Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. SESQUITERPENES are found in some of the species.
Basic functional unit of plants.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The reproductive organs of plants.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Material prepared from plants.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
The reproductive cells of plants.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.

Replication in the phloem is not necessary for efficient vascular transport of tobacco mosaic tobamovirus. (1/1585)

Plant viruses move systemically from one leaf to another via phloem. However, the viral functions needed for systemic movement are not fully elucidated. An experimental system was designed to study the effects of low temperature on the vascular transport of the tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV). Vascular transport of TMV from lower inoculated leaves to upper non-inoculated leaves via a stem segment kept at low temperature (4 degrees C) was not affected. On the other hand, several experiments were performed on tobacco leaves to demonstrate that virus replication did not occur at the same temperature. The data suggest that replication of TMV in the phloem of wild-type tobacco plants is not necessary for the vascular transport of TMV, and that the virus moves with photoassimilates as suggested previously.  (+info)

Transformation of the collateral vascular bundles into amphivasal vascular bundles in an Arabidopsis mutant. (2/1585)

Arabidopsis inflorescence stems develop a vascular pattern similar to that found in most dicots. The arrangement of vascular tissues within the bundle is collateral, and vascular bundles in the stele are arranged in a ring. Although auxin has been shown to be an inducer of vascular differentiation, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling vascular pattern formation. By screening ethyl methanesufonate-mutagenized populations of Arabidopsis, we have isolated an avb1 (amphivasal vascular bundle) mutant with a novel vascular pattern. Unlike the collateral vascular bundles seen in the wild-type stems, the vascular bundles in the avb1 stems were similar to amphivasal bundles, i.e. the xylem completely surrounded the phloem. Furthermore, branching vascular bundles in the avb1 stems abnormally penetrated into the pith, which resulted in a disruption in the ring-like arrangement of vascular bundles in the stele. The avb1 mutation did not affect leaf venation pattern and root vascular organization. Auxin polar transport assay indicated that the avb1 mutation did not disrupt the auxin polar transport activity in inflorescence stems. The avb1 mutation also exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes, including curled stems and extra cauline branches. Genetic analysis indicated that the avb1 mutation was monogenic and partially dominant. The avb1 locus was mapped to a region between markers mi69 and ASB2, which is covered by a yeast artificial chromosome clone, CIC9E2, on chromosome 5. Isolation of the avb1 mutant provides a novel means to study the evolutionary mechanisms controlling the arrangement of vascular tissues within the bundle, as well as the mechanisms controlling the arrangement of vascular bundles in the stele.  (+info)

The irregular xylem3 locus of Arabidopsis encodes a cellulose synthase required for secondary cell wall synthesis. (3/1585)

The irregular xylem3 (irx3) mutant of Arabidopsis has a severe deficiency in secondary cell wall cellulose deposition that leads to collapsed xylem cells. The irx3 mutation has been mapped to the top arm of chromosome V near the marker nga106. Expressed sequence tag clone 75G11, which exhibits sequence similarity to cellulose synthase, was found to be tightly linked to irx3, and genomic clones containing the gene corresponding to clone 75G11 complemented the irx3 mutation. Thus, the IRX3 gene encodes a cellulose synthase component that is specifically required for the synthesis of cellulose in the secondary cell wall. The irx3 mutant allele contains a stop codon that truncates the gene product by 168 amino acids, suggesting that this allele is null. Furthermore, in contrast to radial swelling1 (rsw1) plants, irx3 plants show no increase in the accumulation of beta-1,4-linked glucose in the noncrystalline cell wall fraction. IRX3 and RSW1 fall into a distinct subgroup (Csa) of Arabidopsis genes showing homology to bacterial cellulose synthases.  (+info)

CUT1, an Arabidopsis gene required for cuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility, encodes a very-long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme. (4/1585)

Land plants secrete a layer of wax onto their aerial surfaces that is essential for survival in a terrestrial environment. This wax is composed of long-chain, aliphatic hydrocarbons derived from very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Using the Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag database, we have identified a gene, designated CUT1, that encodes a VLCFA condensing enzyme required for cuticular wax production. Sense suppression of CUT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants results in waxless (eceriferum) stems and siliques as well as conditional male sterility. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this was a severe waxless phenotype, because stems of CUT1-suppressed plants were completely devoid of wax crystals. Furthermore, chemical analyses of waxless plants demonstrated that the stem wax load was reduced to 6 to 7% of wild-type levels. This value is lower than that reported for any of the known eceriferum mutants. The severe waxless phenotype resulted from the downregulation of both the decarbonylation and acyl reduction wax biosynthetic pathways. This result indicates that CUT1 is involved in the production of VLCFA precursors used for the synthesis of all stem wax components in Arabidopsis. In CUT1-suppressed plants, the C24 chain-length wax components predominate, suggesting that CUT1 is required for elongation of C24 VLCFAs. The unique wax composition of CUT1-suppressed plants together with the fact that the location of CUT1 on the genetic map did not coincide with any of the known ECERIFERUM loci suggest that we have identified a novel gene involved in wax biosynthesis. CUT1 is currently the only known gene with a clearly established function in wax production.  (+info)

Feedback regulation of GA5 expression and metabolic engineering of gibberellin levels in Arabidopsis. (5/1585)

The gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase encoded by the GA5 gene of Arabidopsis directs GA biosynthesis to active GAs, whereas that encoded by the P16 gene of pumpkin endosperm leads to biosynthesis of inactive GAs. Negative feedback regulation of GA5 expression was demonstrated in stems of Arabidopsis by bioactive GAs but not by inactive GA. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing P16, there was a severe reduction in the amounts of C20-GA intermediates, accumulation of large amounts of inactive GA25 and GA17, a reduction in GA4 content, and a small increase in GA1. However, due to feedback regulation, expression of GA5 and GA4, the gene coding for the subsequent 3beta-hydroxylase, was greatly increased to compensate for the effects of the P16 transgene. Consequently, stem height was only slightly reduced in the transgenic plants.  (+info)

Responses of plant vascular systems to auxin transport inhibition. (6/1585)

To assess the role of auxin flows in plant vascular patterning, the development of vascular systems under conditions of inhibited auxin transport was analyzed. In Arabidopsis, nearly identical responses evoked by three auxin transport inhibitor substances revealed an enormous plasticity of the vascular pattern and suggest an involvement of auxin flows in determining the sites of vascular differentiation and in promoting vascular tissue continuity. Organs formed under conditions of reduced auxin transport contained increased numbers of vascular strands and cells within those strands were improperly aligned. In leaves, vascular tissues became progressively confined towards the leaf margin as the concentration of auxin transport inhibitor was increased, suggesting that the leaf vascular system depends on inductive signals from the margin of the leaf. Staged application of auxin transport inhibitor demonstrated that primary, secondary and tertiary veins became unresponsive to further modulations of auxin transport at successive stages of early leaf development. Correlation of these stages to anatomical features in early leaf primordia indicated that the pattern of primary and secondary strands becomes fixed at the onset of lamina expansion. Similar alterations in the leaf vascular responses of alyssum, snapdragon and tobacco plants suggest common functions of auxin flows in vascular patterning in dicots, while two types of vascular pattern alterations in Arabidopsis auxin transport mutants suggest that at least two distinct primary defects can result in impaired auxin flow. We discuss these observations with regard to the relative contributions of auxin transport, auxin sensitivity and the cellular organisation of the developing organ on the vascular pattern.  (+info)

Two cytosolic cyclophilin genes of Arabidopsis thaliana differently regulated in temporal- and organ-specific expression. (7/1585)

We have previously isolated two closely related genes (ATCYP1 and ATCYP2) each encoding a cytosolic cyclophilin of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we tested expression patterns of these two genes by Northern analysis and by histochemical analysis with transgenic plants carrying the promoter: beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion. The results showed that ATCYP1 is predominantly transcribed in vascular tissue and flowers, but ATCYP2 is at higher levels in younger leaves. The different expression patterns seemed to be conferred by the quite different promoter structures carrying various cis elements. Our finding suggests that the two cyclophilins have different roles in Arabidopsis thaliana cells.  (+info)

Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) chromodomain show developmental alterations: possible role of Pc chromodomain proteins in chromatin-mediated gene regulation in plants. (8/1585)

The chromodomain of the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) protein has been introduced into tobacco nuclei to determine its location in the nucleus and its effect on plant development. Pc is a repressor of homeotic Drosophila genes that shares a well-conserved, although not identical, chromodomain with a structural heterochromatin component, Heterochromatin Protein 1. The chromodomains might therefore play a common role in chromatin repression. An analysis of transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain, which was linked to the green fluorescent protein, suggested that the Pc chromodomain has distinct target regions in the plant genome. Transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain had phenotypic abnormalities in their leaves and flowers, indicating a disruption in development. In axillary shoot buds of plants displaying altered leaf phenotypes, enhanced expression of a homeodomain gene, which is downregulated in wild-type leaves, was found. In Drosophila, Pc has been shown to possess distinct chromosome binding activity and to be involved in the regulation of development-specific genes. Our results support the assumptions that the heterologous chromodomain affects related functions in Drosophila and in plants, and that chromatin modification mechanisms are involved in the regulation of certain plant genes, in a manner similar to chromatin-mediated gene regulation in Drosophila.  (+info)

