PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Material prepared from plants.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The absence of light.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/1627)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Shoot apical meristem and cotyledon formation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis: interaction among the CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS genes. (2/1627)

The shoot apical meristem and cotyledons of higher plants are established during embryogenesis in the apex. Redundant CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 (CUC1) and CUC2 as well as SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) of Arabidopsis are required for shoot apical meristem formation and cotyledon separation. To elucidate how the apical region of the embryo is established, we investigated genetic interactions among CUC1, CUC2 and STM, as well as the expression patterns of CUC2 and STM mRNA. Expression of these genes marked the incipient shoot apical meristem as well as the boundaries of cotyledon primordia, consistent with their roles for shoot apical meristem formation and cotyledon separation. Genetic and expression analyses indicate that CUC1 and CUC2 are redundantly required for expression of STM to form the shoot apical meristem, and that STM is required for proper spatial expression of CUC2 to separate cotyledons. A model for pattern formation in the apical region of the Arabidopsis embryo is presented.  (+info)

Signaling of cell fate decisions by CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis shoot meristems. (3/1627)

In higher plants, organogenesis occurs continuously from self-renewing apical meristems. Arabidopsis thaliana plants with loss-of-function mutations in the CLAVATA (CLV1, 2, and 3) genes have enlarged meristems and generate extra floral organs. Genetic analysis indicates that CLV1, which encodes a receptor kinase, acts with CLV3 to control the balance between meristem cell proliferation and differentiation. CLV3 encodes a small, predicted extracellular protein. CLV3 acts nonautonomously in meristems and is expressed at the meristem surface overlying the CLV1 domain. These proteins may act as a ligand-receptor pair in a signal transduction pathway, coordinating growth between adjacent meristematic regions.  (+info)

Replication in the phloem is not necessary for efficient vascular transport of tobacco mosaic tobamovirus. (4/1627)

Plant viruses move systemically from one leaf to another via phloem. However, the viral functions needed for systemic movement are not fully elucidated. An experimental system was designed to study the effects of low temperature on the vascular transport of the tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV). Vascular transport of TMV from lower inoculated leaves to upper non-inoculated leaves via a stem segment kept at low temperature (4 degrees C) was not affected. On the other hand, several experiments were performed on tobacco leaves to demonstrate that virus replication did not occur at the same temperature. The data suggest that replication of TMV in the phloem of wild-type tobacco plants is not necessary for the vascular transport of TMV, and that the virus moves with photoassimilates as suggested previously.  (+info)

Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis phytochrome B in transgenic potato influences photosynthetic performance and tuber development. (5/1627)

Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing Arabidopsis phytochrome B were characterized morphologically and physiologically under white light in a greenhouse to explore their potential for improved photosynthesis and higher tuber yields. As expected, overexpression of functional phytochrome B caused pleiotropic effects such as semidwarfism, decreased apical dominance, a higher number of smaller but thicker leaves, and increased pigmentation. Because of increased numbers of chloroplasts in elongated palisade cells, photosynthesis per leaf area and in each individual plant increased. In addition, photosynthesis was less sensitive to photoinactivation under prolonged light stress. The beginning of senescence was not delayed, but deceleration of chlorophyll degradation extended the lifetime of photosynthetically active plants. Both the higher photosynthetic performance and the longer lifespan of the transgenic plants allowed greater biomass production, resulting in extended underground organs with increased tuber yields.  (+info)

The MADS-domain protein AGAMOUS-like 15 accumulates in embryonic tissues with diverse origins. (6/1627)

AGL15 (AGAMOUS-like 15), a member of the MADS-domain family of regulatory factors, accumulates preferentially in the organs and tissues derived from double fertilization in flowering plants (i.e. the embryo, suspensor, and endosperm). The developmental role of AGL15 is still undefined. If it is involved in embryogenesis rather than some other aspect of seed biology, then AGL15 protein should accumulate whenever development proceeds in the embryonic mode, regardless of the origin of those embryos or their developmental context. To test this, we used AGL15-specific antibodies to analyze apomictic embryogenesis in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), microspore embryogenesis in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), and somatic embryogenesis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In every case, AGL15 accumulated to relatively high levels in the nuclei of the embryos. AGL15 also accumulated in cotyledon-like organs produced by the xtc2 (extra cotyledon2) mutant of Arabidopsis and during precocious germination in oilseed rape. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of AGL15 appeared to be developmentally regulated in all embryogenic situations. AGL15 was initially present in the cytoplasm of cells and became nuclear localized before or soon after embryogenic cell divisions began. These results support the hypothesis that AGL15 participates in the regulation of programs active during the early stages of embryo development.  (+info)

