Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. SESQUITERPENES are found in some of the species.
Basic functional unit of plants.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The reproductive organs of plants.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Material prepared from plants.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
The reproductive cells of plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.

Replication in the phloem is not necessary for efficient vascular transport of tobacco mosaic tobamovirus. (1/1585)

Plant viruses move systemically from one leaf to another via phloem. However, the viral functions needed for systemic movement are not fully elucidated. An experimental system was designed to study the effects of low temperature on the vascular transport of the tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV). Vascular transport of TMV from lower inoculated leaves to upper non-inoculated leaves via a stem segment kept at low temperature (4 degrees C) was not affected. On the other hand, several experiments were performed on tobacco leaves to demonstrate that virus replication did not occur at the same temperature. The data suggest that replication of TMV in the phloem of wild-type tobacco plants is not necessary for the vascular transport of TMV, and that the virus moves with photoassimilates as suggested previously.  (+info)

Transformation of the collateral vascular bundles into amphivasal vascular bundles in an Arabidopsis mutant. (2/1585)

Arabidopsis inflorescence stems develop a vascular pattern similar to that found in most dicots. The arrangement of vascular tissues within the bundle is collateral, and vascular bundles in the stele are arranged in a ring. Although auxin has been shown to be an inducer of vascular differentiation, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling vascular pattern formation. By screening ethyl methanesufonate-mutagenized populations of Arabidopsis, we have isolated an avb1 (amphivasal vascular bundle) mutant with a novel vascular pattern. Unlike the collateral vascular bundles seen in the wild-type stems, the vascular bundles in the avb1 stems were similar to amphivasal bundles, i.e. the xylem completely surrounded the phloem. Furthermore, branching vascular bundles in the avb1 stems abnormally penetrated into the pith, which resulted in a disruption in the ring-like arrangement of vascular bundles in the stele. The avb1 mutation did not affect leaf venation pattern and root vascular organization. Auxin polar transport assay indicated that the avb1 mutation did not disrupt the auxin polar transport activity in inflorescence stems. The avb1 mutation also exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes, including curled stems and extra cauline branches. Genetic analysis indicated that the avb1 mutation was monogenic and partially dominant. The avb1 locus was mapped to a region between markers mi69 and ASB2, which is covered by a yeast artificial chromosome clone, CIC9E2, on chromosome 5. Isolation of the avb1 mutant provides a novel means to study the evolutionary mechanisms controlling the arrangement of vascular tissues within the bundle, as well as the mechanisms controlling the arrangement of vascular bundles in the stele.  (+info)

The irregular xylem3 locus of Arabidopsis encodes a cellulose synthase required for secondary cell wall synthesis. (3/1585)

The irregular xylem3 (irx3) mutant of Arabidopsis has a severe deficiency in secondary cell wall cellulose deposition that leads to collapsed xylem cells. The irx3 mutation has been mapped to the top arm of chromosome V near the marker nga106. Expressed sequence tag clone 75G11, which exhibits sequence similarity to cellulose synthase, was found to be tightly linked to irx3, and genomic clones containing the gene corresponding to clone 75G11 complemented the irx3 mutation. Thus, the IRX3 gene encodes a cellulose synthase component that is specifically required for the synthesis of cellulose in the secondary cell wall. The irx3 mutant allele contains a stop codon that truncates the gene product by 168 amino acids, suggesting that this allele is null. Furthermore, in contrast to radial swelling1 (rsw1) plants, irx3 plants show no increase in the accumulation of beta-1,4-linked glucose in the noncrystalline cell wall fraction. IRX3 and RSW1 fall into a distinct subgroup (Csa) of Arabidopsis genes showing homology to bacterial cellulose synthases.  (+info)

CUT1, an Arabidopsis gene required for cuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility, encodes a very-long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme. (4/1585)

Land plants secrete a layer of wax onto their aerial surfaces that is essential for survival in a terrestrial environment. This wax is composed of long-chain, aliphatic hydrocarbons derived from very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Using the Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag database, we have identified a gene, designated CUT1, that encodes a VLCFA condensing enzyme required for cuticular wax production. Sense suppression of CUT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants results in waxless (eceriferum) stems and siliques as well as conditional male sterility. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this was a severe waxless phenotype, because stems of CUT1-suppressed plants were completely devoid of wax crystals. Furthermore, chemical analyses of waxless plants demonstrated that the stem wax load was reduced to 6 to 7% of wild-type levels. This value is lower than that reported for any of the known eceriferum mutants. The severe waxless phenotype resulted from the downregulation of both the decarbonylation and acyl reduction wax biosynthetic pathways. This result indicates that CUT1 is involved in the production of VLCFA precursors used for the synthesis of all stem wax components in Arabidopsis. In CUT1-suppressed plants, the C24 chain-length wax components predominate, suggesting that CUT1 is required for elongation of C24 VLCFAs. The unique wax composition of CUT1-suppressed plants together with the fact that the location of CUT1 on the genetic map did not coincide with any of the known ECERIFERUM loci suggest that we have identified a novel gene involved in wax biosynthesis. CUT1 is currently the only known gene with a clearly established function in wax production.  (+info)

Feedback regulation of GA5 expression and metabolic engineering of gibberellin levels in Arabidopsis. (5/1585)

The gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase encoded by the GA5 gene of Arabidopsis directs GA biosynthesis to active GAs, whereas that encoded by the P16 gene of pumpkin endosperm leads to biosynthesis of inactive GAs. Negative feedback regulation of GA5 expression was demonstrated in stems of Arabidopsis by bioactive GAs but not by inactive GA. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing P16, there was a severe reduction in the amounts of C20-GA intermediates, accumulation of large amounts of inactive GA25 and GA17, a reduction in GA4 content, and a small increase in GA1. However, due to feedback regulation, expression of GA5 and GA4, the gene coding for the subsequent 3beta-hydroxylase, was greatly increased to compensate for the effects of the P16 transgene. Consequently, stem height was only slightly reduced in the transgenic plants.  (+info)

Responses of plant vascular systems to auxin transport inhibition. (6/1585)

To assess the role of auxin flows in plant vascular patterning, the development of vascular systems under conditions of inhibited auxin transport was analyzed. In Arabidopsis, nearly identical responses evoked by three auxin transport inhibitor substances revealed an enormous plasticity of the vascular pattern and suggest an involvement of auxin flows in determining the sites of vascular differentiation and in promoting vascular tissue continuity. Organs formed under conditions of reduced auxin transport contained increased numbers of vascular strands and cells within those strands were improperly aligned. In leaves, vascular tissues became progressively confined towards the leaf margin as the concentration of auxin transport inhibitor was increased, suggesting that the leaf vascular system depends on inductive signals from the margin of the leaf. Staged application of auxin transport inhibitor demonstrated that primary, secondary and tertiary veins became unresponsive to further modulations of auxin transport at successive stages of early leaf development. Correlation of these stages to anatomical features in early leaf primordia indicated that the pattern of primary and secondary strands becomes fixed at the onset of lamina expansion. Similar alterations in the leaf vascular responses of alyssum, snapdragon and tobacco plants suggest common functions of auxin flows in vascular patterning in dicots, while two types of vascular pattern alterations in Arabidopsis auxin transport mutants suggest that at least two distinct primary defects can result in impaired auxin flow. We discuss these observations with regard to the relative contributions of auxin transport, auxin sensitivity and the cellular organisation of the developing organ on the vascular pattern.  (+info)

Two cytosolic cyclophilin genes of Arabidopsis thaliana differently regulated in temporal- and organ-specific expression. (7/1585)

We have previously isolated two closely related genes (ATCYP1 and ATCYP2) each encoding a cytosolic cyclophilin of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we tested expression patterns of these two genes by Northern analysis and by histochemical analysis with transgenic plants carrying the promoter: beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion. The results showed that ATCYP1 is predominantly transcribed in vascular tissue and flowers, but ATCYP2 is at higher levels in younger leaves. The different expression patterns seemed to be conferred by the quite different promoter structures carrying various cis elements. Our finding suggests that the two cyclophilins have different roles in Arabidopsis thaliana cells.  (+info)

Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) chromodomain show developmental alterations: possible role of Pc chromodomain proteins in chromatin-mediated gene regulation in plants. (8/1585)

The chromodomain of the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) protein has been introduced into tobacco nuclei to determine its location in the nucleus and its effect on plant development. Pc is a repressor of homeotic Drosophila genes that shares a well-conserved, although not identical, chromodomain with a structural heterochromatin component, Heterochromatin Protein 1. The chromodomains might therefore play a common role in chromatin repression. An analysis of transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain, which was linked to the green fluorescent protein, suggested that the Pc chromodomain has distinct target regions in the plant genome. Transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain had phenotypic abnormalities in their leaves and flowers, indicating a disruption in development. In axillary shoot buds of plants displaying altered leaf phenotypes, enhanced expression of a homeodomain gene, which is downregulated in wild-type leaves, was found. In Drosophila, Pc has been shown to possess distinct chromosome binding activity and to be involved in the regulation of development-specific genes. Our results support the assumptions that the heterologous chromodomain affects related functions in Drosophila and in plants, and that chromatin modification mechanisms are involved in the regulation of certain plant genes, in a manner similar to chromatin-mediated gene regulation in Drosophila.  (+info)

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

'Cyperus' is a genus of plants in the family Cyperaceae, also known as the sedge family. These plants are typically found in wet or moist environments and are characterized by their triangular stems and narrow, grass-like leaves. Some common species of *Cyperus* include *C. alternifolius* (alternanthera), *C. papyrus* (paper reed), and *C. rotundus* (nutgrass). While some species of *Cyperus* have medicinal uses, there is no single medical definition for the genus as a whole.

A plant cell is defined as a type of eukaryotic cell that makes up the structural basis of plants and other forms of multicellular plant-like organisms, such as algae and mosses. These cells are typically characterized by their rigid cell walls, which provide support and protection, and their large vacuoles, which store nutrients and help maintain turgor pressure within the cell.

Plant cells also contain chloroplasts, organelles that carry out photosynthesis and give plants their green color. Other distinctive features of plant cells include a large central vacuole, a complex system of membranes called the endoplasmic reticulum, and numerous mitochondria, which provide energy to the cell through cellular respiration.

Plant cells are genetically distinct from animal cells, and they have unique structures and functions that allow them to carry out photosynthesis, grow and divide, and respond to their environment. Understanding the structure and function of plant cells is essential for understanding how plants grow, develop, and interact with their surroundings.

A meristem, in the context of plant biology, refers to a type of tissue found in plants that is responsible for their growth. These tissues are composed of cells that have the ability to divide and differentiate into various specialized cell types. Meristems are typically located at the tips of roots and shoots (apical meristems), as well as within the vascular bundles (cambial meristems) and in the cork layers (phellogen meristems). They contribute to the increase in length and girth of plant organs, allowing plants to grow throughout their life.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

'Plant development' is not a term typically used in medical definitions, as it is more commonly used in the field of botany to describe the growth and differentiation of plant cells, tissues, and organs over time. However, in a broader context, plant development can be defined as the series of changes and processes that occur from the fertilization of a plant seed to the formation of a mature plant, including germination, emergence, organ formation, growth, and reproduction.