The sensitivity of water stress indicators to changing moisture availability, and their variability, determine the number of measurements that should be taken in order to represent properly plant water status in a certain orchard. In the present study we examined the sensitivity and variability of maximum daily trunk shrinkage, midday stem water potential, and daily transpiration rate in their responses to withholding irrigation from field-grown drip-irrigated `Golden delicious apple trees in a commercial orchard. Irrigation was withheld from the stressed trees for 17 days starting in mid-July, and the control trees were irrigated daily at 100% of the Class A pan evaporation rate. The courses of daily transpiration rate, maximum trunk shrinkage, and midday stem water potential before and 10 days after the drying period were similar in the control and the stressed trees. Highly significant differences between the stressed and the control trees in their midday stem water potentials were ...
A surgical instrument (10) includes a handle (12), a rigid stem section (20) extending from the handle, and a flexible stem section (24) extending from the rigid stem section. A surgical tool (30) connected with a distal end of the flexible stem section (24) includes a movable part (34). The flexible stem section (24) comprises a plurality of relatively pivotable vertebrae (120-129) extending along the flexible stem section and an extension spring (150) extending axially through the plurality of vertebrae for transmitting axial load between the surgical tool (30) and the rigid stem section (20). An actuator cable (180) extends through the extension spring (150) and is connected with the movable tool part (34) for applying force to the movable tool part to move the movable tool part relative to the flexible stem section (24). The extension spring (150) carries the axial load on the flexible stem section (24).
Please see How to Join the STEM Community You may also contact the STEM developers New Contributors to STEM are always welcome. This includes not only researchers interested in disease modeling but also experts in GIS data or any other data that might be important in understanding or modeling the spread of infectious disease. We also welcome input from users and contributions to our documentation. To contribute to STEM, please use the standard Eclipse process. Open a bug in our bugzilla ( A bug can be more than just a new defect - it can also be a new feature or other contribution. You can attach your contribution as a patch to your bug ( Please also feel free to e-mail the STEM development team, many of whom are Eclipse Committers The STEM Development Team. For those interested in joining the project, we also have a weekly phone call and a newsgroup, etc. ...
Matthew Davis is a graduate of the University of Oklahoma where he earned both his BS and MS in computer science. During his time at OU, he spent a significant amount of time developing a series of web portals with the aim of aiding in building student communities. These applications were later open sourced and adopted by several universities across the United States. Additionally, he spent time teaching in the computer science department at OU, primarily as an instructor for a senior-level computer graphics course. During the summer of 2006, Matt participated in the IBM Extreme Blue internship program at Almaden. He later joined IBM Research where, as an Eclipse Committer on the OHF project he helped develop the Eclipse Open Healthcare Framework (OHF) Bridge. The OHF Bridge is a web services platform that enables access to OHF actor profiles from non-Java applications. Matt is currently working on a server side implementation of STEM. ([email protected] ...
Trichomes were isolated from stems (2 weeks after cut back), approximately 8-12 in. long, clipped from plants 2-3 in. above the crown. With minimal handling of the stems, the apical buds, leaves, and nodes were excised and discarded, while the internode segments were frozen by immersion in liquid nitrogen. Small batches of frozen stem segments (approximately 20-30 pieces) were placed in 50 ml plastic polypropylene screw-cap tubes containing liquid nitrogen with the lids loosened. After the nitrogen had evaporated, the tube was vortexed for 45 s to shear off the trichomes. The tube was immediately placed back in liquid nitrogen, and the stem segments removed. The collected trichome was divided into two parts equally: one part was used to isolate RNA for Microarray experiments and another part was used for metabolite profiling ...
Trichomes were isolated from stems (2 weeks after cut back), approximately 8-12 in. long, clipped from plants 2-3 in. above the crown. With minimal handling of the stems, the apical buds, leaves, and nodes were excised and discarded, while the internode segments were frozen by immersion in liquid nitrogen. Small batches of frozen stem segments (approximately 20-30 pieces) were placed in 50 ml plastic polypropylene screw-cap tubes containing liquid nitrogen with the lids loosened. After the nitrogen had evaporated, the tube was vortexed for 45 s to shear off the trichomes. The tube was immediately placed back in liquid nitrogen, and the stem segments removed. The collected trichome was divided into two parts equally: one part was used to isolate RNA for Microarray experiments and another part was used for metabolite profiling ...
Physiological effects of irrigation frequency, at the same irrigation volume, have received little attention but might determine crop yield and water use efficiency. Potted plants of two species, tomato and basil, received two irrigation treatments that both supplied the same irrigation volume (75% of that received by a well-watered treatment - WW), but either frequently (once or twice per day-FDI) or infrequently (every three days-IDI). Stem diameter variations, whole-plant gas exchange, root and leaf water potential, and foliar hormones were monitored for 11 days after applying the treatments, and whole-plant biomass accumulation determined at the end of that period. Treatments showed temporal and spatial differences in soil moisture, with FDI resulting in a wet upper layer and dry lower layer. In both species, water stress integral in IDI was three-fold higher than in FDI, and gas exchange lower than FDI plants. Despite these differences, both treatments accumulated biomass and stem diameter ...
This proto relies on set vs. unset primitive-typed fields. syntax = proto3; package hotels.knowledge_base.external; option java_package =; option java_multiple_files = true; // LodgingList is a wrapper message to store multiple Lodging instances. message LodgingList { repeated Lodging lodgings = 1; } // Lodging represents factual information for a single property that provides // accomodations. message Lodging { // REQUIRED. Metadata metadata = 1; // REQUIRED. Unique Place ID identifier for the property. // // Example: ChIJrTLr-GyuEmsRBfy61i59si0. string place_id = 6; Property property = 12; Services services = 13; Policies policies = 14; FoodAndDrink food_and_drink = 15; Pools pools = 16; Wellness wellness = 17; Activities activities = 18; Transportation transportation = 19; Families families = 20; Connectivity connectivity = 21; Business business = 22; Accessibility ...
Description Vintage Japanese kenzan flower frog plant stem holder for use with Ikebana flower arrangements. This heavy metal device takes the form of overlapping circles creating numerous slots which are used to hold plant stems when arranging floral elements in an ikebana flower arrangement. The holder is in good condition with no cracks though…
While the recommended time to prune abelia is before spring growth initiates, the actual pruning time is often variable and dependent upon labor and plant appearance. As abelia suffers from freeze damage north of zone 8A, pruning may have an impact on the level of freeze damage. Six Abelia genotypes were established in replicated field plots in Griffin, Ga., in 1999. On 3-4 July 2003, half the individuals of each genotype were severely pruned (75% of growth removed). Subsequently, 80 uniform-sized stem tips were randomly collected from plants of each genotype-treatment combination once per month from Oct. 2003 through Apr. 2004. Stem sections were exposed to predetermined temperatures ranging from -3 °C to -27 °C in a temperature bath. The number of stem sections killed in each of two replications out of four possible stem sections was recorded (0 = none dead; 4 = all dead). Data were analyzed with SAS using the Genmod procedure to acquire seasonal results as well as with PROC GLM and means ...
Stalk lodging (breakage of plant stems prior to harvest) is a major problem for both farmers and plant breeders. A limiting factor in addressing this problem is the lack of a reliable method for phenotyping stalk strength. Previous methods of phenotyping stalk strength induce failure patterns different from those observed in natural lodging events. This paper describes a new device for field-based phenotyping of stalk strength called
How plant stems grow into different shapes on Wyss Institute | It is well known that as plants grow, their stems and shoots respond to outside signals like…
With his explanation stem tissue procedure for throughout the globe, it seems like there are lots of possible perks to become had. Like everything, however, there are actually always inquiries to inquire your medical professional. Perform your research study on each one of your possibilities before selecting which approach corrects for you.. As you examine various strategies of therapy, inquire on your own if you think it is going to really operate. Otherwise, make an effort one that seems encouraging. Also, see to it that you fit with the medical group servicing the stem tissue treatment for you.. Yet another point that you should do is to be straightforward with your medical professional. Be honest regarding what sort of complications you have, what you may afford, and also if you believe you can take advantage of this kind of tissue treatment.. In the case of stalk cell treatment, the effectiveness price is actually extremely high. With the brand-new research study as well as technology, you ...
Duffin Cove Oceanfront Lodging: We got a nice suite with a full kitchen which was... - See 227 traveler reviews, 162 candid photos, and great deals for Duffin Cove Oceanfront Lodging at TripAdvisor.
Lets talk about plants, from the roots up.. Roots are the pipelines, the feeder roads if you will. Leaves are the factories. The flowers/fruits are the press agents and research and development department. And last, but not least, the stems are the superhighway that keeps everything connected.. ...
The lodging of maize, sorghum and tobacco has caused insufficient illumination, and in turn enormously limited crop yields for a long time. Meanwhile, it has also caused great difficulties in crop mechanized harvesting, thus a lot of grains have...
Pet friendly and gorgeous! This one a kind plant can transform ant indoor space into a tropical oasis. Keep in mind, this one does prefer warm conditions, so keep it indoors in the cold Melbourne winters.
Plant stems are one of the major organs required for long-distance transport of water and biomolecules. In the outline below you will learn about different types and features of stems.. ...
PharmaBoardroom provides industry trends, news and reports from all over the world. This site is for senior professionals who want to understand local and global markets.. ...
So, here is a round up of some of the essential audio/video streams from the somewhat recent past (mostly). Im pretty sure that I am leaving something out, so leave a comment and let me know whats missing (or not). Listen. THE BANDCAMPS PITH by Melkbelly PITH by Melkbelly […] more… ...
Unlike roots, which branch at irregular intervals and do not bear organs such as leaves or reproductive structures, stems have a definite pattern of organization that consists of alternating nodes and internodes. Each node is a point on a stem at which an organ is attached. Adjacent nodes are separated by an internode, a zone that lacks any attached organs ...
Tan disease definition is - a condition of roots or woody stems caused by excessive moisture in which brownish or white granular or woolly patches consisting of dead cells form on the surface.
Disclaimer: These resources are regularly reviewed to ensure that links still work correctly and the resources listed continue to be helpful to our visitors. If you find that a link isnt working or information is incorrect or if youd like to have your own organization listed here, please email [email protected] Because we want to be sure that our visitors find the most relevant resources, we encourage you to visit the organizations website for more detailed information.. ...
The bars are quite comfortable, and not spongy like the Billsam bars proved to be. Its a little scary to make an integrated bar stem combo since you are loosing the ability to adjust. The bar angle is set, and if you dont like it, well, start over! If the stem length is wrong, you cant just run out and get a new stem. Theres a reason that we tend to use separate parts! BUT if you get it right, its pretty sweet. (the verdict is still out, of course, but the unnamed client is the same size as me, and I find it all very comfy!). ...
Nous avons utilisé la lignée épithéliale intestinale de crypte de rat IEC-6 afin de mieux comprendre le rôle des C/EBPs dans la différenciation et la prolifération de lintestin. Nous avons vérifié lexpression des ARNm ...
Willoaks Campground, Woodstock: See traveller reviews, candid photos, and great deals for Willoaks Campground, ranked #2 of 2 specialty lodging in Woodstock and rated 5 of 5 at TripAdvisor.
Ware Twigloo Large. Give your small animal something to really chew on! The Ware Twigloo is an all natural twig bungalow your animal can safely nibble on.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the proceedings published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this proceedings volume ...
The researchers used a well-characterized transgenic mouse that expresses a mutant gene present in humans and forms Alzheimers plaques (similar to the ones found in humans) in the brain starting at about 11 to 12 months. One group of mice received vitamin E at five months, before plaques start to form. Another group started at 14 months--a time when much plaque had already been deposited--with the same amount of vitamin E. They followed each group for eight months and compared their outcome with controls that did not receive vitamin E. The young group showed a 50 percent reduction in the number of plaques deposited in brain tissue as compared to the older mice. This group didnt show any significant difference in plaque reduction as compared to controls, suggesting that once the plaque is deposited theres very little that an antioxidant can do, says Praticò. This finding also indicates that other mechanisms may play a role in the disease once established ...
Phytopathology 103:1153-1161...Phytopathology 103:1153-1161...Allele Characterization of Genes Required for rpg4-Mediated Wheat Stem Rust Resistance Identifies Rpg5 as the R Gene...D. Arora, T. Gross, and R. Brueggeman...
Here you will find updated listings of coir pith manufacturers, coir pith suppliers and exporters. The entire range of coir pith are manufactured by these companies are high in demand for their good quality.
Download Green,Leaf,Plant,Tree,Soil,Botany,Plant stem,Organism,Grass,Adaptation,Clip art,Flower,Arbor day,Graphics,Houseplant,Illustration,Green,Leaf,Plant,Tree,Soil,Botany,Plant stem,Organism,Grass,Adaptation,Clip art,Flower,Arbor day,Graphics,Houseplant,Illustration png for free
Garden Roses Plant Stem Flower Rose With Stem Orange . This image is support for PNG. Feel free to download Garden Roses Plant Stem Flower Rose With Stem Orange here
Rice dwarf mutants d61-1 and d61-2 were obtained independently by mutagenesis with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (Figure 1B). These were initially characterized as two independent mutants, because the culm of d61-2 is much shorter than that of d61-1. In addition, d61-1 shows a typical dm-type pattern of internode elongation, whereas d61-2 shows the d6-type (Figure 1C). However, crosses between these mutants demonstrated that they are alleles of a single locus. To our knowledge, this is the only case of rice mutants of a single locus that show different, specific patterns of inhibition of internode elongation.. The phenotypes of these mutants are abnormal in other respects. For example, the neck internode of the mutants is longer than that of wild-type plants (Figure 1D). The neck internode length shows an inverse relationship to the length of culm in these plants, such that wild-type plants have the longest culm and shortest neck internode, the d61-1 mutant has intermediate length culm and neck ...
lake eden, lake eden events, lake eden lodging, lake eden events and lodging, lake eden events & lodging, blue ridge mountains, reception, black mountain,
This article reveals impact of lodging on wheat productivity and quality. Significant yield reduction has been recorded in past few years only due to lodging. Hence, identification of potential plant traits is required to assist breeding programmes to release lodging tolerant high yielding wheat varieties. Standardization of agronomic practices can also contribute significantly to avoid crop lodging.
HAILED SOYBEANS MAY COMPENSATE BUT WATCH FOR DISEASE. Yield loss in soybeans is determined on the stage of growth of the soybeans at the time of damage and the degree of plant damage. Damage can be due to leaf defoliation, stand reduction, stem damage and pod damage. The calendar date and pest control later also affect ultimate yield.. Check stands 7-10 days after a storm to determine the stand reduction. Determine the current stand versus the original stand. Count these losses as total losses if the plants are totally damaged below the cotyledons. Shredded or cut stems may lead to bruised plant stems. Mild bruising may only break in the outer stem tissue but severe bruising may expose the central stem tissue and lead to more loses. Unfortunately, bruised stems that recover may break any time before harvest as they are weakened. They may lodge and make harvest very difficult. It is very difficult to determine yield loss from bruised plants until harvest.. Defoliation is a measure of the leaf ...
Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter, a tetraploid cereal of Ethiopia, has a tall and slender stem susceptible to lodging causing yield loss of ~15-45% each year. Genes conferring lodging resistance through the control of plant ...
Trees or shrubs, rarely forming mats, erect, usually many branched. Stem segments firmly attached to easily dislodged, straight to curved, cylindric to slightly clavate, 2-40(-50) × 0.3-5.5 cm, usually glabrous, tuberculate; areoles elliptic, circular, ovate, obovate, or obdeltate to rhombic, 0.7-5 mm diam.; wool white, yellow, or tan to brown. Spines with whole epidermis sheath deciduous; major spines not or only basally angularly flattened. Glochids usually in tuft at adaxial margin, yellow to brown. Flowers bisexual or sometimes functionally pistillate, radially symmetric; outer tepals green with margins tinged color of the inner; inner tepals yellow-green, yellow to bronze, or red to magenta, spatulate, emarginate-apiculate. Pollen spinulo-punctate, not reticulate (cylindropuntioid type). Fruits, if fleshy, green, yellow, or scarlet, sometimes tinged red to purple or, if dry, tan to brown, cylindric to subspheric, sometimes clavate, fleshy or dry, spineless or spiny; areoles bearing short ...
