Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.StigmasterolPlants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sterol 14-Demethylase: An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Cholestadienols: Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.EstersPlant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)SqualenePlants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Pentacyclic Triterpenes: Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.TriglyceridesTobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Amish: An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Soy Milk: A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Mevalonic AcidCholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Steroid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.Xanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder due to mutation of the gene CYP27A1 encoding a CHOLESTANETRIOL 26-MONOOXYGENASE. It is characterized by large deposits of CHOLESTEROL and CHOLESTANOL in various tissues resulting in xanthomatous swelling of tendons, early CATARACT, and progressive neurological symptoms.Androstanes: The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.AzetidinesPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.TriterpenesIntestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Lactobacillus helveticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.
A serving of Benecol buttery spread supplies 1 g of plant stanols." Consuming more than 3g of plant stanol per day is not ... Two reviews confirm that plant stanol and sterol esters lower cholesterol levels. Benecol foods have been found as a way to ... 2003). "Efficacy and Safety of Plant Stanols and Sterols in the Management of Blood Cholesterol Levels". Mayo Clin. Proc. 78 (8 ... can be achieved in 2-3 weeks by a daily intake of plant stanol esters equivalent to 1.5 - 2.4 g of plant stanols in an ...
Plant sterol esters or plant stanol esters have been added to some margarines and spreads because of their cholesterol lowering ... 2003). "Efficacy and Safety of Plant Stanols and Sterols in the Management of Blood Cholesterol Levels" (PDF). Archived from ... IFIC (July 2007). "Functional Foods Fact Sheet: Plant Stanols and Sterols". Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. ... Other varieties of spreads include those with added Omega-3 fatty acids, low or no salt, added plant sterols (claimed to reduce ...
These include: 2 grams per day of plant stanols or sterols and 10-25 grams per day of soluble fiber. Macronutrient Distribution ... Participants followed the TLC diet for 5 weeks followed by 6 weeks of either the sterol/stanol capsule or a placebo before ... Additional studies have looked at the benefits of plant stanols and sterols on lowering LDL cholesterol. One randomized, ... A Softgel Dietary Supplement Containing Esterified Plant Sterols and Stanols Improves the Blood Lipid Profile of Adults with ...
... of plant sterols or stanols are very limited, and none have yet to be completed comparing the same high dose of plant sterol to ... plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)". FDA. "Health claims: plant sterol/stanol esters and risk ... Griffin, RM (Feb 2, 2009). "The New Low-Cholesterol Diet: Plant Sterols and Stanols: What are sterols and stanols, and does ... Stanols are saturated sterols, having no double bonds in the sterol ring structure. More than 200 sterols and related compounds ...
Katan MB, Grundy SM, Jones P, Law M, Miettinen T, Paoletti R (2003). "Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the ... Sterol esters are added to certain Unilever products under the brand name Becel/Flora. Phytosterols Stanol ester Sitosterolemia ... 2003). "Efficacy and Safety of Plant Stanols and Sterols in the Management of Blood Cholesterol Levels". Mayo Clinic ... Plant sterol esters used for dietary supplements are made from phytosterols and fatty acids also derived from plants. They are ...
"Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management of blood cholesterol levels". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 78 (8 ... "Differential effects on inhibition of cholesterol absorption by plant stanol and plant sterol esters in apoE-/- mice". ... Doggrell, SA (2011). "Lowering LDL cholesterol with margarine containing plant stanol/sterol esters: Is it still relevant in ... The starting material is phytosterols from plants. These are first hydrogenated to give a plant stanol which is then esterified ...
25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin K are unaffected by dietary plant sterols and stanols. Sterol ester Katan, MB; Grundy, SM; ... Stanols are a saturated subgroup of sterols. Plant stanol esters in Benecol products are fatty acid esters of plant stanols. ... Plant stanol reduce both cholesterol and plant sterol levels in serum. This may be of importance since elevated plant sterol ... they can be divided into sterols and stanols, stanols being a saturated subgroup of sterols.[citation needed] Plant stanols are ...
