higher plants. IV. Purification and properties ...
The Plant Cell. 19 (2): 656-72. doi:10.1105/tpc.106.045351. PMC 1867334. PMID 17307930. Kerfeld CA (2004). "Structure and ... "The crystal structure of a cyanobacterial water-soluble carotenoid binding protein". Structure. 11 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1016/ ... The Plant Cell. 18 (4): 992-1007. doi:10.1105/tpc.105.040121. PMC 1425857. PMID 16531492. Wilson A, Boulay C, Wilde A, Kerfeld ... The Plant Cell. 24 (5): 1972-83. doi:10.1105/tpc.112.096909. PMC 3442581. PMID 22634762. This article incorporates text from ...
The CC-type GRXs are only found in higher plants. In Arabidopsis GRXs are involved in flower development and Salicylic acid ... Foloppe N, Nilsson L (February 2004). "The glutaredoxin -C-P-Y-C- motif: influence of peripheral residues". Structure. 12 (2): ... Beside their function in antioxidant defense, bacterial and plant GRX were shown to bind iron-sulfur clusters and to deliver ... Approximately 30 GRX isoforms are described in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and 48 in Oryza sativa L. According to ...
The crystal structures reveal conformational changes with implications for allosteric regulation". Structure. 6 (11): 1407-18. ... Gerald e, Edwards; Carlos s, Andreo (1992). "NADP-malic enzyme from plants". Phytochemistry. 31 (6): 1845-57. doi:10.1016/0031- ... 2001). "X-ray structure of HPr kinase: A bacterial protein kinase with a P-loop nucleotide-binding domain". The EMBO Journal. ... Kotaka, M.; Ren, J.; Lockyer, M.; Hawkins, A. R.; Stammers, D. K. (2006). "Structures of R- and T-state Escherichia coli ...
Cellular Solids: Structure and Properties; 2nd Edition (Paperback), Cambridge Uni. Press. pp.453-467. Karade S.R., Irle M.A., ... While many manufacturers have worked to improve energy efficiency at their plants and modified their cement mixes to reduce CO2 ... Shotcrete (also known by the trade name Gunite) uses compressed air to shoot concrete onto (or into) a frame or structure. The ... This allows a user of the concrete to be confident that the structure will perform properly. Various types of concrete have ...
First, antibodies with high specificities for plant SPS also target the bacterial SPS, indicating the structure is conserved ... various studies indicate that the structure of its SPS is similar to plant SPS. ... Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 47: 431-444. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.473.6911. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... and Bonpl". Plant Physiology. 95 (2): 623-7. doi:10.1104/pp.95.2.623. PMC 1077577. PMID 16668028. Guy CL, Huber JL, Huber SC ( ...
In the few plants that exploit structural coloration, brilliant colours are produced by structures within cells. The most ... Structures can be far more elaborate than a single thin film: films can be stacked up to give strong iridescence, to combine ... The structure behaves optically as if it consisted of a stack of 88 diffraction gratings, making Aphrodita one of the most ... So, as a thin-film structure such as a butterfly's wing or bird's feather moves, it seems to change colour. A number of fixed ...
Tipples, coal washing plants, and coal breakers were often merged into a single large plant to achieve economies of scale. ... As many coal breakers handled heavier loads of coal, wooden buildings were abandoned in favor of structures made entirely of ... In the typical coal breaking plant at the beginning of the 20th century, the coal entered the plant at the upper floor and slid ... These coal preparation plants often accepted coal from several mines, and many were built far away from operating mines. By the ...
In plants, multi layer structures can be found either at the surface of the leaves (on top of the epidermis), such as in ... Nacre shows a brick and mortar like structure with thick mineral layer (0.2∼0.9-μm) of closely packed aragonite structures and ... Canon Inc.'s SubWavelength structure Coating uses wedge-shaped structures the size of the wavelength of visible light. The ... Green wall facilitates additional natural cooling via evaporation, respiration and transpiration in plants. The damp plant ...
Faik, Ahmed (2013), "Plant Cell Wall Structure-Pretreatment" the Critical Relationship in Biomass Conversion to Fermentable ... Keegstra, Kenneth; Raikhel, Natasha (2001-06-01). "Plant glycosyltransferases". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 4 (3): 219- ... they help plants to defend against herbivores and pathogens (biotic stress). Xylan also plays a significant role in plant ... How Plants Make Cellulose and Other (1→4)-β-d-Glycans". Plant Physiology. 155 (1): 171-184. doi:10.1104/pp.110.163360. ISSN ...
The plants are monoecious, subdioecious, or dioecious. The male cones are 4-25 mm long, and shed pollen in the early spring. ... Stützel, T.; Röwekamp, I. (1999). "Female reproductive structures in Taxales". Flora. Elsevier BV. 194 (2): 145-157. doi: ... Doyle, J. A. (1998). "Phylogeny of vascular plants". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Annual Reviews. 29 (1): 567-599 ...
The plants are dioecious. The male structures are microscopic. The female cystocarps grow to 1 mm in diameter and are on the ... The plants are fully corticated. This branching pattern is similar to Plocamium lyngyanum and Plocamium maggsiae the other ...
No plant or structures remain. Wenlock Goldfield was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 3 March 2006 having ... Larsen's Consolidated plant, to the north, is located alongside a large tailings dam site over Tunnel Creek. The area of mill ... The Peninsula Mines Limited was using an oil engine driven boring plant. By 1935 the yield was 1,326 ounces of gold (more than ... Surviving plant at the site includes: One-cylinder portable steam engine - Marshall Sons & Co. Gainsborough & London. One- ...
One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative (2019). "One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants ... Stützel, Thomas; Röwekamp, Iris (1999). "Female reproductive structures in Taxales". Flora. Elsevier BV. 194 (2): 145-157. doi: ... The plants are dioecious, rarely monoecious. The male cones are 2-5 millimetres (0.079-0.197 in) long, and shed pollen in the ... 1993). "Phylogenetics of Seed Plants: An Analysis of Nucleotide Sequences from the Plastid Gene rbcL" (PDF). Annals of the ...
Structure and politics[edit]. Cesar Chavez speaking at a 1974 United Farm Workers rally in Delano, California. The UFW during ... Collective bargaining was first recognized in 1945, after the strike by the United Auto Workers at the General Motors' plant in ... Although their political structure and autonomy varies widely, union leaderships are usually formed through democratic ... Private sector unions faced plant closures in many manufacturing industries and demands to reduce wages and increase ...
Cost of LNG plants[edit]. For an extended period of time, design improvements in liquefaction plants and tankers had the effect ... EY Competing for LNG demand pricing structure debate 2014 Archived 2015-09-06 at the Wayback Machine ... These plants are typically called LNG Peak Shaving Plants as the purpose is to shave off part of the peak demand from what is ... Small-scale liquefaction plants[edit]. Small-scale liquefaction plants are suitable for peakshaving on natural gas pipelines, ...
"European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2012.. *^ a b "Den senaste om ... Bengtsson, S. B. K.; Vasaitis, R.; Kirisits, T.; Solheim, H.; Stenlida, J. (2012). "Population structure of Hymenoscyphus ... Young and newly planted trees with the disease would be destroyed; however, mature trees would not be removed because of the ... "European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. March 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 29 ...
how community structure, function and stability is determined.[36][37]. Ecological pyramids[edit]. See also: Ecological pyramid ... because aquatic plants are not as productive as long-lived terrestrial plants such as trees. Ecological trophic pyramids are ... not all plant material is edible and the nutritional quality or antiherbivore defenses of plants (structural and chemical) ... Plants generally have the greatest biomass. Names of trophic categories are shown to the right of the pyramid. Some ecosystems ...
Structure. *United States Code *Title 10. *Title 14. *Title 32. *Title 50 ... Planting Fields. *Elmcroft Estate. *Chelsea Estate. *Nassau Hall. *Lillian Sefton Dodge Estate ...
... adversely affecting most plants, including trees and vegetables. For plants to thrive a certain quantity of organic matter ( ... Rather than offering a structured method, Fukuoka distilled the natural farming mindset into five principles:[12] ... Periodically ground layer plants including weeds may be cut and left on the surface, returning their nutrients to the soil, ... Tilling uproots all the plants in the area, turning their roots into food for bacteria and fungi. This damages their ability to ...
Bacteria, fungi and plants have strong cell walls as well, which support the cell and block the passage of large molecules. ... StructureEdit. The phospholipid bilayer. The membrane is made up of a thin layer called the 'phospholipid bilayer'. This has ...