Banking sources back in February 2015 told this author that the cards compromised in this most recent incident looked like they were stolen from many of the same White Lodging locations implicated in the 2014 breach, including hotels in Austin, Texas, Bedford Park, Ill., Denver, Indianapolis, and Louisville, Kentucky. Those sources said the compromises appear once again to be tied to hacked cash registers at food and beverage establishments within the White Lodging run hotels. The sources said the fraudulent card charges that stemmed from the breach ranged from mid-September 2014 to January 2015.. In a press release issued April 8, 2015, White Lodging announced the suspected breach of point of sales systems at food and beverage outlets, such as restaurants and lounges, from the period July 3, 2014 through February 6, 2015 at 10 properties.. While it acknowledged some of the locations breached this time around were the same as last years victim locations, the company emphasized that this was a ...
0 software package for Windows. Lodging resistance was used as the dependent variable, while lignin, cellulose, AOVB, NOVB, AOT and WOMT were used as independent variables. Potential microsatellite markers linked to stem solidness genes were identified by screening the F2 population using bulked segregant analysis. DNA was extracted from young leaf tissues using the CTAB method. The solid and hollow stem DNA pools were composed of 5 solid and 5 hollow stemmed F2 plants, respectively. Along with the parental DNA, the bulked DNA samples were used to screen 607 SSR markers (210 GWM [19] and 397 BARC [20]). The PCR mixture. (20 μL) consisted of 2.0 μL of 10 × buffer, 1.6 μL of Mg2 + (25 mmol L− 1), 2.0 μL of dNTP (2 mmol L− 1), 2.0 μL of DNA (10-20 ng μL− 1), 2.0 μL of primer (2 μmol L− 1), 0.2 μL of Taq DNA polymerase (5 Caspase inhibitor U μL− 1), and 10.2 μL of ddH2O and was subjected to a thermocycler program of 94 °C for 5 min; Pembrolizumab order followed by 30 cycles at ...
Journal de radiologie - Vol. 84 - N° 7-8 - p. 851-854 - Langiomyolipome rénal épithélioïde : tumeur bénigne ou maligne ? - EM|consulte
An apparatus which includes a growing container in which plants are hydroponically grown on a support medium is disclosed. The growing container includes a plurality of openings in which seals are installed. The seals include holes through which the plants grow. When seeds are planted, a hollow tube is placed through the seal hole to maintain the seed in position. After the seed germinates, it grows through the tube. As continued growth expands the plants stem to the size of the tube, the tube breaks apart and does not constrain future plant growth. Moreover, as the plant grows further, the seal hole expands to accommodate the plant stem. The seal surrounds and contacts the plant stem to reduce evaporation of nutrient solution from the growing container and to keep insects and contamination out of the growing container. A holding container is positioned above the growing container and coupled to the growing container through a manifold arrangement. The holding container may be quickly filled with a
SW 5512Y is a high yielding medium recovery type suited for hay and haylage production where moderate speed of regrowth initiation is desired after cutting. As a lodging tolerant variety, SW5512Y is especially well-suited to growing situations that may lead to lodging. Compared to other varieties, SW5512Y can exhibit reduced lodging in situations of heavy manure application, irrigation from overhead sprinklers, or rain that leads to harvest delays and increased lodging potential, especially when accompanied by wind.. The first cut is the heaviest cutting of the year, and most susceptible to lodging. The lodging tolerant characteristic of SW5512Y helps maintain yield of the heavy first cut, and can help maintain forage quality of second and later cuttings through the reduction of long trailing uncut stems that often remain after cutting a lodged crop. Such uncut stems become less digestible, leading to forage quality reduction if harvested in subsequent cuttings. ...
Lodging Interactive has given support to many organizations that work to better our communities and that help the people of the community better themselves.
Sundance lodging - is your source for information and resources on ski lodges, ski resorts, ski travel, and ski vacation resorts; ski lodging
Duffin Cove Oceanfront Lodging, Tofino Picture: View from balcony - Check out TripAdvisor members 7,057 candid photos and videos of Duffin Cove Oceanfront Lodging
Description from Flora of China. Climbing shrubs, large, deciduous. Floral branchlets glabrous, rarely strigose, lenticels very conspicuous; pith brown, lamellate, or sometimes solid; buds densely rusty strigose; two-year-old branches grayish, with rugose striae when dry, lenticels dehiscent or not, pith brown, lamellate. Petiole reddish, 2-8 cm, glabrous, rarely strigose; leaf blade abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green, ovate to broadly ovate to obovate or elliptic, 5-12 × 3.5-8.5 cm, abaxially glabrous except for barbate vein axils, adaxially glabrous or occasionally strigillose, midvein and lateral veins conspicuous abaxially, slightly sulcate adaxially, lateral veins 6-8 pairs, reticulate veins subconspicuous to conspicuous, with slightly raised parallel cross-bars, base broadly cuneate to rounded to truncate or cordate, margin setose-serrate to serrate to undulate-serrate or subentire, tips of serrations usually callose, apex acute to acuminate to obtuse or rounded. Inflorescences ...
Growth and morphology of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) culms and their association with lodging: effects of genotypes, N levels and ...
Stems present photosynthetic tissues, such as leaves, favourable exposure to light, whilst also allowing flowers favourable display for pollinators. Plant stems vascular tissues distribute substances to and from roots, leaves and other plant parts. Dicot stems have vascular bundles arrayed as a cylinder that separates the ground tissue into cortex and pith; whilst monocot stems have vascular bundles distributed throughout the ground tissues. The photosynthetic parenchyma cells are located between the upper and lower epidermis layer of leaves, whit abundant air spaces surrounding them. Plentiful openings, or stomata, in the lower epidermal layer allow water vapour and gasses to move across the waxy cuticle ...
Plant stems grow through a process of elongation due to cell divisions within the stem. Does the entire length of the stem elongate evenly? Or do certain regions along the plant stem grow more or less than others? Regions that are involved in active growth are called vegetative. You can conduct an experiment to show which regions of a bean seedling are involved in vegetative growth. Use a marker to mark one inch sections along the main stem of a young bean seedling. Number the regions 1-6 along the stem from the root to the shoot. Keep a daily log by measuring each region along the stem for a week or so. Do any of the regions elongate? Which regions show the most elongation? Which regions show the least elongation? What do you think would happen if you tried the same experiment with another species? What if you tried it with an older more mature plant? Will light or temperature effect the rate of growth? (VanCleave, 1993, 69-74; Vecchione, 2001, 150-151 ...
SI}} ==Overview== The medullary ray is the middle part of the [[Cortical lobule,cortical lobule or renal lobule]], consisting of a group of straight tubes to the [[collecting ducts]]. Their name is potentially misleading -- the medullary refers to their destination, not their location. They are located only in the [[renal cortex]], and not in the [[renal medulla]].,ref>{{KansasHistology,urinary,renal04}} ,/ref> Medullary rays can also refer to a characteristic found in woods. In this context the term refers to radial sheets or ribbons extending vertically through the tree across and perpendicular to the growth rings. Also called pith rays or wood rays, these formations of primarily parenchyma cells allow the radial transmission of sap. In quartersawn material, where the wood is cut in to boards with the growth rings roughly perpendicular to the face of the board, the medullary rays often produce beautiful figure such as silver grain, medullary spots, pith flecks, etc.,ref ...
Les cellules épithéliales pulmonaires constituent la première ligne de défense face aux virus respiratoires via la sécrétion de mucus, de peptides, de cytokines et chimiokines qui déterminent lélimination ou la progression de linfection. Les principales cytokines antivirales produites par les cellules épithéliales alvéolaires (AEC) sont les interférons (IFN) type I (α/β) et III (λ). La liaison dIFNβ à son récepteur induit une voie antivirale bien caractérisée qui aboutit à lactivation du complexe ISGF3 (STAT1, STAT2 et IRF9) qui permet la transcription de multiples gènes codant pour des protéines à activité antivirale et immunorégulatrice. Il a récemment été démontré que la costimulation des cellules épithéliales pulmonaires par lIFNβ et le Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα), également produit lors dune infection, synergisent pour induire un état antiviral tardif distinct. Dautre part, il a été montré que la synergie entre le TNFα et lIFNβ induit ...
Extra-stelar secondary growth of the dicot stem is discussed below under the two headings: Formation of periderm: i) At the advent of extra-stelar secondar
9 Tips for Stone Crusher Plant Design A desirable stone crusher plant design means less up-front investment and more late-stage revenues for the investors. This article will offer you 9 tips to obtain a desirable design. A desirabl
Showing all ski vacation lodging deals for available accommodations in Steamboat Springs that are nearby which offer the following amenities: Slopeside or Ski-in/Ski-out
The first thing youll probably hear when it comes to saving some bucks on road trip lodging is go camping! But not all families are into the outdoors, and youre just asking for bad attitudes if you go Clark Griswold and try to force them into it. If your husband and kids are nature challenged, then a hotel will probably be more to more to their liking. Roadside motels usually have great rates, but if your family refuses to camp, they may also boycott the meager accommodations of a roach motel.. Just like with meals, planning for your hotel stays is a must. Plot your stops ahead of time and try to stick to that schedule. Once you know your stayover points, use the Internet to find discounted deals. You might also want to consider joining AAA, which offers savings on pretty much all hotels in the country and a roadside assistance policy that can be helpful in a pinch.. ...
KOTA KINABALU: A lodging centre will be built here for family members from outstation accompanying patients seeking inpatient treatment at government hospitals.
Net Revenues increased 42.6% year-over-year for the third quarter of 2012, exceeding the high end of the previously announced guidance by 3% Adjusted EBITDA from operating hotels 1 increased 54.3% year-over-year to RMB284.3 million 2 for the third quarter Adjusted net income attributable to China Lodging Group, Limited increased 63.8% year-over-year to RMB103.6 million for the third quarter.
hotel management agreement make aspects profitable owners assistance negotiating third party management agreements lodging food beverage services.
Through this web portal, you can learn more about the inspection process and view recent inspection reports for food and lodging establishments throughout Vermont.
S. 1832. A bill to prohibit Federal agencies from using Government funds to pay for the lodging of agency employees at establishments that are owned by or employ certain public officials or their relatives. In, a database of bills in the U.S. Congress.
Best Recife Speciality Lodging on TripAdvisor: Find 1,962 traveller reviews, 1,409 candid photos, and prices for 30 accommodations in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil.
Fox, S.L., DePauw, R.M., Humphreys, D.G., Hucl, P.J., Singh, A.K., Pozniak, C.J., Brown, P.D., Graf, R.J., Randhawa, H.S., Voldeng, H.D., McCartney, C.A., Hiebert, C.W., Knox, R.E., Thomas, J.B., Townley-Smith, L., et Fetch Jr., T.G. (2011). « Canadian initiatives in breeding for stem rust resistance to race Ug99 and variants. », Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) 2011 Technical Workshop, St. Paul, MN, USA, June 13-16, 2011, p. 121-126 ...
The topic of carbohydrates for horses has gotten a lot of people asking questions and has created a certain amount of confusion, particularly when comparing carbohydrates in equine diets to human dietary recommendations. Starches, carbohydrates, sugars, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), among others, are terms thrown around for equine diets, and all those terms can get very intimidating, when it comes to what these nutrients mean to your horse and how much your horse needs or doesnt need. Here is a list of each of the common terms, and what they include:. ...
Clean the lemons with a vegetable brush and incredibly hot water to get rid of any reside of pesticides or wax; pat the lemons dry. Carefully zest the lemons with a zester or vegetable peeler so there is not any white pith around the peel. Be aware: Use just the outer part of the rind. The pith, the white element underneath the rind, is too bitter and would spoil your limoncello. Take a look at my Web content regarding how to Zest. The 1st step: In a large glass jar (1-gallon jar), incorporate just one bottle of vodka; increase the lemon zest as it really is zested. Deal with the jar and Allow sit at room temperature for a minimum of (10) ten times and as much as (40) times inside a cool darkish spot ...
Patterned after a corn stem, this monocot model shows the various layers of a plant stem and other vital structures. Anatomy of the stem is displayed in two different sections, and includes a detailed key for identification of structures.
The up-to-date report of Ultra Hard Material Cutting Machines market offers an in-depth examination of all the crucial parameters such as primary growth determinants
Plants medium sized, forming loose mats or more often becoming pendulous, glossy green or yellowish-green. Primary stems creeping; rhizoids clustered, beneath stems where attached to substrate, smooth or weakly papillose. Secondary stems often pendent, regularly to irregularly pinnately branched; in cross-section outer 2-3 rows of cells small, thick-walled, inner cells larger, thin-walled, central strand weak or absent; paraphyllia and pseudoparaphyllia absent. Stem leaves erect to squarrose-recurved, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, usually somewhat concave, apex acute to long acuminate, base cordate, sheathing or clasping stem; margins plane to recurved or distally incurved, serrulate distally; costae single, 1/2-3/4 lamina length; median cells linear-flexuose, smooth; lower and basal cells elongate, often porose; alar cells differentiated, rectangular-rounded, porose or not. Branch leaves erect to squarrose-recurved, broadly to narrowly ovate to elliptical or ovate-lanceolate, apex broadly acute to ...
Farmers and other astute observers of nature have long known that crops like corn and sorghum grow taller at night. But the biochemical mechanisms that control this nightly stem elongation, common to most plants, have been something of a mystery to biologists -- until now.
Farmers and other astute observers of nature have long known that crops like corn and sorghum grow taller at night. But the biochemical mechanisms that control this nightly stem elongation, common to most plants, have been ...
Plants small to occasionally medium sized, forming tufts or thin mats, glossy green to yellowish-green or golden. Primary stems short and inconspicuous, or conspicuous and creeping and spreading. Secondary stems erect to ascending, or stems and branches spreading or subascending, spirally foliate or complanate; pseudoparaphyllia apparently absent; radiculose below. Leaves ovate- to oblong-lanceolate or obovate-oblong symmetric or asymmetric, apex acuminate, acute or obtuse-apiculate, base slightly decurrent on one or both sides; margins plane to recurved, entire to bluntly or sharply serrate, bordered; costae single, 1/3-3/4 lamina length, sometimes forked along costa; laminal cells either short to ± long hexagonal and walls weak or lax, or cells oval to rhomboidal and walls firm; alar region undifferentiated (occasionally border cells at base numerous and extend part or fully across to costa). Propagula absent or present in leaf axial, short to long cylindrical. Autoicous, rarely dioicous. ...
Plant hormones and growth regulators are chemicals that affect flowering, aging, root growth, distortion and killing of organs, prevention or promotion of stem elongation, color enhancement of fruit, prevention of leafing and/or leaf fall, and many other conditions. Ann Marie VanDerZanden , Jul 2012 , Article ...
A soft, fleshy perennial with a swollen stem base, red-tinged stems and white or pink flowers in summer. It is an attractive, shade garden plant and pot.... ...
Two separate sleeping areas (bedroom + large living area) with 1 bathroom. Includes fully equipped kitchenette and private lanai. Sleeps 3 comfortably. Limited Availability. ...
Find listings of Key West hotels, motels, inns, guest houses, vacation rentals & all Key West accommodations here at
For a relatively small country, the Netherlands offers a wide range of places to stay, from standard hotels to seaside vacation parks and former
In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems. ... Gymnosperm stems[edit]. All gymnosperms are woody plants. Their stems are similar in structure to woody dicots except that most ... Climbing: stems that cling or wrap around other plants or structures.. *Corm: a short enlarged underground, storage stem, e.g. ... The arrangement of the vascular tissues varies widely among plant species. Dicot stems[edit]. Dicot stems with primary growth ...
... hollow plant stems; flax bushes; dead rolled fronds of tree-ferns; the abandoned cocoons of the bag-moth Liothula omnivora; ...
Dwarfing is an important agronomic quality for wheat; dwarf plants produce thick stems. The cultivars Borlaug worked with had ... Then we'd take the seed from the best plants south and plant it at high elevation, when days were getting longer and there was ... He was awarded the Danforth Award for Plant Science by the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, Missouri in ... Stakman advised him to focus on plant pathology instead. He subsequently enrolled at the university to study plant pathology ...
69-89, doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-0118-9_2, ISBN 9781468401189 "Plant Anatomy_Free Hand Sectioning , Microscope , Plant Stem". ... Plant microtechnique is also a study providing valuable experimental information. Plant microtechnique involves classical ... Main article: Histology Since few plant tissues have a color, there is little chromatically difference between plant tissues ... This technique can be used for the preparation of tissue of animals and plants. For using under optical microscopy, the ...
Plants with short, compact, upright stems. Adromischus maximus Adromischus sphenophyllus Adromischus maculatus Adromischus ... The name comes from the ancient Greek adros (=thick) and mischos (=stem). The species of Adromischus are divided into five ... Adromischus is a genus of flowering plants. They are easily propagated leaf succulents from the family Crassulaceae, which are ... Usually spreading or stoloniferous plants. Adromischus caryophyllaceus Adromischus fallax Adromischus humilis Adromischus ...
Stems of older plants are woody. All parts of the plant, including its tomato-like fruit, are poisonous to varying degrees due ... Manduca sexta moths prefer inbred plants to outbred plants. The beetle Leptinotarsa juncta specializes on this plant, and the ... Most mammals avoid eating the stems and leaves due to both the spines and toxicity of the plant. Carolina horsenettle is ... Anthonomus nigrinus feeds on the flowers, and Trichobaris trinotata bores into the stems. This plant is also eaten by ...