The free sterols and stanols (saturated sterols) are then separated from the polar lipids by partitioning into a less polar ... Herbivores such as cows and sheep consume terrestrial plant matter (grass) which contains β-sitosterol as the principal sterol ... 5β-Coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3β-ol) is a 27-carbon stanol formed from the biohydrogenation of cholesterol (cholest-5en-3β-ol) ... β-sitosterol is the 24-ethyl derivative of cholesterol and can be used as a biomarker for terrestrial plant matter (see section ...
Stanol esters are a heterogeneous group of phytosterol esters with a saturated sterol ring structure known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. Despite a well documented cholesterol lowering effect, there are no data available indicating that functional foods supplemented with plant sterol esters reduce cardiovascular events. They are used in food products such as Benecol. Plant sterols are cholesterol-like molecules found in all plant foods, with the highest concentrations occurring in vegetable oils. Plant sterols are plant equivalents of cholesterol and have a very similar molecular ...
Stanol esters are a heterogeneous group of phytosterol esters with a saturated sterol ring structure known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. Despite a well documented cholesterol lowering effect, there are no data available indicating that functional foods supplemented with plant sterol esters reduce cardiovascular events. They are used in food products such as Benecol. Plant sterols are cholesterol-like molecules found in all plant foods, with the highest concentrations occurring in vegetable oils. Plant sterols are plant equivalents of cholesterol and have a very similar molecular ...
... s are a class of compounds that prevents the uptake of cholesterol from the small intestine into the circulatory system. Most of these molecules are monobactams but show no antibiotic activity. An example is ezetimibe (SCH 58235) Another example is Sch-48461. The "Sch" is for Schering-Plough, where these compounds were developed. Phytosterols are also cholesterol absorption inhibitors. There are two sources of cholesterol in the upper intestine: dietary (from food) and biliary (from bile). Dietary cholesterol, in the form of lipid emulsions, combines with bile salts, to form bile salt micelles from which cholesterol can then be absorbed by the intestinal enterocyte. Once absorbed by the enterocyte, cholesterol is reassembled into intestinal lipoproteins called chylomicrons. These chylomicrons are then secreted into the lymphatics and circulated to the liver. These ...
Carbin, B.E.; Larsson, B.; Lindahl, O. "Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with phytosterols", Br J Urol. December 1990; 66(6):639-41. Quotation: "In a randomised, double-blind study, the preparation Curbicin, obtained from pumpkin seeds and dwarf palm plants (Cucurbita pepo l. and Sabal serrulata), was compared with a placebo in the treatment of symptoms caused by prostatic hyperplasia; 53 patients took part in the study, which was carried out over a 3-month period. Urinary flow, micturition time, residual urine, frequency of micturition and a subjective assessment of the effect of treatment were all significantly improved in the treatment group ...
Stanol esters are a heterogeneous group of phytosterol esters with a saturated sterol ring structure known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. Despite a well documented cholesterol lowering effect, there are no data available indicating that functional foods supplemented with plant sterol esters reduce cardiovascular events. They are used in food products such as Benecol. Plant sterols are cholesterol-like molecules found in all plant foods, with the highest concentrations occurring in vegetable oils. Plant sterols are plant equivalents of cholesterol and have a very similar molecular ...
... (also called Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, Acyl-CoA cholesterin acyltransferase[citation needed] or simply ACAT) is an intracellular protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum that forms cholesteryl esters from cholesterol. Sterol O-acyltransferase catalyzes the chemical reaction: acyl-CoA + cholesterol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + cholesterol ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acyl-CoA and cholesterol, whereas its two products are CoA and cholesteryl ester. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups, the membrane-bound O-acyltransferases. This enzyme participates in bile acid biosynthesis. Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyl transferase EC 2.3.1.26, more simply referred to as ACAT, also known as sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT), belongs to the class ...
In enzymology, a phosphatidylcholine---sterol O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction phosphatidylcholine + a sterol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 1-acylglycerophosphocholine + a sterol ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are phosphatidylcholine and sterol, whereas its two products are 1-acylglycerophosphocholine and sterol ester. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphatidylcholine:sterol O-acyltransferase. Other names in common use include lecithin---cholesterol acyltransferase, phospholipid---cholesterol acyltransferase, LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and lysolecithin acyltransferase. ...