... s are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant ... and Key Analogues and Development of Inspired Methodology Suitable for the Systematic Study of Their Structure-Function ... Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. VI. Springer-Verlag. pp. 46-55. ISBN 9783540563914.. ... Cooper, Raymond; Deakin, Jeffrey John (2016). "Africa's gift to the world". Botanical Miracles: Chemistry of Plants That ...
Fournier, Jean-Marc (1976). "Bonding and the electronic structure of the actinide metals". Journal of Physics and Chemistry of ... all coming from tiny amounts taken by plants. Soluble lutetium salts are mildly toxic, but insoluble ones are not.[83] ... Yttrium can be found in edible plants in concentrations between 20 ppm and 100 ppm (fresh weight), with cabbage having the ... largest amount.[82] With up to 700 ppm, the seeds of woody plants have the highest known concentrations.[82] ...
... which twines around supporting plants and structures, helping the sweet pea to climb. In the wild plant the flowers are purple ... The plants are also available later in the season, as young plants or plugs. They are grown up canes, with the new shoots being ... The sweet pea plant does suffer from some pests, the most common being aphids. These insects suck the sap out of the plants, ... Because of this, growers are encouraged to plant sweet peas away from fruit trees among other plants prone to early dieback or ...
As a thin strip to form an airtight seal between the control surfaces and adjacent structure of aircraft, especially gliders. ... On farmland and domestic gardens, highly reflective aluminized PET film ribbons are used to keep birds away from plants. ... As a result, biaxially oriented PET film has excellent clarity, despite its semicrystalline structure. ...
... and abrasion from surrounding foliage and plant structures. Overall leaves are relatively flimsy with regard to other plant ... Rudall, Paula J. (2007). Anatomy of flowering plants: an introduction to structure and development (3rd ed.). Cambridge: ... The shape and structure of leaves vary considerably from species to species of plant, depending largely on their adaptation to ... 2011) [1984-2000]. The European Garden Flora, Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe ...
Of 24 plant and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected.[86] The bats displayed no ... which reduces the availability of specific integrins responsible for cell adhesion to the intercellular structure and causes ... Plants, arthropods, rodents, and birds have also been considered possible viral reservoirs.[1][29] ... "Experimental inoculation of plants and animals with Ebola virus". Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2 (4): 321-25. doi:10.3201/ ...
Clay and stone tablets unearthed at Harappa, which were carbon dated 3300-3200 BC., contain trident-shaped and plant-like ... One of its most well-known structures is the Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro. ...
"American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628.. *^ a b c "Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for ... "Fractal Structure of a White Cauliflower" (PDF). Journal of Korean physical society. 46 (2): 474-477. arXiv:cond-mat/0409763 . ... water-soluble pigments that are found in many other plants and plant-based products, such as red cabbage and red wine.[18] ... In the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History: "Ex ...
... plant matter, while laying females ate 71.9% animal matter and only 28.1% plant matter.[66] Plants generally make up the larger ... and lineage sorting contribute to complex geographic structure". The Auk. 122 (3): 949-965. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0949 ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[69] However, in 2017 a ... plant matter, most notably the grass Echinochloa crus-galli, and nonlaying females ate 37.0% animal matter and 63.0% ...
In general, their actual diet in the wild is about 95% plant-based, with the remaining 5% filled with insects, eggs, and baby ... In some instances (at least the Tlingit), they developed social stratification, slavery, and complex social structures such as ... During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and ... Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for ...
Molecular structureEdit. The 154 kb chloroplast DNA map of a model flowering plant (Arabidopsis thaliana: Brassicaceae) showing ... Linear structureEdit. Chloroplast DNA has long been thought to have a circular structure, but some evidence suggests that ... Basal land plants such as liverworts, mosses and ferns have hundreds of different editing sites while flowering plants ... It has been established that some plants have linear cpDNA, such as maize, and that more still contain complex structures that ...
For structures not intended for human use, see Nonbuilding structure. For other uses, see Building (disambiguation). ... Physical plantEdit. Main article: Physical plant. The BB&T Building in Macon, Georgia is constructed of aluminum. ... A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and[1] walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house ... Structure. def. 2. Merriam-Webster's dictionary of synonyms: a dictionary of discriminated synonyms with antonyms and analogous ...
In recognition of their major contributions to plant physiology including fundamental studies on insectivorous plants, much of ... In recognition of his distinguished work on selection in age-structured populations, extending the theory to the evolution of ... For his research on the population biology and evolution of plants which has greatly improved understanding of the adaptation ... For his work on extended oceanographical expeditions; and for his genetic studies in animals and plants. ...
... s are of economic consequence, as they often attach themselves to synthetic structures, sometimes to the structure's ... Mechanism of Fertilization: Plants to Humans, edited by Brian Dale *^ "Shore life". Encarta Encyclopedia 2005 DVD.. ... "Barnacles: Structure, Function, Development and Evolution. Springer. pp. 197-246. ISBN 978-0-412-44420-3. .. ... "Let's learn about the body structure of a barnacle" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 25, 2012.. ...
It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants. It is used in mixed drinks, liqueurs, and tinctures, and also as ... Wine tannins adds balance, complexity, structure and makes a wine last longer, so they play an important role in the aging of ...
Mann, T. (2012). Spermatophores: Development, Structure, Biochemical Attributes and Role in the Transfer of Spermatozoa. ... while at the same time mimicking plant matter.[78] This form of locomotion allows these octopuses to move quickly away from a ... Both the structures and editing sites are conserved in the coleoid genome and the mutation rates for the sites are severely ... They are similar in structure to those of a fish and are enclosed in a cartilaginous capsule fused to the cranium. The cornea ...
For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen, Brucella abortus is an animal pathogen, and Sinorhizobium meliloti ... Caulobacter crescentus is a member of a group of bacteria that possess the stalk structure, a tubular extension from the cell ... The other daughter, called the "stalked" cell, has a tubular stalk structure protruding from one pole that has an adhesive ... The cell cycle-regulated synthesis and removal of these polarly localized structures have provided a rich playground for the ...
The modular expansion of Tange's Metabolist visions had some influence on Archigram with their plug-in mega structures.[43] The ... It was designed for three media companies: a newspaper printing plant, a radio station and a television studio. To allow for ... Tange's own home, designed in 1951 and completed in 1953, uses a similar skeleton structure raised off the ground as the ... The building is raised on massive columns, which frame the view along the structure's axis.[9] ...
The reason for polishing is a result of the composition and structure of the rice grain itself. The core of the rice grain is ... oryzae is a harmful pathogen to either plants or animals in the scientific literature.[19] Therefore, Health Canada considers A ...
Dried floral structures are used in dried arrangements. Dried plant parts (leaves, floral structure) emit a spicy fragrance and ... The Plant List Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mountains, Nancy Dale, 2nd Ed., 2000, p. 175 Medicinal Plants of the SW - ... Plants For A Future database Medicinal plants Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Medicinal Uses and Harvesting. ... the whole structure is quite striking when it blooms in spring. The conical structure develops into a single, tough fruit that ...
Anatomy is the study of the physical structure of organisms. In contrast to macroscopic or gross anatomy, cytology and ... Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of the methods of Mechanics. ... Histology is the study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and ...
Schwann, Theodor 1847 [1839]. Microscopic investigations on the accordance in the structure and growth of plants and animals. ... The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in all organisms. ...
"HauptstadtFlughafen-Ministerium plant Lex BER". Focus. 24 May 2015.. *^ "BER liegt acht Monate hinter dem Zeitplan" [BER is 8 ... During a fire, smoke would be pumped from the ceiling into a shaft running down and through the basement below the structure.[ ... "Air Berlin plant vorerst kein Drehkreuz in Berlin" [Air Berlin is not planning a hub in Berlin]. Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg( ... Plans call for the construction of shopping centers and parking structures as well as industrial, commercial and office spaces ...
Energy Panel Structures (EPS) is expanding with the addition of a new (SIP) Structural Insulated Panels manufacturing ... Energy Panel Structures (EPS) is expanding with the addition of a new (SIP) Structural Insulated Panels manufacturing plant ... Energy Panel Structures (EPS) is expanding with the addition of a new (SIP) Structural Insulated Panels manufacturing plant ... The plant will be completed in May with plans to be in full production by early June. At that point, the plant is expected to ...
What structures comprise each whorl? The calyx contains the sepals, the corolla contains the petals, the androecium contains ... Problem : What is the location, function, and structure of the gynoecium? The gynoecium lies in the very middle of the flower ... Problem : What is the function of the ovary? Where is it, and from what structure is it formed? ... Problem : Sketch the parts of the typical flower, including the structures in all four whorls. ...
... posted by Jason Kottke Dec 06, 2019 ... Artist Rob Kesseler is a master of the microphotography of plants and their intricately small parts (like pollen, cells, and ...