The plant had leafy aerial stems. The leaf bases completely covered the stems forming rhomboidal to hexagonal patterns, except ... Li, C.-S. & Edwards, D. (1997), "A new microphyllous plant from the Lower Devonian of Yunnan Province, China", Am. J. Bot., 84 ... Halleophyton is a genus of extinct vascular plants of the Early Devonian (Pragian, around 410 million years ago). Fossils were ... a contribution to an understanding of the evolution and early diversification of vascular plants, Beijing: Science Press, p. ...
Plants typically develop thick woody stems; the flowers are arranged in a dense spike. Members of the subfamily Asphodeloideae ... In some of the older systems of plant taxonomy, such as the Cronquist system, the plants that now form the family ... Christenhusz, M.J.M. & Byng, J.W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa ... Asphodelaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Asparagales. Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists, ...
Plant biology Plant genome sequencing; epigenetics and stem cell fate; stem cell signaling; plant-environment interactions; ... Zachary Lippman, plant geneticist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and winner of a MacArthur Fellowship, commonly ... In 2014, Zachary Lippman publishes toolkit of gene variations in flowering plants, allowing breeders to maximize yield of ... Retrieved 2014-03-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Plant Biology - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory". Cold Spring ...
Schweingruber, Fritz H.; Börner, Annett (2018). The plant stem. A microscopic aspect. Cham: Springer. p. 207. doi:10.1007/978-3 ... Dendroecology (1996), Wood structure and environment (2007) and The Plant Stem (2018). 2002: Honorary President of the ... One of his most important projects was the dating and anatomy of high mountain plants in the Alps and the Himalayas. His ... In 1972 he graduated in systematic plant sociology. After teaching biology at Gymnasium Köniz high school near Bern and at the ...
This is a creeping vine that has a woody base and stems that grow up to a meter long. The stems may climb on other plants. The ... Remaining occurrences of the plant are on land that is fragmented and degraded. It is invaded by introduced plant species such ... The plant grows on barrier islands, where it can be found in several types of habitat, such as sand dunes and tropical hardwood ... Other plants growing in this type of habitat include seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera) and Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus ...
... animal hair and plant down. It is woven around vertical plant stems. Between 3-5 greenish-yellow and brown-mottled eggs are ... Sedge warblers tend to hop between plant stems and pick insects from underneath leaves; they take advantage of the low ... The song is given from a bare perch such as a reed stem or bush, or from cover and during routine flights within their ... The cup-shaped structure has an outer layer of grass, stems and leaves, plus spiders' webs, with a thick, finer layer inside ...
While the roots of a wheat plant are growing, the plant also accumulates an energy store in its stem, in the form of fructans, ... Hogan, M. E.; Hendrix, J. E. (1986). "Labeling of Fructans in Winter Wheat Stems". Plant Physiology. 80 (4): 1048-1050. doi: ... These animals can cause significant damage to a crop by digging up and eating newly planted seeds or young plants. They can ... Leaf gas exchange and whole plant studies". Australian Journal of Plant Physiology. 17: 9-22. CiteSeerX doi: ...
The plant stems are erect and stiff. They can survive deep water flow. Under clear water, the plant can survive up to two ... The plant was taken over in 1984 by Franck's son, Pierre Léger, who expanded the size of the plant to 44 atmospheric stills, ... "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved May 8, 2014. Research Report for Historical Study of Attars and ... Overhead irrigation is recommended for the first few months after planting. More mature plants prefer flood irrigation. Weed ...
... and new clonal plants from the buds. Not all horizontal plant stems are stolons. Plants with stolons are described as " ... These plants form shaded areas wherein new species may grow and gradually replace them. Stolons are stems that grow on the ... Water sprouts occur on the above ground stem, branches, or both of trees and shrubs, well above the base of the plant and its ... Root sprouts and basal shoots of some ornamental plants are considered undesirable because the originating plant's energy is ...
The plant has long, slender flexible stems. The rose makes an excellent cut flower. The foliage is dark green and glossy The ... There is a famous planting of 'Alexandre Girault that envelopes the garden trellis at L'Haÿ-les-Roses in Paris and bursts into ...
The plant has long, slender, flexible stems. 'Francois Juranville' is a very vigorous grower and can climb up into trees. It is ...
It may reach two metres in height as a shrub, but it can climb with stems to ten metres long. The plant's stems are mostly ... The leaf stem is 5 to 10 mm long. White flowers appear in winter. The fruit is a fleshy black shining berry, around 10 mm in ...
Related species are borers in plant stems. Hypocoena basistriga is found in the western boreal zone, from Alaska to Alberta and ... It bores in monocots like sedges (Cyperaceae); perennial plants that resemble grasses, grow in shallow water or moist soils, ...
... the term herb refers to a herbaceous plant, defined as a small, seed-bearing plant without a woody stem in which all aerial ... "plant that does not produce a woody stem", and the adjective "herbaceous" means "herb-like", referring to parts of the plant ... Plant roots can grow from the stems. Leaves are stripped from the lower portion up to one half before the cutting is placed in ... Usually the term refers to perennials, although herbaceous plants can also be annuals (where the plant dies at the end of the ...
... males rest overnight attached to plant stems. They are found in eastern Australia, from Queensland through New South Wales and ...
The nest is built among plant stems. A 2013 DNA-based study of South American suboscines found that the many-colored rush ...
The plant has long, slender, flexible stems. The Barbier nursery was founded by Albert Barbier (1845 -1931) and his brother, ...
They mine the stems of their host plant. Seven Nepticulidae new to the Iberian Peninsula and several new province records ( ...
They mine the stems of their host plant. Aarvik, L., Bengtsson, B.Å., Elven, H., Ivinskis, P., Jurivete, U., Karsholt, O., ... Ochsenheimeria taurella, the Liverpool feather-horn or the rye stem borer, is a moth of the family Ypsolophidae. This species ... Part II Donald R. Davis A Review of Ochsenheimeriidae and the Introduction of the Cereal Stem Moth Ochsenheimeria vacculella ... and in Many Instances of the Plants upon which they are Found. Vol. VI. Lepidoptera, Part II. London (E. Ellis & Co.). Denis, M ...
The stems of younger plants are occasionally hairy. Like most species of Acacia it has phyllodes rather than true leaves. The ... Analgesic Plants Archived April 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Australian New Crops Newsletter "Aboriginal Plant use and ... This tree can also be used as a fire barrier plant, amongst other plants, in rural situations. Plain and figured Australian ... It was also recently listed by the California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC) as an invasive weed that may cause limited ...
They mine the stems of their host plant. The mine has the form of a long (about 20 cm), inconspicuous gallery. Fauna Europaea ...
... can reach a height of 10-30 centimetres (3.9-11.8 in). This plant usually develops creeping stems, rarely erect. ... RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Third edition. Dorling Kindersley, London 2003 Biolib Alpine Plant Encyclopaedia Media ... Salix retusa is a species of flowering plant in the family Salicaceae. ...
In its more usual shaded habitat, its stem is green; plants exposed to more light have brownish stems. Purple, conical prickles ... are numerous on the stem. Leaves bear 5 to 7 leaflets, the terminal leaflet being around 10 cm long, among the largest in the ...
They bore the stems of their host plant. "GlobIZ search". Global Information System on Pyraloidea. Retrieved 2014-07-15. CS1 ...
"European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2012.. *^ a b "Den senaste om ... Initially, small necrotic spots (without exudate) appear on stems and branches. These necrotic lesions then enlarge in ... Young and newly planted trees with the disease would be destroyed; however, mature trees would not be removed because of the ... "European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. March 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 29 ...
Since plants and meat are digested differently, there is a preference for one over the other, as in bears where some species ... The brain stem can control food intake, because it contains neural circuits that detect hunger and satiety signals from other ... are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various small animals, including other birds.[43] ... Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive - carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores ...
These reasons do not stem from their interests, since they do not have any interests of their own, and so are not "golden-rule ... Beings without interests of their own (e.g., plants, wilderness areas, species, works of art, embryos) do not have moral status ...
... because aquatic plants are not as productive as long-lived terrestrial plants such as trees. Ecological trophic pyramids are ... These characterizations stem from the ecosystem concept, which assumes that the phenomena under investigation (interactions and ... not all plant material is edible and the nutritional quality or antiherbivore defenses of plants (structural and chemical) ... Plants generally have the greatest biomass. Names of trophic categories are shown to the right of the pyramid. Some ecosystems ...
Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, and flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ ... along the stem.. Basal. Arising from the base of the stem.. Cauline. Arising from the aerial stem.. Opposite. Two leaves, ... Other specialized leaves (such as those of Nepenthes, a pitcher plant). Arrangement on the stemEdit. Main article: Phyllotaxis ... Other plant parts like stems or roots have non-determinate growth, and will usually continue to grow as long as they have the ...
"American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628.. *^ a b c "Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for ... The most important disorders affecting cauliflower quality are a hollow stem, stunted head growth or buttoning, ricing, ... water-soluble pigments that are found in many other plants and plant-based products, such as red cabbage and red wine.[18] ... In the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History: "Ex ...
"RHS Plant Selector - Cortaderia selloana 'Pumila'". Retrieved 16 June 2013.. *^ "RHS Plant Selector - Cortaderia selloana ' ... The flowers are produced in a dense white panicle 20-40 cm (8-16 in) long on a 2-3 m (6 ft 7 in-9 ft 10 in) tall stem. ... "RHS Plant Selector - Cortaderia selloana 'Aureolinata'". Retrieved 16 June 2013.. *^ " ... a b c Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN ...
In May, the Lenape planted kidney beans near the maize plants; the latter served as props for the climbing bean vines. They ... Blackfoot Dictionary of Stems, Roots, and Affixes. University of Toronto Press, 1995. ISBN 978-0-8020-7136-1. ... They combine the root bark of Viburnum prunifolium with leaves of other plants of other plants and use it to strengthen female ... Lenape practiced companion planting, in which women cultivated many varieties of the "Three Sisters:" maize, beans, and squash ...
Columbi, Carina E. (2008-10-05). Stable isotope analysis of fossil plants from the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation in ... "The bipedal stem crocodilian Poposaurus gracilis: inferring function in fossils and innovation in archosaur locomotion" (PDF) ... Coprolites (fossilized dung) containing small bones but no trace of plant fragments, discovered in the Ischigualasto Formation ... These plants formed lowland forests along the banks of rivers.[4] Herrerasaurus remains appear to have been the most common ...
Norfolk Plant Sciences About Norfolk Plant Sciences Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ... edible plants ever created.[20] Tobacco osmotic genes overexpressed in tomatoes produced plants that held a higher water ... The plant peptide hormone, systemin was first identified in tomato plants and genetic modification has been used to demonstrate ... "The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187-1193. doi:10.2307/3869226. JSTOR 3869226. PMC 160085 . PMID 1821764.. ...
The name stems from their characterization as a "fair weather waterspout on land". Waterspouts and landspouts share many ... They most often form from smoke issuing from a power plant's smokestack. Hot springs and deserts may also be suitable locations ...
They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great ... Apical growth of the stem was slow from 1926 through 1936 when the tree was competing with herbs and shrubs and probably shaded ... Seed germinates and seedling grows into a mature plant.. *When the plant is mature, it produces cones and the cycle continues. ... Plants with unusual growth habits, sizes, and colours are propagated and planted in parks and gardens throughout the world.[25] ...
When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates ... Originally calcitic crinoid stem (in cross-section) diagenetically replaced by marcasite in a siderite concretion; Lower ...
The plant densities for lentils vary between genotypes, seed size, planting time and growing conditions and also from region to ... It has many hairy branches and its stem is slender and angular. The rachis bears 10 to 15 leaflets in five to eight pairs. The ... In West Asia and North Africa, some lentils are planted as a winter crop before snowfall. Plant growth occurs during the time ... "Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding (The). 76 (4): 530. doi:10.5958/0975-6906.2016.00071.7. ISSN 0019-5200.. ...
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates ... Scott F. Gilbert; with a chapter on plant development by Susan R. Singer (2000). Scott F. Gilbert, ed. Developmental Biology ( ... but identification of which alterations in neuroanatomy stem from androgens or estrogens is difficult, because of their ...
Potassium compounds are often used as fertilisers[10]:73[202] as potassium is an important element for plant nutrition. ... and unsepttrium stems from the fact that they are located close to the expected locations of islands of stability, centered at ... 1177 This stems from the filled d subshell providing a much weaker shielding effect on the outermost s electron than the filled ... caesium-137 is the principal source of radiation in the zone of alienation around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.[98] Its ...
Stems carry leaves or the stems may be leafless (in Caulanthus), and some species lack stems altogether. The leaves do not have ... These inhibit the germination of most competing plants and kill beneficial soil fungi needed by many plants, such as many tree ... "The Plant List.. *^ Turini TA, Daugovish O, Koike ST, Natwick ET, Ploeg A, Dara SK, Fennimore SA, Joseph S, LeStrange M, Smith ... "Frontiers in Plant Science. 7 (451): 451. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00451. PMC 4824781. PMID 27092164.. ...
The leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 3⁄8-2 in (1-5 cm) long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems ... Anise plants grow best in light, fertile, well-drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon as the ground warms up in ... Anise (/ˈænɪs/;[3] Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed,[4] is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the ... Baytop, T. (1999) Therapy with medicinal plants in Turkey, Past and Present. Kitapevi, Istanbul, Turkey, 2nd edition, pp. 142. ...
In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis. ... and the Hutterites stem from very small founder populations. The same is true for some Hasidic and Haredi Jewish groups. ... Inbreeding in plants also occurs naturally in the form of self-pollination. ... Plant Breeding. 117 (5): 429-35. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0523.1998.tb01968.x. hdl:10261/121301.. ...
An example is the p53 gene, which suppresses cancer but also suppresses stem cells, which replenish worn-out tissue.[13] ... Mendel recognized that certain pea plant traits (seed coat color, flower color, and axial spots) seemed to be inherited ... Frizzle feather was found to stem from a deletion in the genomic region coding for α-Keratin. This gene seems to ... been previously recognized in the scientific community but had not been experimented on until Gregor Mendel's 1866 pea plant ...
These are the "mammal-like amniotes", or stem-mammals, that later gave rise to the true mammals.[48] Soon after, another group ... helping to grind up plant matter.[103] Fossil gastroliths have been found associated with both ornithopods and sauropods, ... This stem-based definition is equivalent to the more common definition of Sauropsida, which Modesto and Anderson synonymized ... Brysse, K. (2008). "From weird wonders to stem lineages: the second reclassification of the Burgess Shale fauna". Studies in ...
An epicormic shoot is a shoot growing from an epicormic bud, which lies underneath the bark of a trunk, stem, or branch of a ... Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Retrieved 27 December 2010.. *^ Pausas, J.G. 1997. Resprouting of Quercus suber in NE ... "Effects of fire on plants and animals: individual level". Fire ecology and management in northern Australia. Tropical Savannas ... Under certain conditions, they develop into active shoots, such as when damage occurs to higher parts of the plant,[1] or light ...
The plants are watered heavily starting around a month before they are harvested to make the leaves and stems soft and moist. A ... The plant itself is specifically banned in Missouri: "Khat, to include all parts of the plant presently classified botanically ... The khat plant is known by a variety of names, such as qat and gat in Yemen, qaat and jaad in Somalia, and chat in Ethiopia.[2] ... Consumption of the plant's leaves in its natural state is also permitted in Israel.[5] The plant has been targeted by anti-drug ...
The responsible substance is very likely a pyrazine, which occurs in both plants.[130] (At the Rotterdam Zoo, this smell once ... After transection of the brain stem just above the pons, the threshold is lowered and less bladder filling is required to ...
International Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 164 (6), p.959-986. *^ List of allergic plants in family Chenopodiaceae at ... Many species have stems with thickened nodes. The wood of the perennial stem has a typical "anomalous" secondary growth; only ... International Journal of Plant Sciences, 168(6), p.931-956. *^ a b G. Kadereit, S. Hohmann, J.W. Kadereit (2006): A synopsis of ... Amaranthaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the amaranth family, in reference to its type genus Amaranthus ...
They tended to locate their nests at central position just near the main stem. A principal component analysis of the nest site ... Hatching success was 55% while the nestling success was 32%. The most preferred plants for nesting were shrubs of the species ... Of these the crucial deciding factors were plant height and canopy cover when the nest sites were compared with the random ... variables showed nest height, concealment, plant height and canopy cover as the major parameters in nest site selection, ...
