Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.StigmasterolPlants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Sterol 14-Demethylase: An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Cholestadienols: Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.SqualeneIntestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.EstersPlants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Amish: An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Soy Milk: A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Androstanes: The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.AzetidinesIon Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Pentacyclic Triterpenes: Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Lactobacillus helveticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.TriterpenesGastric Mucins: Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.TriglyceridesOrphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedPlant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Mevalonic AcidDietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Animals, Congenic: Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Steroid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Xanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder due to mutation of the gene CYP27A1 encoding a CHOLESTANETRIOL 26-MONOOXYGENASE. It is characterized by large deposits of CHOLESTEROL and CHOLESTANOL in various tissues resulting in xanthomatous swelling of tendons, early CATARACT, and progressive neurological symptoms.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Mice, Inbred C57BLSymbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Pascal, S.; Taton, M.; Rahier, A. (1993). "Plant sterol biosynthesis. Identification and characterization of two distinct ... desaturation of plant sterol precursors". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236 (2): 434-437. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6974. PMID ... Brady, D.R.; Crowder, R.D.; Hayes, W.J. (1980). "Mixed function oxidases in sterol metabolism. Source of reducing equivalents ... Gaylor, J.L.; Mason, H.S. (1968). "Investigation of the component reactions of oxidative sterol demethylation. Evidence against ...
"Plant sterol metabolism. Enzymatic cleavage of the 9beta, 19beta-cyclopropane ring of cyclopropyl sterols in bramble tissue ... Rahier A, Schmitt P, Benveniste P (1982). "7-oxo-24ξ(28)-dihydrocycloeucalenol, a potent inhibitor of plant sterol biosynthesis ...
"Plant Sterols and Blood Cholesterol - Scientific substantiation of a health claim related to plant sterols and lower/reduced ... of plant sterols or stanols are very limited, and none have yet to be completed comparing the same high dose of plant sterol to ... For plant sterol esters: (i) Foods containing at least 0.65 g per serving of plant sterol esters, eaten twice a day with meals ... plant sterol/stanol esters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)". FDA. "Health claims: plant sterol/stanol esters and risk ...
Two reviews confirm that plant stanol and sterol esters lower cholesterol levels. Benecol foods have been found as a way to ... 2003). "Efficacy and Safety of Plant Stanols and Sterols in the Management of Blood Cholesterol Levels". Mayo Clin. Proc. 78 (8 ... A serving of Benecol buttery spread supplies 1 g of plant stanols." Consuming more than 3g of plant stanol per day is not ... "Plant sterol and stanol margarines and health". p. 861-864. Retrieved 2011-03-05. Katan; et al. ( ...
Nepenthaceae: sterols and triterpenes of the pitcher plant. Phytochemistry 11(1): 456-461. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90055-4 ... "Nepenthes of Gunung Ulu Kali" (PDF). (1.54 MiB) Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 12(3): 65-67. Shivas, R.G. 1984. Pitcher Plants of ... Mycorrhizal formation by various carnivorous plants. Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 41(1): 4-7. (in German) Schmid-Hollinger, R. ... This highland pitcher plant can be grown on a windowsill or in partly shaded areas outside, as well as in a terrarium, provided ...
Cycloartenol CYP51 Schaller, Hubert (May 2003). "The role of sterols in plant growth and development". Progress in Lipid ... By contrast plant steroids are produced via cycloartenol. Elaboration of lanosterol under enzyme catalysis leads to the core ... an Intermediate in the Biological Synthesis of Sterols from Squalene". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 88 (20): 4750- ... "Enzymatic cyclization of squalene and oxidosqualene to sterols and triterpenes". Chemical Reviews. 93 (6): 2189-2206. doi: ...
In plants, these include sesquiterpenes, brassinosteroids (hormones), and membrane sterols. Steroid synthesis: Acetyl-CoA ... In plants, de novo fatty acid synthesis occurs in the plastids. Many seeds accumulate large reservoirs of seed oils to support ... The Plant Cell Online. 17: 182-203. doi:10.1105/tpc.104.026211. Yi, C. H.; Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, H.; Yuan, J. (2011-01-01). " ...