Squalene synthase (SQS) or farnesyl-diphosphate:farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyl transferase is an enzyme localized to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. SQS participates in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing a two-step reaction in which two identical molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) are converted into squalene, with the consumption of NADPH. Catalysis by SQS is the first committed step in sterol synthesis, since the squalene produced is converted exclusively into various sterols, such as cholesterol, via a complex, multi-step pathway. SQS belongs to squalene/phytoene synthase family of proteins. Squalene synthase has been characterized in animals, plants, and yeast. In terms of structure and mechanics, squalene synthase closely resembles phytoene synthase (PHS), another prenyltransferase. PHS serves a similar role to SQS in plants and bacteria, ...
Lanosterol 14α-demethylase (or CYP51A1) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved in the conversion of lanosterol to 4,4-dimethylcholesta-8(9),14,24-trien-3β-ol. The cytochrome P450 isoenzymes are a conserved group of proteins that serve as key players in the metabolism of organic substances and the biosynthesis of important steroids, lipids, and vitamins in eukaryotes. As a member of this family, lanosterol 14α-demethylase is responsible for an essential step in the biosynthesis of sterols. In particular, this protein catalyzes the removal of the C-14α-methyl group from lanosterol (Lepesheva et al.). This demethylation step is regarded as the initial checkpoint in the transformation of lanosterol to other sterols that are widely used within the cell (Lepesheva et al.). Although lanosterol 14α-demethylase is present in a wide variety of ...
... (also called squalene epoxidase) is an enzyme that uses NADPH and molecular oxygen to oxidize squalene to 2,3-oxidosqualene (squalene epoxide). Squalene epoxidase catalyzes the first oxygenation step in sterol biosynthesis and is thought to be one of the rate-limiting enzymes in this pathway. In humans, squalene epoxidase is encoded by the SQLE gene. Squalene monooxygenase (SqMO) was formerly referred to as squalene epoxidase (SqE) in the literature. Squalene monooxygenase is a flavoprotein monooxygenase. Flavoprotein monooxygenase form flavin hydroperoxides at the enzyme active site, which then transfer the terminal oxygen atom of the hydroperoxide to the substrate. Squalene monooxygenase differs from other flavin monooxygenases in that the oxygen is inserted as an epoxide rather than as a hydroxyl group. Squalene monooxygenase contains a loosely bound FAD flavin and obtains electrons from NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, rather than binding the nicotinamide cofactor ...
The objective is to decrease excess levels of cholesterol to an amount consistent with maintenance of normal body function. Cholesterol is biosynthesized in a series of more than 25 separate enzymatic reactions that initially involves three successive condensations of acetyl-CoA units to form the six-carbon compound 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA). This is reduced to mevalonate and then converted in a series of reactions to the isoprenes that are building-blocks of squalene, the immediate precursor to sterols, which cyclizes to lanosterol (a methylated sterol) and further metabolized to cholesterol. A number of early attempts to block the synthesis of cholesterol resulted in agents that inhibited late in the biosynthetic pathway between lanosterol and cholesterol. A major rate-limiting step in the pathway is at the level of ...
Die Regulation der HMG-CoA-Reduktase ist komplex; sie erfolgt u. a. transkriptionell über Transkriptionsfaktoren, die unter Mitwirkung von SCAP (SREBP cleavage activating protein) durch MBTPS1 proteolytisch aus SREBPs (sterol regulatory element binding protein) gewonnen werden. SCAP ist inaktiv, wenn es Cholesterin gebunden hat. Bei steigender Cholesterinkonzentration in der Zelle nimmt die Bildung der HMG-CoA-Reduktase daher ab; außerdem wird das Enzym direkt durch Bindung von Cholesterin und besonders Lanosterol, einem anderen Mevalonatderivat gehemmt. Die HMG-CoA-Reduktase kann auch durch die AMP-aktivierte Proteinkinase (AMPK) reversibel phosphoryliert und damit inaktiviert werden - wenn viel AMP vorliegt, was bei zellulärem Energiemangel der Fall ist, wird so die energieaufwändige Cholesterinsynthese gebremst. Bei Cholesterinmangel nimmt die Transkription der Gene und damit die Bildung der HMG-CoA-Reduktase wieder zu. Weitere Hormone, die regulierend auf ...