BUNDLE SHEATH DEFECTIVE2, a novel protein required for post-translational regulation of the rbcL gene of maize. (7/1627)

The Bundle sheath defective2 (Bsd2) gene is required for ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) accumulation in maize. Using a Mutator transposable element as a molecular probe, we identified a tightly linked restriction fragment length polymorphism that cosegregated with the bsd2-conferred phenotype. This fragment was cloned, and sequences flanking the Mutator insertion were used to screen a maize leaf cDNA library. Using a full-length cDNA clone isolated in this screen, we show that an abundant 0.6-kb transcript could be detected in wild-type plants but not in bsd2-m1 plants. This 0.6-kb transcript accumulated to low levels in plants carrying an allele derived from bsd2-m1 that conditions a less severe mutant phenotype. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that we have cloned the Bsd2 gene. Sequence analysis of the full-length cDNA clone revealed a chloroplast targeting sequence and a region of homology shared between BSD2 and the DnaJ class of molecular chaperones. This region of homology is limited to a cysteine-rich Zn binding domain in DnaJ believed to play a role in protein-protein interactions. We show that BSD2 is targeted to the chloroplast but is not involved in general photosynthetic complex assembly or protein import. In bsd2 mutants, we could not detect the Rubisco protein, but the chloroplast-encoded Rubisco large subunit transcript (rbcL) was abundant and associated with polysomes in both bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. By characterizing Bsd2 expression patterns and analyzing the bsd2-conferred phenotype, we propose a model for BSD2 in the post-translational regulation of rbcL in maize.  (+info)

Independent regulation of flowering by phytochrome B and gibberellins in Arabidopsis. (8/1627)

Phytochromes and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate multiple aspects of Arabidopsis development. Phytochrome B (PHYB) promotes seed germination by increasing GA biosynthesis, but inhibits hypocotyl elongation by decreasing the responsiveness to GAs. Later in the life cycle of the plant, PHYB and GAs have opposite effects on flowering. PHYB delays flowering, while GAs promote flowering, particularly under noninductive photoperiods. To learn how PHYB and GAs interact in the control of flowering, we have analyzed the effect of a phyB mutation on flowering time and on the expression of the floral meristem-identity gene LFY (LEAFY). We show that the early flowering caused by phyB correlated with an increase in LFY expression, which complements our previous finding that GAs are required for activation of LFY under noninductive photoperiods (M.A. Blazquez, R. Green, O. Nilsson, M.R. Sussman, D. Weigel [1998] Plant Cell 10: 791-800). Since phyB did not change the GA responsiveness of the LFY promoter and suppressed the lack of flowering of severe GA-deficient mutants under short days, we propose that PHYB modulates flowering time at least partially through a GA-independent pathway. Interestingly, the effects of PHYB on flowering do not seem to be mediated by transcriptional up-regulation of genes such as CO (CONSTANS) and FT (Flowering locus T), which are known to mediate the effects of the photoperiod-dependent floral-induction pathway.  (+info)