In medicine, terms related to plant development may include "phytotherapy" or "herbal medicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as medicinal treatments for various health conditions. The study of how these plants develop and produce their active compounds is an important area of research in pharmacology and natural products chemistry.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are immature, self-renewing cells that give rise to all the mature blood and immune cells in the body. They are capable of both producing more hematopoietic stem cells (self-renewal) and differentiating into early progenitor cells that eventually develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. HSCs are found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. They have the ability to repair damaged tissues and offer significant therapeutic potential for treating various diseases, including hematological disorders, genetic diseases, and cancer.

Stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure where stem cells, which are immature and unspecialized cells with the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types, are introduced into a patient. The main purpose of this procedure is to restore the function of damaged or destroyed tissues or organs, particularly in conditions that affect the blood and immune systems, such as leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, and inherited metabolic disorders.

There are two primary types of stem cell transplantation: autologous and allogeneic. In autologous transplantation, the patient's own stem cells are collected, stored, and then reinfused back into their body after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy the diseased cells. In allogeneic transplantation, stem cells are obtained from a donor (related or unrelated) whose human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type closely matches that of the recipient.

The process involves several steps: first, the patient undergoes conditioning therapy to suppress their immune system and make space for the new stem cells. Then, the harvested stem cells are infused into the patient's bloodstream, where they migrate to the bone marrow and begin to differentiate and produce new blood cells. This procedure requires close monitoring and supportive care to manage potential complications such as infections, graft-versus-host disease, and organ damage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Structures" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of botany to refer to the different parts of a plant, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Each of these structures has specific functions that contribute to the overall growth, reproduction, and survival of the plant. If you have any questions related to biology or botany, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Edible plants are those that can be safely consumed by humans and other animals as a source of nutrition. They have various parts (such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, roots, stems, and leaves) that can be used for food after being harvested and prepared properly. Some edible plants have been cultivated and domesticated for agricultural purposes, while others are gathered from the wild. It is important to note that not all plants are safe to eat, and some may even be toxic or deadly if consumed. Proper identification and knowledge of preparation methods are crucial before consuming any plant material.

Adult stem cells, also known as somatic stem cells, are undifferentiated cells found in specialized tissues or organs throughout the body of a developed organism. Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are derived from blastocysts and have the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body (pluripotency), adult stem cells are typically more limited in their differentiation potential, meaning they can only give rise to specific types of cells within the tissue or organ where they reside.

Adult stem cells serve to maintain and repair tissues by replenishing dying or damaged cells. They can divide and self-renew over time, producing one daughter cell that remains a stem cell and another that differentiates into a mature, functional cell type. The most well-known adult stem cells are hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to all types of blood cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, which can differentiate into various connective tissue cells such as bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle.

The potential therapeutic use of adult stem cells has been explored in various medical fields, including regenerative medicine and cancer therapy. However, their limited differentiation capacity and the challenges associated with isolating and expanding them in culture have hindered their widespread application. Recent advances in stem cell research, such as the development of techniques to reprogram adult cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have opened new avenues for studying and harnessing the therapeutic potential of these cells.

Neoplastic stem cells, also known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), are a subpopulation of cells within a tumor that are capable of self-renewal and generating the heterogeneous lineages of cells that comprise the tumor. These cells are believed to be responsible for the initiation, maintenance, and progression of cancer, as well as its recurrence and resistance to therapy.

CSCs share some similarities with normal stem cells, such as their ability to divide asymmetrically and give rise to differentiated progeny. However, they also have distinct characteristics that distinguish them from their normal counterparts, including aberrant gene expression, altered signaling pathways, and increased resistance to apoptosis (programmed cell death).

The existence of CSCs has important implications for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Targeting these cells specifically may be necessary to achieve durable remissions and prevent relapse, as they are thought to survive conventional therapies that target the bulk of the tumor. Further research is needed to better understand the biology of CSCs and develop effective strategies for their elimination.

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are natural or synthetic chemical substances that, when present in low concentrations, can influence various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. These processes include cell division, elongation, and differentiation; flowering and fruiting; leaf senescence; and stress responses. PGRs can be classified into several categories based on their mode of action and chemical structure, including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and others. They are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield and quality, regulate plant growth and development, and enhance stress tolerance.

Pluripotent stem cells are a type of undifferentiated stem cell that have the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm) of a developing embryo. These cells can give rise to all the cell types that make up the human body, with the exception of those that form the extra-embryonic tissues such as the placenta.

Pluripotent stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew, which means they can divide and produce more pluripotent stem cells, and differentiate, which means they can give rise to specialized cell types with specific functions. Pluripotent stem cells can be derived from embryos at the blastocyst stage of development or generated in the lab through a process called induced pluripotency, where adult cells are reprogrammed to have the properties of embryonic stem cells.

Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering because they can be used to generate large numbers of specific cell types that can potentially replace or repair damaged or diseased tissues in the body. However, their use is still a subject of ethical debate due to concerns about the source of embryonic stem cells and the potential risks associated with their use in clinical applications.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

"Plant immunity" refers to the complex defense mechanisms that plants have evolved to protect themselves from pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and nematodes. Plants do not have an adaptive immune system like humans, so they rely on their innate immune responses to detect and respond to pathogen invasion.

Plant immunity can be broadly categorized into two types: PTI (PAMP-triggered immunity) and ETI (Effector-triggered immunity). PTI is activated when the plant recognizes conserved microbial patterns, known as PAMPs (Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns), through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the cell surface. This recognition triggers a series of defense responses, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the expression of defense genes.

ETI is activated when the plant recognizes effector proteins produced by pathogens to suppress PTI. Effector recognition typically occurs through resistance (R) proteins that can directly or indirectly recognize effectors, leading to the activation of stronger defense responses, such as the hypersensitive response (HR), which involves localized programmed cell death to limit pathogen spread.

Overall, plant immunity is a complex and dynamic process involving multiple layers of defense mechanisms that help plants protect themselves from pathogens and maintain their health and productivity.

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a type of undifferentiated cells found in the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. They have the ability to self-renew and generate the main types of cells found in the nervous system, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. NSCs are capable of dividing symmetrically to increase their own population or asymmetrically to produce one stem cell and one differentiated cell. They play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, and have the potential to be used in regenerative medicine and therapies for neurological disorders and injuries.

A stem cell niche is a specific microenvironment in which stem cells reside, interact with surrounding cells and receive molecular signals that regulate their self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. This specialized niche provides the necessary conditions for maintaining the undifferentiated state of stem cells and controlling their fate decisions. The components of a stem cell niche typically include various cell types (such as supporting cells, immune cells, and blood vessels), extracellular matrix proteins, signaling molecules, and physical factors like oxygen tension and mechanical stress. Together, these elements create a unique microenvironment that helps to preserve the functional integrity and potential of stem cells for tissue repair, regeneration, and homeostasis.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Plant Epidermis" is not a medical term. Instead, it is a term used in botany to describe the outermost layer of cells in plant tissues. The epidermis serves as a protective barrier for the plant, regulating gas exchange and water loss through stomata, and producing cutin, a waxy substance that helps prevent water loss.

In summary, "Plant Epidermis" is a term related to plant biology and not medicine.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cells that are generated from somatic cells, such as skin or blood cells, through the introduction of specific genes encoding transcription factors. These reprogrammed cells exhibit similar characteristics to embryonic stem cells, including the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm). The discovery and development of iPSCs have opened up new possibilities in regenerative medicine, drug testing and development, and disease modeling, while avoiding ethical concerns associated with embryonic stem cells.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

Stomata are microscopic pores found in the epidermis of plant leaves, stems, and other organs. They are essential for gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, allowing the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and the release of oxygen. Plant stomata consist of two guard cells that surround and regulate the size of the pore. The opening and closing of the stomatal pore are influenced by environmental factors such as light, humidity, and temperature, as well as internal signals within the plant.

Multipotent stem cells are a type of stem cell that have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, but are more limited than pluripotent stem cells. These stem cells are found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and dental pulp. They can give rise to a number of different cell types within their own germ layer (endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm), but cannot cross germ layer boundaries. For example, multipotent stem cells found in bone marrow can differentiate into various blood cells such as red and white blood cells, but they cannot differentiate into nerve cells or liver cells. These stem cells play important roles in tissue repair and regeneration, and have potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation (MSCT) is a medical procedure that involves the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. These cells can be obtained from various sources, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, or dental pulp.

In MSCT, MSCs are typically harvested from the patient themselves (autologous transplantation) or from a donor (allogeneic transplantation). The cells are then processed and expanded in a laboratory setting before being injected into the patient's body, usually through an intravenous infusion.

MSCT is being investigated as a potential treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, including degenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, and tissue injuries. The rationale behind this approach is that MSCs have the ability to migrate to sites of injury or inflammation, where they can help to modulate the immune response, reduce inflammation, and promote tissue repair and regeneration.

However, it's important to note that while MSCT holds promise as a therapeutic option, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy for specific medical conditions.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Plant transpiration is the process by which water vapor escapes from leaves and other aerial parts of plants to the atmosphere. It is a type of evapotranspiration, which refers to both evaporation from land surfaces and transpiration from plants. Water molecules are absorbed by plant roots from the soil, move up through the xylem tissue to the leaves, and then evaporate from the leaf surface through stomatal pores. This process helps in the transportation of nutrients from the soil to various parts of the plant, regulates the temperature of the plant, and maintains the turgor pressure within the cells. Plant transpiration is influenced by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Stem Cell Factor (SCF), also known as Kit Ligand or Steel Factor, is a growth factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hematopoiesis, which is the process of producing various blood cells. It is a glycoprotein that binds to the c-Kit receptor found on hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells, promoting their survival, proliferation, and differentiation into mature blood cells.

SCF is involved in the development and function of several types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It also plays a role in the maintenance and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells, which are essential for the continuous production of new blood cells throughout an individual's lifetime.

In addition to its role in hematopoiesis, SCF has been implicated in various other biological processes, such as melanogenesis, gametogenesis, and tissue repair and regeneration. Dysregulation of SCF signaling has been associated with several diseases, including certain types of cancer, bone marrow failure disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

Plant poisoning is a form of poisoning that occurs when someone ingests, inhales, or comes into contact with any part of a plant that contains toxic substances. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type and amount of plant consumed or exposed to, as well as the individual's age, health status, and sensitivity to the toxin.

Symptoms of plant poisoning may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, skin rashes, seizures, or in severe cases, even death. Some common plants that can cause poisoning include poison ivy, poison oak, foxglove, oleander, and hemlock, among many others.

If you suspect plant poisoning, it is important to seek medical attention immediately and bring a sample of the plant or information about its identity if possible. This will help healthcare providers diagnose and treat the poisoning more effectively.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

"Lycopersicon esculentum" is the scientific name for the common red tomato. It is a species of fruit from the nightshade family (Solanaceae) that is native to western South America and Central America. Tomatoes are widely grown and consumed in many parts of the world as a vegetable, although they are technically a fruit. They are rich in nutrients such as vitamin C, potassium, and lycopene, which has been studied for its potential health benefits.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Aerial parts of plants refer to the above-ground portions of a plant, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. These parts are often used in medicine, either in their entirety or as isolated extracts, to take advantage of their medicinal properties. The specific components of aerial parts that are used in medicine can vary depending on the plant species and the desired therapeutic effects. For example, the leaves of some plants may contain active compounds that have anti-inflammatory or analgesic properties, while the flowers of others may be rich in antioxidants or compounds with sedative effects. In general, aerial parts of plants are used in herbal medicine to treat a wide range of conditions, including respiratory, digestive, and nervous system disorders, as well as skin conditions and infections.