Stem groupEdit. Stem tetrapods are all animals more closely related to tetrapods than to lungfish, but excluding the tetrapod ... They invaded new ecological niches and began diversifying their diets to include plants and other tetrapods, previously having ... These extinction events led to the disappearance of stem-tetrapods with fish-like features.[55] When stem-tetrapods reappear in ... The Devonian stem-tetrapods went through two major bottlenecks during the Late Devonian extinctions, also known as the end- ...
Lau sāg : Prepared from the leaves and stems of bottle gourd plant. ... A large varieties of plants are used as sāga in Odisha. A list of the plants that are used as sāga is as below. ... Puin sāg : prepared from basella leaves and tender stems.. *Bāramāsi / Sojnā sāg: prepared from leaves of the drumstick tree. ... Kakhāru sāga (କଖାରୁ ଶାଗ): Prepared from leaves of the pumpkin plant.. *Madarangā sāga (ମଦରଙ୍ଗା ଶାଗ): prepared from leaves of ...
Convallaria majalis is a herbaceous perennial plant that forms extensive colonies by spreading underground stems called ... The stems grow to 15-30 cm tall, with one or two leaves 10-25 cm long; flowering stems have two leaves and a raceme of 5-15 ... The plant also contains saponins. Although deadly, the plant has been used as a folk remedy in moderate amounts,[23] and is ... məˈdʒeɪlɪs/[1]), sometimes written lily-of-the-valley,[2] is a sweetly scented, highly poisonous woodland flowering plant that ...
Nonetheless, specific shapes were likely not thought of in advance, and probably stem from a lack of standardisation in ... such as pliable plant parts or meat), otherwise the cusps would have been more worn down. Nonetheless, the jaw adaptations for ... but also sometimes to saw and scrape wood and cut soft plants. Knappers appear to have carefully selected lithic cores and knew ...
Plant - Stems: A number of modifications of the stem occur in angiosperms, and many of these modifications provide a means for ... Rhizomes are horizontally growing underground stems that serve as organs of asexual reproduction and food storage. Similar to ... Corms are short upright underground stems surrounded by a few thin scale leaves (as in Crocus and Gladiolus). Bulbs have a ... greatly reduced stem with thick fleshy scale leaves surrounding it (as in the onion). Runners ...
In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems. ... Gymnosperm stems[edit]. All gymnosperms are woody plants. Their stems are similar in structure to woody dicots except that most ... Climbing: stems that cling or wrap around other plants or structures.. *Corm: a short enlarged underground, storage stem, e.g. ... The arrangement of the vascular tissues varies widely among plant species. Dicot stems[edit]. Dicot stems with primary growth ...
In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems. ... A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root. The stem is normally divided into ... The arrangement of the vascular tissues varies widely among plant species. Dicot stems[edit]. Dicot stems with primary growth ... Fern stems[edit]. Most ferns have rhizomes with no vertical stem. The exception is tree ferns, with vertical stems up to about ...
... TJ Korri korrit at Sun Apr 28 21:57:11 EST 1996 *Previous message: New WWWsite: The Antibody Resource ... I am looking for diagrams of herbaceous and woody plant stems for a project. Any help would be greatly appreciated, preferably ...
Black rust causes cereal plants to lose their green colour and turn yellow. The grain… ... Other articles where Black stem rust is discussed: cereal farming: Fungus diseases: …chief damage is caused by black rust. ... during its life cycle is black stem rust (Puccinia graminis) of wheat and other cereals and grasses. Other heteroecious rusts ... Black rust causes cereal plants to lose their green colour and turn yellow. The grain… ...
"We cant assume that plant genes will help human regeneration, but the principles involved in plant stem cell reconstitution ... stem cells dont immediately generate the plants tissue, but, rather, tissues make stem cells," explains Kenneth Birnbaum, an ... A team of NYU biologists has shown that regenerating plants can naturally reconstitute their stem cells from more mature cells ... A team of NYU biologists has shown that regenerating plants can naturally reconstitute their stem cells from more mature cells ...
A splitting zucchini plant stem may simply be the result of rough handling or evidence of a pest. ... These vining- or bush-type plants are often grown in mounded hills. They prefer thorough watering and the fruits can be eaten ... Even if the main stem is damaged, the plant can survive. Press the stem together and heap moist soil over the stem joints. This ... A splitting zucchini plant stem may simply be the result of rough handling or evidence of a pest. If the stem problem is ...
The stems of many plants resist buckling using low-density foam cores.. Edit Hook ... Scanning electron microscope image of Oryza sativa [Rice] stem. High magnification of Oryza stem 1 image, showing a closer view ... and it can be deliberately induced in any dandelion stem. A low-density foam core reduces susceptibility, and many plants (but ... Scanning electron microscope image of x-section through Oryza sativa [Rice] stem, showing vascular bundles arranged in two ...
Plant stem cells are innately undifferentiated cells located in the meristems of plants. Plant stem cells serve as the origin ... callus and plant stem cell are fundamentally different from each other. Callus is similar to plant stem cell in its ability to ... strong vitality and structural characteristics of plant stem cell overcome previous drawbacks to plant cell culture. Thus plant ... Only plant stem cells embedded in meristems can divide and give rise to cells that differentiate while giving rise to new stem ...
... including plants from lakes, ponds, rivers, bogs, fens, saline meadows, tall herb associations and alpine snow beds. The ... This book presents light microscopic anatomical images of the stems of aquatic and wetland plants, ... Anatomic Atlas of Aquatic and Wetland Plant Stems. Authors: Schweingruber, F.H., Kucerova, A., Adamec, L., Dolezal, J. ... This book presents light microscopic anatomical images of aquatic and wetland plant stem. It features double-stained cross- and ...
Thread in the Plant ID forum forum by Henhouse: I think I left this from last year to see what it might become... Its been ... but the stems are becoming woody. The leaves are compound, with 3-5 leaflets, serrated and are thick. Stems are hairy. Growing ... Im usually pretty good with plant ID, but Im stumped... When counting, try not to mix chickens with blessings. ... Nor mine.. but its in an area where other woody plants have struggled.. Ill dig it up in the fall and try a different spot ...
Choosing plants producing flowers on long, strong stems makes cutting and arranging fresh white flowers a pleasant task. ... Choosing plants producing flowers on long, strong stems makes cutting and arranging fresh white flowers a pleasant task. By ... "White Flower Long-Stemmed Plants." , 13 May 2017. ... Clusters of full, double flowers form on long stems, providing a vase full of flowers from one stem. Sally Holmes produces ...
Scientists at Oxford University have discovered the oldest known population of plant root stem cells in a 320 million-year-old ... Scientists discover oldest plant root stem cells. ResearchScience. Scientists at Oxford University have discovered the oldest ... Stem cells - self-renewing cells responsible for the formation of multicellular organisms - are located in plants at the tips ... I began to realise that I was looking at a population of 320 million-year-old plant stem cells preserved as they were growing ...
It appeals to students and researchers in the fields of plant anatomy, taxonomy, ecology, dendrochronology, plant pathology and ... The Plant Stem. Book Subtitle. A Microscopic Aspect. Authors. * Fritz Hans Schweingruber ... The Plant Stem. A Microscopic Aspect. Authors: Schweingruber, Fritz Hans, Börner, Annett ... This unique and attractive open access textbook combines the beauty of macroscopic pictures of plant stems with the ...
Plants have systems that perform complementary functions designed to support the life of the plant and produce seeds or execute ... Each part of a plant contributes to its growth and survival both an individual specimen and as a collective species. ... The main stem may branch into a secondary stem on some plants. Nodes from which leaves grow are spaced along the stem and ... The stem often forms a main trunk or stem and extends branches out into smaller horizontal extensions of the main stem from ...
Stems, of various sizes and shapes, are involved in most of the organic processes and interactions of plants, ranging from ... Plant Stems will be a valuable resource on form/function relationships for researchers and graduate-level students in ecology, ... Key Features * Syntheses of structural, physiological, and ecological functions of stems * Multiple viewpoints on how stem ... The stem itself is a crucially important intermediary: it links above- and below ground organs-connecting roots to leaves. An ...
Buy Purple Gold Fractal Plant Stems Abstract Canvas Art Print - 5 Panels at today and Get Your Penneys Worth. ...
Buy Designart Red Blue Fractal Exotic Plant Stems Abstract Canvas Art Print at today and Get Your Penneys Worth. ...
This work, District volunteers plant STEM seeds, by Kent Cummins, identified by DVIDS, must comply with the restrictions shown ... Smith said the STEM-related activities allow children the chance to learn how geology and science impact their daily lives. " ... "Id like to hope the STEM program can help our kids catch the wonder of the world weve been given, and help them point us ... My participation in the STEM program is my way of paying those positive influences forward.". The geologist of the group, Smith ...
FAO and the Government of India organized the International Conference on Wheat Stem Rust Ug99 - A Threat to Food Security in ... The new virulent strain of the wheat stem rust disease (Ug99) is now confirmed to occur in Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan, ... FAO sponsored the participation of over 60 delegates representing policy makers from the national plant protection, ... whose meeting in Delhi overlapped with the International Conference on Wheat Stem Rust Ug99. ...
Human non-CG methylation: are human stem cells plant-like?. Dyachenko OV1, Schevchuk TV, Kretzner L, Buryanov YI, Smith SS. ... Non-CG methylation is well characterized in plants, where it appears to play a role in gene silencing and genomic imprinting. ... this review we discuss available evidence on non-CG methylation in animals in light of evidence suggesting that the human stem ...
Thread in the Plant ID forum forum by Irrelephant: Saw this at a movie theater, really want to get it.[lightbox]2012-10-12/ ... Or, what Sharon says! BugLife ...
Find out why plant stem cells are so great when used in anti-aging skin care products. Plus, get our top product picks from ... How Plant Stem Cells Work. Like human stem cells, plant stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can divide to produce more ... Reasons to Consider Using Plant Stem Cells. You might be thinking, "Im not a plant, so why would I want to use plant cells on ... 3. HydroPeptide Hydrostem Stem Cell Antioxidant Serum This antioxidant serum is made with six different plant-based stem cells ...
... neighbors to the inside of the wound re-activate their stem cell programs. ... If plants are injured, cells adjacent to the wound fill the gaps with their daughter cells. However, which cells divide to do ... Specialized plant cells regain stem-cell features to heal wounds Already specified root cells are reprogrammed to correctly ... Specialized plant cells regain stem-cell features to heal wounds. Institute of Science and Technology Austria ...
The results can hopefully be used in stem cell research involving humans. ... A new study from Lund University in Sweden shows that the behavior of stem cells in plants and animals is surprisingly similar ... In plants, however, they can.. "Specialised cells of plants can return to being stem cells without external manipulation. In ... The current study provides clues about why it is so much easier to make a cell go back to being a stem cell in plants compared ...
Buy Animal and Plant Stem Cells by Mirjana Pavlovic, Ksenija Radotic from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local ... Animal and Plant Stem Cells: Concepts, Propagation and Engineering (Hardback). Mirjana Pavlovic (author), Ksenija Radotic ( ... This book provides a multifaceted look into the world of stem cells and explains the similarities and differences between plant ... It introduces the emergence of cancer stem cells and different modalities in targeted cancer stem cell therapies. It is a ...
... the discovery also can help scientists better understand why stem cells--in both plants and animals--give rise to specialized ... a mustard-like plant that is a model for studying plant biology. The achievement paves the way to developing better varieties ... A team of University of California, Riverside researchers has identified all the genes expressed in the stem cells of ... of crops and plants. Besides revealing the molecular pathways that stem cells employ, ...
... - published on ... Global Plant Stem Cell Market: Trends and Opportunities The plant stem cell market is still at a nascent stage and is getting ... Global Plant Stem Cell Market: Overview. Due to their versatility, plant stem cells are used across diverse applications. Some ... thereby boosting the global plant stem cell market. Due to the positive results they have demonstrated, plant stem cell ...
Rhynia was a primitive vascular plant consisting of an underground rhizome which bore upright aerial stems. The stems contained ... showing the stems of a fossil plant Rhynia major. ... These fossil plants grew to 30-60 centimetres (1-2ft) & are ... There were no leaves or scales although the stems did have spiny hairs scattered over the surface. The fertile branches bore ... Rhynia was a primitive vascular plant consisting of an underground rhizome which bore upright aerial stems. The stems contained ...
  • See how sieve tubes and sieve plates stimulate mass flow within a plant's phloem cells Water and nutrients such as sugars and starches are moved through plants via a vascular system of xylem and phloem. (
  • The outermost cells of the stem compose the epidermis . (
  • In contrast, woody dicot stems develop an outer layer of dead thick-walled cells called cork cells, which together with the underlying phloem compose the bark of the tree . (
  • The normal lifespan of plant cells is one to three years. (
  • Stems have cells called meristems that annually generate new living tissue. (
  • A team of NYU biologists has shown that regenerating plants can naturally reconstitute their stem cells from more mature cells by replaying embryogenesis. (
  • Stem cells are typically thought to have the intrinsic ability to generate or replace specialized cells. (
  • Paradoxically, this means that, in this system, stem cells don't immediately generate the plant's tissue, but, rather, tissues make stem cells," explains Kenneth Birnbaum, an associate professor in New York University's Department of Biology and the study's senior author. (
  • In the study, which appears in the journal Cell , researchers studied plant root regeneration using lineage tracing to determine the origin of cells, live imaging to observe the dynamical reassembly of tissues, and single cell RNA sequencing to analyze cells in transition during regeneration. (
  • The group found that, after severe damage removed all stem cells of the root, new stem cells were recruited from many different types of cells that had already specialized. (
  • To do this, the plant replayed the steps of embryogenesis, first creating specialized tissues that, once assembled, generated a new set of stem cells. (
  • The plant has an amazing capacity to repair itself, but there are animal systems that bear some resemblance to the plant's way of recreating stem cells on the fly," explains Birnbaum. (
  • For example, he notes, recent studies in mice showed that adult hair and intestinal cells could "reconstitute" their stem cells. (
  • Scientists at Oxford University have discovered the oldest known population of plant root stem cells in a 320 million-year-old fossil. (
  • The cells, which gave rise to the roots of an ancient plant, were found in a fossilised root tip held in the Oxford University Herbaria. (
  • As well as revealing the oldest plant root stem cells identified to date, the research also marks the first time an actively growing fossilised root has been discovered - in effect, an ancient plant frozen in time. (
  • I began to realise that I was looking at a population of 320 million-year-old plant stem cells preserved as they were growing - and that it was the first time anything like this had ever been found. (
  • Stem cells - self-renewing cells responsible for the formation of multicellular organisms - are located in plants at the tips of shoots and roots in groups called meristems. (
  • The 320 million-year-old stem cells discovered in Oxford are different to all those living today, with a unique pattern of cell division that remained unknown until now. (
  • Plant stem cells are innately undifferentiated cells located in the meristems of plants. (
  • Plant stem cells serve as the origin of plant vitality, as they maintain themselves while providing a steady supply of precursor cells to form differentiated tissues and organs in plants. (
  • failed verification] Two distinct areas of stem cells are recognised: the apical meristem and the lateral meristem. (
  • Plant stem cells are characterized by two distinctive properties, which are: the ability to create all differentiated cell types and the ability to self-renew such that the number of stem cells is maintained. (
  • Plant stem cells never undergo aging process but immortally give rise to new specialized and unspecialized cells, and they have the potential to grow into any organ, tissue, or cell in the body. (
  • failed verification] Thus they are totipotent cells equipped with regenerative powers that facilitate plant growth and production of new organs throughout lifetime. (
  • Here, what empowers them to withstand harsh external influence and preserve life is stem cells. (
  • Plant stem cells are also characterized by their location in specialized structures called meristematic tissues, which are located in root apical meristem (RAM), shoot apical meristem (SAM), and vascular system ((pro)cambium or vascular meristem. (
  • Traditionally, plant stem cells were thought to only exist in SAM and RAM and studies were conducted based on this assumption. (
  • However, recent studies have indicated that (pro)cambium also serves as a niche for plant stem cells: "Procambium cells fulfill the criteria for being stem cells since they have the capacity for long-term self renewal and being able to differentiate into one or more specialized cell types. (
  • Despite 160 years of biological effort to isolate and retrieve plant stem cells, none succeeded in the isolation due to the distinct structural characteristics of plant stem cell: "[t]he cambium consists of a few layers of narrow elongated, thin-walled cells, easily damaged during sampling. (
  • Thus failure to isolate plant stem cells from meristematic tissues prompted scientists to administer plant cell culture by using callus (dedifferentiated cells) as an alternative to plant stem cells. (
  • Since embryogenic cells were considered totipotent cells based on their ability to regenerate or develop into an embryo under given conditions, dedifferentiated cells were generally regarded as stem cells of plant: "…we propose to extend the concept of stem cells to include embryogenic stem cells that arise from plant somatic cells. (