Other articles where Tylose is discussed: angiosperm: Secondary vascular system: Tyloses are balloonlike outgrowths of parenchyma cells that bulge through the circular bordered pits of vessel members and block water movement. The presence of tyloses in white oaks makes their wood watertight, which is why it is preferred in casks and shipbuilding to red oak,…
... background in plant structure is a prerequisite for studying land plant evolution. This lab reviews plant structure, especially ... The stem usually supports light-gathering and photosynthetic structures called leaves (VG 1:1)(VG 1:2), and the plants ... Biology of Plants., third edition. Worth, New York. Basic Organization. Compared with animals, plants have a relatively simple ... Morphology of Vascular Plants. . MacMillan, New York.. Esau, K. 1965. Plant Anatomy, second edition. Wiley, New York.. Foster, ...
This atlas presents beautiful photographs and 3D-reconstruction images of cellular structures in plants, algae, fungi, and ... Atlas of Plant Cell Structure. Editors: Noguchi, T., Kawano, S., Tsukaya, H., Matsunaga, S., Sakai, A., Karahara, I., Hayashi, ... Readers can enjoy the visual tour within cells and will obtain new insights into plant cell structure. This atlas is ... This atlas presents beautiful photographs and 3D-reconstruction images of cellular structures in plants, algae, fungi, and ...
This paper examines the effects of firm structure on U.S. manufacturing plant closures. Plants belonging to multiplant firms ... Controlling for plant and industry attributes, we find that plants owned by multiunit firms and U.S. multinationals are much ... Plant closures account for more than half of gross job destruction in U.S. manufacturing. ... However, the superior survival chances are due to the characteristics of the plants rather than the nature of the firms. ...
... helps in plant growth, and plays an important structural role for the plant. ... Each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores biochemicals, ... BACK TO PLANT CELL STRUCTURE. Questions or comments? Send us an email.. © 1995-2018 by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida ... The response of plant cells to water is a prime example of the significance of turgor pressure. When a plant receives adequate ...
Plant Cell Structure Lesson at Staples low price, or read our customer reviews to learn more now. ... Plant Cell Structure Lesson. stars - based on0reviews. Buy NewPath Learning Animal & Plant Cell Structure Lesson at Staples ... NewPath Learning Animal & Plant Cell Structure Lesson is designed for grade six to ten students and provides a comprehensive ... NewPath Learning Animal & Plant Cell Structure Lesson provides a comprehensive array of multimedia lessons and activities. It ...
Section A. Structure and Specialized Characters:. I. The Plant. [A. Plant Parts] [B. Plant Types] A. Plant Parts. Bud. Immature ... Flower. Reproductive structure of flowering plants with or without protective envelopes, the calyx and/or corolla; short shoot ... B. Plant Types. (Classification based on habit). Herb. A usually low, soft, or coarse plant with annual aboveground stems. ... Shrub. A much-branched woody perennial plant usually without a single trunk. Tree. A tall, woody perennial plant usually with a ...
... and genetic knowledge to analyse phenotypic plasticity of plant structure. ... This project aims at deploying a 3D functional-structural plant modelling (FSPM) approach, enabling integration of ... Phenotypic plasticity in plant structure. This project aims at deploying a 3D functional-structural plant modelling (FSPM) ... An aspect of this specific knowledge is that the dynamics in structure of plant populations is emergent from simulation of the ...
... the Filipino name for the hibiscus plant, specifically the Chinese hibiscus or Hibiscus rosa-sinenisis L., originated in China ... structure-gumamela-plant.html. 13 May 2017. Pendergast, Mark. (2017, May 13). The structure of the gumamela plant. . Retrieved ... "The structure of the gumamela plant" last modified May 13, 2017. http://www.ehow.co.uk/info_8714158_structure-gumamela-plant. ... The gumamelas basic structure is that of a shrub, although you can sometimes train it to grow as a small tree. The plant may ...
It is a far more complex structure, however, and serves a variety of functions, from protecting the cell to regulating the life ... plant cells have a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane. ... BACK TO PLANT CELL STRUCTURE. Questions or comments? Send us an ... The plant cell wall serves a variety of functions. Along with protecting the intracellular contents, the structure bestows ... Plant Cell Wall. One of the most important distinguishing features of plant cells is the presence of a cell wall. The relative ...
... a membrane protein serving as the major antenna of solar energy in plant photosynthesis, has been determined at 6 Å resolution ... The structure of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex, ... Three-dimensional structure of plant light-harvesting complex determined by electron crystallography. *Werner K¨hlbrandt1. & ... K¨hlbrandt, W., Wang, D. Three-dimensional structure of plant light-harvesting complex determined by electron crystallography. ...
Whole Plant. Daisy plants, as a whole, are strong, hardy plants. They grow quickly and require little care other than regular ... To propagate a daisy plant, dig up a large daisy plant and use a sharp knife to divide its large root ball. Plant the halves ... Plant Structure of a Daisy. By Elizabeth Balarini ; Updated September 21, 2017 ... Learn which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map! ...
Understanding Plants - Part II: Fundamentals of Plant Biology. 2000+ courses from schools like Stanford and Yale - no ... well first learn about the structure-function of plants and of plant cells. Then well try to understand how plants grow and ... structure, this bumpy structure, is actually a multitude of. meristems which are lacking the ability to finish their ... If you havent taken it already, you may also be interested in my other course - What A Plant Knows, which examines how plants ...
For the two other policies, the model predicts an immediate investment in CCS power plants once the CCS technology becomes ... We further investigate the influence of alternative CO2 policies on the plants values, modeling the CO2 price in three ... In contrast, for the simulated EU ETS market, the conventional fossil fuel-fired power plants dominate the other technologies. ... the plants expected lifetime, and the discounted cash-flows, the latter of which typically are a combination of several ...
... as well as the cellular structure of the plant tissue.2. Gibson sees plant mechanics as a valuable resource for engineers ... Gibson, L.J. The hierarchical structure and mechanics of plant materials. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. Published ... Cornell plant biologist Karl Nicklas told MIT that because plants evolved, We can learn things from nature and apply it to ... Precise measurements of plant tissue strengths show that they vary across three orders of magnitude. How do plants so ...
Nuclear Power Plants) MSc course - JBM accredited, this programme is the only accredited course in the UK in this area. ... building designing or constructing new plants or evaluating and maintaining existing plants or decommissioning plants at the ... MSc Civil Engineering Structures (Nuclear Power Plants). MSc , Entry Year: 2020 - 21. ... Supported by the Royal Academy of Engineering, this MSc in Civil Engineering Structures (Nuclear Power Plants) is the only ...
The structure of photosystem I (PSI) comprises the core and light-harvesting (LHCI) complexes, which together form PSI-LHCI. ... Here we determined the structure of PSI-LHCI from the salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella salina using X-ray crystallography ... It is composed of only 7 subunits, compared with 14-16 subunits in plants and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and forms the ... Å resolution structure of plant PSI-LHCI-LHCII9, (c) 2.8 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of plant PSI-LHCI12. ...
Biology : Plant & Animal Cells II (Parts & Structures). Answer each question below related to parts of plant and animal cells ... their structures based on the clues given.. .maintabs td { text-align: center; } .maintabs a { cursor: pointer; } .subtab { ...
Constellium N.V., Amsterdam, announces the grand opening of its new automotive structures plant in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, to ... Constellium opens aluminum automotive structures plant in Mexico. March 12, 2018. Source: ASM International ... The plant is expected to have 100 employees by 2019, and may be expanded to 13,000 m2 to adapt to customers future supply ... Last year Constellium opened a new plant in White, Georgia, to supply automakers in the southeast United States, in addition to ...
An explanation plant cell structure and what each part does. ... An explanation plant cell structure and what each part does. ... An explanation plant cell structure and what each part does.. Plant cells are composed of many different elements. The ... What gives a plant its structure in the first place is cellulose. This is the substance that the cell wall is made of. The cell ... and the plant wilts. This is because the plants moisture level is lowered, and its cells cannot maintain their crisp shape. ...
But the structure of leaves also helps botanists and horticulturalists describe and identify one plant from another. Bean ... The leaf structure and arrangement of a plant is designed to provide a plant with the most surface area possible for gas ... The leaf structure and arrangement of a plant is designed to provide a plant with the most surface area possible for gas ... Bean plants are a group of legume species that have similar plant structures, especially in the leaves. ...