Plant sterol esters or plant stanol esters have been added to some margarines and spreads because of their cholesterol lowering ... Other varieties of spreads include those with added Omega-3 fatty acids, low or no salt, added plant sterols (claimed to reduce ... 2003). "Efficacy and Safety of Plant Stanols and Sterols in the Management of Blood Cholesterol Levels" (PDF). Archived from ... IFIC (July 2007). "Functional Foods Fact Sheet: Plant Stanols and Sterols". Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. ...
Some researchers, however, are concerned about diet supplementation with plant sterol esters and draw attention to lack of long ... 2009). "Controversial role of plant sterol esters in the management of hypercholesterolaemia". European Heart Journal. 30 (4): ... Plant cells do not manufacture cholesterol. It is also the precursor of the steroid hormones and bile acids. Since cholesterol ...
"Differential effects on inhibition of cholesterol absorption by plant stanol and plant sterol esters in apoE-/- mice". ... The effects of higher serum plant sterol levels are so far not completely understood. Weingärtner O, et al. (2009). " ... Doggrell, SA (2011). "Lowering LDL cholesterol with margarine containing plant stanol/sterol esters: Is it still relevant in ... The starting material is phytosterols from plants. These are first hydrogenated to give a plant stanol which is then esterified ...
... is an important triterpenoid of the sterol class which is found in plants. It is the starting point for the ... Schaller, Hubert (May 2003). "The role of sterols in plant growth and development". Progress in Lipid Research. 42 (3): 163-175 ... It is the first precursor in the biosynthesis of other stanols and sterols, referred to as phytostanols and phytosterols in ... The identities and distribution of phytostanols and phytosterols is characteristic of a plant species. ...
There are two major groups of sterol-producing OSC enzymes: Cycloartenol synthase (CAS), found in all plants, which produces ... Sawai, S. (15 March 2006). "Plant Lanosterol Synthase: Divergence of the Sterol and Triterpene Biosynthetic Pathways in ... "Triterpene Biosynthesis in Plants". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 65 (1): 225-257. doi:10.1146/annurev-arplant-050312-120229 ... Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) are enzymes involved in cyclization reactions of 2,3-oxidosqualene to form sterols or triterpenes ...
"Plant sterols from rapeseed and tall oils: Effects on lipids, fat-soluble vitamins and plant sterol concentrations". Nutrition ... Plant sterols were first shown in the 1950s to be beneficial in lowering LDLs and cholesterol. Since then, numerous studies ... Plant sterols may also act directly on intestinal cells and affect transporter proteins. In addition, an effect on the ... Excessive supplementation with plant sterols may be associated with reductions in lycopene levels. One small study showed no ...
Androstadienedione is obtained in high yield from both plant and animal sterols by biotransformation. The chemical is a common ...
... (also known as Wulzen anti-stiffness factor) is a plant sterol, or phytosterol. Wulzen factor, as it was first ... Charantin, a stigmasteryl glucoside found in the bitter melon plant. Stigmastanol, a closely related phytosterol Sitosterol ... Stigmasterol is an unsaturated phytosterol occurring in the plant fats or oils of soybean, calabar bean, and rape seed, and in ...
Heinemann T, Kullak-Ublick GA, Pietruck B, von Bergmann K (1991). "Mechanisms of action of plant sterols on inhibition of ... Stigmastanol (sitostanol) is a phytosterol found in a variety of plant sources. Similar to sterol esters and stanol esters, ... Stigmasterol, a closely related sterol Sandqvist, Hakan; Bengtsson, Edvard (1931). "The empirical formula of sitosterol". ...
"Plant sterols and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Eur. Heart J. 33 (4): 444-51. doi:10.1093/ ... "Fructus Serenoae Repentis". WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. World Health Organization. Retrieved 29 October 2014 ...