Bowar, Chad. Blut Aus Nord Memoria Vetusta II Dialogue With The Stars Review - Review of Memoria Vetusta II Dialogue With The Stars by Blut Aus Nord [online]. About.com [cit. 2010-08-03]. Dostupné online ...
... consuming plant sterols and stanols may be an alternative to medication. Simply defined, plant sterols and stanols are the fat ... contents of plants that act as the foundation for cell walls, vitamins and hormones. ... For those who do not want to make diet changes, supplements offer an alternative means of plant sterol and stanol consumption. ... consuming plant sterols and stanols may be an alternative to medication. Simply defined, plant sterols and stanols are the fat ...
Plant sterols and stanols reduce the absorption of cholesterol from the gut and so lower serum concentrations of cholesterol ... Plant sterols or stanols that have been esterified to increase their lipid solubilitycan be incorporated into foods ... The 2 g of plant sterol or stanol added to an average daily portion of margarine reduces serum concentrations of low density ... This article considers quantitatively the health aspects of adding plant sterols and stanols to margarines and other foods. ...
... has issued an opinion on plant sterol and plant stanol ingredients to assist risk managers across the European Union to ... which references more than 80 clinical trials and issues guidance on dosage between 1.5 and 2.4g of plant sterols and stanols ... Sterol, European union The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has issued an opinion on plant sterol and plant stanol ... EFSA issues plant stanol/sterol health claims advice. By Shane Starling 02-Aug-2009. - Last updated on 03-Aug-2009 at 13:55. ...
Two of the three article 14 cholesterol-lowering health claim opinions relating to plant sterols and stanols have been written ... 2.4 g plant sterols/plant stanols per day was observed to lower blood LDL-cholesterol by an average of 8.5 % and 8.9 %, ... "Plant stanol/sterol esters have been shown to lower/reduce blood cholesterol. High cholesterol is a risk factor in the ... Plant stanol and sterol claims now law in EU. By Mike Stones and Shane Starling ...
The Effects of Plant Sterol and Plant Stanol Ester Enriched Foods on Biopsy Proven Liver Inflammation in NAFLD Patients - a ... Plant stanol-enriched margarine Intake of 20 gram margarine with added plant stanol esters, 3 gram plant stanols per day for 1 ... Plant sterol-enriched margarine Intake of 20 gram margarine with added plant sterol esters, providing 3 gram plant sterols per ... Plant Sterols and Plant Stanols and Liver Inflammation. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ...
As part of your healthy diet you may want to include foods fortified with plant stanols and sterols, which actively help to ... Stanol and sterol esters have a structure similar to cholesterol, and they block the usual re-absorption of bile salts, which ... Plant stanols and sterols. So what are plant stanols and sterols and how do they work? They are substances that are naturally ... A low-cholesterol diet: Plant sterols and stanols How to include plant sterols and stanols as part of your heart-healthy diet. ...
... http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/ABSTRACTS/Very ... but reduces effectively serum cholesterol and plant sterol levels. Return to the PLANT STEROLS and STEROLINS Page. Since 8-16- ... Very High Plant Stanol Intake and Serum Plant Stanols and Non-cholesterol Sterols This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter ... non-cholesterol sterols, and plant stanols were normalized during post-treatment weeks.. CONCLUSIONS: Serum plant stanol levels ...
... confidence interval was calculated as the difference between the means in the plant sterol and plant stanol groups using a ... The selection of plant sterols vs plant stanols should then be based on potential differences in safety parameters and further ... Plant sterols and stanols are plant steroids with a similar chemical structure and cellular function to human cholesterol, and ... Plant sterols and plant stanols do not have statistically or clinically relevant differing effects on total cholesterol, low- ...