A plant tumor, also known as a gall or neoplasm, is an abnormal growth that occurs in plants. These growths can be caused by various factors such as genetic mutations, bacterial or viral infections, and physical injuries. However, the most well-known cause of plant tumors are crown galls, which are induced by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

When this bacterium infects a plant through a wound, it transfers a portion of its DNA (T-DNA) into the plant's cells. The T-DNA contains genes that encode enzymes responsible for the production of auxins and cytokinins, two types of plant hormones that promote cell division and growth. As a result, the infected plant cells start to divide uncontrollably, leading to the formation of a tumor-like growth.

Plant tumors can vary in size and appearance, ranging from small bumps to large, disfigured growths. While they are not typically harmful to the plant, they can reduce its aesthetic value and economic productivity. In some cases, plant tumors may also provide a habitat for pests and diseases, which can further harm the plant.

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells found in various tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood. They have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, under specific conditions. MSCs also possess immunomodulatory properties, making them a promising tool in regenerative medicine and therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and tissue injuries. It is important to note that the term "Mesenchymal Stem Cells" has been replaced by "Mesenchymal Stromal Cells" in the scientific community to better reflect their biological characteristics and potential functions.

Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.

In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.

Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.

During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Bark" is not a term with a specific medical definition. In general, the bark refers to the outermost covering of a tree or other plant, which serves as protection and provides a barrier against external threats. It is composed of layers including the inner bark (phloem), which transports nutrients throughout the plant, and the outer bark (periderm), which is made up of dead cells that form a protective layer.

While some plants or plant parts do have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional or alternative medicine, "Plant Bark" by itself does not have any specific medical connotations. If you're referring to a specific type of plant bark with potential medicinal uses, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

"Plant preparations" is not a term with a specific medical definition in the field of medicine or pharmacology. However, it is commonly used to refer to various forms of plant material that have been prepared for medicinal use. This can include dried and powdered plant parts, such as leaves, roots, or flowers, as well as extracts or concentrates made from plants. These preparations may be used in traditional medicine or as the basis for modern pharmaceuticals. It is important to note that the safety, effectiveness, and quality of plant preparations can vary widely, and they should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare provider.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seedling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an agricultural and horticultural term that refers to a young plant grown from a seed, typically during the early stages of its growth. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Herbivory is not a medical term, but rather a term used in biology and ecology. It refers to the practice of consuming plants or plant matter for food. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants, and their diet can include leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants.

While herbivory is not a medical term, it is still relevant to the field of medicine in certain contexts. For example, understanding the diets and behaviors of herbivores can help inform public health initiatives related to food safety and disease transmission. Additionally, research on herbivory has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of plant-animal interactions and the development of ecosystems.

'Cell lineage' is a term used in biology and medicine to describe the developmental history or relationship of a cell or group of cells to other cells, tracing back to the original progenitor or stem cell. It refers to the series of cell divisions and differentiation events that give rise to specific types of cells in an organism over time.

In simpler terms, cell lineage is like a family tree for cells, showing how they are related to each other through a chain of cell division and specialization events. This concept is important in understanding the development, growth, and maintenance of tissues and organs in living beings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "power plants" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a term commonly used to refer to industrial facilities that generate and distribute power, typically in the form of electricity. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Fetal stem cells are a type of stem cell that are derived from fetal tissue, which is tissue obtained from an elective abortion or a spontaneous miscarriage. These stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various cell types, including neurons, cardiac muscle cells, and hepatocytes (liver cells). Fetal stem cells are unique in that they have a greater capacity for self-renewal and can generate a larger number of differentiated cells compared to adult stem cells. They also have the potential to be less immunogenic than other types of stem cells, making them a promising candidate for cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. However, the use of fetal stem cells is a subject of ethical debate due to their source.

Stem cell research is a branch of medical science that focuses on the study and application of stem cells, which are undifferentiated or unspecialized cells with the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types in the body. These cells have the potential to regenerate and repair damaged tissues and organs, making them a promising area of research for the development of new treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, heart disease, and more.

Stem cell research involves several key areas, such as:

1. Isolation and culture: Scientists isolate stem cells from various sources, such as embryos, umbilical cord blood, or adult tissues, and grow them in a lab to study their properties and behaviors.
2. Differentiation: Researchers induce stem cells to differentiate into specific cell types, such as heart cells, brain cells, or pancreatic cells, by exposing them to various growth factors and other chemical signals.
3. Genetic modification: Scientists may modify the genes of stem cells to enhance their therapeutic potential or to study the effects of genetic mutations on cell behavior and development.
4. Transplantation: In some cases, researchers transplant stem cells into animal models or human patients to investigate their ability to repair damaged tissues and organs.
5. Ethical considerations: Stem cell research raises several ethical concerns related to the use of embryonic stem cells, which are derived from human embryos. These concerns have led to ongoing debates about the limits and regulations surrounding this area of research.

Overall, stem cell research holds great promise for the development of new medical treatments and therapies, but it also requires careful consideration of ethical issues and rigorous scientific investigation to ensure its safety and effectiveness.

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipid molecules derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They play crucial roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cellular signaling. Oxylipins can be further categorized based on their precursor PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (LA). These oxylipins are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, and pain perception. They exert their effects through various receptors and downstream signaling pathways, making them important targets for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Plant Nectar" is not a term used in medical definitions. Nectar is a sweet liquid produced by plants in flowers to attract pollinators such as insects and birds. It's a sugar-rich substance that serves as a source of energy for these animals. While it may have some nutritional value, it's not something that would be relevant to medical definitions or human health in a direct sense.

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is not exactly a medical term, but rather a scientific term used in the field of biochemistry and physiology. It is a type of auxin, which is a plant hormone that regulates various growth and development processes in plants. IAA is the most abundant and best-studied natural auxin.

Medically, indole-3-acetic acid may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments related to plants or plant-derived substances. For example, some research has investigated the potential use of IAA in promoting wound healing in plants or in agricultural applications. However, it is not a substance that is typically used in medical treatment for humans or animals.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

In the context of medicine and biology, symbiosis is a type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms. Generally, one organism, called the symbiont, lives inside or on another organism, called the host. This interaction can be mutually beneficial (mutualistic), harmful to the host organism (parasitic), or have no effect on either organism (commensal).

Examples of mutualistic symbiotic relationships in humans include the bacteria that live in our gut and help us digest food, as well as the algae that live inside corals and provide them with nutrients. Parasitic symbioses, on the other hand, involve organisms like viruses or parasitic worms that live inside a host and cause harm to it.

It's worth noting that while the term "symbiosis" is often used in popular culture to refer to any close relationship between two organisms, in scientific contexts it has a more specific meaning related to long-term biological interactions.

"Solanum tuberosum" is the scientific name for a plant species that is commonly known as the potato. According to medical and botanical definitions, Solanum tuberosum refers to the starchy, edible tubers that grow underground from this plant. Potatoes are native to the Andes region of South America and are now grown worldwide. They are an important food source for many people and are used in a variety of culinary applications.

Potatoes contain several essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, fiber, protein, vitamin C, and some B vitamins. However, they can also be high in calories, especially when prepared with added fats like butter or oil. Additionally, potatoes are often consumed in forms that are less healthy, such as French fries and potato chips, which can contribute to weight gain and other health problems if consumed excessively.

In a medical context, potatoes may also be discussed in relation to food allergies or intolerances. While uncommon, some people may have adverse reactions to potatoes, including skin rashes, digestive symptoms, or difficulty breathing. These reactions are typically caused by an immune response to proteins found in the potato plant, rather than the tubers themselves.

Cyclopentanes are a class of hydrocarbons that contain a cycloalkane ring of five carbon atoms. The chemical formula for cyclopentane is C5H10. It is a volatile, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of polymers. Cyclopentanes are also found naturally in petroleum and coal tar.

Cyclopentanes have a unique structure in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a pentagonal shape, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms and one or two hydrogen atoms. This structure gives cyclopentane its characteristic "bowl-shaped" geometry, which allows it to undergo various chemical reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that can lead to the formation of other chemicals.

Cyclopentanes have a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For example, they are used in the production of plastics, resins, and synthetic rubbers. They also have potential uses in the development of new drugs and medical technologies, as their unique structure and reactivity make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Processes" is not a standard medical term. Instead, it falls under the domain of plant science or botany.

In a broad sense, plant physiological processes refer to the functions and mechanisms that occur within plants at the cellular and molecular levels, which enable them to grow, develop, reproduce, and respond to their environment. These processes include photosynthesis, respiration, nutrient uptake and translocation, hormone signaling, water relations, and various other biochemical reactions.

If you're looking for a term related to medical definitions, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I would be happy to help.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Medical definitions typically focus on the relevance of a term to medical practice, and I'm not sure if there is a specific medical definition for "plant exudates." However, in a broader context, plant exudates refer to the various substances that are released or exuded by plants, often as a result of damage or stress. These can include a wide variety of compounds, such as sap, resins, latex, gums, essential oils, and tannins. Some of these compounds can have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional and modern medicine. For example, the resin from certain pine trees (rosin) has been used to treat respiratory ailments, while willow bark, which contains salicin (a precursor to aspirin), has been used for pain relief for centuries.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Traditional medicine (TM) refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. Although traditional medicine has been practiced since prehistoric times, it is still widely used today and may include:

1. Traditional Asian medicines such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, and qigong from China; Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani and Siddha from India; and Jamu from Indonesia.
2. Traditional European herbal medicines, also known as phytotherapy.
3. North American traditional indigenous medicines, including Native American and Inuit practices.
4. African traditional medicines, such as herbal, spiritual, and manual techniques practiced in various African cultures.
5. South American traditional medicines, like Mapuche, Curanderismo, and Santo Daime practices from different countries.

It is essential to note that traditional medicine may not follow the scientific principles, evidence-based standards, or quality control measures inherent to conventional (also known as allopathic or Western) medicine. However, some traditional medicines have been integrated into modern healthcare systems and are considered complementary or alternative medicines (CAM). The World Health Organization encourages member states to develop policies and regulations for integrating TM/CAM practices into their healthcare systems, ensuring safety, efficacy, and quality while respecting cultural diversity.

Plant lectins are proteins or glycoproteins that are abundantly found in various plant parts such as seeds, leaves, stems, and roots. They have the ability to bind specifically to carbohydrate structures present on cell membranes, known as glycoconjugates. This binding property of lectins is reversible and non-catalytic, meaning it does not involve any enzymatic activity.

Lectins play several roles in plants, including defense against predators, pathogens, and herbivores. They can agglutinate red blood cells, stimulate the immune system, and have been implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Some lectins also exhibit mitogenic activity, which means they can stimulate the proliferation of certain types of cells.

In the medical field, plant lectins have gained attention due to their potential therapeutic applications. For instance, some lectins have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties and are being investigated as potential cancer treatments. However, it is important to note that some lectins can be toxic or allergenic to humans and animals, so they must be used with caution.

Salicylic Acid is a type of beta hydroxy acid (BHA) that is commonly used in dermatology due to its keratolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. It works by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed more easily, preventing the pores from becoming blocked and promoting the growth of new skin cells. Salicylic Acid is also a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which makes it useful in the treatment of inflammatory acne and other skin conditions associated with redness and irritation. It can be found in various over-the-counter skincare products, such as cleansers, creams, and peels, as well as in prescription-strength formulations.