1998) Molecular-genetic analysis of plant cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49: ... 2001) Elucidation of new structures in lignins of CAD- and COMT-deficient plants by NMR. Phytochemistry 57: 993-1003. ... 2009) The effects on lignin structure of overexpression of ferulate 5-hydroxylase in hybrid poplar. Plant Physiol 150: 621-635 ... 2008) Monolignol acylation and lignin structure in some nonwoody plants: a 2D NMR study. Phytochemistry 69: 2831-2843. ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Plant structure. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word ... The male reproductive structures (includes anther, filament, and pollen). Anther. The structure located at the top of the ... The production of new plants, asexual or sexual. Defense. A set of plant traits (characteristics) that help them to survive and ... A threadlike structure that holds up the anther. Pollen. Male sex cell that donates half of its DNA (traits) to make a seed. ...
Structures of Michaelis and product complexes of plant cytokinin dehydrogenase: implications for flavoenzyme catalysis.. Malito ... The crystal structure of Zea mays cytokinin dehydrogenase displays the same two-domain topology of the flavoenzymes of the ... Cytokinins form a diverse class of compounds that are essential for plant growth. Cytokinin dehydrogenase has a major role in ... the control of the levels of these plant hormones by catalysing their irreversible oxidation. ...
Empirical measurement of RNA secondary structure is an invaluable tool that has provided a more complete understanding of the ... Li F et al (2012) Regulatory impact of RNA secondary structure across the arabidopsis transcriptome. Plant Cell 24:4346-4359 ... Vandivier L.E., Li F., Gregory B.D. (2015) High-Throughput Nuclease-Mediated Probing of RNA Secondary Structure in Plant ... High-Throughput Nuclease-Mediated Probing of RNA Secondary Structure in Plant Transcriptomes. ...
Topics include: Animal Structures; Plant Structures; the Science and Engineering ... ... Plant and Animal Structures encourages students to think about form and function related to plants and animals, and how form ... Plant and Animal Structures encourages students to think about form and function related to plants and animals, and how form ... Topics include: Animal Structures; Plant Structures; the Science and Engineering Practices of developing explanations for ...
  • Leaves contain chlorophyll and are the sites of photosynthesis in plants. (sparknotes.com)
  • When the stomata are open, the plant can take in carbon dioxide from the air for photosynthesis and release oxygen (a byproduct of photosynthesis) back into the environment. (sparknotes.com)
  • The structure of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b -protein complex, a membrane protein serving as the major antenna of solar energy in plant photosynthesis, has been determined at 6 Å resolution by electron crystallography. (nature.com)
  • Once we know how plants grow and develop, we'll then delve into understanding photosynthesis - how plants take carbon dioxide from the air and water from soil, and turn this into oxygen for us to breathe and sugars for us to eat. (coursera.org)
  • Chloroplasts (which give the plants their green color, as well as soaking up the sun's energy for photosynthesis) are classified as plastids. (essortment.com)
  • All plants have a system to get water from the roots up to the leaves, where it's needed for photosynthesis and other such processes. (essortment.com)
  • Review photosynthesis and structures of the plant at the same time and how each structure relates to photosynthesis. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Pictures of a flower is attached to label the flower, questions included to help analyze which part of the photosynthesis formula matches with part of the plant. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • There are also guard cells between which are located pores called stomata that are used when the plant transpires and in photosynthesis. (msnucleus.org)
  • The Ground tissue helps give a little bit of structure but sometimes it's involved in doing photosynthesis, then there's the Vascular tissue typically made of xylem and phloem and those get arranged into bundles. (brightstorm.com)
  • The mating system of the species (selfing versus outcrossing), and phenomena such as population structure and recombination hot spots, can strongly influence patterns of LD. (nih.gov)
  • The basic patterns of LD in plants will be better understood as more species are analyzed. (nih.gov)
  • Although plants (and their typical cells) are non-motile, some species produce gametes that do exhibit flagella and are, therefore, able to move about. (fsu.edu)
  • It is estimated that there are at least 260,000 species of plants in the world today. (fsu.edu)
  • The amount of nutrients needed by plant species varies significantly, but nine elements are generally considered to be necessary in relatively large amounts. (fsu.edu)
  • Wheat and rice (Poaceae family) and Arabidopsis are chosen as model plant species. (wur.nl)
  • Bean plants are a group of legume species that have similar plant structures, especially in the leaves. (gardenguides.com)
  • Short on time, I need help constructing and structuring an organism profile for the chosen Plantae species 'Pyrus pyrifolia. (brainmass.com)
  • Plants have evolved different reproductive strategies for the continuation of their species. (oercommons.org)
  • Some plants reproduce sexually, and others asexually, in contrast to animal species, which rely almost exclusively on sexual reproduction. (oercommons.org)
  • Curiously, ABA controls different aspects of root architecture in different plant species, perhaps providing some insight into the great diversity of root architecture in different plants, both from different taxa and from different environments. (mdpi.com)
  • Plants display an extraordinary diversity of form that distinguishes not only members of different taxa, but also individuals of the same species, even those that are genetically identical. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, changes in the environment of a plant change its architecture, and this is why, although different individuals of the same species will look similar, none will have the same pattern of branching as another, either in the root or the shoot. (mdpi.com)
  • Elucidating the functional roles of flowering plant species with respect to their floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and how those roles vary over the growing season is an initial step towards understanding the contribution of floral VOCs to plant-pollinator interaction structure. (usda.gov)
  • Now depending on the species of plant you may have monocots where you'll have the vascular bundles that you can see here in this cut a way view of celery, you can see they're kind of scattered somewhat randomly versus the rings of vascular tissue that you'll see in dicotyledons or dicots. (brightstorm.com)
  • however, plant-herbivore interactions can modify characteristics such as biomass, productivity, and species diversity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reanalysing data from, mostly, published studies, the Sp statistic was assessed for 47 plant species. (wiley.com)
  • The members of the FPS family exhibit tissue expression patterns that vary among several euphorbiaceous plant species under normal growth conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • A major drawback is variable terminology that is used to describe plant anatomy and morphology in publications and genomic databases for different species. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, similar structures are named by their species-specific terms. (nih.gov)
  • He has studied the alpine limits of tree species on Mount Fuji, explored the physiology of leaf optics in Vermont, and helped pioneer the use of 3D imaging to better understand the internal functions of living plants. (yale.edu)
  • But throughout career, Brodersen's work has consistently focused on the fundamental relationships between plant structure and function, and how different species have adapted to utilize limited resources - particularly light and water - even as biotic and abiotic environments change. (yale.edu)
  • There are several hundred thousand plants found all around the world, yet only about 200 species are suitable as aquarium plants. (animal-world.com)
  • Of the approximately 200 plant species that are actually good candidates for the aquarium, only about 100 of those are available to the aquarium hobbyists. (animal-world.com)
  • Here we review the occurrence and role of repetitive DNA in Y chromosome evolution in various species with a focus on dioecious plants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This paper studies a plant-AMF spatial co-occurrence network using novel methodology based on information theory and a unique set of spatially explicit species-level data. (csic.es)
  • We conclude that this plant-AMF spatial co-occurrence network lacks substantial structure and, therefore, plants and AMF species do not track each other over space. (csic.es)
  • 1 Because related species tend to be ecologically similar, it has long been recognized that the phylogenetic relationships between species in a community are likely to influence its structure. (open.ac.uk)
  • Previous investigations of the influence of phylogeny on community structure have generally shown that congeneric species are more frequent than would be expected if communities were randomly assembled. (open.ac.uk)
  • 4 Against expectation, we found that community structure was the cumulative result of niche separation arising at a range of phylogenetic levels and therefore that niche differences have been accumulated through the evolutionary history of species. (open.ac.uk)
  • Different species of plants have structure/characteristics that allow them to adapt to their environment. (jiskha.com)
  • 2. Study the amino acid sequences of the same protein taken from four different species of plants. (jiskha.com)
  • According to genetic theory, plants of a particular species have a 25% chance of being red-flowering, independently of other plants. (jiskha.com)
  • Find the normal approximation to the chance that among 10,000 plants of this species, more than 2400 are red-flowering. (jiskha.com)
  • The book is a visual delight that will introduce readers to aspects of plant biology as well as how to prepare tissue to study those topics. (springer.com)
  • This class is aimed at people interested in understanding the basic science of plant biology. (coursera.org)
  • Science 10 - Biology Chapter 1 - Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things (Cells) 1.1 - Cell Structure Microscopy - The science of using microscopes to view samples or objects. (majortests.com)