Plants induce long-lasting systemic immunity after local pathogen attack by emitting resistance-priming signals from infection sites. A number of plant molecules have been proposed as mobile factors for this response, but many do not fully satisfy criteria for timing and action in systemic immunity. Azelaic acid has been identified as a pathogen-induced metabolite in Arabidopsis vascular sap that has several properties of a long-distance resistance-priming signal.. ...
Over the years, Ive learned three basic principles of plant growth that help me decide where to make a precise pruning cut. First, apical buds (at the tip of a branch) have dominance over lateral buds (on the side of a branch), so the removal of the apical bud results in the growth of lateral buds. When a cut is made just above a bud, that bud will usually become dominant, but if a cut is made mid stem, a flush of growth from a number of buds along the stem may occur ...
Click on an image for a larger view. axillary bud - a lateral bud located in a leaf axil. On a winter twig, the axillary bud is located above a leaf scar. Compare with: terminal bud. ...
This unit covers plant form and function.|p/| Chapters include:|p/| Chapter 37: Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Chapter 38: Transport in Vascular Plants Chapter 39: Plant Nutrition Chapter 40: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology Chapter 41: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals|p/| |b||p|This unit is part of the |a href=| Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child|/a| course. |/p||/b|
1997-2006 is a purely informational website, and should not be used as a substitute for professional legal, medical or technical advice. ...
In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions. Plant growth of both genotypes was monitored during 5 subsequent weeks starting one week before flower initiation occurred in C17. Axillary bud outgrowth was measured weekly and samples of shoot apex, stem and axillary buds were taken during the first two weeks. We combined auxin and cytokinin measurements by UPLC-MS/MS with RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in shoot ...
The control of shoot branching and its impact on plant architecture have fundamental implications for the development of more productive crops (reviewed in Xie et al., 2010; Brewer et al., 2013). Considerable progress has been made in understanding the hormonal control of axillary bud outgrowth. The discovery of the importance of the shoot apex, in decapitation experiments, led to the formulation of the apical dominance theory. According to this, auxin, known then as the growth substance, inhibits the outgrowth of lateral buds (Thimann & Skoog, 1933). Several early studies focused on the antagonistic roles of auxins and cytokinins (CKs) in controlling bud outgrowth (Skoog & Thimann, 1940; Gunckel & Thimann, 1949; Thimann et al., 1971; Morris, 1977), also detailed in more recent work (Bangerth et al., 2000; Pernisova et al., 2009; Shimizu-Sato et al., 2009).. However, experiments studying long-distance signals in mutants that exhibited increased branching or tillering suggested that factors in ...
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The shoot apical meristem (SAM) of angiosperm plants is a highly organized minute structure that gives rise to all aboveground organs. The SAM is divided into three different functional domains. The central zone (CZ) at the SAM tip harbors the self-renewing pluripotent stem cells and the organizing center, providing daughter cells that are continuously displaced into the interior rib zone (RZ) or to the surrounding peripheral zone (PZ), from which organ primordia are initiated. Despite the constant flow of cells from the CZ into the RZ or PZ, and cell recruitment for primordium formation, a stable balance is maintained between the distinct cell populations in the SAM. Here we combined an in depth phenotypic analysis with a comparative RNA-Seq approach to characterize meristems from selected combinations of clavat3 (clv3), jabba-1D (jba1D) and erecta (er) mutants. We demonstrate that CLV3 restricts meristem expansion along the apical basal axis, while class III HD-ZIP and ER pathways restrict ...
Aug 01 1978 the roles of auxin iaa and abscisic acid aba in controlling lateral bud development in young intact and decapitated tomato plants have been investigated using 235triiodobenzoic acid tiba as an inhibitor of the polar transport of apicallyproduced or exogenouslyapplied auxin when tiba was applied as a ring in lanolin to the stem there was a strong stimulation of growth of the lateral buds below the ring but these buds were suppressed in their outgrowth if either aba Get Quote ...
Fichtner, F.; Barbier, F. F.; Feil, R.; Watanabe, M.; Annunziata, M. G.; Chabikwa, T. G.; Hoefgen, R.; Stitt, M.; Beveridge, C. A.; Lunn, J. E.: Trehalose 6-phosphate is involved in triggering axillary bud outgrowth in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). The Plant Journal 92 (4), pp. 611 - 623 (2017 ...