  • We examine the cellular, physiological and molecular similarities and differences between plant meristematic stem cells and embryogenic stem cells originating directly from single somatic cells. (
  • but genetic variation is inevitable in the process because the cells consist of somatic undifferentiated cells from an adult subject plant. (
  • Unlike true stem cells, callus is heterogeneous. (
  • Human non-CG methylation: are human stem cells plant-like? (
  • Although the name might sound off-putting, there's nothing taboo about plant stem cells. (
  • Using products that contain plant stem cells can help keep your skin looking young by fighting off wrinkles, protecting against sun damage and reducing inflammation. (
  • You might be thinking, "I'm not a plant, so why would I want to use plant cells on my skin? (
  • Thankfully, using plant stem cells won't cause your face to sport bark or branch leaves. (
  • Plant stem cells have a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, helping to protect against sun damage and prevent wrinkles, according to dermatologist Dr. Sonoa Au . (
  • There is also evidence that stem cells can promote the production of new collagen, which can also make your skin appear more youthful. (
  • Like human stem cells, plant stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can divide to produce more stem cells or become specialized cells. (
  • Sources for the stem cells range from flowers to apples to cranberries and other plant sources. (
  • Different plant stem cells have different effects. (
  • For instance, stem cells extracted from grape seeds have shown high anti-tumor-promoting activity. (
  • Products containing these stem cells can potentiate the photoprotective qualities of sunscreens," says Au. (
  • When these plant stem cells are added to creams, moisturizers and serums, they give these products an extra anti-aging boost and help protect your skin against damage. (
  • Here are some products with plant stem cells you'll want to add to your lineup. (
  • A blend of argan stem cells and nutmeg seed extracts helps to reduce wrinkle depth and improve firmness. (
  • The infusion of fruit stem cells, vitamin C and resveratrol-rich grape seed help to firm and smooth your skin while also fighting against free radicals. (
  • This antioxidant serum is made with six different plant-based stem cells and peptides to help your skin renew itself and prevent premature aging. (
  • If plants are injured, cells adjacent to the wound fill the gaps with their daughter cells. (
  • Scientists from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have now shown that to correctly replace dead cells, neighbors to the inside of the wound re-activate their stem cell programs. (
  • While animals rely on specialized migrating cells for wound healing, plants, whose cells are immobile, had to evolve other mechanisms: It has been known for almost a century that in plants, cells adjacent to the wound replace harmed tissue with new daughter cells. (
  • Instead, specifically the cells adjacent to the inner side of the injury reactivate their stem cell programs to produce de novo cells of the correct type to replace missing neighbors. (
  • removed individual cells or small cell groups in the root tip of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • Thus, activated "healing cells" are able to divide asymmetrically, i.e. they generate daughter cells of a different type than the mother cell--a process that typically only occurs in the root's stem cell niche, the region where stem cells emanate from. (
  • Carsten Peterson is one of the researchers behind the recent study on differences and similarities between animal and plant stem cells. (
  • With a background in theoretical physics, he and his colleagues have tackled the stem cells from a different perspective, which proved successful. (
  • By formulating mathematical equations, the researchers have performed a detailed study of the proteins that are central to the stem cells in mammals and plants. (
  • The proteins are linked to the genes that control the stem cells. (
  • Although the proteins in mammalian and plant stem cells are very different when studied separately, there are major similarities in the ways in which they interact, that is, how they strengthen or weaken each other", says Carsten Peterson. (
  • Stem cells are a hot topic in medical contexts, especially when it comes to cancer and autoimmune diseases. (
  • A stem cell is capable of evolving into several different types of cells and is thus a sort of mother cell to all of the body's specialised cell types. (
  • In animals, these specialised cells can never return to a stem cell state on their own. (
  • Specialised cells of plants can return to being stem cells without external manipulation. (
  • The mathematical equations show that very small differences are sufficient to explain why plant cells are so flexible while cells of mammals require artificial reprogramming to return to a stem cell state. (
  • When cells are influenced externally - artificially for animals or naturally for plants - the minor differences in interaction play a greater role, and the differences appear to be of greater significance", says Carsten Peterson. (
  • He believes that a lot of work remains with regard to the efficiency of reprogramming of animal cells and therefore hopes that insights from the plant world can contribute. (
  • One of the prize winners, Shinya Yamanaka, had demonstrated how to externally manipulate cells to return to an embryonic stem cell state by increasing the concentration of certain proteins. (
  • For example, on an individual basis, skin cells can be reprogrammed into embryonic stem cells, and be made into desired cell types by manipulating certain proteins. (
  • This book provides a multifaceted look into the world of stem cells and explains the similarities and differences between plant and human stem cells. (
  • It covers the advantages and limitations of many common applications related to stem cells: their sources, categories, engineering of these cells, reprogramming of their functions, and their role as novel cellular therapeutic approach. (
  • Written by experts in the field, the book focuses on aspects of stem cells ranging from expansion-propagation to metabolic reprogramming. (
  • It introduces the emergence of cancer stem cells and different modalities in targeted cancer stem cell therapies. (
  • A team of University of California, Riverside researchers has identified all the genes expressed in the stem cells of Arabidopsis , a mustard-like plant that is a model for studying plant biology. (
  • Besides revealing the molecular pathways that stem cells employ, the discovery also can help scientists better understand why stem cells--in both plants and animals--give rise to specialized cells at all. (
  • Due to their versatility, plant stem cells are used across diverse applications. (
  • Plant stem cells are therefore undifferentiated cells located at the meristems of a vegetation. (
  • The stems contained tracheids (primitive xylem cells for water transportation) & epidermal cells with stomata. (
  • Stem cells are found in both plants and animals. (
  • It is this regenerative property of plant stem cells that has captured the imagination of cosmetic researchers. (
  • In this column, we will briefly review if plant stem cells have anti-aging efficacy when they are formulated into topical products. (
  • The plant stem cell market for cosmetics is growing at a CAGR of 15.9% and expected to exceed $4.8 billion by 2022, according to Credence Research, San Jose, CA. The key players in this market are L'Oréal, Estée Lauder, My Chelle Dermaceuticals, Juice Beauty and Intelligent Nutrients.1 Several years back, stem cells were the marquee ingredients in the flourishing US anti-aging market. (
  • Stem cells are trendy in cosmetic procedures. (
  • In addition to their presence in many skin care formulations, stem cells are touted as an age-reversing ingredient in office-based treatments. (
  • These centers were extracting patient's own fat, isolating the stem cells and re-injecting them into the patient. (
  • In recent years, researchers have conducted extensive research on embryonic stem cells which have shown potential to repair damaged tissues and organs. (
  • As a result, scientists researched using stem cells in skin care products to help repair wrinkles, and restore and maintain skin firmness and elasticity. (
  • However, it is not possible to use live human embryonic stem cells in skin care products, so skin care companies have turned to plant stem cells. (
  • Like humans, plants have stem cells, too. (
  • In theory, these cells can protect the human epidermal stem cells from damage and deterioration and they can stimulate them to renew the skin. (
  • Primarily, botanical stem cells are used in cosmetic products in order to avoid the sourcing and extracting controversies associated with animal- and human-derived stem cells. (
  • These apples form a protective film made of stem cells on the surface when the apple is cut. (
  • Liposome encapsulated apple stem cells topical cream in a clinical study, reduced wrinkle depth by an average of 15% after four weeks. (
  • Renowned plant biologist Professor Liam Dolan of Oxford University observed that he does not see how plant stem cells could react with human cells. (
  • humans cannot synthesize chlorophyll, so plant stem cells offer no benefit to humans. (
  • Living plant stem cells are not found in beauty products, and even if they were, they would not have the capability to differentiate into specialized human skin cells, plaintiffs assert in a proposed class action against PhytoCellTec user G.M. Collin Company. (
  • Evidence that plant stem cells in cosmetic products translate to an improved appearance is tenuous at best, according to Tyler Holling M.D., Stamford Medical Center. (
  • Almost all cosmetic products promoted for their stem cell content actually contain stem cell extracts-not live stem cells. (
  • Extracts from stem cells cannot act in the same way as live stem cells. (
  • To gain all the true benefits from stem cells and to let them work according to the label directions, they must be incorporated as live cells and should remain so in the formulated cosmetics. (
  • Plant stem cells are simply too large to penetrate the skin and cannot live in the cream while it stays on the shelf for months or even years according to Leslie Baumann MD. According to another dermatologist, Richard Hope MD, stem cells in topical skin care products are of no value at this point. (
  • The stem cells tasked with creating and maintaining biological tissues have a difficult job. (
  • There, amongst a thousand cells under his microscope, he noticed that the nucleus - the DNA-containing control center in the cell - moved in unexpected and strangely purposeful ways as stem cells divided. (
  • Because stomata allow leaves to balance their water and carbon dioxide levels, nuclear alignment via these miniature protein compasses within individual stem cells have the potential to affect leaf function. (
  • A critical step to understanding the function of the second migration was thinking about the longer history of the stem cells," said Muroyama. (
  • The plant doesn't want to generate new stem cells right next to the ones that were just created. (
  • It was also known that cells in the leaf surface communicate with each other to regulate stem cell divisions. (
  • Curious about whether the cellular compass or cell-to-cell communication was the dominant cue to control how stem cells divide, the researchers modified cells so that they could not receive signals from neighboring cells and watched the bouncing nuclei. (
  • At the University of Wisconsin - Madison, researchers have been seeding decellularized tissues gathered from plants, including orchids and lilac, with human cells. (
  • The investigators first remove all cellular content from a piece of plant and then chemically treat it so that living human stem cells can survive within the empty scaffold. (
  • The stem cells naturally orient themselves to fit the grain of the original plant's structure and make it their home, differentiating into a target type and growing to fill the scaffold. (
  • So far the researchers have been able to keep cells living within the plant derived structures, but trying these tissues in animals is yet to be tried. (
  • Taking that lesson to heart, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison are using the decellularized husks of plants such as parsley, vanilla and orchids to form three-dimensional scaffolds that can then be primed and seeded with human stem cells to optimize their growth in the lab dish and, ultimately, create novel biomedical implants. (
  • Writing March 20 in the journal Advanced Healthcare Materials , a team led by William Murphy, a professor of biomedical engineering and co-director of the UW-Madison Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center, describes the use of a variety of plants to create an efficient, inexpensive and scalable technology for making tiny structures that could one day be used to repair muscle, organs and bone using stem cells. (
  • The Wisconsin team found that stripping away all of the other cells that make up the plant, and treating the leftover husks of cellulose with chemicals, entices human stem cells such as fibroblasts -- common connective tissue cells generated from stem cells -- to attach to and grow on the miniature structures. (
  • Stem cells seeded into the scaffolds, according to Fontana, tend to align themselves along the pattern of the scaffold's structure. (
  • Stem cells are sensitive to topography. (
  • That ability to align cells according to the structure of the plant scaffold, adds Murphy, suggests it might be possible to use the materials to control structure and alignment of developing human tissues, a feature critical for nerve and muscle tissues, which require alignment and patterning for their function. (
  • Significant immune responses are less likely in our approach because the plant cells are removed from the scaffolds. (
  • In plants, shoot apical meristems serve as reservoirs of stem cells that provide cells for all above ground organs. (
  • WUSCHEL, a homeodomain TF produced in cells of the niche, migrates into adjacent cells where it specifies stem cells. (
  • Our formula features Matrixyl 3000, a powerful peptide that visibly reduces fine lines and crow's feet, in addition to Jojoba Oil, Plant Stem Cells and Amino Acids to hydrate and strengthen the skin to defend against early signs of aging. (
  • This suggests these cultivar differences may arise from the degree to which a cell wall barrier develops to attenuate radial transport through the stem apoplasm from the vascular bundles to the SP cells. (
  • We believe we are the first to extract electrons out of living plant cells," said WonHyoung Ryu, the lead author of the paper published in the March issue of Nano Letters . (
  • Every single grain of rice and corn, every single tomato on this planet is dependent on this cluster of stem cells. (
  • CLAVATA means "club-like," to describe the misshapen cluster of too many stem cells at the plant's growing tip in CLAVATA genetic mutants. (
  • A new study from Lund University in Sweden shows that the behaviour of stem cells in plants and animals is surprisingly similar. (
  • Can plant stem cells grow more hair? (
  • Tyler asks…My question is related to the use of plant stem cells being used in hair care products to promote hair growth. (
  • But there's more…Eufora "combines our ProAmino Peptide ComplexTM and Aloe Stem Cells. (
  • Since Tyler asked specifically about plant stem cells, it's worth noting that product contains Aloe Stem Cells which they claim "Promotes oxygen to the scalp to reduce follicle asphyxia. (
  • As a result, the workers may now be invited to bank their stem cells for future treatment should they become ill. (
  • Japanese authorities are proposing harvesting blood stem cells from the workers should they fall ill and require stem cell transplants later. (
  • Patients take drugs to increase the release of blood stem cells from the bone marrow, which are later harvested from the blood and stored. (
  • Blood stem cells transplants can replenish the bone marrow but effects on other sites of damage are less readily achievable, causing some experts to caution its use. (
  • Following radiation to the head, rats transplanted with stem cells had greater improvements in learning and memory, showed a research team at the University of California. (
  • A report in Science Express, an online advance publications section of the journal Science, shows that adult blood stem cells are not able to transform themselves into many other types of body tissue. (
  • To some, the findings indicate that adult stem cells do not have the same potential for use. (
  • Adult stem cells not as versatile as thought? (
  • Research published in the journal Science has cast doubt on the versatility of adult stem cells. (
  • In experiments to see whether stem cells may be used in potential therapies for neurological and brain diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, the scientists report that stem cells taken from the bone. (
  • The shoot apical meristem at the growing shoot tip acts a stem cell reservoir that provides cells to generate the entire above-ground architecture of higher plants. (
  • I. The macromolecular components of the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells with a detailed analysis of the pectic polysaccharides," Plant Physiology , vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 158-173, 1973. (
  • Anyway, to me, and just a guess, wouldn't the stem cells have to be of animal origin, preferably human dna cells to even work properly with our system? (
  • By that, I mean keeping the stem cells alive, but somehow cryogenically frozen, coated in antioxidants, then encapsulated in Q10. (
  • Random and gross {WARNING} question- So, you mean, those crazy women who eat their umbilical chords and placenta post giving birth, are actually getting a huge dose of stem cells to repair the damage of child birth, and it's nooot such a absolutely insane idea, at least in theory? (
  • I googled it and found articles like this . (
  • And maybe, putting genetically stem cells in a night cream deprived of oxygen, (pump action, air tight sealed, and darkened) and encapsulating them purposefully to deprive them of the nutrients they need, will force them into a dormant state. (
  • I imagine that once the stem cells reach the skin, they can do it's job just fine once applied and given time but Idk, I'm not a cosmetics scientist or a medical genetic engineer or researcher. (
  • Also there should be cosmetic testing for stem cells to see if it can induce Graft-versus- host disease (GVHD) for product derived from human cells now and in the future. (
  • All land plants grow from meristems containing stem cells which, through their divisions, produce all other body parts and generate form. (
  • Plant stem cells and anti-pollution: a future direction for trend? (
  • An indie beauty player, glo Skin Beauty, counts several anti-pollution products among its offering, and has announced the launch of 'Daily Power C', a product that makes use of plant stem cells. (
  • A 31-member family of genes encodes dodecapeptides with two hydroxyproline residues (peptides) that control the fates of plant stem cells. (
  • In developing and analyzing more than 12,000 mutant specimens, Wang's group identified one that showed developmental defects in the way stem cells differentiated into the two types of tissue that transport water and nutrients inside plants. (
  • Albany, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 01/11/2017 -- Plant Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells that are located at the meristems of the vegetation. (