  • Have students look back at Human Biology (4A) Post and Human Biology (5A) Pre so they can compare plant and human tissues. (msnucleus.org)
  • The Structure and Biology of Arctic Flowering Plants is a classical scientific work on morphology and anatomy in relation to the harsh arctic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warming, E. ed. (1908-1921) The structure and biology of Arctic flowering plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, Athens 45701. (plantcell.org)
  • To generate the low-carbon bio-based economies of the future, there is a need to foster research and innovation to harness advances in chemical (e.g. thermochemistry, catalysis, green chemistry) and biological conversions (enzymology, metabolic engineering, metabolic compartmentalisation, synthetic biology) to generate different streams of value added products from plant/crop materials that can generate jobs and export earnings. (gradireland.com)
  • The structure of the gumamela plant" last modified May 13, 2017. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The stem usually supports light-gathering and photosynthetic structures called leaves (VG 1:1) (VG 1:2) , and the plant's reproductive structures, which may go by the names flowers , sporangia (VG 1:3) , cones , or any number of others depending on the taxon. (berkeley.edu)
  • In this context, sclerenchyma provides mechanical strength to stems (fibers in hemp and flax) and reproductive structures (the texture in pear flesh, the stony shells of nuts and cherry pits). (berkeley.edu)
  • the reproductive structure of an angiosperm. (studystack.com)
  • The transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants. (studystack.com)
  • gametophytes are haploid, gamete-producing reproductive structures. (majortests.com)
  • Stems are vascular support systems divided into sections that support branches and reproductive structures. (coursehero.com)
  • Alison L. Ritchie , Paul G. Nevill , Elizabeth A. Sinclair , Siegfried L. Krauss , Does restored plant diversity play a role in the reproductive functionality of Banksia populations? (wiley.com)
  • Most land plants consist of a stem or axis , which functions for support and contains the conducting tissues of the plant. (berkeley.edu)
  • Parenchyma cells comprise many soft tissues of plants (e.g., pith , cortex , leaf mesophyll , etc. (berkeley.edu)
  • Sclerenchyma cells have thick, lignified secondary walls, lack cell contents at maturity, and occur throughout all plant tissues. (berkeley.edu)
  • Vascular plants are considered to be more advanced than nonvascular plants because they have evolved specialized tissues, namely xylem , which is involved in structural support and water conduction, and phloem , which functions in food conduction. (fsu.edu)
  • Consequently, they also possess roots, stems, and leaves, representing a higher form of organization that is characteristically absent in plants lacking vascular tissues. (fsu.edu)
  • The nonvascular plants, members of the division Bryophyta , are usually no more than an inch or two in height because they do not have adequate support, which is provided by vascular tissues to other plants, to grow bigger. (fsu.edu)
  • MIT engineering professor Lorna Gibson found five features that plants 'control and coordinate' when building tissues of various strengths. (icr.org)
  • Plants expertly arrange these ingredients to form tissues of widely ranging strengths. (icr.org)
  • Name two plant tissues in which dead cells are useful. (brainmass.com)
  • structure of animal cells and tissues and plant cells, including Credit is not givenfor both cell and Structural (Spring) CSB 234 Functional Human anatomy. (geometry.net)
  • The role of this cell type is to support the plant in axes still growing in length, and to confer flexibility and tensile strength on tissues. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Comparing plant and animal tissues. (msnucleus.org)
  • Plants are made up of many cells that work together to form tissues. (msnucleus.org)
  • There are many types of plant tissues. (msnucleus.org)
  • The growth of plants occurs in the meristematic tissues. (msnucleus.org)
  • Different types of plants have different types of tissues. (msnucleus.org)
  • The outer layers of a range of plant tissues, including flower petals, leaves and fruits, exhibit an intriguing variation of microscopic structures. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Plant tissues typically consist of more than one cell type, each with their own morphology and biochemical constituents. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The expression profiles reveal spatial and temporal variations in the expression of FPSs of different tissues from Euphorbiaceous plants. (mdpi.com)
  • To make up for this water loss, additional water is drawn in from the soil by the roots and passed upward through the plant by the xylem. (sparknotes.com)
  • A layer of cells in a plant that produces new phloem and xylem cells. (studystack.com)
  • The xylem and phloem which form a way for cells to move nutrients and water up and down a plant is a complex permanent tissue. (msnucleus.org)
  • The xylem is the principal water conducting tissue in plants and the phloem is the principal food conducting tissue. (msnucleus.org)
  • An aspect of this specific knowledge is that the dynamics in structure of plant populations is emergent from simulation of the plastic behaviour of individual plants interacting with one another. (wur.nl)
  • Some parenchyma cells, as in the epidermis, are specialized for light penetration and focusing or regulation of gas exchange , but others are among the least specialized cells in plant tissue, and may remain totipotent , capable of dividing to produce new populations of undifferentiated cells, throughout their lives. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In this article we address the problem of analyzing data from heterogeneous plant breeding populations, using three approaches: (a) a model that ignores population structure [A-genome-based best linear unbiased prediction (A-GBLUP)], (b) a stratified ( i.e. , within-group) analysis (W-GBLUP), and (c) a multivariate approach that uses multigroup data and accounts for heterogeneity (MG-GBLUP). (genetics.org)
  • Population structure occurs naturally in animal, plant, and human populations due to geographic adaptation and natural selection. (genetics.org)
  • Thus, structure and/or admixture are ubiquitous in plant breeding populations. (genetics.org)
  • This brings up the question of how data from structured populations should be dealt with. (genetics.org)
  • On the other hand, if control is desired, populations can be reduced by squeezing the leaf structures to mash the leaftier caterpillars and pupae. (osu.edu)
  • Many empirical studies have assessed fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS), i.e. the nonrandom spatial distribution of genotypes, within plant populations using genetic markers and spatial autocorrelation techniques. (wiley.com)
  • Here we review the theory underlying such methods and discuss issues about their application to plant populations, such as the choice of the relatedness statistics, the sampling scheme to adopt, the procedure to test SGS, and the interpretation of spatial autocorrelograms. (wiley.com)
  • Bayesian and multivariate analyses both classified the P. stachyoides and M. zahlbruckneri populations into genetic groups with considerable sub-structuring detected in the P. stachyoides population. (usgs.gov)
  • We believe these specialized cells are important in regulating excess environmental calcium by removing it from active plant metabolism. (geometry.net)
  • Due to its crucial role in plant metabolism, plastid TK is a potential target for herbicide development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Morphology of Vascular Plants. (berkeley.edu)
  • By the Carboniferous Period , about 355 million years ago, most of the Earth was covered by forests of primitive vascular plants, such as lycopods (scale trees) and gymnosperms (pine trees, ginkgos). (fsu.edu)
  • Plants do, however, usually require significant amounts of water, which is needed for the photosynthetic process, to maintain cell structure and facilitate growth, and as a means of bringing nutrients to plant cells. (fsu.edu)
  • Waxy and hairy structures protect the photosynthetic elements from ultraviolet (UV) radiation [ 15 , 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Several mechanisms were found to be important for DT, including the coordinated activation of cell protection through Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, which were shown to be common amongst resurrection plants and orthodox seeds. (wur.nl)
  • Seed storage proteins: structures and biosynthesis. (plantcell.org)
  • MolProbity: all-atom contacts and structure validation for proteins and nucleic acids," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 35, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Structure and function of plant cell wall proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • The variety of stem form (woody or non-woody, densly branching or un-branched) gives plants a variety of growth forms . (berkeley.edu)
  • Plants with different growth forms often have different life histories and ecologies. (berkeley.edu)
  • Since life history and ecology are important features that are modified during evolution, growth form is an important feature of plants and lineages. (berkeley.edu)
  • Some plants occupy a number of growth forms depending on the conditions under which they live, or at different points in their life cycle. (berkeley.edu)
  • It is commonly accepted that lignin evolved together with the adaptation of plants to a terrestrial life to provide them with the structural support needed for an erect growth habit ( Fig. 3 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cytokinins form a diverse class of compounds that are essential for plant growth. (nih.gov)
  • During plant growth and development certain cells become specialized to serve as calcium sinks. (geometry.net)
  • Plants modulate root growth in response to changes in the local environment, guided by intrinsic developmental genetic programs. (mdpi.com)
  • Steady population growth in Monkey Island, Okla., put a strain on the water treatment plant as it struggled to meet demand and new federal regulations. (tpomag.com)
  • Plant structures and growth, in many ways, parallel the structures and growth of animals. (coursehero.com)
  • Plant growth patterns depend on specific structures called meristems. (coursehero.com)
  • Lateral meristems affect the growth of woody plants by increased growth in girth. (coursehero.com)
  • Primary and secondary growth are the result of meristems -structures with duplicating cells that encourage vertical or lateral growth. (coursehero.com)
  • Designed for young elementary students to help them examine and understand the needs of plants for growth and survival. (sargentwelch.com)