Mice were fed a control diet or a 0.8% (w/w) plant sterol/ stanol diet. Commercial foods enriched with plant sterols or stanols ... Both plant sterols and plant stanols increased the number of adenomas in the small intestine of ApcMin mice. Plant stanol ... Overall, the mice responded in a different manner to plant sterol and plant stanol feeding in intestinal sterol handling, cell ... Significant changes in the composition of intestinal sterols were observed after plant sterol and stanol feeding. It appears ...
Plant stanols and plant sterols are found in a range of plant foods. This Food Fact Sheet will look at their role in reducing ... plant stanols and sterols. If you do choose to use a plant stanol or sterol product in addition to the changes outlined above, ... How much plant stanols and sterols do I need?. Most diets provide a small amount of plant stanols and sterols (around 300mg per ... What do plant stanols and sterols do?. Because they have a similar structure to cholesterol, plant stanols and sterols work to ...
7. Law M: Plant sterol and stanol margarines and health. BMJ 2000; 320(7238):861-864. ... Plant sterols and stanols. What is it?. Plant Sterols and Stanols are mainly used to lower high cholesterol. They are also used ... The amount depends on the strength of the medicine and the reason you are taking Plant Sterols and Stanols. If you are using ... Do not use Plant Sterols and Stanols if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or if you have sitosterolemia. ...
... that enables them to live longer and healthier lives by reducing the risk of heart disease and plant sterols and plant stanols ... plant stanols in the daily diet and to foster the implementation of healthy diet and lifestyle choices to reduce blood LDL- ... the leading international companies are working together to educate the public about the benefits of integrating plant sterols ... Raisio produces plant stanol ester, the unique cholesterol-lowering ingredient in Benecol products, markets Benecol-branded ...
Plant sterol and stanol supplements. Plant sterols and stanols are substances found in many fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, ... grains, and other plants. Some processed foods are also fortified with plant sterols or stanols. For example, you may find ... Research suggests that plant sterols and stanols may help lower your risk of heart disease, reports the Cleveland Clinic. They ... Some studies have found the plant to be an effective treatment for milder forms of heart failure. However, research results are ...
... but experts say eating sterol and stanol-containing foods is another easy water to lower your LDL cholesterol. ... What Do Plant Sterols & Stanols Do?. Sterols and stanols look similar to cholesterol, so when traveling through the digestive ... SEE ALSO: 17 Foods High In Plant Sterols And Stanols. How To Get Them In Your Diet?. *Certain foods contain them naturally such ... How Do Plant Sterols And Stanols Lower Cholesterol?. Skip to entry content ...
Preparations: Plant Stanol ester enriched margarine *Benecol (hydrogenated sterols). *Sitostanol from pine tree wood pulp ... High Plant Sterol concentrations assoc. with CAD. *Stanols (Benecol) less absorbed than Sterols ... Phytosterols, Plant Sterols, Sterols, Plant, Phytosterols [Chemical/Ingredient], plant sterols, phytosterols, Plant Sterol, ... Also called plant sterol. Definition (NCI_CRCH) A class of dietary sterols present in plants with chemical structures nearly ...
... plus tips to lower your cholesterol and an explainer on those mysterious plant stanols. ... Heres the truth about plant sterols and stanols, ... plant sterol, plant stanol, plant stanols, benecol, low ... What are stanols and sterols? You may have heard about plant sterols and stanols. These are both phytosterols, naturally found ... Id love to hear from you! What do you think about cholesterol-lowering spreads, and plant sterols and stanols? What are your ...
How Plant Sterols and Stanols Lower Cholesterol. Plant sterols and stanols -- also called phytosterols -- are compounds present ... at least 0.65 g of plant sterol esters or at least 1.7 g of plant stanol esters per serving) to claim effectiveness in lowering ... Plant sterols and stanols can be found in a variety of enriched products, including certain margarines, orange juice and orange ... Studies have shown that consuming 2 to 3 g a day of plant sterol or stanol esters can lower LDL cholesterol by 6 to 15 percent ...
The term "phytosterols" covers plant sterols and plant stanols. Plant sterols are... ... Phytosterol esters (Plant Sterol and Stanol Esters) This updated Information Statement, dated March 2014, prepared by Prof J ... Leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) are the source of steviol glycosides, a group of high-potency, zero- ...