Root nodules in plants refer to the specialized structures formed through the symbiotic relationship between certain leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, most commonly belonging to the genus Rhizobia. These nodules typically develop on the roots of the host plant, providing an ideal environment for the bacteria to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form that can be directly utilized by the plant for growth and development.

The formation of root nodules begins with the infection of the plant's root hair cells by Rhizobia bacteria. This interaction triggers a series of molecular signals leading to the differentiation of root cortical cells into nodule primordia, which eventually develop into mature nodules. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria reside within these nodules in membrane-bound compartments called symbiosomes, where they reduce atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia through an enzyme called nitrogenase.

The plant, in turn, provides the bacteria with carbon sources and other essential nutrients required for their growth and survival within the nodules. The fixed nitrogen is then transported from the root nodules to other parts of the plant, enhancing its overall nitrogen nutrition and promoting sustainable growth without the need for external nitrogen fertilizers.

In summary, root nodules in plants are essential structures formed through symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, allowing leguminous plants to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form while also benefiting the environment by reducing the reliance on chemical nitrogen fertilizers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "germ cells" is typically used in the context of animals and humans, referring to the reproductive cells (sperm and eggs) that can give rise to new individuals. It is not commonly used to describe plants.

In plants, the terms often used to refer to the reproductive cells are "male gametophyte" and "female gametophyte." The male gametophyte produces sperm cells, while the female gametophyte produces egg cells. These gametophytes are found within the pollen grains (male) and ovules (female) of plants.

Therefore, there isn't a medical definition for "germ cells, plant," as the term is not applicable in this context.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization is the process of mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood. HSCs are immature cells that have the ability to differentiate into all types of blood cells, including red and white blood cells and platelets.

Mobilization is often achieved through the use of medications such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) or plerixafor, which stimulate the release of HSCs from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood. This allows for the collection of HSCs from the peripheral blood through a procedure called apheresis.

Mobilized HSCs can be used in stem cell transplantation procedures to reconstitute a patient's hematopoietic system after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy. It is an important process in the field of regenerative medicine and has been used to treat various diseases such as leukemia, lymphoma, and sickle cell disease.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between fungi and the roots of most plant species. In a mycorrhizal association, fungi colonize the root tissues of plants and extend their mycelial networks into the surrounding soil. This association enhances the nutrient uptake capacity of the host plant, particularly with regards to phosphorus and nitrogen, while the fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant for their own growth and metabolism.

Mycorrhizal fungi can be broadly classified into two types: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae (or arbuscular mycorrhizae). Ectomycorrhizae form a sheath around the root surface, while endomycorrhizae penetrate the root cells and form structures called arbuscules, where nutrient exchange occurs. Mycorrhizal associations play crucial roles in maintaining ecosystem stability, promoting plant growth, and improving soil structure and fertility.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in the cells of green plants, algae, and some protists. They are responsible for carrying out photosynthesis, which is the process by which these organisms convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose.

Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy from the sun. They also contain a system of membranes and enzymes that convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen through a series of chemical reactions known as the Calvin cycle. This process not only provides energy for the organism but also releases oxygen as a byproduct, which is essential for the survival of most life forms on Earth.

Chloroplasts are believed to have originated from ancient cyanobacteria that were engulfed by early eukaryotic cells and eventually became integrated into their host's cellular machinery through a process called endosymbiosis. Over time, chloroplasts evolved to become an essential component of plant and algal cells, contributing to their ability to carry out photosynthesis and thrive in a wide range of environments.

'Brassica' is a term used in botanical nomenclature, specifically within the family Brassicaceae. It refers to a genus of plants that includes various vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and mustard greens. These plants are known for their nutritional value and health benefits. They contain glucosinolates, which have been studied for their potential anti-cancer properties. However, it is not a medical term per se, but rather a taxonomic category used in the biological sciences.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

'Plant infertility' is not a standard medical term, as it is typically used in the context of agriculture and plant biology. However, I can provide you with a general definition related to this context:

Plant infertility refers to the inability of a plant to produce viable seeds, fruits, or propagules due to various factors affecting its reproductive system. These factors may include genetic disorders, environmental stressors (such as extreme temperatures, drought, or nutrient deficiencies), pathogens, pests, or poor pollination. In some cases, assisted reproduction techniques, such as hand-pollination or embryo rescue, might be employed to overcome infertility issues in plants.

Asteraceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the daisy family or sunflower family. It is one of the largest and most diverse families of vascular plants, with over 1,900 genera and 32,000 species. The family includes a wide variety of plants, ranging from annual and perennial herbs to shrubs and trees.

The defining characteristic of Asteraceae is the presence of a unique type of inflorescence called a capitulum, which resembles a single flower but is actually composed of many small flowers (florets) arranged in a dense head. The florets are typically bisexual, with both male and female reproductive structures, and are radially symmetrical.

Asteraceae includes many economically important plants, such as sunflowers, daisies, artichokes, lettuce, chicory, and ragweed. Some species of Asteraceae are also used in traditional medicine and have been found to contain bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic uses.

It's worth noting that the taxonomy of this family has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and some genera and species have been moved to other families or renamed.

In the context of medical terminology, "germination" is not typically used as a term to describe a physiological process in humans or animals. It is primarily used in the field of botany to refer to the process by which a seed or spore sprouts and begins to grow into a new plant.

However, if you are referring to the concept of germination in the context of bacterial or viral growth, then it could be defined as:

The process by which bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms become active and start to multiply, often after a period of dormancy or latency. This can occur when the microorganisms encounter favorable conditions, such as moisture, warmth, or nutrients, that allow them to grow and reproduce. In medical contexts, this term is more commonly used in relation to infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "peas" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Peas are a type of legume that is commonly consumed as a vegetable. They are rich in nutrients such as protein, fiber, vitamin C, and vitamin K. If you have any questions about the health benefits or potential risks of consuming peas, I would be happy to try to help with that.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

"Triticum" is the genus name for a group of cereal grains that includes common wheat (T. aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and spelt (T. spelta). These grains are important sources of food for humans, providing carbohydrates, proteins, and various nutrients. They are used to make a variety of foods such as bread, pasta, and breakfast cereals. Triticum species are also known as "wheat" in layman's terms.

"Drought" is not a medical term. It is a term used in meteorology and environmental science to refer to a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to water shortage and scarcity in the affected areas. Droughts can have various impacts on human health, including dehydration, heat-related illnesses, reduced air quality, increased transmission of waterborne diseases, and mental health issues related to stress and displacement. However, drought itself is not a medical condition.

Medical definitions generally do not include plant oils as a specific term. However, in a biological or biochemical context, plant oils, also known as vegetable oils, are defined as lipid extracts derived from various parts of plants such as seeds, fruits, and leaves. They mainly consist of triglycerides, which are esters of glycerol and three fatty acids. The composition of fatty acids can vary between different plant sources, leading to a range of physical and chemical properties that make plant oils useful for various applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Some common examples of plant oils include olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, and jojoba oil.

Botany is the scientific study of plants, encompassing various disciplines such as plant structure, function, evolution, diversity, distribution, ecology, and application. It involves examining different aspects like plant anatomy, physiology, genetics, molecular biology, systematics, and ethnobotany. The field of botany has contributed significantly to our understanding of the natural world, agriculture, medicine, and environmental conservation.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