  • This kit contains materials for 15 groups of two to dissect and germinate seeds, and compare their plant's growth to other types of plants grown in the classroom. (sargentwelch.com)
  • Our results revealed wide conservation of FPSs and diverse expression in euphorbiaceous plants during growth and development. (mdpi.com)
  • The result is an overall slowing of plant growth from a lack of nutrients. (chron.com)
  • Land plants are anchored to their substrate by roots (VG 1:4) or rhizomes , which are really underground stems. (berkeley.edu)
  • A usually low, soft, or coarse plant with annual aboveground stems. (ibiblio.org)
  • According to MIT news, 'It turns out the large range in stiffness and strength stems from an intricate combination of plant microstructures. (icr.org)
  • Bean plants typically have three leaves on these side stems, where two leaves are opposite each other and the third is at the tip of the offshoot stem. (gardenguides.com)
  • Stem typically is above ground although some plants have horizontal or even underground stems and they generally are helping support the leaves, then the roots are typically below ground and they're specialized to absorb water and other minerals from the soil. (brightstorm.com)
  • The leaf structures created by this leaf-tier caterpillar tend to occur near the tips of plant stems and may be very obvious. (osu.edu)
  • In paleobotany, CT has been used in a few cases to reveal internal structures, including in Paleozoic charophytes ( 9 ), silicified Cycadeoidea stems and Araucaria mirabilis cones from the Jurassic ( 10 ), an undescribed Cretaceous gymnosperm fructification ( 11 , 12 ), a Paleogene hymenophyllaceous fern rhizome ( 13 ), and Eocene myrtaceous fruits ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, this collection of publicly-available variants should provide insight into plant cell wall organization and facilitate the discovery of genes that regulate polysaccharide biosynthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Structured PhD in Plant & AgriBiosciences trains the student to perform cutting-edge, internationally-competitive research and training in a field related to Plant & AgriBiosciences. (nuigalway.ie)
  • The Structured PhD in Plant & AgriBiosciences is offered in collaboration with Teagasc and other partner organizations, and prepares the student for a career or future research opportunities in plant & agribioscience areas. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Students taking the Structured PhD in Plant & AgriBiosciences will be able to conduct their research with research groups of PABC and collaborating institutions. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Chlorophyll, which gives plants their green color, enables them to use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and carbohydrates, chemicals the cell uses for fuel. (fsu.edu)
  • Without chlorophyll, a plant cannot manufacture food or energy. (chron.com)
  • The biological functions of these photonic structures are only starting to be unveiled: the ability of a flower to produce strong and intense coloration may facilitate pollination, as bumblebees can use iridescence as a cue to detect flowers [ 6 , 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Energy Panel Structures (EPS) is expanding with the addition of a new (SIP) Structural Insulated Panels manufacturing plant located at its Fingerlakes Construction facility in Clyde, New York. (prweb.com)
  • Because collenchyma cell walls are not lignified, the collenchyma strands are flexible, thus ideal for structural support and protection in growing shoots or flexible structures like leaves. (berkeley.edu)
  • This project aims at deploying a 3D functional-structural plant modelling (FSPM) approach, enabling integration of physiological, morphological, and genetic knowledge to analyse phenotypic plasticity of plant structure. (wur.nl)
  • Growers have produced numerous cultivars of the plant, with some varieties having various structural differences from the typical gumamela plant. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The fibre cells provide structural support and have a honeycomb-like structure' similar to that used in hexagonal building supports. (icr.org)
  • This course is for students interested in the structural aspects of nuclear power plants and the broader field of nuclear energy. (city.ac.uk)
  • In this programme, you will study how to design, evaluate, and analyse structural systems, with a special focus on Nuclear Power Plants. (city.ac.uk)
  • Constellium N.V., Amsterdam, announces the grand opening of its new automotive structures plant in San Luis Potosí, Mexico, to supply aluminum crash management systems and structural components to automakers in Mexico. (asminternational.org)
  • What is the major structural difference between the upper and lower epidermis in plant cells? (brainmass.com)
  • Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. (osti.gov)
  • Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques. (osti.gov)
  • The Round Super-Tall HD Building from ClearSpan Fabric Structures provides a structural solution for those in need of extra clearance where equipment and machinery needs to be operated within the structure. (tpomag.com)
  • Structural data at 2.74 Å resolution reveals strong hydrophobic interactions in the plant PSI-Pc ternary complex, leading to exclusion of water molecules from PsaA-PsaB / Pc interface once the PSI-Pc complex forms. (portlandpress.com)
  • You will learn all the principles used for the design of buildings, bridges, special structures and in particular nuclear containment structures. (city.ac.uk)
  • This atlas presents beautiful photographs and 3D-reconstruction images of cellular structures in plants, algae, fungi, and related organisms taken by a variety of microscopes and visualization techniques. (springer.com)
  • Thought to have evolved from the green algae, plants have been around since the early Paleozoic era , more than 500 million years ago. (fsu.edu)
  • Though the ancestry of land plants is uncertain, the ancestors are believed to be fresh water green algae. (majortests.com)
  • As in mitochondria , which have a genome encoding 37 genes [ 5 ] plastids have their own genomes of about 100-120 unique genes [ 6 ] and probably arose as prokaryotic endosymbionts living in the cells of an early eukaryotic ancestor of the land plants and algae . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Other plants, in an ascending scale of organization, consist of more or less numerous cells united in a variety of ways to form the plant body, either in the form of filaments, or flat plates of cells, as in freshwater or marine algae. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Agri-glycobiology research underway in NUI Galway and with partner institutions involves increasing understanding of functional and biotechnological properties of sugar chains in livestock products (dairy, meat, eggs), in crops, algae and in plant-derived foods and products. (gradireland.com)
  • There are around 1,600 kinds of water-loving plants (excluding the algae types), but not all water loving plants make good aquarium plants. (animal-world.com)
  • Matured ovary of flowering plants, with or without accessory Parts. (ibiblio.org)
  • With the exception of maize and Arabidopsis, little research has been conducted on LD in plants. (nih.gov)
  • We screened the seeds of around 280 Arabidopsis natural accessions for variation in mucilage structure, and identified a large number of novel variants that differed from the Col-0 wild-type. (frontiersin.org)
  • Databases such as The Arabidopsis Information Resource, Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre, Gramene, MaizeGDB, and SOL Genomics Network are using the PSO to describe expression patterns of genes and phenotypes of mutants and natural variants and are regularly contributing new annotations to the Plant Ontology database. (nih.gov)
  • Forests can be separated into planted and natural forest systems. (nuigalway.ie)
  • While only 7 percent (271 million hectares) of the world's forests are planted these forests are responsible for 66% of total global roundwood production. (gradireland.com)
  • This lab reviews plant structure, especially cell and tissue types, and the arrangement of the vascular system. (berkeley.edu)
  • As parenchyma is incorporated into vascular tissue (rays in wood for example), it also helps in the movement of water and solutes throughout the plant body. (berkeley.edu)
  • Whether considering squishable apple tissue or resilient tree trunks, researchers say that plants 'build' their parts using only four ingredients. (icr.org)
  • Precise measurements of plant tissue strengths show that they vary across three orders of magnitude. (icr.org)
  • But whether it contains fiber cells or parenchyma tissue, plants all build their cell walls using cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, and pectin. (icr.org)
  • Gibson wrote, 'These large ranges arise from the composition of the cell wall, the number of layers in the cell wall and the volume fraction and arrangement of cellulose fibres in those layers, as well as the cellular structure of the plant tissue. (icr.org)
  • Describe the structure and function of each tissue, showing how the dead cells contribute. (brainmass.com)
  • They should notice that there are few similarities between plant and animal tissue. (msnucleus.org)
  • The shape and the anatomy of plant surface topography not only affect their visual appearance and control the amount of light coupled into lower lying tissue, they also influence a range of other epidermal properties in a multi-functional fashion [ 18 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this review, we focus on the optical response of plant tissue. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Finally you have the vascular tissue that helps transport materials up and down the entire plant. (brightstorm.com)
  • When the plant loses too much water or water in the environment becomes less plentiful, the guard cells deflate, closing the stoma and preventing further water loss or gas exchange. (sparknotes.com)
  • Artist Rob Kesseler is a master of the microphotography of plants and their intricately small parts (like pollen, cells, and seeds). (kottke.org)
  • For example, roots growing from a stem cutting are created and differentiate from parenchyma cells that are scattered throughout the stem and spring into action when cued by hormonal changes that a new structure is needed. (berkeley.edu)
  • Readers can enjoy the visual tour within cells and will obtain new insights into plant cell structure. (springer.com)
  • The editors and chapter contributors used a range of microscopic techniques-some traditional and some quite new-to allow readers to visualize plant cells as they carry out a variety of complex functions. (springer.com)