The plant also contains amounts of sterols as brassicasterol and stigmasterol. It also contains two secoiridoid glycosides, ... Centaurium erythraea is a species of flowering plant in the gentian family known by the common names common centaury and ... Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Photo gallery Kumarasamy, Y.; Nahar, L.; Cox, P. J.; Jaspars, M.; Sarker, S. D. ( ... This centaury is a widespread plant of Europe (including Scotland, Sweden and Mediterranean countries,) and parts of western ...
Some evidence exists for benefit of plant sterol-containing products and omega-3 fatty acids. List of xanthoma variants ...
Taton M, Rahier A (1996). "Plant sterol biosynthesis: identification and characterization of higher plant delta 7-sterol C5(6)- ... Other names in common use include Delta7-sterol Delta5-dehydrogenase, Delta7-sterol 5-desaturase, Delta7-sterol-C5(6)- ... "Role of highly conserved residues in the reaction catalyzed by recombinant Delta7-sterol-C5(6)-desaturase studied by site- ...
In plants, which lack cholesterol, related compounds called sterols perform the same function as cholesterol. Lipid vesicles or ... The Physiology of Plants, [1]. Translated by A. J. Ewart from the 2nd German ed. of Pflanzenphysiologie, 1897-1904, [2]. ... Glycolipids only account for a minute amount of about 2% and sterols make up the rest. In RBC studies, 30% of the plasma ... Plant Cell Biology: From Astronomy to Zoology. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press, p. 17. Noutsi, Pakiza; Gratton, Enrico; ...
... Heart Wise - Orange juice drink naturally sourced with plant sterols. Minute Maid Juice Box - 100% juice drink. ... "Minute Maid (retail price: 29¢ a pint and a half) got into the field first in 1945, at a new $2,300,000 plant in Plymouth, Fla ... Demand is so great, said Fox, that Vacuum has had to allocate shipments and is thinking of setting up a California plant. The ...
Both seed and pulp oil also contain considerable amounts of plant sterols (12-23 g/kg and 10-29 g/kg of oil, respectively). ... Both oils also contain dense amounts of tocopherols, tocotrienols and plant sterols. Oils from sea buckthorn seeds and pulp ... Beta-sitosterol is the major sterol compound throughout the berry which constitutes 57-83% of total sterols. Taking sea ... Sea buckthorn oil is derived from plants in a group of species of the genus Hippophae, the most commonly used of which is ...
also used an isolated population to fine-map a signal found by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of plasma plant sterol ( ... "Systematic haplotype analysis resolves a complex plasma plant sterol locus on the Micronesian Island of Kosrae". Proceedings of ...
... and other types of sterols in plants (Lepesheva et al.). These sterols localize to the plasma membrane of cells, where they ... "Fungal Cytochrome P450 Sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) and Azole Resistance in Plant and Human Pathogens." Applied Microbiology ... "Sterol 14α-Demethylase Cytochrome P450 (CYP51), a P450 in All Biological Kingdoms." Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008. 1770(3): 467-77 ... As a member of this family, lanosterol 14α-demethylase is responsible for an essential step in the biosynthesis of sterols. In ...
... (Vietnamese: [tɨəŋ]) is the name applied to a variety of condiments a kind of fermented bean paste made from soybean and commonly used in Vietnamese cuisine. Originally, the term tương refers to a salty paste made from fermented soybeans, which is popular in vegetarian meals, particularly those prepared and eaten by Vietnamese Buddhist monks. It is also the most typical dipping sauce for summer rolls (gỏi cuốn). The paste, which is generally dark brown in color, is produced by adding the fungus Aspergillus oryzae to roasted soybeans, which are then allowed to naturally ferment in a jar with water until it develops an umami flavor. Other ingredients, such as glutinous rice or maize powder, salt, or water, may also be used. Tương is similar to the Chinese yellow soybean paste, though the latter is generally saltier and thicker in texture. Tương may range in consistency from a thick paste to a thin liquid. Some varieties, such as that prepared in Central Vietnam, are watery, ...