In most plants, stems are located above the soil surface, but some plants have underground stems. Stems have several main ... peeling bark of paperbark maple Edible plant stem Stipe (botany) Plant Stems: Physiology and Functional Morphology. Elsevier. ... Node: a point of attachment of a leaf or a twig on the stem in seed plants. A node is a very small growth zone. Pedicel: stems ... Climbing: stems that cling or wrap around other plants or structures. Corm: a short enlarged underground, storage stem, e.g. ...
... s are innately undifferentiated cells located in the meristems of plants. Plant stem cells serve as the origin ... callus and plant stem cell are fundamentally different from each other. Callus is similar to plant stem cell in its ability to ... strong vitality and structural characteristics of plant stem cell overcome previous drawbacks to plant cell culture. Thus plant ... Only plant stem cells embedded in meristems can divide and give rise to cells that differentiate while giving rise to new stem ...
Edible plant stems are one part of plants that are eaten by humans. Most plants are made up of stems, roots, leaves, flowers, ... Plant stems have a variety of functions. Stems support the entire plant and have buds, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Stems are ... In some plants, such as cactus, stems are specialized for photosynthesis and water storage. Typical stems are located above ... and stems (e.g. [asparagus] of many plants. There are also a few edible petioles (also known as leaf stems) such as celery or ...
... is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Betaflexiviridae. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: ... Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ... Apple stem grooving virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method Archived 2013-03-30 at the Wayback Machine v t e (Articles with ...
Introduction Aerial stem modifications are modifications to the aerial stems, vegetative buds and floral buds of plants growing ... The auxiliary or the terminal part of the modified structures shows their stem nature. Some weak-stemmed plants produce wiry, ... It gets detached from the plant, falls on the ground, and develops into a new plant. e.g. Dioscorea. It is in the axel (the ... "Tuberous Medicinal Plants of India: Biology and Biotechnology", Bulbous Plants, CRC Press, pp. 319-345, 2016-04-19, doi:10.1201 ...
Most plants with underground stems are geophytes but not all plants that are geophytes have underground stems. Geophytes are ... The below-ground stems of grasses have scales, while roots are smooth without scales. A geophyte (earth+plant) is a plant with ... Underground stems are modified plant parts that derive from stem tissue but exist under the soil surface. They function as ... Several plants, including weedy species, use underground stems to spread and colonize large areas, since the stems do not have ...
... is a disease caused by a fungus infection in the stem of crop plants. Fungus that causes stem rot are in the ... Spores can also enter the plant through injured stem tissue on the plant including from insect attacks. The fungus impedes stem ... Sclerotinia Stem Rot,. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2014 [1] Plant Disease: Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot ... It can cause water to leak through the lesions of stem tissue. Common infected crop plants are soybeans and potatoes. An issue ...
Seebold, Kenneth W. (April 2011). "Plant Pathology Fact Sheet: Gummy Stem Blight and Black Rot of Cucurbits" (PDF). Plant ... Since gummy stem blight can survive as chlamydospores in dead plant debris, it is recommended to remove or deep-plow dead ... Gummy stem blight is a cucurbit-rot disease caused by the fungal plant pathogen Didymella bryoniae (anamorph Phoma ... Cankers, which may or may not have black spots, may appear in the epidermal cortical tissue and on the stems of infected plants ...
... (ASPV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Betaflexiviridae. A number of hosts are in the genus ... Viral plant pathogens and diseases, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ... Malus (apples). ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Apple stem pitting virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method Archived ...
Lesions on stems enlarge and may blacken large areas near the base of the plant. Affected stems are brittle and easily broken. ... "Entomology & Plant Pathology". Spring Black Stem of Alfalfa. Retrieved 21 October 2013. Vincelli, P. "Kentucky Disease Plant ... Whenever the environment is wet, spores can be splashed onto the leaves, petioles, and stems of the plants. The optimal ... Stem lesions are dark brown to black and may cut the stem all the way around its surface. ...
... s are succulent plants defined by their succulent stems, which function to store water and conduct photosynthesis ... Stem succulents are fleshy succulent columnar shaped plants which conduct photosynthesis mainly through their stems rather than ... 67-72, Published by: Springer, [1] Stem Succulent, Encyclopædia Britannica Stem Succulents, Map of Life Shoot Stem ... These plants are defined by their succulent stems and have evolved to have similar forms by convergent evolution to occupy ...
... hollow plant stems; flax bushes; dead rolled fronds of tree-ferns; the abandoned cocoons of the bag-moth Liothula omnivora; ...
It is a twining plant. Its stems are hairless. Its hairless, papery, elliptical to lance-shaped leaves are 1.5-2.5 by 0.5-0.9 ... "Cryptolepis delagoensis Schltr". Plants of the World Online. The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. n.d. Retrieved ... Cryptolepis delagoensis is a species of plant in the Apocynaceae family. It is native to Mozambique and South Africa. Rudolf ... Asclepiadeae". In Thiselton-Dyer, William T. (ed.). Flora capensis :being a systematic description of the plants of the Cape ...
Trunk, a single woody stem came about in unrelated plants: paleozoic tree forms of club mosses, horsetails, and seed plants. ... Plant fruit: the fleshy nutritious part of plants that animal dispense by eating independently came about in flowering plants ... "How the First Plant Came to Be". Scientific American. Simpson, M. G. 2010. "Plant Morphology". In: Plant Systematics, 2nd. ... "Map of Life , Desert plants with succulent stems". "Indiana University, The Origin of Dendrosenecio" (PDF). Archived from the ...
Dwarfing is an important agronomic quality for wheat; dwarf plants produce thick stems. The cultivars Borlaug worked with had ... Then we'd take the seed from the best plants south and plant it at high elevation, when days were getting longer and there was ... He was awarded the Danforth Award for Plant Science by the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, Missouri in ... Stakman advised him to focus on plant pathology instead. He subsequently enrolled at the university to study plant pathology ...
The plant blooms in flushes from spring through fall. The plant has thorny stems. The foliage is small and dark, glossy green. ... Bred by Patrick Dickson in Northern Ireland in 1967, and the plant was introduced into Australia in 1968 and the United States ... From late spring to autumn, the plant bears clusters of mildly fragrant double flowers. Flower colour is a yellow blend with ... Red Gold' is a disease resistant, vigorous plant, and thrives in USDA zone, 6 and warmer. ...
69-89, doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-0118-9_2, ISBN 9781468401189 "Plant Anatomy_Free Hand Sectioning , Microscope , Plant Stem". ... Since few plant tissues have a color, there is little chromatically difference between plant tissues makes it difficult to ... Plant microtechnique is also a study providing valuable experimental information. Plant microtechnique involves classical ... This technique can be used for the preparation of tissue of animals and plants. For using under optical microscopy, the ...
Plants with short, compact, upright stems. Adromischus halesowensis Adromischus inamoenus Adromischus maculatus Adromischus ... The name comes from the ancient Greek adros (=thick) and mischos (=stem). The species of Adromischus are divided into five ... Adromischus is a genus of flowering plants. They are easily-propagated, leaf succulents from the family Crassulaceae, which are ... "Threatened Species Programme , SANBI Red List of South African Plants". Archived from the original on 31 ...
Stems of older plants are woody. Many parts of the plant have historically been used to create medicines to treat various ... Manduca sexta moths prefer inbred plants to outbred plants. The beetle Leptinotarsa juncta specializes on this plant, and the ... USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Solanum carolinense". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant ... The plant is an invasive in parts of Europe, Asia, and Australia. The stem and undersides of larger leaf veins are covered with ...
The plant had leafy aerial stems. The leaf bases completely covered the stems forming rhomboidal to hexagonal patterns, except ... Early Devonian plants, Prehistoric lycophyte genera, Prehistoric lycophytes, All stub articles, Devonian plant stubs, Lycophyte ... Li, C.-S. & Edwards, D. (1997), "A new microphyllous plant from the Lower Devonian of Yunnan Province, China", Am. J. Bot., 84 ... Halleophyton is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian (Pragian, around 410 million years ago). Fossils were ...
Plants typically develop thick woody stems; the flowers are arranged in a dense spike. Members of the subfamily Asphodeloideae ... In some of the older systems of plant taxonomy, such as the Cronquist system, the plants that now form the family ... Christenhusz, M.J.M. & Byng, J.W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa ... Asphodelaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Asparagales. Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists, ...
Plant biology Plant genome sequencing; epigenetics and stem cell fate; stem cell signalling; plant-environment interactions; ... Zachary Lippman, plant geneticist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and winner of a MacArthur Fellowship, commonly ... Retrieved March 21, 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Plant Biology - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory ... Other initiatives: genetics of aquatic plants for biofuel development; lead role in building National Science Foundation's ...
Schweingruber, Fritz H.; Börner, Annett (2018). The plant stem. A microscopic aspect. Cham: Springer. p. 207. doi:10.1007/978-3 ... Dendroecology (1996), Wood structure and environment (2007) and The Plant Stem (2018). 2002: Honorary President of the ... One of his most important projects was the dating and anatomy of high mountain plants in the Alps and the Himalayas. His ... In 1972 he graduated in systematic plant sociology. After teaching biology at Gymnasium Köniz high school near Bern and at the ...
This is a creeping vine that has a woody base and stems that grow up to a meter long. The stems may climb on other plants. The ... Remaining occurrences of the plant are on land that is fragmented and degraded. It is invaded by introduced plant species such ... The plant grows on barrier islands, where it can be found in several types of habitat, such as sand dunes and tropical hardwood ... Other plants growing in this type of habitat include seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera) and Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus ...
... animal hair and plant down. It is woven around vertical plant stems. From 3 to 5 greenish-yellow and brown-mottled eggs are ... Sedge warblers tend to hop between plant stems and pick insects from underneath leaves; they take advantage of the low ... The song is given from a bare perch such as a reed stem or bush, or from cover and during routine flights within their ... The cup-shaped structure has an outer layer of grass, stems and leaves, plus spiders' webs, with a thick, finer layer inside ...
The plant stems are erect and stiff. They can survive deep water flow. Under clear water, the plant can survive up to two ... Medicinal plants of Asia, Fodder, Plant toxin insecticides, Grasses of Haiti, Plants used in traditional African medicine). ... The plant was taken over in 1984 by Franck's son, Pierre Léger, who expanded the size of the plant to 44 atmospheric stills, ... "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved May 8, 2014. Birdwood (October 17, 1878). "Manuel de la section ...
... and new clonal plants from the buds. Not all horizontal plant stems are stolons. Plants with stolons are described as " ... These plants form shaded areas wherein new species may grow and gradually replace them.[citation needed] Stolons are stems that ... and each has a genome that is identical to that of the originating plant from which it grew. Many species of plants reproduce ... It is a strategy of plant propagation. The complex of clonal individuals and the originating plant comprise a single genetic ...
The plant has long, slender flexible stems. The rose makes an excellent cut flower. The foliage is dark green and glossy The ... There is a famous planting of 'Alexandre Girault that envelopes the garden trellis at L'Haÿ-les-Roses in Paris and bursts into ...
The plant has long, slender, flexible stems. 'Francois Juranville' is a very vigorous grower and can climb up into trees. It is ...
It may reach two metres in height as a shrub, but it can climb with stems to ten metres long. The plant's stems are mostly ... The leaf stem is 5 to 10 mm long. White flowers appear in winter. The fruit is a fleshy black shining berry, around 10 mm in ...
In most plants, stems are located above the soil surface, but some plants have underground stems. Stems have several main ... peeling bark of paperbark maple Edible plant stem Stipe (botany) Plant Stems: Physiology and Functional Morphology. Elsevier. ... Node: a point of attachment of a leaf or a twig on the stem in seed plants. A node is a very small growth zone. Pedicel: stems ... Climbing: stems that cling or wrap around other plants or structures. Corm: a short enlarged underground, storage stem, e.g. ...
Buy boscia Plant Stem Cell Moisturizer at Macys today. FREE Shipping and Free Returns available, or buy online and pick-up in ... Defend and hydrate with a cutting edge, plant-stem cell powered moisturizer made to restore and help reduce the look of fine ... Fruit and plant stem cells come together for a unique and airy texture. ... The stem cell is fluffy pink and light. It lasts, and the oil cleanser is awesome too. Ive recently purchased the cactus ...
Since I brought the plant to my office, the stems grow much longer and the leaves start over halfway up the stem? Why do the ... there were leaves growing very low on the stem. ... leaves not grow closer together or further down the stem ... When I bought my ZZ plant, there were leaves growing very low on the stem. Since I brought the plant to my office, the stems ... Not sure if this stem was one of the shorter bushy stems already present in the plant & those leaves just turned yellow or ...