  • Plants are unique among the eukaryotes, organisms whose cells have membrane-enclosed nuclei and organelles, because they can manufacture their own food. (fsu.edu)
  • Like the fungi, another kingdom of eukaryotes, plant cells have retained the protective cell wall structure of their prokaryotic ancestors. (fsu.edu)
  • Cell Wall - Like their prokaryotic ancestors, plant cells have a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane. (fsu.edu)
  • It covers topics such as animal cell structure and specialized cells. (staples.com)
  • Answer each question below related to parts of plant and animal cells & their structures based on the clues given. (syvum.com)
  • In this four lecture series, we'll first learn about the structure-function of plants and of plant cells. (coursera.org)
  • Plant cells are composed of many different elements. (essortment.com)
  • Because of osmosis (water having a tendency to move from high concentrations to lower concentrations), water then moves out of the cells, and the plant wilts. (essortment.com)
  • Describe the structure of (1) the cell wall (2) the cell membrane in plant cells How does the structure affect the function? (brainmass.com)
  • Education Research Interests Teaching Assistantships/Positions Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Botany My research interests center around specialization of cells for calcium oxalate crystallization in plants. (geometry.net)
  • We are particularly interested in understanding what regulates differentiation of plant cells to accumulate and sequester calcium, in determining mechanisms that control calcium oxalate crystallization within the cell, and in defining the importance of these specialized cells in plant development and physiology. (geometry.net)
  • 200-level 300-level 400-level Timetable Introduction to the structure, expression, and regulation of genes of higher eukaryotes with an emphasis upon animal cells. (geometry.net)
  • Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key respects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Unlike animal cells, plant cells are stationary. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Students use worksheets to examine the structure of cells. (msnucleus.org)
  • The cell wall is the outer wall that surrounds plant cells. (msnucleus.org)
  • So how do we get this complex structure of the phloem, of two cells? (coursera.org)
  • This project aims to develop a new consumer acceptable all plant based solutions for stabilisation of edible emulsions, whose design is based on the fundamental understanding of the structure-stabilisation-flow properties of cellulose microfibril (MFC)-containing hybrid systems that are naturally found in plant cells. (europa.eu)
  • The tiny Duckweeds, which cover still ponds in summer, are flowering plants of very exceptional structure , for they consist merely of a small mass of green cells, with one or more root hairs from the under side. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The tallest tree and the smallest plant, amongst flowering subjects, consist alike of an aggregation of cells, built up in some definite form, according to the kind. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Streaming movements of the protoplasm may often be observed in the living cells of various plants (the direction being indicated by arrows in fig. 2). (chestofbooks.com)
  • As an example, the conical epidermal cells found on the petals of most flowering plants enhance their coloration, temperature, pollinator grip and enhance wettability [ 19 , 20 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Which structures are found in both plant cells an. (openstudy.com)
  • Structure-activity relationships of phenylcyclohexene and biphenyl antitubulin compounds against plant and mammalian cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Phenylcyclohexenes (PCHs) [e.g., trans-4-nitro-5-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)cyclohexene, 2d] were found to bind weakly to the colchicine site of bovine tubulin, but are the first mimics of colchicine found to have high activity towards plant cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • When a plant is separated from its roots, water obviously cannot get to the leaves. (essortment.com)
  • 2. Describe two mechanisms that move water from the roots to the upper portions of a plant. (brainmass.com)
  • My question is - will the growing force of the plant damage the structure of the tank ie like tree roots on pavements (sidewalks) - or will it just travel around the edge? (actwin.com)
  • The hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA) mediates responses to different environmental factors, such as the presence of nitrate in the soil, water stress and salt, shaping the structure of the root system by regulating the production of lateral roots as well as controlling root elongation by modulating cell division and elongation. (mdpi.com)
  • When looking at the structure of plants, we can classify the plant structure into two major regions: the stem and the roots. (brightstorm.com)
  • Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil to provide nutrients to plants. (coursehero.com)
  • Consequently, background in plant structure is a prerequisite for studying land plant evolution. (berkeley.edu)
  • These results are discussed in the context of the evolution of plant oxygen transport hemoglobins, and other potential functions of plant hemoglobins. (rcsb.org)
  • Plants are the ultimate solar-powered biological systems selected by evolution. (nuigalway.ie)
  • The ability to gain search images in both 2D and 3D for potential fossils gives paleobotanists a tool-virtual taphonomy-to improve our understanding of plant evolution and paleobiogeography. (pnas.org)
  • We propose that the interplay of Late Cretaceous dental evolution, the rise of angiosperms, and competition with other vertebrates were critical in shaping the ecological structure of small-bodied mammaliaform communities through time. (pnas.org)
  • Our results indicate that the interplay of at least three factors, namely the evolution of the tribosphenic molar, the ecological rise of angiosperms, and potential competition with other vertebrates, may have been critical in shaping the ecological structure of small-bodied mammaliaform communities through time. (pnas.org)
  • The role of repetitive DNA in structure and evolution of sex chromosomes in plants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Now there's a huge diversity in flower structure. (coursera.org)
  • Goethe was very, very fascinated by the diversity of flower structure in roses. (coursera.org)
  • lack of colored structures, that give flowers their diversity of color. (coursera.org)
  • In my laboratory we intergrate a diversity of approaches, including biochemical and molecular techniques, immunological approaches, and light and electron microscopy to study plant cell structure in relation to calcium nutrition and sequestration. (geometry.net)
  • The performance of the three models was assessed on three different data sets: a diversity panel of rice ( Oryza sativa ), a maize ( Zea mays L.) half-sib panel, and a wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) data set that originated from plant breeding programs. (genetics.org)
  • This diversity leads to complex interactions among plants and herbivores. (frontiersin.org)
  • These interactions are of extreme importance for the diversity of plant communities and ecosystem functioning. (csic.es)
  • Supported by the Royal Academy of Engineering, this MSc in Civil Engineering Structures (Nuclear Power Plants) is the only accredited course in the UK in this critical area. (city.ac.uk)
  • The emphasis on nuclear structures is a response to the skill shortage reported by employers working in this sector. (city.ac.uk)
  • By using advanced imaging technology based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, scientists have found that the xylan polymer has an unexpected shape inside the plant cell walls. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Research is being conducted by ORNL under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. (osti.gov)
  • assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. (osti.gov)
  • This publication provides detailed guidelines for the safety assessment of nuclear power structures against mechanical impact explosion and fire caused by human induced external events. (iaea.org)
  • Stomata, as mentioned above, are the structures through which gas exchange occurs in leaves. (sparknotes.com)
  • Pollution negatively impacts this plant structure by reducing the size of the stomata, as reported in a 2005 study published in the journal "Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. (chron.com)
  • Formal description of plant phenotypes and standardized annotation of gene expression and protein localization data require uniform terminology that accurately describes plant anatomy and morphology. (nih.gov)
  • To address this problem, we created the Plant Structure Ontology (PSO), the first generic ontological representation of anatomy and morphology of a flowering plant. (nih.gov)
  • The morphology and anatomy of fossil plants contains a wealth of information on the function, physiology, ecology, and life habit of ancient plants. (berkeley.edu)
  • While more commonly applied in zoology, synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) is well-suited to nondestructive study of the morphology and anatomy of both fossil and modern plants. (pnas.org)
  • These recent studies, which used genetic data, suggest that these networks are highly structured, very similar to plant-animal mutualistic networks. (csic.es)
  • Modelling generates specific knowledge complementary to experimental observations, as processes are studied in the context of the whole plant system and environmental interactions. (wur.nl)
  • By combining macroscopic rheology and tribology with novel microfluidic tools and imaging techniques, we will establish the relation between the macroscopic flow behaviour and stability of the emulsions and the microscopic structure and interactions, and thereby increase our understanding of flowing emulsions beyond the current empirical models. (europa.eu)
  • While the importance of floral odours for pollinator attraction relative to visual cues is increasingly appreciated, how they structure community‐level plant-pollinator interactions is poorly understood. (usda.gov)
  • The interactions between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) maintain a crucial link between macroscopic organisms and the soil microbial world. (csic.es)
  • However, the assembly process of plant- AMF communities is still largely unknown, and an important feature of plant-AMF interactions has not been incorporated: they occur at an extremely localized scale. (csic.es)