Fichtner, F.; Barbier, F. F.; Feil, R.; Watanabe, M.; Annunziata, M. G.; Chabikwa, T. G.; Hoefgen, R.; Stitt, M.; Beveridge, C. A.; Lunn, J. E.: Trehalose 6-phosphate is involved in triggering axillary bud outgrowth in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). The Plant Journal 92 (4), S. 611 - 623 (2017 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a stelar-localized transport protein that facilitates root-to-shoot transfer of chloride in arabidopsis. AU - Li, Bo. AU - Byrt, Caitlin. AU - Qiu, Jiaen. AU - Baumann, Ute. AU - Hrmova, Maria. AU - Evrard, Aurelie. AU - Johnson, Alexander A.T.. AU - Birnbaum, Kenneth D.. AU - Mayo, Gwenda M.. AU - Jha, Deepa. AU - Henderson, Sam W.. AU - Tester, Mark. AU - Gilliham, Mathew. AU - Roy, Stuart J.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was funded by the Australian Research Council (ARC), Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC), and the King Abdullah University for Science and Technology funding to M.T., GRDC funding (UA00145) to S.J.R. and M.G., and ARC Centre of Excellence (CE140100008) and ARC Future Fellowship (FT130100709) funding to M.G. Publisher Copyright: © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.. PY - 2016/2. Y1 - 2016/2. N2 - Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl-) in the ...
* found in: Casamino Acids, Wheat Regeneration Medium (MMS2C), Murashige & Skoog (MS) Medium, Gellan Gum Powder, Murashige & Skoog(MS) Medium,..
Caprifolium Miller; Euchylia Dulac; Xylosteon Miller.. Shrubs erect or dwarf, rarely small trees, sometimes climbers, deciduous or evergreen. Branches hollow or solid with white or brown pith; winter buds with 1 to several pairs of scales, rounded or acutely 4-angular, inner scales sometimes accrescent and reflexed. Accessory buds sometimes present, occasionally terminal buds reduced and substituted by 2 lateral buds. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled, margin entire, rarely dentate or divided; leaves usually estipulate, occasionally with interpetiolar stipules or a swollen interpetiolar line; sometimes 1 or 2 pairs of leaves below inflorescence connate and forming involucral bracts. Inflorescence thyrsoid, terminal or axillary, cymes opposite and usually reduced to paired flowers, rarely 1-, sometimes 3-flowered. Inflorescence occasionally pedunculate; cymes sessile, sometimes forming a capitulum, or cymes pedunculate with a pair of bracts and 2 pairs of bracteoles; bracts usually small, sometimes ...
a) Permanent branches. These are strong shoots which come from strong main buds. Such shoots continue growing for many years, and develop into the permanent structure of the plant. Most axillary main buds along a strongly growing shoot remain dormant, but eventually the main shoot axis becomes less vigorous, the terminal bud becomes weaker, and extension growth is stopped by the formation of a terminal fruiting mother branch (see below). Axillary main buds further down the stem then break dormancy to produce strong shoots, which ultimately develop into new permanent branches. Occasionally, weak main buds along the shoot break dormancy and produce fruiting, mother branches.. (b) Secondary branches. These are produced from strong lateral buds along the current extension growth of permanent branches. Secondary branches typically zigzag, because the direction of branch growth changes at each node. A secondary branch reaches its maximum length in its first year of life. The terminal growing point ...
10-25 mm large, ± globular galling of a lateral bud, with an irregular apical opening. The mature gall is reddish brown, mostly solitary; its surface is smooth, often somewhat sticky. The entire gall is filled with a corky mass, in which a single, central, gall chamber is left open. Adult wasps emerge in September. ...
Shoot branching is a major determinant of plant shoot architecture. Many factors contribute to the ability of an axillary bud to grow out to form a branch, including developmental, positional, genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Auxin, cytokinin (CK), and strigolactones (SLs) are implicated in the hormonal regulation of bud outgrowth; auxin and SLs as inhibitors of bud outgrowth and CK as a promoter of bud outgrowth (Dun et al., 2009a; Leyser, 2009; Beveridge and Kyozuka, 2010). Many studies over a number of decades have investigated the antagonistic action of auxin and CK in bud outgrowth control (Shimizu-Sato et al., 2009) and, more recently, the relationships between auxin and SL (Brewer et al., 2009; Crawford et al., 2010; Liang et al., 2010), but how SL and CK integrate to antagonistically control bud outgrowth remains unclear.. Prior to their identification as hormones involved in shoot branching, certain properties of SLs were characterized based on studies of the long-distance ...