Inspiring girls to pursue their love of science and math and, more important, helping them understand they can do anything.
... including plants. A small group of plant stem cells, however, successfully defends itself from infection. Marco Incarbone, now ... uncovered that salicylic acid and RNA interference mediate this antiviral immunity of plant stem cells. The findings were ... at MPIMP Golm, Gabriele Bradamante and their co-authors at the Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology (GMI) ... Still, the stem cells keep a mystery: plant viruses frequently evade and suppress RNA interference in other plant tissues. "Why ...
Then they explore the plant tropism of pea seeds to design a system that demonstrates the effects of touch, light, or... ... Mesh plant development and STEM as your students predict and manipulate plant growth. Students examine seed germination and ... Mesh plant development and STEM to allow your students to predict and manipulate plant growth. Students examine seed ... Plants. Carolina plants are a great tool for teaching cell respiration and photosynthesis. Selection includes aquatic and ...
STEM: Connecting People, Plants and Jobs. Posted April 6, 2016. By Michelle Pearce in Impact ... The Power of STEM. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, workers in STEM fields play a key role in the sustained growth ... Education demands of STEM careers continue to advance rapidly, and jobs across the economy are requiring greater levels of ... Another study found that more than 2.8 million job openings will be available for workers in STEM by the year 2018, and 92 ...
All of my plants with few exceptions are about 1/2 the height they should be. My 4 foot tall black oil sunflowers are about 2 ... 100 House Plants Plant Bugs Terrariums Dish Gardens Terrarium Plants Plants in Pots Plant Buying Guide ... USDA Plant Zones Last Frost Dates Plants from Seed Plant Buying Guide Garden Glossary Gardening Tool Care Gardening Tools ... Garden Plants. Annuals Perennials Vegetables Bulb Type Plants Flowering trees Vining Plants Drought Tolerant Butterfly Flowers ...
30 am in the Miller Plant Sciences Amphitheater for the Diversify STEM Coffee Hour! It is a peer social support event for ... Join us Tuesday, September 28nd at 9:30 - 10:30 am in the Miller Plant Sciences Amphitheater for the Diversify STEM Coffee Hour ...
... films and books that put STEM in a ... ... portrays people who wish to grow up and participate in STEM as ... Ever feel like the media portrays people who wish to grow up and participate in STEM as geeks and nerds? Heres a list of ... Here are some films, television shows and books that portray STEM research in a good light, giving the minority here a few ... Inventing a machine like that ties in with the engineering portion of STEM, and the film actively engages people into the world ...
Section of stem of a Bomarea densiflora plant specimen ... Section of stem of a Bomarea densiflora plant specimen. Dr. ...
He launched The Stem, a "one-stop-shop for all things green", selling indoor and outdoor plants, dried flowers, grow-your-own ... The Stem founder James Folger, center, with his team (The Stem). Gardening leave is common in the City - but James Folger took ... The Stem founder James Folger, above with his team (The Stem). He spent summer 2019 brainstorming and creating his brand, The ... How James Folger turned gardening leave into online plant business The Stem. ...
Shortage of Students in STEM Education? Here Are Some Reasons Why. ... Emphasis on STEM education starts too late. Children are innately interested in and ready to engage in STEM learning at very ... Researchers argue that like the seeds of literacy, the seeds of STEM must be planted early. ... Shortage of Students in STEM Education? Here Are Some Reasons Why. The water professions need qualified new entrants. STEM ...
Does music make plants grow faster? Find out in this science project! , Explore 1000+ Science Fair Projects & STEM Projects! ... The results of the experiment showed that the average height and growth rate of the radish plants in pot A (the plants provided ... SearchBrowseCoachSTEMRockQuickEasyBestPopularGrade: PreK123456789-12 ... Ever wondered if music can make plants grow faster? This science project will explore the effects of classical music on the ...
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Stem cuttings of many favorite shrubs are quite e… ... Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method ... A 3- to 5-inch piece of stem is cut from the parent plant. The leaves on the lower one-third to one-half of the stem are ... Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method to propagate many woody ornamental plants. Stem cuttings of many ... Types of Stem Cuttings. Skip to Types of Stem Cuttings The four main types of stem cuttings are herbaceous, softwood, semi- ...
Find out by using Thlaspi plants to remove zinc from soil! , Explore 1000+ Science Fair Projects & STEM Projects! ... You will plant Thlaspi seeds in a shallow container filled with soil that has 600ppm of zinc. You will then monitor the plants ... Lets see if we can use plants to clean up contaminated soil! Well use Thlaspi plants to remove zinc from soil and see how ... SearchBrowseCoachSTEMRockQuickEasyBestPopularGrade: PreK123456789-12 ...
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... flowering stems and floral segments. Coloured etching, c. 1835. ... Four British garden plants, including a phlox: flowering stems ... Four British garden plants, including a phlox: flowering stems and floral segments. Coloured etching, c. 1835. .. Wellcome ... Four British garden plants, including a phlox: ...
Can you reattach a severed plant stem? Fixing injured plants is possible, and this article will ... There are few things more crushing than discovering your prize vine or tree has broken a stem or branch. ... Can You Reattach a Severed Plant Stem?. Once a stem or branch has broken off of the main plant, the vascular system that feeds ... The instant reaction is to try some sort of plant surgery to reattach the limb, but can you reattach a severed plant stem? ...
Shop STEM Kills Ants Roaches Flies Indoor And Outdoor Plant Based Insecticide Bug Spray - 12 Fl. Oz. from Haggen. Browse our ... STEMs scientists decode natures power, scientifically optimizing it into effective bug-fighting forms. STEM plant-based ... STEM Kills Ants Roaches Flies Indoor And Outdoor Plant Based Insecticide Bug Spray - 12 Fl. Oz.. ... Safe for use around kids + pets (When used as directed). Stems scientists decade the power of nature to optimize plant ...
Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants those termed energetic have specifically. * Post author By exposed ... From January 2012 on larger plants TAK-715 with leaves of 2-3 mm in size were given with fruits flies which were lower into ... Furthermore experiments in the habitat should be undertaken that compare capture rates of plants whose snap tentacles have been ... Among trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants those termed energetic have specifically fascinated scientists since Charles ...
Plants at Primary Level A list of resources to aid the teaching of seeds and plants at primary level. ... Find out about the different parts of a plant and flower and their functions. Suitable for upper KS2 The Plant Detective ... Plants *suitable for home teaching* Quality AssuredCategory:SciencePublisher:ARKive. A colourful presentation on parts of ... Grow Sunflowers, Make Plant Pots *suitable for home teaching* Quality AssuredCategory:SciencePublisher:National Non-Food Crops ...
... they come from plants. The reason skincare brands are working them into their formulas is because botanica ... Reviewed By Ray Spotts Ever hear of using plant stem cells in skincare? Many elaborate formulas enthuse about the use of them, ... How Plant Stem Cells Work For Skin Care. Just like different plants have different functions and nutrients, different plant ... Plant Stem Cells Effectiveness. Skincare companies boast plant stem cells as a miraculous ingredient. There are studies that ...
... usually stemless but sometimes with a short leafy stem... ... Réduire la quantité de Yucca baileyi multitrunk, stem/plant/ ... Yucca baileyi multitrunk, stem/plant/total 12/44/64 (No. 1). Yucca baileyi multitrunk, stem/plant/total 12/44/64 (No. 1) ... Augmenter la quantité de Yucca baileyi multitrunk, stem/plant/total 12/44/64 (No. 1) ... Originally from USA, this Yucca is a relatively small species, usually stemless but sometimes with a short leafy stem.. It can ...
Grow Roses From Stem Cutting , Roses Cutting Idea In this video i will tell you how to grow rose plant from stem cutting. In ... Easy way to grow rose plant from cuttjngs, Rose plant marcotting, How to grow roses from stem cutting, Rose plant propagation ... Plant, Rooting rose cuttings, Rooting roses, Rose, Rose cutting, rose plant, Rose plant marcotting, Rose plant propagation ... Rose plant propagation method, Plant, How to grow roses from cuttings, roses, Rose cutting, How to grow roses from stem cutting ...
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Discover the joy of stem cuttings propagation and create a green space with new plants from cuttings. ... Learn the art of cutting and propagation to grow new plants. ... But what if your plant doesnt have stems? Some plants, such as ... Can All Plants be Propagated through Stem Cuttings? While many plants will root from stem cuttings, not all will. Some plants ... Growing New Plants from Various Types of Stem Cuttings How to Grow New Plants from Softwood Stem Cuttings ...
  • In follow-up work, Incarbone will now investigate how viruses are stopped from passing into an infected plant's seeds and offspring- which develop from the protected stem cells. (
  • Then they explore the plant tropism of pea seeds to design a system that demonstrates the effects of touch, light, or gravity on plant growth. (
  • Researchers argue that like the seeds of literacy, the seeds of STEM must be planted early. (
  • You will place ten radish seeds in each pot, place one pot beside the CD player for three hours a day with classical music playing, and measure the height of the plants every day. (
  • The results of the experiment showed that the average height and growth rate of the radish plants in pot A (the plants provided with music stimuli) were greater than that of the plants in pot B. The seeds in pot A were also able to germinate a day earlier. (
  • You will plant Thlaspi seeds in a shallow container filled with soil that has 600ppm of zinc. (
  • A list of resources to aid the teaching of seeds and plants at primary level. (
  • An easy to follow list of activities realted to seeds and plant growth. (
  • Develop thinking skills whilst sorting seeds into groups, measure the growth of seedlings, investigate the best conditions for germination and plant growth. (
  • Foxglove poisoning most often occurs from sucking the flowers or eating the seeds, stems, or leaves of the foxglove plant. (
  • Marijuana refers to the dried flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds of the cannabis plant. (
  • Marijuana is a dry, shredded, green and brown mix of leaves, flowers, stems, and seeds from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa . (
  • Phytobezoar is a compact mass of fibres, skins, seeds, leaves, roots or stems of plants that collects in the stomach or small intestine [3]. (
  • Medicine is made from the leaves, stems, and seeds of holy basil plants. (
  • Cannabis sativa is the hemp plant from which marijuana (leaves, stems, seeds) are derived. (
  • The leaf's base or its veins, depending on the plant species, can spawn roots and eventually an entirely new plant! (
  • The xylem has the task of transporting water from the roots of a plant up to the leaves. (
  • Edible landscaping describes the horticultural practice of incorporating plants with edible parts (fruits, flowers, stems, leaves or roots) into a design whose primary function is to be aesthetically pleasing. (
  • Hemp refers to the roots, stalk, and stems of the plant, which can be used to make rope and twine. (
  • Further it was found that not only the berries but also roots, stems and leaves of local plant contain considerable amount of piperine. (
  • The four main types of stem cuttings are herbaceous, softwood, semi-hardwood, and hardwood. (
  • Last but not least, hardwood cuttings are made from mature, solid stems during the plant's dormancy in the late fall or winter. (
  • It is the first line of defence against pathogens and animals that threaten to infect and eat the plant's stem. (
  • Any excess calcium absorbed by the plant from ground water is extracted from the plant's tissue fluid by the oxalate in the leaves, fruits, nuts, or bark. (
  • Propagation by stem cuttings is the most commonly used method to propagate many woody ornamental plants. (
  • Stem cuttings of many favorite shrubs are quite easy to root. (
  • Typically, stem cuttings of tree species are more difficult to root. (
  • These terms reflect the growth stage of the stock plant, which is one of the most important factors influencing whether or not cuttings will root. (
  • Refer to Table 1 for more information on the best time to root stem cuttings of particular ornamental plants. (
  • Optimum stage of tissue (wood) maturity for rooting stem cuttings of selected woody ornamentals. (
  • We're about to dive headfirst into the incredible world of stem cuttings propagation. (
  • When we talk about stem cuttings, we're referring to pieces of stem that are taken from a parent plant, and believe it or not, many of these stem cuttings can grow into new plants. (
  • Stem cuttings come in three varieties: softwood, semi-hardwood, and hardwood. (
  • Some plants, such as the famous coleus or certain species of begonias, can grow from leaf cuttings. (
  • So how do you start taking stem cuttings? (
  • By taking cuttings from these sections of the plant, you're giving your new plant the best possible start. (
  • Keep your cuttings cold and wet after choosing and cutting the proper piece of the stem. (
  • Although the process of taking stem cuttings might initially seem complex, it is in reality a straightforward task. (
  • Now, it's time to plant your cuttings! (
  • Try to plant the cuttings at a depth of about one-third their length. (
  • CORVALLIS, Ore. - Snipping some cuttings from the garden this time of year will produce your own private nursery of plants by spring. (
  • Whether you plant the results of your "snip and stick" project or give them away, propagating by cuttings can be a rewarding process. (
  • Up to 100 to 125 cuttings can fit in one tray so, if you've never propagated by cuttings, try one or two trays and you're bound to get some plants out of your efforts. (
  • Wood and bark are produced by secondary growth of a stem. (
  • Once you have enough, you need to remove the outer bark of the stems and stalks, which is known as decorticating. (