Phytosterols, Plant Sterols, Sterols, Plant, Phytosterols [Chemical/Ingredient], plant sterols, phytosterols, Plant Sterol, ... Also called plant sterol. Definition (NCI_CRCH) A class of dietary sterols present in plants with chemical structures nearly ... A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized. ... Any sterol found in the plant kingdom. Concepts. Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Steroid (T110) , Pharmacologic ...
Plant sterols and stanols reduce the absorption of cholesterol from the gut and so lower serum concentrations of cholesterol ... Plant sterols or stanols that have been esterified to increase their lipid solubilitycan be incorporated into foods ... The 2 g of plant sterol or stanol added to an average daily portion of margarine reduces serum concentrations of low density ... Randomised trials included in this review were identified by a Medline search using the term "plant sterols." Additional trials ...
Health Benefits of Plant Sterols. Posted Aug 03, 2008. by Sejal Dave Leave a Comment ... Topics: Health Related: cholesterol, plant sterol. Nutritional Information for Common Spreads for Toast. Posted Jun 03, 2008. ... Topics: Health Related: breakfast, cholesterol, cream cheese, jam, morning, nutella, peanut butter, plant sterol, toast ... Topics: Health Related: cholesterol, fish, heart smart, nuts, omega-3, plant sterol, soluble fiber, soy ...
... has issued an opinion on plant sterol and plant stanol ingredients to assist risk managers across the European Union to ... The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has issued an opinion on plant sterol and plant stanol ingredients to assist risk ... EFSA issues plant stanol/sterol health claims advice. By Shane Starling 02-Aug-2009. - Last updated on 03-Aug-2009 at 13:55. ... "Once the approval process is completed, we look forward to being able to link the benefits of a daily intake of plant sterols ...
... are cholesterol-like substances that occur naturally at low levels in fruits, vegetables, nuts and cereals ( ... Eating plant sterols. The consumption of plant sterols is not a substitution for medication. If you are already on cholesterol- ... So how do I eat more plant sterols?. Some food products in Australia are fortified with plant sterols so they have higher ... What are plant sterols?. Plant sterols (phytosterols, phytostanols and their fatty acid esters) are cholesterol-like substances ...
... consuming plant sterols and stanols may be an alternative to medication. Simply defined, plant sterols and stanols are the fat ... contents of plants that act as the foundation for cell walls, vitamins and hormones. ... consuming plant sterols and stanols may be an alternative to medication. Simply defined, plant sterols and stanols are the fat ... This changed in the 1980s, when scientists found a way to extract plant sterols and stanols from plants and add them to food so ...
Two of the three article 14 cholesterol-lowering health claim opinions relating to plant sterols and stanols have been written ... 2.4 g plant sterols/plant stanols per day was observed to lower blood LDL-cholesterol by an average of 8.5 % and 8.9 %, ... "Plant stanol/sterol esters have been shown to lower/reduce blood cholesterol. High cholesterol is a risk factor in the ... Plant stanol and sterol claims now law in EU. By Mike Stones and Shane Starling ...
Reported side effects associated with plant sterols include diarrhea, nausea, heartburn or indigestion, and constipation, ... Most people tolerate plant sterols agreeably and with few or no side effects, reports eMedTV. If a dietary supplement or ... Plant sterols are naturally-occurring substances present in small amounts in many grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds, ... Manufacturers of food products frequently add plant sterols to items such as margarine, cereal, orange juice and granola bars. ...
The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute reports that adding 2 grams of plant sterols to your daily diet may lower ... The challenge is getting enough sterols in your diet to have an impact. ... Plant sterols provide one primary benefit: They help lower cholesterol. ... Plant sterols provide one primary benefit: They help lower cholesterol. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute reports ...