  • The leaf structure and arrangement of a plant is designed to provide a plant with the most surface area possible for gas exchange and exposure to sunlight. (gardenguides.com)
  • There are also many plants or foods referred to as beans that are not actually legumes, and whose leaf structure is completely different. (gardenguides.com)
  • When a plant has three or more leaves arranged on a stem that shoots off of the main stem, then it is called compound leaf arrangement. (gardenguides.com)
  • A leaf-like structure and protects the bud of a flower. (studystack.com)
  • A colorful, leaf-like structure of some flowers. (studystack.com)
  • While these leaf structures may look very odd, the damage appears to cause little harm to the overall health of affected plants. (osu.edu)
  • Pupal skins hanging out of the leaf structures indicate that the caterpillars have completed development. (osu.edu)
  • Unfortunately, the current leaf structures will remain evident for the rest of the season. (osu.edu)
  • This is important because the leaf structures shield the caterpillars from direct exposure to a topical insecticide and there is no data on the efficacy of systemic insecticides. (osu.edu)
  • Future advances in plant genomics will make it possible to scan a genome for polymorphisms associated with qualitative and quantitative traits. (nih.gov)
  • Angiosperms , the flowering plants, didn't develop until the end of the Cretaceous Period , about 65 million years ago just as the dinosaurs became extinct. (fsu.edu)
  • A method is proposed for characterizing the structure of genealogies among alleles that regulate self-incompatibility in flowering plants. (genetics.org)
  • The flowering plants are the most highly organized, and gardeners are chiefly concerned with them. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Two main groups of plants are flowering and non-flowering plants! (animal-world.com)
  • Plants have anatomical structures and specific anatomical functions. (coursehero.com)
  • Plants also reduce the amount of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere, hinder soil erosion, and influence water levels and quality. (fsu.edu)
  • In addition, in plants, the enzyme plays a central role in the Calvin cycle and thereby participates in the fixation of approximately 5 × 10 11 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year ( Hess, 1999 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Since most of plant development occurs after the plant escapes the confines of the seed, the environment has a major influence on the overall shape, or architecture of the plant. (mdpi.com)
  • Discuss the advantages of sexual reproduction in plants over asexual reproduction. (brainmass.com)
  • Plant sexual reproduction usually depends on pollinating agents, while asexual reproduction is independent of these agents. (oercommons.org)
  • Because lignin protects cell wall polysaccharides from microbial degradation, thus imparting decay resistance, it is also one of the most important limiting factors in the conversion of plant biomass to pulp or biofuels. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Significant variation in bacterial community structure related to mowing and plant biomass removal, while nitrogen fertilizer had no effect. (wiley.com)
  • Our results suggest that removal of plant biomass and associated phosphorus, as well as shifts in the plant community, have greater long-term impacts on soil bacterial community structure than application of nitrogen fertilizers. (wiley.com)
  • Plasticity results from a chain of events, starting with perception of environmental cues, production and transport of signals and resulting in adaptations in plant structure. (wur.nl)
  • When plants colonized land they developed a wide range of adaptations to cope with life in a drier environment. (wur.nl)
  • A plant cell is different from an animal cell in that it possesses a cell wall, chloroplasts, large vacuoles, and starch grains (amyloplasts). (msnucleus.org)
  • Life Science: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures, processes and responses of plants that allow them to survive and reproduce. (livebinders.com)
  • Side shoot production is the main determinant of plant structure in Poaceae. (wur.nl)
  • All flowers are made of four main structures. (coursera.org)
  • 1. The fatty-acid compositions of the total phospholipids of the seed kernels of the cotton plant of variety Tashkent-2, after the elimination of carbohydrates, and of their main components have been studied. (springer.com)
  • Here, we describe the main types of photonic structures found in plants and discuss the experimental approaches that can be used to analyse them. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Guo D, Li H-L, Peng S-Q. Structure Conservation and Differential Expression of Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Genes in Euphorbiaceous Plants. (mdpi.com)
  • But the structure of leaves also helps botanists and horticulturalists describe and identify one plant from another. (gardenguides.com)
  • To get the most from beans, they should be planted where the leaves receive full sunlight, or at least six hours of direct sunlight per day. (gardenguides.com)
  • The plant stem is typically above ground and supports the plant leaves. (brightstorm.com)
  • This creates a purse or envelope-like structure that surrounds both newly developing leaves and flowers. (osu.edu)
  • The caterpillars then feed upon the leaves and flowers enveloped within these protective structures. (osu.edu)
  • A structure that covers the tip of a root, protecting it from injury as the root grows through soil. (studystack.com)
  • Now the purpose of the root hair is to give a much greater surface area to volume ratio to allow the plant to absorb a lot more water from the soil. (brightstorm.com)
  • Changes in soil chemistry and legume abundance described 52% of the observed variation in the bacterial community structure. (wiley.com)
  • 11% of the variation in soil bacterial community structure was attributed to this shift in the plant community. (wiley.com)
  • Aluminum and other heavy metals can further impact plant structure by reducing soil bacteria. (chron.com)
  • Scientists have made an unexpected discovery about the arrangement of molecules in plant cell walls. (digitaljournal.com)
  • This is of interest because plant cell walls provide the mechanical strength to plants. (digitaljournal.com)
  • However, the superior survival chances are due to the characteristics of the plants rather than the nature of the firms. (repec.org)
  • Humans are wholly dependent on plants for our survival, as plants are the basis of our food, feed (for animals & aquaculture), nutrition, fibre (for textiles), fuel, building materials, medicines, green chemicals and ecosystem services such as oxygen levels in the athmosphere and carbon management. (nuigalway.ie)
  • This was shown using a combination of two- and three-dimensional maps of the material's molecular structure. (digitaljournal.com)
  • The protein in complex with thiamine pyrophoshate was crystallized, and its structure was solved by molecular replacement. (plantphysiol.org)
  • What gives a plant its structure in the first place is cellulose. (essortment.com)
  • In addition, most of the natural variants had altered Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4B staining of cellulose and significantly reduced birefringence of crystalline structures. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plant morphology can also yield clues to taxonomic and evolutionary relationships. (berkeley.edu)
  • The same terms are sometimes applied to different plant structures in different taxonomic groups. (nih.gov)
  • Our assessment of prediction accuracy features cases where ignoring population structure leads to a parsimonious more powerful model as well as others where the multivariate and stratified approaches have higher predictive power. (genetics.org)
  • Research in this theme focuses on plant/crop science and agronomy approaches to leverage plant and crop biosciences for "bio-based" sustainable development. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Plants exhibit life cycles that involve alternating generations of diploid forms, which contain paired chromosome sets in their cell nuclei, and haploid forms, which only possess a single set. (fsu.edu)
  • Chu, J. Plants exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties, engineers find . (icr.org)
  • These organelles are present only in eukaryotes, of which plants are classified. (essortment.com)
  • Not all eukaryotes contain all of these organelles, though all plants do. (essortment.com)
  • Flora indica: being a systematic account of the plants of British India, together with observations on the structure and affinities of their natural orders and genera. (worldcat.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/5863956 Title: Flora indica: being a systematic account of the plants of British India, together with observations on the structure and affinities of their natural orders and genera. (worldcat.org)
  • Sketch the parts of the typical flower, including the structures in all four whorls. (sparknotes.com)
  • Let's look more closely at flower structure. (coursera.org)
  • Petallike structures, often green, at the base of a flower. (studystack.com)
  • A stressed plant will not flower but, rather, will use its resources to survive the threat. (chron.com)
  • The basic plant cell shares a similar construction motif with the typical eukaryote cell, but does not have centrioles, lysosomes, intermediate filaments, cilia, or flagella, as does the animal cell. (fsu.edu)
  • Nonetheless, plants are the basis for the Earth's ecosystem and food web, and without them complex animal life forms (such as humans) could never have evolved. (fsu.edu)
  • Buy NewPath Learning Animal & Plant Cell Structure Lesson at Staples' low price, or read our customer reviews to learn more now. (staples.com)
  • NewPath Learning Animal & Plant Cell Structure Lesson provides a comprehensive array of multimedia lessons and activities. (staples.com)
  • NewPath Learning Animal & Plant Cell Structure Lesson is designed for grade six to ten students and provides a comprehensive array of multimedia lessons and activities. (staples.com)
  • Time for your students to review everything they've learned during your plant and animal structures unit? (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • The Inner or Deep Part of an Animal or Plant Structure is an official DVD released by Björk on August 31, 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the two other policies, the model predicts an immediate investment in CCS power plants once the CCS technology becomes commercially available in 2020. (repec.org)
  • A full knowledge of plants may be obtained by a study of protoplasm and its protective covering - the cell wall - together with their behaviour when acted upon by light , heat , air, and moisture. (chestofbooks.com)