  • Berberine content in the stem bark of commercial samples of C. fenestraurn purchased from the markets in Pettah was higher than those grown in Sri lanka. (
  • Overview of stem anatomy The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes: The nodes are the points of attachment for leaves and can hold one or more leaves. (
  • You can also find axillary buds between the stem and leaf which can grow into branches (with leaves, conifer cones, or flowers). (
  • shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth, including both stems and other structures like leaves or flowers. (
  • Stems have several main functions which are: Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers, and fruits. (
  • The stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers and fruits. (
  • Actually these stems are just extremely short, the leaves appearing to rise directly out of the ground, e.g. some Viola species. (
  • Bulb: a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, e.g. onion, daffodil, and tulip. (
  • Bulbs are a combination of stem and leaves so may better be considered as leaves because the leaves make up the greater part. (
  • Pseudostem: a false stem made of the rolled bases of leaves, which may be 2 to 3 m (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) tall, as in banana. (
  • Scape: a stem that holds flowers that comes out of the ground and has no normal leaves. (
  • When I bought my ZZ plant, there were leaves growing very low on the stem. (
  • Since I brought the plant to my office, the stems grow much longer and the leaves start over halfway up the stem? (
  • Why do the leaves not grow closer together or further down the stem anymore? (
  • From January 2012 on larger plants TAK-715 with leaves of 2-3 mm in size were given with fruits flies which were lower into halves and vegetation with leaves of 3-4 mm in size were given with complete flies. (
  • Furthermore experiments in the habitat should be undertaken that compare capture rates of plants whose snap tentacles have been clipped to plant life with unchanged TAK-715 leaves. (
  • Cut the twig about 3 to 4 inches long, which will leave a cutting with at least a couple of nodes (where the leaves and buds attach to the stem). (
  • If the plant is evergreen and has large leaves like a rhododendron, cut off half of each leaf. (
  • Nodes are the points on a stem where leaves and new branches grow from. (
  • The growth of stems is more complicated than root production because stems must also produce leaves, branches and everything in between. (
  • Here, new leaves and shoots are able grow to increase the plants exposure to light. (
  • This red stem plant is popular for its large leaves that are dark green with pink stripes and red undersides. (
  • These rounded leaves will add width to any arrangement and look especially good mixed with other plants. (
  • Embracing the ancient Chinese art of Feng-shui, the Jade Plant, with its glossy, jade-green leaves. (
  • With its intricate, intertwined stems and vibrant green leaves, this plant is believed to bring luck and financial success to its caretakers. (
  • You can usually find it on the underside of the leaves and on the insertion of their petioles with the stem, so you should pay attention to this when you are in your weekly plant care moment. (
  • The Poison Ivy plant has three leaves on each stem. (
  • This batch contained a high percentage of stems amongst the dried ground leaves. (
  • Total alkaloid content in the leaves of A. cocclus (Menispermaceae) aws higher than in the stems. (
  • The normal lifespan of plant cells is one to three years. (
  • Stems have cells called meristems that annually generate new living tissue. (
  • Fruit and plant stem cells come together for a unique and airy texture. (
  • A small group of plant stem cells, however, successfully defends itself from infection. (
  • Marco Incarbone, now at MPIMP Golm, Gabriele Bradamante and their co-authors at the Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology (GMI) uncovered that salicylic acid and RNA interference mediate this antiviral immunity of plant stem cells. (
  • Well, not entirely: One small group of indomitable cells still holds out, the stem cells within the shoot tip. (
  • This small group of cells generates all plant tissues above ground, including the next plant generation, and for reasons still poorly understood, viruses are unable to proliferate in these cells. (
  • Marco Incarbone, previously a postdoctoral researcher in the group of Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid at the Gregor Mendel Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (GMI) and now a group leader at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Germany sought to uncover the molecular bases of how stem cells in the shoot apical meristem fight off viruses together with PhD student Gabriele Bradamante and other GMI group members. (
  • Using this dynamic, semi-quantitative approach, the researchers observed that Turnip mosaic virus - their plant model virus of choice - spreads in their model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , arrives at the stem cells within the shoot tip , and even enters these cells, but is then quickly excluded. (
  • In the fight against Turnip mosaic virus, both salicylic acid and RDR1 are necessary to expel the virus from the stem cells - however, RDR1 is not produced within the stem cells themselves, but in the tissue below the stem cells and in the vasculature, Incarbone adds. (
  • There it generates the RNA-based and most likely mobile information that immunizes the stem cells from the incoming virus. (
  • Still, the stem cells keep a mystery: plant viruses frequently evade and suppress RNA interference in other plant tissues. (
  • Why can viruses suppress RNA interference in most of the plant, but not in these special cells? (
  • Salicylic acid and RNA interference mediate antiviral immunity of plant stem cells. (
  • Ever hear of using plant stem cells in skincare? (
  • Some plants thrive in the most peculiar of situations which made science turn to plant stem cells as a potentially viable source for anti-aging. (
  • Just like different plants have different functions and nutrients, different plant stem cells are said to possess different characteristics themselves. (
  • By using plant stem cells, you could potentially give your skin the chance to blossom back into a youthful appearance. (
  • Skincare companies boast plant stem cells as a miraculous ingredient. (
  • Another important consideration is that these plant stem cells must be alive to function as such. (
  • Plant stem cells also respond during certain environmental conditions. (
  • So while they do have potential down the road to really make a difference, the plant stem cells in today's products just aren't there yet. (
  • The promise for the look of eternal youth through plant stem cells will likely happen in the future. (
  • The use of stem cells in skin care and esthetic medicine has generated a lot of excitement. (
  • However, there remains a great deal of confusion about the differences between growth factors, stem cells, plant stem cells and other related technologies. (
  • Many companies offer plant stem cells, but they are not like human stem cells and do not provide any of the benefits of human stem cells. (
  • Plant stem cells appear to provide some modest improvements in the skin, but they are primarily formulated in conjunction with other actives or peptides because they are not very active themselves. (
  • Human stem cells are primarily being harvested from adults and have, therefore, become less controversial than in the past. (
  • Instead, stem cells are being induced to make fibroblasts by implanting fibroblast DNA into a ghost cell. (
  • This is known as induced pluripotent stem cells (IPS). (
  • Stem cells can also be encouraged to grow skin-targeted growth factors by leaving them in the same growth media as a fibroblast. (
  • Let's be clear: If you are simply using stem cells, the growth factors that might be made-and there's no guarantee a cell will make growth factors-are less likely to be skin-specific. (
  • Some labs are harvesting stem cells from certain locations on the body to help with that issue, but that is a relatively new approach and does not apply to products on the market today. (
  • Even the use of stem cells in plastic surgery is primarily with the hope that they will become growth factor production cells, such as fibroblasts or macrophages. (
  • It is this special shape that makes growth factors from stem cells and fibroblasts much more stable and active in the skin. (
  • These cells provide both protection and structural support plant stems. (
  • Researchers at the University of Guelph are hoping stem cells might provide the needed tissue replacements. (
  • Biomedical sciences professor Dean Betts and doctoral candidate Thomas Koch are hoping to use stem cells to improve cartilage healing after joint injuries. (
  • Much of the team's research focuses on perfecting the technique for isolating, expanding and differentiating adult stem cells. (
  • They're using blood from the umbilical cord of horses as a source of stem cells. (
  • Obtaining cord blood samples is non-invasive and much easier than obtaining stem cells from an embryo. (
  • Koch said there's evidence that stem cells from cord blood are "younger" than bone marrow stem cells, which means they're capable of more divisions, and creating more diverse tissue types. (
  • The younger stem cells may also be less prone to rejection when used to help heal cartilage in another body. (
  • Because there are no other reports on isolating stem cells from equine cord blood, Betts and Koch are eager to gather as much information as possible. (
  • Already, they've succeeded in differentiating the cord blood stem cells into three different cell types including chondrocytes - the building blocks of cartilage. (
  • Mar. 30, 2022 Stem cells can develop into many different types of cells in the body. (
  • For instance, when a person is injured, stem cells come to the site of the injury and aid in healing damaged tissues. (
  • 28, 2021 Researchers have invented a new way to generate human cartilage tissue from stem cells. (
  • May 2, 2019 If plants are injured, cells adjacent to the wound fill the gaps with their daughter cells. (
  • Re-invigorate and replenish your skin with this stem cell serum containing 900,000 cells/ 1g of serum applied on a daily base. (
  • Designed by experts, this serum takes plant stem cell cultures that are able to penetrate deep and stimulate the skin outer layer regeneration process, in which the dead skin cells are replaced by new ones, and transforms simple ingredients into unbeatable benefits. (
  • With totipotent stem cells and self-renewing effects , users will experience fine line reduction and a boost in skin elasticity in no time. (
  • Plant stem cells encourage our skin healing and repairing process, replace dead skin cells with new healthy ones. (
  • Additionally, plant stem cells help skin fight against inflammation and oxidative damage from the environmental stress. (
  • The key players in mouse embryonic stem cells governing pluripotency versus differentiation are Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. (
  • Further when in the differentiated state, the cells are capable of regaining the stem cell state. (
  • Our investigation suggests that, despite similarity in core regulatory networks, the dynamics of these can contribute to plant cells being more plastic than mammalian cells, i.e. capable to reorganize from single differentiated cells to whole plants-reprogramming. (
  • Handling, maintenance and understanding of human pluripotent stem cells. (
  • Are you wondering if you've spotted the notorious cannabis plant, or are you mistaken? (
  • How can I create paper from cannabis plant stalks and stems? (
  • Creating paper from cannabis plant stalks and stems is a great way to reduce waste and explore the versatile uses of this incredible plant. (
  • Remember, making paper from cannabis plant stalks and stems is not just about recycling waste, it's also about celebrating the versatility and sustainability of the cannabis plant. (
  • This is not just a piece of paper, but a testament to the versatility and sustainability of the cannabis plant. (
  • Test your knowledge on how to create paper from cannabis plant stalks and stems with this interactive quiz! (
  • Flowering top of cannabis plant. (
  • Arborescent: tree with woody stems normally with a single trunk. (
  • Fruticose: stems that grow shrublike with woody like habit. (
  • Thick, woody stems such as tree branches may have exposed cambium which doesn't seal and will interrupt the flow of nutrients and moisture to the damaged limb, slowly killing it. (
  • These are still-evolving plants that haven't developed into woody ones yet. (
  • Many woody plants have a ring of fiber between the vascular tissue and the epidermis that is important for increasing the strength of the stem. (
  • i thought about that as you said the plants start to put out seed to preserve the species- that's what my corn was doing. (
  • Originally from USA, this Yucca is a relatively small species, usually stemless but sometimes with a short leafy stem. (
  • Plant stems are a significant organ for the majority of plant species. (
  • Plant stems perform a wide range of functions that have enabled various plant species to survive in different habitats. (
  • Oxalate content within the same plant species can vary widely. (
  • Splice grafting broken plants is a method that will attach the main body back onto the broken stem, allowing the exchange of important moisture and nutrients to sustain the damaged stem. (
  • The procambium produces the vascular tissue that transports water and other nutrients up and down the stem. (
  • The vascular tissue in plants is responsible for transporting water, gases, carbohydrates and other nutrients between different parts of a plant. (
  • Terrestrial isopods are important detritivores, contributing to essential ecosystem services by breaking down plant material and recycling nutrients. (
  • Pedicel: stems that serve as the stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence or infrutescence. (
  • This is a tried-and-true method used to propagate many garden plants, and it's an incredible way to clone your favorite plants and produce more of the plants you love. (
  • What that means is that the average gardener can propagate their own plants with nothing more than a tray, a decent medium, a bit of rooting hormone and a place to keep them out of the way. (
  • Stems are often specialized for storage, asexual reproduction, protection, or photosynthesis, including the following: Acaulescent: used to describe stems in plants that appear to be stemless. (
  • Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of peanut stem growth using phenotypic, physiological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses. (