  • All plant cells irrespective of their origin, carry with them certain epigenetic factors that enable them the self-renewal capacity. (
  • The Plant Stem Cell market focusses on this ability of plant cells and thus processed extracts from the buds, shoots, roots are in great demand and are widely used for topical uses. (
  • The advancement in technology utilizes either the regenerated plants developed by the plant stem cells or the secondary metabolite generated by the single cells during culturing. (
  • The plant stem cells are much more versatile and powerful than the whole plant. (
  • The Plant stem cells based on their location can be categorized as root apical meristems, shoot apical meristems and vascular meristems. (
  • In an attempt to create anti-aging products that deliver some intense results, skincare companies have started including plant stem cells into their products. (
  • These products are accompanied by claims about the wonders of plant stem cells for your skin. (
  • Today, we're going to unpack what it means for skincare products to have stem cells and whether or not they're worth your investment. (
  • One of the major misconceptions about skincare products with stem cells is that these stem cells are human or animal stem cells. (
  • Because there is research backing up the wonders of human stem cell therapy, the undiscerning shopper can be easily fooled into thinking that plant stem cells are the same and can have similar miraculous results. (
  • In reality, plant stem cells are entirely unlike human stem cells due to the biochemical processes, hormones and signaling molecules, and cell structures. (
  • Because human stem cells don't have receptors for plant hormones or the same cellular physiological functions, the hormones found in plants don't have any influence on human stem cells. (
  • On top of that, plant stem cells don't produce collagen, elastin, or any human growth factors that would help damaged or dead skin cells. (
  • Plant cells could potentially contain healthy compounds like antioxidants or anti-inflammatory properties. (
  • If you dig deeply past marketing materials and pop culture articles, you'll find that there actually isn't any research or thorough studies that prove the benefits of plant stems cells on human skin. (
  • You might find some marketing publications that discuss the benefits of plant stems cells for the skin. (
  • Perhaps the claims are rooted in the belief that plant cells possibly contain antioxidants or anti-inflammatory properties. (
  • If you read the fine print, you'll find that these products almost always contain stem cell extracts, not live plant stem cells. (
  • First, stem cells can't live that long in a product that sits on a shelf for weeks and weeks. (
  • Even if the stem cells were to hypothetically stay alive, they can't actually penetrate the skin deeply enough to be effective. (
  • Second, if the cells were fully alive stem cells, these foreign cells might not be accepted. (
  • The human immune system isn't welcoming to foreign cells, and live plant stem cells could possibly cause a rash or infection, or show some other sign of lack of compatibility. (
  • As it turns out, skincare products with plant stem cells aren't these magical elixirs with supernatural anti-aging properties. (
  • In fact, the whole thing might be a marketing scheme since there aren't any studies on the effects of plant stem cells on human skin (yikes! (
  • If you've used a product with plant stem cells before and experienced benefits, flip over the bottle and take a read. (
  • This innovative formula with patent pending stem cells from Northern Dragonhead deliver a hyper dose of antioxidants to completely shield skin from urban pollution while also regenerating and protecting the skin microbiome for a 360 degree age defying effect. (
  • Anagrow is the plant stem cells based treatment which further helps in improving the volume and density as well as the thickness of the existing hair. (
  • In the last few years extensive research is carried out on the human epidermal and the dermal stem cells but the results are still awaited. (
  • In the meantime scientists have found a very peculiar thing about plants stem cells that they have similar epigenetic factors to that of human stem cells which is the reason why lots of experiments have been carried out on the same and the scientists have found astonishing results with the plant stem cells extract. (
  • The active plants stem cells extract is made to penetrate transdermally with the help of a machine termed as RF Anagain 10X. (
  • To understand the exact benefit that one can attain due to the anagrow treatment we should first understand the functions of each of the plants stem cells extract and also the importance of each of the step which is carried out in the treatment of Anagrow. (
  • Argan tree stem cell extract helps in increasing the proliferation of the cells which are present in the hair follicles. (
  • The rejuvenation step which is also termed as sonophoresis is a step in which the active plant stem cells extract is made to penetrate transdermally with the help of ultrasonic probe. (
  • Plant structures like these, stripped of their cells, are turning out to be effective three dimensional scaffolds for growing human cells that could one day be used in cell or tissue replacement strategies. (
  • Transport phloem of monocot stems traverses their intercalary meristems, located immediately above the basal node of each elongating internode, cell elongation and mature zones. (
  • Many agronomic plant yield traits such as tiller number, flower number, fruit number, and kernel row number are therefore defined by the activity of the shoot apical meristem and its derivatives, the floral meristems. (
  • Studies in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that a molecular negative feedback loop called the CLAVATA (CLV)-WUSCHEL (WUS) pathway regulates stem cell maintenance in shoot and floral meristems. (
  • Rhizomes are horizontally growing underground stems that serve as organs of asexual reproduction and food storage. (
  • Corms are short upright underground stems surrounded by a few thin scale leaves (as in Crocus and Gladiolus ). (
  • In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems . (
  • The larvae feed on roots and underground stems but cause minimal damage. (
  • Zingiber officinale or known for various common names such as Ginger, Common Ginger, Cooking Ginger, Canton, Stem Ginger, and Canton Ginger is a perennial herb with swollen underground stems or rhizome, usually about 1.5-2.5 cm thick. (
  • If populations are high enough, they also feed on roots and stems. (
  • These roots were important because they comprised the rooting structures of the plants growing in the Earth's first global tropical wetland forests with tall trees over 50m in height and were in part responsible for one of the most dramatic climate change events in history. (
  • Professor Liam Dolan, Head of the Department of Plant Sciences at Oxford University and senior author of the paper, said: 'These fossils demonstrate how the roots of these ancient plants grew for the first time. (
  • Roots hold the plant in place, absorb water from the ground and transport it to the rest of the plant, store food and sometimes propagate new plants. (
  • The root cap protects the ends of the root and acts as a kind of drill bit to bore through the ground, allowing the roots to spread and increase the nutrient-gathering capacity of the plant. (
  • The stem itself is a crucially important intermediary: it links above- and below ground organs-connecting roots to leaves. (
  • Later, many thin roots branch from the stem underground. (
  • These so-called adventitious roots form a shallow network in the soil that supports the mature plant. (
  • The primary organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves, but these structures can be highly variable, adapted for the specific needs and environment of different plant species. (
  • Other types of aerial roots, such as those of the strangler fig or banyan, germinate aboveground but grow downward, eventually penetrating the soil below and appearing to "strangle" their host plant. (
  • Some plants have roots that are adapted to provide additional support. (
  • Planted: Finding Your Roots in STEM Careers," a podcast from The Morton Arboretum, will introduce students to some plant professionals with amazing careers. (
  • 3. Once the plants starts to grow roots, re-plant in a small container. (
  • Even one of the stems that had no intact leaves (but did have some roots) is starting to put out side shoots. (
  • I also got it from a chain pet store and it had zero roots so it makes sense that it could be cut from a large plant! (
  • In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. (
  • What do you do with the roots off stem plants that come from the stem above the substrate? (
  • My hygro bushes has tons of these roots high on the stem first they came through white but after a while they turn cream and not many leaves from half way down the stem just roots. (
  • not many leaves from half way down the stem just roots. (
  • Lots of stem plants produce roots at their nodes. (
  • Stems and roots with lesions were cut into ≈5-mm pieces, surface-disinfested, and placed on 2% water agar at pH 4.5. (
  • Bulbs have a greatly reduced stem with thick fleshy scale leaves surrounding it (as in the onion ). (
  • Leaves are the other plant organ that, along with stems, constitutes the shoot of the vascular plant body. (
  • shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth including both stems and other structures like leaves or flowers. (
  • The stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers and fruits. (
  • Actually these stems are just extremely short, the leaves appearing to rise directly out of the ground, e.g. some Viola species. (
  • a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, e.g. onion , daffodil , tulip . (
  • Bulbs are a combination of stem and leaves so may better be considered as leaves because the leaves make up the greater part. (
  • a stem that holds flowers that comes out of the ground and has no normal leaves. (
  • Vines wilt and may be completely girdled, causing part of the stems and leaves to rot. (
  • The stem supports the leaves and flowers and serves as the primary transport for water and nutrients on the way to the leaves. (
  • The stem often forms a main trunk or stem and extends branches out into smaller horizontal extensions of the main stem from which the leaves grow. (
  • Nodes from which leaves grow are spaced along the stem and branches. (
  • The veins are vascular bundles that carry nutrients between the leaves and the body of the plant. (
  • Stems have four main functions which are: Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers and fruits. (
  • All plant organs--from the leaves to the root--regularly endure injuries to their tissue, be it due to mechanical forces, grazing animals, or other factors. (
  • There were no leaves or scales although the stems did have spiny hairs scattered over the surface. (
  • The vegetative organs, however, always include stems and leaves. (
  • The stem also orients the leaves to maximize photosynthesis. (
  • Stems are composed of nodes, points at which leaves and branches attach, and internodes, the regions of stem between the nodes. (
  • The squiggly lines that appear on some plant leaves are usually the result of leaf miners, which is a general term for the larvae of multiple different kin. (
  • In most herbaceous crop plants, photoassimilates fixed in source leaves are loaded into the collection phloem as Suc, which is translocated through the transport phloem by a pressure flow mechanism to supply carbon substrate for sink growth and/or storage ( Münch, 1930 ). (
  • We demonstrate how the optical method, used previously in leaves, can be adapted to measure the xylem vulnerability of stems. (
  • On several occasions when I tried to get E. stellata, the stems promptly lost all their leaves and died from stem rot. (
  • After reading horror stories of how people's Stellata turned to mush in the mail (regardless of who shipped them) I was really please that all the stems were firm and the leaves that were there were in fairly good shape. (
  • Purple Stem, Hairy variety of Wisconsin Fast Plants were selectively bred for strong expression of a purple pigment, anthocyanin, visible throughout the stems, leaves, and bud tips. (
  • Through additional selection, this variety also has an increased number of hairs (a type of trichome found on the stems and leaves). (
  • They can be on leaves or fruit, but more commonly on stems. (
  • It usually appears in the early summer when humidity is up, with a humidity of 90% and temps around 60-78 degrees F. (15-25 C.). Within 10 hours of these conditions, purple-brown to black lesions begin to dot leaves and spread down into the stems. (
  • Mulching can act as a barrier as can removing the lower leaves so rain splashed spores cannot infect the plant. (
  • Stem leaves, black stripes - what's the cause? (
  • It is a vigorous, climbing, tropical vine that may be grown in St. Louis as (1) an annual leafy vegetable for cultivation of its edible spinach-like stems and leaves or (2) as an ornamental foliage vine. (
  • Although in a different family than spinach, the leaves taste like spinach and, unlike spinach, the plants thrive in hot summer weather. (
  • Leaves and stems are a good source of Vitamins A and C, calcium and iron. (
  • Red Stem' features showy red stems clad with thick, glossy, heart-shaped, medium green leaves. (
  • As a vegetable, pick leaves and stems as needed for use in soups, salads, stir-fry or as a pot herb for stews. (
  • As an ornamental, enjoy the glossy green leaves and red stems in ornamental plantings on posts, fences, hanging baskets or large containers. (
  • Find plants that have yellow leaves or stems or are marked with these colors. (
  • One of his recent interests was to investigate the anatomy of often neglected groups of plants (grasses, sedges) or plant organs (petiole, fruit stalk and tree bark). (
  • Plants are often perceived as less complex than animals, but much like animals, they are made up of organs and organ systems that perform specialized functions. (
  • There is considerable diversity in how plants reproduce and consequently in the reproductive organs that they possess. (
  • Plants are extraordinarily good at cultivating new tissues and organs, and there are thousands of different plant species readily available. (
  • an embryonic shoot with immature stem tip. (
  • An interesting aspect is that plant regeneration repeats embryonic signaling on a different scale," Birnbaum adds. (
  • It is as though the plant can superimpose embryonic development on a new scale that is adaptable to the damaged tissue. (
  • The embryo is the embryonic plant. (
  • Monocot vascular bundles lack a vascular cambium, and monocot stems thus do not become woody in a manner similar to dicots. (
  • How sucrose transporters (SUTs) regulate phloem unloading in monocot stems is poorly understood and particularly so for species storing high Suc concentrations. (
  • stems that cling or wrap around other plants or structures. (
  • There may be small, black, fruiting structures in this stem canker. (
  • The anatomical section highlights the variety of structures and anatomical features of vascular plants in all wet environments. (
  • This unique and attractive open access textbook combines the beauty of macroscopic pictures of plant stems with the corresponding colorfully stained images of anatomical micro-structures. (
  • It includes a chapter devoted to simple anatomical preparation techniques, and further chapters showing the cell content, cell walls, meristematic tissues and stem structures of all major taxonomic units and morphological growth forms in various ecological and climatic regions from subarctic to equatorial latitudes, as well as structures of fossil, subfossil and technically altered wood. (
  • rather stems are critical, anatomically distinct structures of enormous variability. (
  • Plants offer a great variety of structures, which can be selected to match their use in specific applications, and already present a number of beneficial characteristics such as low density, porosity, and a high surface area. (
  • Form and function go hand-in-hand in the natural world and the structures created by plants and animals are only rarely improved on by humans. (
  • A team of UW-Madison researchers from the lab of bioengineering Professor William Murphy is exploring the use of plants to make the three-dimensional structures that may one day be used to repair bone and tissue. (
  • Nature provides us with a tremendous reservoir of structures in plants," explains Gianluca Fontana, the lead author of the new study and a UW-Madison postdoctoral fellow. (
  • The UW-Madison team collaborated with Madison's Olbrich Botanical Gardens and curator John Wirth to identify plant species that could potentially be transformed into the miniature structures useful for biomedical applications. (
  • This textbook appeals to students and researchers in the fields of plant anatomy, taxonomy, ecology, dendrochronology, history, plant pathology, and evolutionary biology as well as to technologists. (
  • Plant Stems will be a valuable resource on form/function relationships for researchers and graduate-level students in ecology, evolutionary biology, physiology, development, genetics, agricultural sciences, and horticulture as they unravel the mechanisms and processes that allow organisms and ecosystems to function. (
  • It is a valuable source of fresh information for academics and researchers, examining molecular mechanisms of animal and plant stem cell regulation and their usage for therapeutic applications. (
  • Using simple mathematical ideas, Harvard University researchers constructed a framework that explains and quantifies the different shapes of plant stems. (
  • The researchers determined that although the stem cell circuits are essential for flowering plants, the genetic backup systems can vary drastically from plant to plant. (
  • In the first US/UK collaboration on space medicine, researchers from the University of Kingston will be conducting stem cell research in zero gravity. (
  • Developing mutant plants is a common procedure for genetic researchers who want to learn about the activity of genes that are sequenced but whose functions are still unknown. (
  • It can be avoided by using fungicide-treated seeds and infected plants can be treated with a fungicide. (
  • Plants have systems that perform complementary functions designed to support the life of the plant and produce seeds or execute other reproductive strategies, such as spores or runners or tubers. (
  • Several employees with the Army Corps of Engineers Little Rock District volunteered their weekend time and expertise to plant seeds. (
  • In November, Mike Biggs, Daniel Smith, Mark Dixson, and Keith Cook planted seeds of knowledge in the minds of 28 local Cub Scouts with hope of harvesting an interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics in the future. (
  • Why do seeds need to be moved away from the parent plant? (
  • Varieties of Fast Plants seeds. (
  • plants will produce harvestable seeds approximately 40 days after planting. (
  • Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). (
  • Photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation rate ( A sat ) and stomatal conductance ( g ssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. (
  • To prevent infection, sanitize equipment with a bleach solution and soak seeds in 130 degree F. (54 C.) water for 25 minutes prior to planting. (
  • It features double-stained cross- and longitudinal sections of almost 400 species of vascular plants from the lowland to the alpine zone in Central Europe, including plants from lakes, ponds, rivers, bogs, fens, wet meadows, saline meadows, tall herb associations and alpine snow beds. (