Shoot tips of maize (Zea mays L.) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2 mg/l BA +1 mg/l 2,4-D +40 mg/l, to investigate phases of ontogenetic development. The study used light microscopy as well ...
Po kalivosti sadika naredi dva klična lista, ki zrasteta 25-35 mm v dolžino in imata mrežaste listne žile.[14] Nato ta dva lista na robu naredita lesno krono. Stalni listi so nasprotni (pod pravim kotom glede na klične liste), amfistomatični (z režami na obeh straneh lista), mrežastimi listnimi žilami. Kmalu ko se pojavita lista, apical meristem umre in meristemsko dejavnost prenese na obod krošnje. Lista zato nenehno rasteta iz bazalnih meristem in dosežeta dolžino do 4 m. Konice listov so razcepljene na več ločenih trakov v obliki odsekov, ki jih izkrivljajo leseni deli, ki obdajajo apikalno zarezo, pa tudi veter in naključne zunanje poškodbe. [15] Največje so 1,5 m visoko nad tlemi, vendar obseg listov v stiku s peskom lahko presega 8 m. [16] Velbičevka ima podolgovat, plitev koreninski sistem, sestavljen iz zožene cevaste korenine z enim ali več necevastimi oddvojki, nekaterimi izrazito stranskimi koreninami in mrežo občutljivih gobastih korenin [17] in leseno, ...
Hi there !! I am searching for any great information on P - uptake into plants and its use for metabolism. Probably someone knows an interesting URL ? Thanks in advance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mycorrhizal impacts on root trait plasticity of six maize varieties along a phosphorus supply gradient. AU - Wang, Xin-Xin. AU - Li, Hongbo. AU - Chu, Qun. AU - Feng, Gu. AU - Kuyper, Thomas W.. AU - Rengel, Zed. PY - 2020/1/9. Y1 - 2020/1/9. N2 - Background and aims: Plasticity of plants refers to their ability to produce different phenotypes in different environments. Plants show plasticity aboveground as well as belowground. The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) symbiosis on root plasticity is poorly known. This study aimed to quantify plasticity of root-system related, morphological, physiological or mycorrhizal traits along a soil phosphorus (P) supply gradient. Methods: Six varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) were grown in pots with or without AMF at five rates of P supply. Fifteen root traits were measured and calculated after seven weeks of growth. Results: Root system traits (biomass and length) and physiological traits (phosphatase activity at the root ...
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Although they are not directly exposed to light in most plant species, light influences the growth characteristics of roots (Feldman, 1984; Halliday et al., 2009). How root growth is controlled by light and integrated with developmental responses in the above-ground organs to shape the overall plant architecture is still largely unknown. Here, we provide strong evidence that light regulates root growth by modulating shoot-to-root PAT and identify auxin as a crucial long-distance signal in the regulation of root growth by light. We show that chemical inhibition of PAT in the hypocotyl, or decreasing shoot-derived auxin by genetic approaches, mimic the effect of darkness on root growth. Our results using the DII-VENUS and DR5 auxin signaling sensors (Brunoud et al., 2012; Ulmasov et al., 1997; Friml et al., 2003), further suggest that dark-induced inhibition of shoot-to-root PAT in the hypocotyl results in auxin accumulation in the shoot apex and in a reduction in auxin levels at the base of the ...
General Hydroponics EuroGrower - 8 Pots Complete EuroGrower - 8 Pots Complete (eco-4746-2) EuroGrower - 8 Pots Complete The new EuroGrower from General Hydroponics is the ideal system for someone new to gardening. The EuroGrower provides users with a simple, elegant approach to home hydroponics. The heart of the EuroGrower is our custom designed 40-gallon Panda reservoir, which is more than adequate for its eight 2-gallon buckets. Growers can use the EuroGrower virtually anywhere. The EuroGrower comes complete with Flora Series nutrients, which are currently the industry standard. EuroGrower General Hydroponics EuroGrower - Drip Hydroponic System - The new EuroGrower from General Hydroponics is the ideal system for someone new to gardening. The EuroGrower provides users with a simple, yet elegant approach to home hydroponics. The heart of the EuroGrower is our custom designed 40-gallon Panda reservoir, which is more than adequate for its eight 2-gallon buckets. Whether using a soil or soil-less medium,
Meyerowitz and Somerville developed a research project employing live imaging of dynamic plant processes followed by computational image processing to study two key processes: cellular differentiation in shoot apical meristems and cellulose synthesis. Elliot Meyerowitz initially involved Marcus Heisler, a pioneer of the new live imaging method, who worked on the live imaging of growing shoot apical meristems and computational modeling of cell behaviour and cell- cell communication during meristem growth. After Dr. Heisler left Caltech to establish his own laboratory at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, the project involved two additional postdoctoral fellows, Dr. Wuxing Li and Dr. Paul Tarr, who carried the shoot apical meristem work forward by investigating the involvement of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin in the control of cell expansion, division and gene expression, and therefore, the contribution of these growth hormones to the interaction of physical and ...