Louis have investigated the role of plant sterols in cholesterol lowering ability. ... Louis have investigated the role of plant sterols in cholesterol lowering ability. They have found that pills containing plant ... Plants have ability to significantly lower LDL cholesterol through sterol pills. by Medindia Content Team on March 15, 2006 at ... Plant sterols are similar to cholesterol in structure and can reduce the absorption of cholesterol in the gut by competing with ...
This research assesses consumption patterns of products containing plant sterols and consumer awareness of labelling on ... for all products with added plant sterols to be labelled in a manner that indicates the maximum daily dose of plant sterols. ... Post-market monitoring of novel foods: Plant sterols. Last updated: 27 February 2006 ... Plant sterols inhibit the absorption of cholesterol and they exist in two different forms, phytosterols and phytostanols. They ...
These plant sterols can target androgen receptors to build lean ... Ive read a few studies on the effectiveness of plant sterols ... Plant Sterols Ive read a few studies on the effectiveness of plant sterols for natural lifters. These plant sterols can target ... Plant sterols/steroids definitely have potential.. If your main goal is size and strength, Ecdysteroids are something you ... Plant sterols/steroids definitely have potential.. If your main goal is size and strength, Ecdysteroids are something you ...
Find out if plant sterols are right for you! View Part 2 of Lower Your Cholesterol With Plant Sterols. Read more about plant ... sterols. Watch Dr. Oz reveal more 10-cent health solutions. ... Lower Your Cholesterol With Plant Sterols, Pt 1. Posted on 5/09 ... Could this 10-cent supplement be the cholesterol solution youve been looking for? Find out if plant sterols are right for you! ...
Plant sterols are alternatively known as phytosterols and... ... Smart Balance are some brands of margarine that contain plant ... Promise, Benecol, Becel and Smart Balance are some brands of margarine that contain plant sterols as of 2015. Plant sterols are ... Benecol regular and light spreads contain plant sterol esters derived from natural plant sources. A single tablespoon contains ... Becel, on the other hand, does not recommend baking or cooking with its margarine that has plant sterols and vitamins D, E and ...
The researchers analyzed the effects of sterol consumption in thos...Plant sterols were combined with a compound called ... Sterol,Containing,Pills,,Good,For,The,Heart,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical ... Sterol containing pills a plant constituent can help lower cholester... ... However, for plant-based sterol to be absorbed, it should be a soluble state. The researchers analyzed the effects of sterol ...
Plant Sterols Lower Cholesterol. Food Ingredients First 02/24/2004 Researchers at UC Davis School of Medicine and Medical ... Center say plant sterols added to orange juice were effective in reducing bad cholesterol levels in test subjects. ...
Shop for NOW Foods Beta-Sitosterol Plant Sterols at Fred Meyer. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or ... S Plant Sterol Esters is a combination of the ester forms of Beta-Sitosterol, Campesterol and Stigmasterol. Plant Sterols are ... plant-derived compounds that are structurally similar to cholesterol so that they help to limit the absorption of cholesterol ...
... read how plant sterols can do that for you. ... What are Plant Sterols?. The word itself says it is plant ... How Can You Obtain Enough Amount of Plant Sterols?. Studies show that vegetarians usually take in up to 700mg of plant sterols ... Yes, for this article, I am going to give you an idea what plant sterols are and where and how you can obtain it. I will also ... Plant sterols supplements are generally safe and effective to lower your bad cholesterol levels but you still need to protect ...
There are at least 250 different plant sterols in the foods we eat. Sterols are a group of plant molecules that closely ... Plant sterols are small but essential components of certain plant membranes. They are found naturally in some vegetable oils, ... Adding plant sterol supplements to your vitamin regime is recommended for most people. Thousands of studies on sterols ... The Richest Sources of Plant Sterols. Thousands of years ago, sterols were found in everything we ate. Nuts, seeds, veggies and ...
... naturally occurring compounds found in all plants. Sterols have been shown to enhance immune function and support the bodys ... Moducare is a pine extract that contains sterols, ... What are sterols?. Sterols are fats found in every plant, ... naturally occurring sterols are leeched from plants. And even if we could eat plant foods rich in sterols, we would have to eat ... Plant sterols and sterolins are natural substances found in all fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds. These plant nutrients have ...