  • For each species it provides a photo of the whole plant, a short morphological and ecological description as well as indications about its world- and Central European distribution. (
  • Each part of a plant contributes to its growth and survival both an individual specimen and as a collective species. (
  • Plant professionals do everything from educating others about the natural world to running large companies to traveling the world to save threatened species. (
  • The vulnerability of plant water transport tissues to a loss of function by cavitation during water stress is a key indicator of the survival capabilities of plant species during drought. (
  • However, despite the tremendous ecological and physiological insights that await a detailed understanding of the limits and spread of xylem cavitation in plant species, rapid progress has been limited by technical difficulties. (
  • The conservation of these pathway components across the plant kingdom provides an opportunity to use cutting edge techniques such as genome editing to enhance yield traits in a wide variety of agricultural plant species. (
  • and Maruca testulalis (Geyer) during stimulation with various plant substances revealed that in the medial and lateral maxillary sensilla styloconica of each of these three species a NaCl, water and sucrose sensitive cell is present. (
  • In herbaceous dicotyledonous stems, the vascular conducting tissue ( xylem and phloem ) is organized into discrete strands or vascular bundles , each containing both xylem and phloem. (
  • No bark is formed on the herbaceous stem. (
  • I am looking for diagrams of herbaceous and woody plant stems for a project. (
  • This was the grand motivating question for Andrew Muroyama, a postdoctoral scholar in the lab of Stanford University biologist Dominique Bergmann, as he monitored days of leaf development in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Watch closely, like Muroyama did, and you would see the usual process for asymmetric cell division: when an Arabidopsis stem cell first divides, the nucleus moves to one side. (
  • The research collaboration, which will focus on tomatoes, corn and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , is led by principal investigator David Jackson of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, N.Y. Others on the team are colleague Zachary Lippman at Cold Spring, Bartlett and Zachary Nimchuk of the University of North Carolina. (
  • An application, corresponding to all 26 Arabidopsis CLE protein family members, of synthetic dodecapeptides reveals two counteracting signaling pathways involved in stem cell fate. (
  • It is well known that as plants grow, their stems and shoots respond to outside signals like light and gravity. (
  • GE on Feb. 13 announced goals of having 20,000 women fill STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) roles by 2020 and obtaining 50:50 representation in all the company's technical entry-level programs. (
  • Reprogramming is a frequently used word in stem cell contexts today, ever since the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 2012. (
  • Rhynia was a primitive vascular plant consisting of an underground rhizome which bore upright aerial stems. (
  • We have combined these two powerful search tools into a single Find a Plant service searching over 250,000 plant records. (
  • Search by plant name, key attributes or both to find plant details and a list of suppliers. (
  • The Plant cell extracts have been obtained through complex processes of cultivation and extraction of required extract. (
  • One method works well for individual stems or entire plants, the other is useful when dealing with a population of conspecifics exhibiting a norm of reaction. (
  • a bud which grows at the point of attachment of an older leaf with the stem. (
  • a flattened stem that appears more-or-less leaf like and is specialized for photosynthesis, [2] e.g. cactus pads. (
  • Node: a point of attachment of a leaf or a twig on the stem in seed plants. (
  • If plants suffer more than 25 per cent defoliation during the plants' first-to-third true leaf stages, treat them with an insecticide labelled for cucurbits like permethrin, carbaryl or esfenvalerate. (
  • The plumule is the first leaf the plant will unfurl. (
  • The nuclear position, in turn, controls the patterns of stem cell divisions, which ultimately create tiny pores, called stomata, throughout the leaf surface. (
  • Plant Super Stem Cell Cream™ is a powerful formula including Malus Domestica fruit cell culture extract, Iris Padilla leaf extract and Nymphaea Caerulea leaf extract. (
  • Damages they can cause blueberry bushes include shoot stunting, leaf deformation, shortened internodes and stem scarring. (
  • Anthurium leaf stem is a useful leaf to add to most flower arrangements. (
  • The upscaling function was developed to have one dependent variable, namely sap flow rate, and two independent variables, namely stem cross-sectional area of Salix gordejevii and leaf area of Caragana microphylla . (
  • White Flower Long-Stemmed Plants" last modified May 13, 2017. (
  • Stems have two pipe-like tissues called xylem and phloem . (
  • Woody - hard textured stems with secondary xylem. (
  • Here, we present a new method for evaluating the spatial and temporal propagation of embolizing bubbles in the stem xylem during imposed water stress. (
  • Clusters of full, double flowers form on long stems, providing a vase full of flowers from one stem. (
  • Pope John Paul II is very fragrant with pure-white blossoms borne singly on long stems. (
  • Oriental lilies are fragrant flowers on long stems. (
  • Remove side buds for solitary blossoms on long stems. (
  • Supplied with long stems which can be trimmed for different floral displays. (
  • Their principal function is to act as the primary site of photosynthesis in the plant. (
  • The hydrobotanical section describes the ecological classification of aquatic and wetland plants and explains major ecophysiological processes e.g., photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, gas exchange, adaptations to soil anoxia, turion formation and ecology. (
  • Stems are often specialized for storage, asexual reproduction, protection or photosynthesis, including the following: Acaulescent: used to describe stems in plants that appear to be stemless. (
  • It simulates a condition where grain filling proceeds with no transient photosynthesis, relying mainly on use of stem reserves. (
  • Plants use photosynthesis to convert light energy to chemical energy , which is stored in the bonds of sugars they use for food. (
  • Arborescent: tree with woody stems normally with a single trunk. (
  • Fruticose: stems that grow shrublike with woody like habit. (
  • Only about a foot tall, but the stems are becoming woody. (
  • but it's in an area where other woody plants have struggled. (
  • Thick woody stems such as tree branches may have exposed cambium which doesn't seal and will interrupt the flow of nutrients and moisture to the damage limb, slowly killing it. (
  • Ice Follies has large, fragrant trumpets on a tall plant beginning in early July. (
  • Late-blooming Faribo Gold is white with a gold centre on tall stems. (
  • Tall garden phlox David is glowing white and fragrant, blooming in the summer on tall cutting stems. (
  • In a couple of weeks I think I'll have enough good stems (tall and straight) to transfer into my main tank. (
  • Say you have an established clump of tall phlox (or other late summer flowering plant, for that matter) that you feel is going to get too tall. (
  • Some of the branches fell off when I planted. (
  • Also, removing the lower branches and leaving the stem bare up to the first set of flowers can be helpful, then mulch around the plant after removing the foliage to this point. (
  • F1 Non-Purple Stem variety of Wisconsin Fast Plants® is a cross between the Non-Purple Stem, Hairless variety and Purple Stem, Hairy. (
  • The expression of anthocyanin in the parent from the Purple Stem, Hairy variety is dominant over the anthocyaninless, Non-Purple Stem, parent. (
  • Monohybrid Genetics: Recommended for single-gene inheritance studies with the F2 Non-Purple Stem seed stock. (
  • Although circumstantial evidence suggests a Soilborne origin and symp-toms resemble those of Prunus stem pitting (PSP), all attempts to detect tomato ringspot virus (the causal agent of PSP) in affected trees by graft-inoculations onto P. tomentosa Thunb. (
  • CLV-WUS pathway components are associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield traits in crop plants such as oilseed, tomato, rice, and maize, and may have played a role in crop domestication. (
  • One day your tomato plants are hale and hearty and the next day they're riddled with black spots on the stems of the tomato plants. (
  • If your tomato plant has black stems, don't panic, it's more than likely the result of a fungal tomato stem disease that can easily be treated with a fungicide. (
  • This fungus either already lives in the soil or spores have landed on the tomato plant when infected old tomato debris has been disturbed. (
  • Bacterial canker is another tomato stem disease that causes black spots on stems of tomato plants. (
  • If your tomato plant has black stems, it may be too late or a simple fungal application may remedy the issue. (
  • You can repair broken climbing plants like clematis , jasmine and indeterminate tomato plants . (
  • Stems of monocotyledons are composed of numerous vascular bundles that are arranged in a seemingly scattered manner within the ground tissue. (
  • Stem usually consist of three tissues, dermal tissue , ground tissue and vascular tissue . (
  • The dermal tissue covers the outer surface of the stem and usually functions to waterproof, protect and control gas exchange. (
  • The new approach to making scaffolds for tissue engineering depends on cellulose, the primary constituent of the cell walls of green plants. (
  • The bacteria Clavibacter michiganensis is the culprit here and it survives indefinitely in plant tissue. (
  • This showed that the important ingredient for long-term growth was not necessarily a stem cell imbued with cell-production properties, but, instead, the surrounding tissues that together created stem cell behavior. (
  • If these plants where lying on wet mud in a humid atmosphere each rooted node would produce a new upright shoot its just how these plants grow. (
  • Evolution of buffering in a genetic circuit controlling plant stem cell proliferation. (
  • Huanzhong Wang, assistant professor in the Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture , was recently awarded an NSF CAREER award, a grant that provides major support to promising young faculty in the sciences, to pursue his research on a newly identified protein in plants that plays a crucial role in stem cell proliferation and biomass accumulation. (
  • His research has resulted in more than 160 scientific articles and 35 books on dendrochronology and plant anatomy. (
  • It also causes brown stem lesions that often split open and become lighter in colour with age. (
  • It is readily apparent on older plants as brown streaking and dark lesions. (
  • The lesions can appear anywhere on the plant. (
  • Reddish brown lesions were observed on the lower stem and upper root area of velvetleaf ( Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (
  • Plants were kept in a mist chamber in the dark at 25°C for 4 days and were then transferred to a greenhouse with a 16-h photoperiod at 24 ± 3°C. Stem lesions were measured 7 days after inoculation. (
  • Mean stem lesion lengths caused by the velvetleaf and soybean isolates were 23 and 20 mm, respectively, on soybean stems, while negative controls produced no lesions. (
  • P. longicolla was reisolated from the stem lesions of five randomly collected plants. (
  • Storage parenchyma localized SbSUT1 and SbSUT5 may accumulate Suc from the stem apoplasms of elongating and recently elongated internodes, whereas SbSUT4 may function to release Suc from vacuoles. (
  • While plant stem cell exists in the meristematic tissues of plant, callus is obtained as a temporary response to cure wounds in somatic cell. (
  • We can't assume that plant genes will help human regeneration, but the principles involved in plant stem cell reconstitution could serve as a general model," he observes. (
  • How a stem cell program--i.e. transcription factors and the corresponding genes guiding restorative cell division including the switch of the division plane orientation--in an already specialized cell is activated, remains unknown. (
  • It is surprising that the interactions between the handful of key genes that control the fate of each stem cell are so similar in both cases", says Carsten Peterson, professor at the Faculty of Science at Lund University. (
  • Madelaine Bartlett, biology, and plant genome scientist colleagues elsewhere have received a four-year, $4 million grant from the National Science Foundation ($812,000 to Bartlett) to study the genes that regulate plant stem cell biology and the role they play in yielding more and bigger fruit. (
  • Instead of waiting for the next thousand years to see what new mutations arise in these genes, we will accelerate evolution in a very controlled and intelligent way to create genetic diversity for use by traditional plant breeders. (
  • As humans we are completely dependent on plants and on these genes in particular. (
  • Bartlett says in ancient plants mutations in CLAVATA- networkgenes created "weak alleles," versions of the genes that still functioned, but differently. (
  • failed verification] Cambium is a type of meristem with thin walls which minutely exist in small populations within a plant. (
  • Predictions from a computational model, supported by live imaging, reveal that WUS-mediated repression prevents premature differentiation of stem cell progenitors, being part of a minimal regulatory network for meristem maintenance. (
  • Press the stem together and heap moist soil over the stem joints. (
  • Oxford Plant Sciences PhD student Alexander (Sandy) Hetherington, who made the discovery during the course of his research, said: 'I was examining one of the fossilised soil slides held at the University Herbaria as part of my research into the rooting systems of ancient trees when I noticed a structure that looked like the living root tips we see in plants today. (
  • In a taproot system, a primary root emerges from the seed upon germination and grows deep into the soil to anchor the plant. (
  • Epiphytic plants, such as orchids, can live their entire lives without touching soil. (
  • To grow vegetables in containers, fill pots with a sterile potting mix, add slow-release fertilizer and plant vegetable seedlings in the soil. (
  • Honestly, I have never put a newly rooted plant out in the garden without first making sure it is accustom to sunlight or has rooted in a soil type mix. (
  • Adults are 1-2 mm long, and move in soil, entering the plants in small cuts and natural openings. (
  • Why Do Zucchini Plant Stems Split? (
  • A splitting zucchini plant stem may simply be the result of rough handling or evidence of a pest. (
  • If the stem problem is noticed and remedied quickly, the zucchini may recover and vigorously produce fruit. (
  • Zucchini stems may split if the plant has been moved, twisted, mishandled or its own weight. (
  • The hypocotl is the bit between the radical and the plumule that will become the plant's stem. (
  • Different orientations of the plant's interior structure leads to different results, so finding a plant that works well for a certain application is key. (
  • A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant , the other being the root . (
  • Amongst these is Alternaria stem canker , which is caused by the fungus Alternaria alternata . (
  • In the case of Alternaria stem canker, unfortunately, there is no treatment. (
  • They anchor the plant and take up water and nutrients from the environment. (
  • Around 450 million years ago when plants first started to move out of the ocean onto land, they had to find a way to retain water, to reach light from above, to transfer mineral nutrients upwards against gravity and, for fear of falling over, to retain structural integrity in their cell wall. (
  • Splice grafting broken plants is a method that will attach the main body back onto the broken stem, allowing the exchange of important moisture and nutrients to sustain the damaged stem. (
  • Due to this structural characteristic, once physical force is applied to it, it is easily damaged in the very process of isolation, losing its stem cell characteristics. (
  • A new product launch claiming that its plant stem cell ingredient offers anti-pollution protection suggests moving into biotech could be a direction for the anti-pollution trend. (
  • These proteins seemed to regulate how the stem cell divided, but the actual control mechanisms were unknown. (
  • If any green stem plants should appear in this F1 seed stock, remove prior to pollination. (
  • Also, two grants to Saluda Trail Middle School supported STEM programs - one of $3000 for the Girls in Engineering, Math and Science (GEMS) Program, and one of $1000 for the Green STEM recycling program. (
  • Important changes in form accompanied the colonisation of land by plants, and I aim to discover if the known genetic and developmental basis of stem cell regulation in angiosperms is conserved in extant plants with growth forms resembling these early colonists. (
  • He is currently collaborating with teachers at Windham High School to integrate a stem cell lab module into an Early College Experience course on biotechnology, and plans to recruit interested high school students into his lab, where they will help run experiments and learn advanced biological and genetic techniques. (
  • stems that serve as the stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence or infrutescence . (
  • The work has implications for how plants maintain their notoriously long-term growth and productivity. (
  • Over the past decades, the cosmetics and aesthetics were more women focused fields, however, the gaining popularity among males for cosmetic products acts as an untapped segment for the growth of plant stem cell market. (
  • It explores the intersection between animals and plants and explains their cooperative role in bioengineering studies. (
  • Choosing plants producing flowers on long, strong stems makes cutting and arranging fresh white flowers a pleasant task. (
  • Sally Holmes produces clusters of single flowers on long cutting stems. (
  • The Darwin hybrids were developed for large flowers, strong stems and reliable return. (
  • The stem of the cannabis plant only accumulates leftover resins from the flowers over time as it does not produce them itself. (
  • Small purple-white flowers may appear at the end of the summer (plants will not flower until daylight decreases to less than 12 hours per day). (
  • David Domoney, a TV personality in the United Kingdom and decorated plant expert says that crushed into the water of cut stems, the chemicals in the erection drug makes flowers last longer. (
  • If, when the stems elongate in late spring, they are pinched back about halfway into new wood, the flowering will be somewhat delayed, but the additional stems produced by the pinching, will produce more, but smaller, panicles of flowers. (
  • I pinched back each stem, which seemed like a shame, but I know (hope) it will put out numerous flowers the first year on each branch. (
  • A simple fix can allow you to repair broken climbing plants, bushes or even tree limbs. (
  • Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. (
  • The plant and animal kingdoms were separated through evolution more than 1.6 billion years ago. (
  • They seem to have been important in domestication and plant evolution more broadly," she adds. (