... at Memorial Health Supplement Forms/Alternate Names Phytostanols Sitostanol Campestanol Stigmastanol 5-Alpha-Stanols Stanol... ... Comparison of Efficacy of Plant Stanol Ester and Sterol Ester: Short-Term and Longer-Term Studies. Am J Cardiol. 2005;96:29-36 ... Stanol and sterol esters are manufactured by processing stanols or sterols with fatty acids from vegetable oils. 3 Stanol/ ... Sterols are found in most plant foods. Stanols occur naturally in wood pulp, tall oil (a by-product of paper manufacturing), ...
Plant Stanols/Sterols Stanol/stanol ester** corn, soy, wheat, wood oils May reduce the risk of coronary hear disease (CHD) by ... and dressings and spreads containing plant stanol and sterol esters, which may decrease the risk of heart disease). ... makes it possible to select a specific genetic trait from any plant and move it into the genetic code of another plant in a ... Spreads with stanol esters Reduces cholesterol Structure/function claim Foods containing sugar alcohols in place of sugar ...
Plant sterol/stanol esters. Plant sterol esters or plant stanol esters have been added to some margarines and spreads because ... "Efficacy and Safety of Plant Stanols and Sterols in the Management of Blood Cholesterol Levels" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-04-08.. ... Sterol/stanol esters are tasteless and odorless, and have the same physical and chemical properties typical of most fats. ... "Functional Foods Fact Sheet: Plant Stanols and Sterols". Retrieved 2008-04-08 ...
In humans, cholesterol has a cell function similar to what sterols and stanols have in plants. Because sterols and stanols have ... Sterols and stanols stem from plants. Theyre actually components of plant membranes that are very similar to cholesterol. ... But getting enough sterols and stanols through diet alone is nearly impossible. If your plates already full and youre not ... Sterols and stanols are naturally present in many fruits, vegetables, seeds, cereals, and legumes. Eating more of those foods ...
Daily Sterol & Stanol Amounts. Products containing at least 400mg per serving of plant sterols and stanols, eaten twice a day ... One serving of Nature Made CholestOff Complete supplies 900mg of plant sterols and stanols per serving for daily intake of ... Plant Sterols/Stanols, Sunflower Oil, Gelatin, Pantethine, Glycerin, Medium Chain Triglycerides, Water, Soy Lecithin, Colors ... Nature Made CholestOff Complete® combines esterified Reducol, a proprietary blend of plant sterols and stanols (also called ...
Plant sterol or stanol esters: plant sterols or stanols that have been esterified by creating an ester bond between a fatty ... a collective term for plant-derived sterols and stanols.. Plant sterols or stanols: terms generally applied to plant-derived ... 1) Plant sterols have a double bond in the sterol ring. The most abundant sterols in plants and the human diet are β-sitosterol ... Plant sterols and plant stanols, known commonly as phytosterols, are plant-derived compounds that are structurally related to ...
5.6 %) and type of plant sterol/stanol on TC-standardized β-carotene concentrations (−8.9 vs. −14.2 %).Plant sterol and stanol ... Keywords: Plant sterols; Plant stanols; Cholesterol; Hydrocarbon carotenoids; Oxygenated carotenoids; Fat-soluble vitamins ... Plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations after plant sterol and plant stanol consumption: a meta-analysis of ... Plant sterols and stanols interfere with intestinal cholesterol absorption, and it has been questioned whether absorption and ...
  • If you do choose to use a plant stanol or sterol product in addition to the changes outlined above, they need to be eaten every day, with meals, and in the right amount. (uk.com)
  • Shortages in beef fat supply combined with advances by Boyce and Sabatier in the hydrogenation of plant materials soon accelerated the use of Bradley's method, and between 1900 and 1920 commercial oleomargarine was produced from a combination of animal fats and hardened and unhardened vegetable oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant stanols and sterols are natural compounds found in vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds that compete with cholesterol for absorption into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract and thus decrease the amount of cholesterol that makes it into your system. (cnn.com)