NOW Beta-Sitosterol Plant Sterols is formulated with CardioAid-S plant sterol esters plus added fish oil to support healthy ... NOW Beta-Sitosterol Plant Sterols is formulated with CardioAid-S plant sterol esters plus added fish oil to support healthy ... CardioAid-S Plant Sterol Esters is a combination of the ester forms of Beta-Sitosterol, Campesterol and Stigmasterol. Plant ... Sterols are plant-derived compounds that are structurally similar to cholesterol so that they help to limit the absorption of ...
... Hao Han,1,2 ... Hao Han, Peipei Yan, Li Chen, et al., "Flaxseed Oil Containing α-Linolenic Acid Ester of Plant Sterol Improved Atherosclerosis ...
Plant sterol-enriched margarine Intake of 20 gram margarine with added plant sterol esters, providing 3 gram plant sterols per ... Dietary Supplement: Plant sterol-enriched margarine Margarine enriched with plant sterol esters ... Plant Sterols and Plant Stanols and Liver Inflammation. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... The Effects of Plant Sterol and Plant Stanol Ester Enriched Foods on Biopsy Proven Liver Inflammation in NAFLD Patients - a ...
Plant Sterols. eVitamins is a trusted and approved merchant to sell authentic ModuCare (EPI) items. See reviews, find coupons ...
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  • The approval from the EU Commission strengthens the pioneering role of plant stanol ester used in Benecol products as an effective cholesterol-lowering food ingredient. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Flaxseed Oil Containing α -Linolenic Acid Ester of Plant Sterol Improved Atherosclerosis in ApoE Deficient Mice," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , vol. 2015, Article ID 958217, 17 pages, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • We recently demonstrated in mice that plant sterol and stanol ester consumption inhibited the development of liver inflammation , which needs to be validated in humans in a translational approach. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Plant sterol ester is considered as one of the ten greatest discoveries in nutrition around the world. (sbwire.com)
  • Plat sterol ester market is growing at a significant rate owing to its nutritional benefits. (sbwire.com)
  • Demand for plant sterol ester in food industry is the main growth driver where food supplement contributes noteworthy growth to the market. (sbwire.com)
  • Moreover, cardiovascular diseases are another driver for growth of the plant sterol ester market. (sbwire.com)
  • There is no notably restraints for the plant sterol ester market, however, there is some limitation regarding intact of plant sterol ester, for instance generally, it is used 1.25gms per 125ml of yogurts, or 5gms per litter of milk. (sbwire.com)
  • There is a significant opportunity in the emerging economies including China, Brazil, Mexico, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and GCC countries in order to increase the market share of plant sterol ester market in terms of value. (sbwire.com)
  • Some of the key players identified in the plant sterol ester market are Raisio Plc. (sbwire.com)
  • Researchers concluded, "plant sterol ester capsule is effective in improving lipid profiles among hypercholesterolemic subjects…at the minimum dosage recommended by FDA. (townhall.com)
  • In this report, the global Food Grade Plant Sterol Ester market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Objective] The aim was to discuss the effect of preparing nano-plant sterol ester by oil-in-water micro emulsion method. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Method] The proper emulsifier,emulsification temperature and the mass ratio of water and emulsifier were selected,the complex formulation was done according to different HLB values of surfactants and the nano-emulsion of nanosize plant sterol ester was prepared by oil-in-water micro emulsion method. (cnki.com.cn)
  • The aim of this study is to determine the amount of plant and animal sterols present in lipid formulations derived from different oil sources. (springer.com)
  • Saubion JL, Hazane C, Jalabert M (1998) The role of sterols in lipid emulsions for parenteral nutrition. (springer.com)