|p style=text-align: justify;|The idea of not necessarily requiring a cultivable land to grow plants might seem far-fetched to some, but with advances in hydroponics this is a reality today. Hydroponics, a simple method that enables plant growth using water and essential mineral nutrients, is fast becoming a prevalent option. Hydroponics...
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Food and Hydroponics Labeling - Hydroponics labeling can be either organic or natural, depending on which state you live in. Read the requirements behind hydroponics labeling.
In higher plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is the source of all the above-ground organs. Accordingly, key processes that elaborate shoot architecture are localized in the SAM. An aggregate of small cells located in the distal portion of the shoot, the SAM supplies cells that divide and differentiate to form the elements of the shoot (Medford, 1992). The initiation of lateral organs is related to the structure of the SAM, including its so-called zonation, which is based on anatomical features and cell division patterns. The central zone, in which cell division is less frequent, is located in the center of the SAM and acts as a pool of undifferentiated, indeterminate cells. In the peripheral zone flanking the SAM, cells divide more frequently and are incorporated into leaf primordia. The proximal region, called the rib zone, supplies the cells that form the body of the stem. At the same time, the SAM can be viewed in terms of clonally distinct cell layers (L1, L2, and L3). The outermost ...
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Peptide signaling plays a significant role in various aspects of plant growth and development and specific receptors for various peptides have been identified as being membrane-localized receptor kinases, the largest family of receptor-like molecules in plants. Signaling peptides include members of the following protein families. Systemin - is a small polypeptide functioning as a long-distance signal to activate chemical defenses against herbivores. It was the first plant hormone proven to be a peptide. Systemin induces the production of protein defense compound called protease inhibitors. Systemin was first identified in tomato leaves. It was found to be an 18-amino acid peptide processed from the C-terminus of a 200-amino acid precursor, which is called prosystemin. CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) peptide family - CLV3 encodes a small secreted peptide that functions as a short range ligand to the membrane-bound CLV1 receptor like kinase that together with CLV2 (a receptor-like protein) function to ...
Cytokinin application to dormant buds will cause them to develop. A witches broom is caused by a pathogen such as the bacterium Corynebacterium fascians (or A. tumefaciens) that produces cytokinin which, in turn, causes stimulates lateral bud development (branching). These results suggest that apical dominance may be related to cytokinin, too.. For example, when tobacco cells are infected with the Ti-plasmid that has been modified to possess the heat shock promoter, a heat treatment stimulates the cells to produce increased amounts of cytokinin. These plants exhibit less apical dominance and remain green longer than non-heat treated controls. Thus, these results support the conclusion that senescence and apical dominance are related to cytokinin levels.. G. Promote cell ...
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Tomato plants are vines, initially decumbent, typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred, generally three feet tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are tender perennials, dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands), although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates.. Tomato plants are dicots, and grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. When that tip eventually stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other, fully functional, vines.[42]. Tomato vines are typically pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs. These hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture, especially if the vines connection to its original root has been damaged or ...
Hydroponics Introduction NAME HERE and I became fascinated by hydroponics and the idea that one doesnt have to get their hands dirty to be a great
I show you how I set up my hydroponics system, and the parts needed, the tools used and where I bought them. I am no expert in the Hydroponics field, but I am...