  • Much of what we know about the drivers of plant phenotypic divergence and fitness stems from studies that focus on specialized pollination systems. (
  • Photosynthesis Stems have two pipe-like tissues called xylem and phloem. (
  • Cladode (including phylloclade): a flattened stem that appears more-or-less leaf like and is specialized for photosynthesis, e.g. cactus pads. (
  • Suitable for upper KS2 'The Plant Detective' looks at Reproduction, Photosynthesis and Adaptation. (
  • They can also be an important site of photosynthesis for many plants. (
  • Correspondingly, the WUSCHEL and CLAVATA3 genes represent a core in the Shoot Apical Meristem regulation for plants. (
  • Stems can be either fleshy or go through secondary growth and produce hardened wood. (
  • In most plants, stems are located above the soil surface, but some plants have underground stems. (
  • Let's see if we can use plants to clean up contaminated soil! (
  • We'll use Thlaspi plants to remove zinc from soil and see how much zinc is removed. (
  • The hypothesis is that the amount of zinc removed from soil by the Thlaspi plant will not be significant. (
  • You will then monitor the plants for 30 days and remove them from the soil. (
  • Our results showed that the level of zinc content in the soil showed a small decline after every growth cycle of the Thlaspi plant. (
  • This science project is interesting because it shows how plants can be used to clean up contaminated soil. (
  • Can oil absorbing polymers help clean up contaminated soil and make it suitable for growing plants? (
  • Most edible plants need 6 to 8 hours of full sun along with well-drained, fertile soil for a good harvest. (
  • Many edible plants need more maintenance than most common ornamental plants, such as regular pruning, supplemental watering, soil amendments, and frequent monitoring especially during harvest. (
  • The amount of oxalate manufactured depends not only on the particular variety of plant but also on the soil and water conditions in which it grows. (
  • Since the beginning of my research career, I have worked with Boolean gene regulatory network models, the HP model of protein folding, stem cell regulation, circadian clocks in plants, plant-pathogen interactions, evolutionary algorithms, degradation of soil organic matter by fungi and methods for processing spectroscopic imaging data. (
  • My pepper plants aren't even 1 foot tall and the peppers are close to touching the ground. (
  • I'll have nice tall plants next year. (
  • The single stem supports effectively supports the healthy growth of stem plants, prevents stem bending and entanglement, protects tall and fragile stems from strong winds, heavy rain, or their own large flowers, and helps to increase aesthetics. (
  • Research School in Stem Cell Biology This is a tool to help students find the right project for their Bachelor's and Master's thesis at Lund Stem Cell Center. (
  • Stolon: a horizontal stem that produces rooted plantlets at its nodes and ends, forming near the surface of the ground. (
  • American pokeweed features dark red stems and produces clusters of white or pink flowers in the summer, followed by dark purple berries in the fall. (
  • It includes the tissue between the vascular tissue and the epidermis, and the softened tissue in the center of many plants known as pith. (
  • Mesh plant development and STEM to allow your students to predict and manipulate plant growth. (
  • According to the U.S. Department of Commerce , workers in STEM fields play a key role in the sustained growth and stability of the U.S. economy, and are a critical component in its overall growth. (
  • While relatively small in number, careers in STEM have an outsize impact on a nation's competitiveness, economic growth and overall standard of living. (
  • To begin with, Folger was entreating his friends to buy plants, but sales surged via Instagram: "I initially grew the account to 10,000 followers by constantly growth-hacking - following and unfollowing people to make the account grow. (
  • This science project will explore the effects of classical music on the growth of radish plants. (
  • This science project is interesting because it explores the effects of music on plant growth, which is still a debatable subject among scientists and experts. (
  • Ideally, this should be a healthy part of the plant where new growth is present, but not too young or tender. (
  • Remember to moisten the stem and the potting mix before planting your cutting, which helps to initiate root growth. (
  • They are not making growth factors or activating wound-healing the way stem cell technology does. (
  • The growth of stems follow a very predictable pattern and actually follows a famous pattern known as Fibonacci's number. (
  • Biologists have been interested in this fact for centuries and theories on how plants are able to follow this pattern of growth have been proposed by the likes of Leonardo Da Vinci, amongst others. (
  • SLOT DESIGN & EASY TO USE -- The open slot design allows you to put the plant stems into the ring easily without breaking them, and won't cause restrictions to growth. (
  • When planning an edible landscape, special care is needed to account for maintenance needs and plant growth. (
  • Uncovering mechanisms governing stem growth in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with varying plant heights through integrated transcriptome and metabolomics analyses. (
  • The mechanisms responsible for stem growth in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars with varying plant heights remain unclear, despite the significant impact of plant height on peanut yield. (
  • The findings revealed that the tallest cultivar, HY33, exhibited the highest rate of stem growth and accumulated the most stem dry matter, followed by the intermediate cultivar, SH108, while the dwarf cultivar, Df216, displayed the lowest values. (
  • The results suggest that the dwarf phenotype arises from impaired GA and BR biosynthesis and signaling, resulting in a slower stem growth rate and reduced lignin accumulation. (
  • Defend and hydrate with a cutting edge, plant-stem cell powered moisturizer made to restore and help reduce the look of fine lines and wrinkles. (
  • In this video i will tell you how to grow rose plant from stem cutting. (
  • Just as the name suggests, this type of cutting involves taking a section of a root from a parent plant. (
  • Make a clean incision at the cutting's end and add a rooting hormone to your stem cutting to prepare it. (
  • Your cutting will have the highest chance of growing into a new plant as a result of this stimulation of root development. (
  • Then, make a hole in the mix with a pencil or your finger, insert the cutting, and gently firm the mix around the stem. (
  • He launched The Stem, a "one-stop-shop for all things green", selling indoor and outdoor plants , dried flowers, grow-your-own sets and pots. (
  • Not only do these plants have vivid stems, but many of them also have colorful foliage or flowers that will brighten up any space. (
  • The plant also rarely grows white flowers. (
  • In the realm of flora, certain plants and flowers have long been associated with prosperity and financial abundance. (
  • We explore the enchanting allure of money plants and flowers that embody the essence of wealth and success. (
  • Beyond the realm of plants, certain flowers also hold profound symbolism in relation to financial abundance. (
  • At Stem Design, we understand the significance of incorporating symbolic plants and flowers into your living and working environments. (
  • The expansion of content will address curriculum needs in STEM, social studies and American civics. (
  • Compared to HY33, the reduced activities of PAL, COMT, and F5H resulted in a decreased stem lignin content in Df216. (
  • The plants cultivated under coconut trees showed a higher rhizome oil content and lower root oil content than those grown in the open area. (
  • The piperine content in various parts of Piper longum (Piperaceae) plant, and its variation with maturity in the berries were studied by HPLC analysis. (
  • This study also indicates that the local berries gave the highest piperine content at the age of 2 months and the plants cultivated under coconut trees have higher piperine content than those from the open cultivation. (
  • Berberine content in the two plants were- determined by HPLC. (
  • As a London-only business, The Stem's turnover was just over £1 million in 2021, "about 1.5% market share of the London indoor plant market," Folger says. (
  • The design may feature only edible plants or include a combination of edible and non-edible, ornamental plants. (
  • Blending edible and ornamental plants in landscapes was common practice throughout much of history. (
  • They add an element of intrigue and creativity to designs as edible plants tend to have interesting seasonal changes and different colors, textures and shapes than those provided by many common ornamental plants. (
  • Just like designing a landscape with ornamental plants, a significant key to your success is finding the right plants for your location. (
  • In the search for the defense's molecular bases, the researchers therefore screened Arabidopsis mutant plants that miss certain components of the RNA interference pathway. (
  • The phloem carries carbohydrates, ions, proteins and hormones between the various parts of a plant. (
  • He spent summer 2019 brainstorming and creating his brand, The Stem, before paying an agency to make a website, which took six months. (
  • In your public contacts, can you help make STEM interesting? (
  • Ever wondered if music can make plants grow faster? (
  • The hypothesis is that playing classical music beside the plant everyday will make it grow faster. (
  • Internodes are the sections of the stem between the nodes that often look featureless and usually make up the majority of the length of the stem. (
  • Make sure you check into any restrictions that may apply to your location before planting. (
  • Find out about the parts of a flower, sort seedlings, grow sunflowers and watch clips about plants on a short video. (
  • A video showing five short clips that look at how plants adapt to their environments and how they're essential to our lives. (
  • They perform many functions that help plants grow, compete and survive across a huge range of environments. (
  • Planted in early February and positioned near the back door, colourful containers give us something to focus on and appreciate, whatever the weather. (
  • Caespitose: when stems grow in a tangled mass or clump or in low growing mats. (
  • Ever feel like the media portrays people who wish to grow up and participate in STEM as geeks and nerds? (
  • The binding needs to have some give so the stem can grow. (
  • STEEL CORE & GREEN COATING -- Made of steel material, the flower support provides sturdy support for your plants to grow better. (
  • One may ask to what extent there are similarities and differences in the gene regulation circuits and their dynamics when it comes to important processes like stem cell regulation. (
  • Here, we focus on functional homologies by performing a comparison between the circuitry connecting these players in plants and animals and find striking similarities, suggesting that comparable regulatory logics have been evolved for stem cell regulation in both kingdoms. (
  • Apparue d'abord dans le canton de Wuhan en Chine fin 2019, pratiquement plus aucun pays n'est épargné à ce jour. (
  • Here's an exclusive list of Plants that Look Like Marijuana! (
  • With overwhelming research touting the benefits of fruits and vegetables and rising concerns about the health crisis in the United States, what better time to bring edible plants back into focus by using them to create beautiful and functional landscapes. (
  • How are stems grown? (
  • In general, plants that are grown in fields with a high concentration of ground water calcium have higher concentrations of oxalate. (
  • STEM plant-based active ingredient bug spray is formulated with botanical extracts making it safe for use around people and pets when used as directed. (
  • When plant stem cell extracts are included in the skin care formulation, they bring amazing benefits to skin health such as high concentrations of antioxidants which are very beneficial in anti-ageing. (
  • The triterpenoid 21-beta moretenone was charctersed from the stem and leaf extracts of A. cocclus. (
  • Some varieties feature bright red stems, which add a pop of color to the plant. (
  • Teaching STEM effectively means not just knowing the subject matter itself, but knowing how to present it in ways that match the students' intellectual levels. (
  • Stem's scientists decade the power of nature to optimize plant botanicals to effectively and safely protect your family home + pets from pests (When used as directed). (
  • A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root. (
  • Once a stem or branch has broken off of the main plant, the vascular system that feeds and waters that limb is cut off. (
  • It was one of the most significant adaptations in terms of the evolution of plants, proven by the fact that vascular plants are the dominant organisms in the majority of land based ecosystems. (
  • A single plant typically has many vascular bundles that run the length of its stem or stems. (
  • The vascular bundles in eudicots are arranged in a ring whereas the vascular bundles in monocots are scattered throughout the stem. (
  • This red stem plant stands out with its vivid stems and bright green foliage. (
  • In addition, they studied plants deficient in salicylic acid, a key plant defense hormone. (
  • Begin by severing the stem, proceed by dipping the freshly cut end into a rooting hormone, and then place it into a pot replete with damp potting mix. (
  • Dip the bottom end of the stem in rooting hormone and stick in the tray one-half to 1 inch apart. (
  • Two beautiful stems of white orchids come dressed in a gorgeous 6" ceramic planter-the perfect gift for the plant lover in your life. (
  • The epidermis is responsible for growing skin and the ground meristem becomes the main volume of a stem. (
  • When viruses successfully infect plants, the infection often spreads through the entire organism. (
  • An organic farmer harvesting edible plant parts. (
  • However in the last century or so, we began to separate fruit and vegetable plants into their own garden spaces and fill our more formal landscape designs with lawns, shade trees and non-edible foundation plantings. (
  • Axillary bud: a bud which grows at the point of attachment of an older leaf with the stem. (
  • Holy basil is a plant that is native to India but also grows in Australia, West Africa, and some Middle Eastern countries. (
  • Different reprogramming propensities in plants and mammals: Are small variations in the core network wirings responsible? (
  • Rhizome: a horizontal underground stem that functions mainly in reproduction but also in storage, e.g. most ferns, iris. (