  • Subcellular localization studies using fluorescently tagged SlPSAT1 and SlASAT1 proteins revealed that SlPSAT1 localize in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) while, in contrast to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization of AtASAT1, SlASAT1 resides in the plasma membrane (PM). The possibility that PM-localized SlASAT1 may act catalytically in trans on their sterol substrates, which are presumably embedded in the ER membrane, is discussed. (frontiersin.org)
  • A large family of lipid triterpenoids (a class of isoprenoids) called hopanoids and sterols are found in bacteria and eukaryotes, respectively. (omicsonline.org)
  • Sterols are known to be involved in cell signaling, in transport and distribution of lipophilic molecules, and in formation of lipid rafts [ 1 - 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • These transcription factors contain a putative START (STeroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR)-related lipid Transfer) lipid/sterolbinding domain that is hypothesized to link metabolism to gene expression in plant development. (k-state.edu)
  • Provides information on plant sterols, complex lipid compounds created from the simplest of chemical building blocks like carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (linode.com)
  • We show that mutants in RTN20 or RTN19, respectively, display a significant change in sterol composition in roots indicating a role in lipid regulation. (nature.com)
  • Of two unusual plant sterols, 24-methylpollinastanol and 14alpha,24zeta-dimethylcholest-8-en-3beta-ol, the former was found to be functionally equivalent to sitosterol and the latter was found to be relatively inefficient. (pnas.org)
  • Also available are our Sterol complexes, which include our Higher Nature Red Sterol Complex Beta Sitosterol , Solgar Phytosterol Complex and our BioCare BioCardio Concentrated Liquid Fish Oil with Sterols . (bodykind.com)
  • Sterol analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds originating in variant constructs of AtHMGR1, GmSMT1, and GmSMT2 engineered in seeds showed relevant modifications in the ratio of 24-methyl to 24-ethyl sterol in the direction of sitosterol formation. (deepdyve.com)
  • The effect of rice bran oil sterols is probably due to ß-sitosterol and other 4-desmethylsterols and not to 4,4'-dimethylsterols. (39kf.com)
  • Plant sterols can be converted into stanols by hydrogenation: ß-sitosterol is transformed into its saturated counterpart sitostanol. (39kf.com)
  • Limited evidence suggests that a combination of plant compounds, including beta-sitosterol, may be helpful for hair loss in men and women that is due to genetic and environmental factors. (thesourcenatural.com)
  • This research assesses consumption patterns of products containing plant sterols and consumer awareness of labelling on consumption guidelines for these products. (food.gov.uk)
  • In addition, EC regulation 608/2004 requires that all products containing plant sterols should be labelled in a consistent manner. (food.gov.uk)
  • SEs are synthesized by sterol acyltransferases, a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of fatty acil groups to the hydroxyl group at C-3 position of the sterol backbone. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sterol acyltransferases are categorized into acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferases (ASAT) and phospholipid:sterol acyltransferases (PSAT) depending on whether the fatty acyl donor substrate is a long-chain acyl-CoA or a phospolipid. (frontiersin.org)
  • In SGs, the hydroxyl group at the C3 position of the sterol backbone is linked through a glycosidic bond to a sugar moiety, usually a single glucose residue, whereas in ASGs, the sugar residue at the C3 position carries a fatty acid esterified to the hydroxyl group at C-6 position. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent research indicates that cardiovascular health may be better supported by diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids, plant sterols, and fish oils than by those high in fish oils alone. (rockwellnutrition.com)
  • Saw Palmetto, Pygeum & Plant Sterols is a high-quality combination formula featuring 320 mg of saw palmetto extract, standardized to 45% fatty acids, and 125 mg of pygeum bark extract, containing 20% plant sterols, per 4-capsule serving. (qfc.com)
  • Like saw palmetto, pygeum contains natural sterols and fatty acids. (qfc.com)
  • Natural Sterol Complex also contains nutritional co-factors designed to increase its overall effectiveness, including essential fatty acids, electrolytes, nucleosides, performance and metabolic botanicals, and more. (bodybuilding.com)