Learn to manage hydroponic systems and equipment; compare different options (including organic hydroponics, with tuition from experts incl. Dr Lyn Morgan and John Mason, author of Commercial Hydroponics.
Plant forms in wax : some methods employed in the Department of Preparation and Installation of the American Museum of Natural History. (Guide leaflet, no. 34 ...
Dear Colleagues: Will you be so kind to help us with pursuing the research of the cytokinin receptor from maize? Previously, we have isolated and characterized a cytokinin-binding protein with the molecular mass of 70 kDa (CBP-70) and showed its receptor properties [1,2]. Monoclonal antibodies were obtained for this receptor [3]. Several antibodies were able to regulate the basic function of the receptor: activation of cytokinin-dependent RNA synthesis [4]. At present we are studying the receptor content in plant organs and their parts (2 - 5 day old etiolated maize shoots) by immunochemical methods. Preliminary results are, in our opinion, very interesting. We think that elucidation of the correlation between the content of cytokinins in tissue (or in the cell) and the content, synthesis and activity of the receptor is of great scientific and practical interest. Please help us to find colleagues possessing IPT transformed maize plants or planning to obtain transformants with controlled ...
Price $131.25 Up for grabs are a lot of 7 Plantmax Hydroponics light bulbs that are good for E40 light bulb sockets & for growing plants. These li
Leaves: Opposite; once pinnately compound; 4 to 7 long; deciduous; 5 to 9 leaflets with short stalks, coarsely serrate margins, narrow and ovate to oblong, 1 to 6 long, green and glabrous on top, lighter and glabrous or pubescent beneath.. Twigs/buds: Twigs stout; somewhat angled or ridged; brownish-red; large, triangular leaf scars that nearly circle stem; pith large and soft. No terminal bud; lateral buds green, scaly.. Flowers/fruit: Flowers perfect; small; yellow-white; in large, showy, flat-topped clusters at the ends of the branches; appear in June or July. Fruit a berry-like drupe; dark blue; 1/4 diameter; sweet, juicy, and edible; matures in late summer.. Bark: Brown with some red; thin; scaly.. Wood: Not important; soft; weak; heartwood yellow; diffuse-porous.. General: Native to much of the western U.S., including most of Utah. Grows in moist areas along streams in the mountains. Fairly short-lived. Shade intolerant, but likes protected sites.. Landscape Use: Seldom used, but ...
The body produced by this early development is initially linear in many cases, laying out the primary axis of the plant body. The embryo grows from the zygote and as it matures is included in integuments that develop into the seed coat. A primary root and primary stem grow from a root apical meristem and a shoot apical meristem, respectively ...
Contains the macronutrients and micronutrients as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962). Also contains adenine hemisulfate, indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, and modified vitamins. Store at 2˚ to 8˚C.. Find this and many more products.
Contains the macronutrients and micronutrients as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962). Also contains adenine hemisulfate, indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, and modified vitamins. Store at 2˚ to 8˚C.. Find this and many more products.
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Background Grafting is widely used in the agriculture of fruit-bearing crops; rootstocks are known to confer differences in scion biomass in addition to improving other traits of agricultural...
MaximumYield - a source of information on hydroponics, aeroponics, aquaponics and organics as well as greenhouse, small-space, container, urban and vertical growing.
The Active Aqua Dual Diaphragm Air Pump is ideal for all hydroponic applications where quiet, consistent, and powerful airflow output is required. Its multi-outlet divider accepts 0.25 tubing and provides up to four separate channels of high volume air output which, if desired, can be further distributed with tees in order to provide aeration via air stones to up to twelve hydroponics buckets or system reservoirs.. FEATURES:. ...
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Supragarden® use Vertical Hydroponics Growing Technology with modular Plantsteps®, watering system and LED grow lights. Read more
Mar 23, 2021 - United States Hydroponics Market is expected to grow significantly in future and is believed to reach USD 3,695.7 Million by the end of 2025 by witnessing a CAGR of 20.3% between the years 2018-2025.
In experiments on transport tissues in plants, researchers from Heidelberg University were able to identify factors of crucial importance for the formation of the plant tissue known as phloem. According to Prof. Dr Thomas ...

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