PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Material prepared from plants.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The absence of light.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/1627)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Shoot apical meristem and cotyledon formation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis: interaction among the CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS genes. (2/1627)

The shoot apical meristem and cotyledons of higher plants are established during embryogenesis in the apex. Redundant CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 (CUC1) and CUC2 as well as SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) of Arabidopsis are required for shoot apical meristem formation and cotyledon separation. To elucidate how the apical region of the embryo is established, we investigated genetic interactions among CUC1, CUC2 and STM, as well as the expression patterns of CUC2 and STM mRNA. Expression of these genes marked the incipient shoot apical meristem as well as the boundaries of cotyledon primordia, consistent with their roles for shoot apical meristem formation and cotyledon separation. Genetic and expression analyses indicate that CUC1 and CUC2 are redundantly required for expression of STM to form the shoot apical meristem, and that STM is required for proper spatial expression of CUC2 to separate cotyledons. A model for pattern formation in the apical region of the Arabidopsis embryo is presented.  (+info)

Signaling of cell fate decisions by CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis shoot meristems. (3/1627)

In higher plants, organogenesis occurs continuously from self-renewing apical meristems. Arabidopsis thaliana plants with loss-of-function mutations in the CLAVATA (CLV1, 2, and 3) genes have enlarged meristems and generate extra floral organs. Genetic analysis indicates that CLV1, which encodes a receptor kinase, acts with CLV3 to control the balance between meristem cell proliferation and differentiation. CLV3 encodes a small, predicted extracellular protein. CLV3 acts nonautonomously in meristems and is expressed at the meristem surface overlying the CLV1 domain. These proteins may act as a ligand-receptor pair in a signal transduction pathway, coordinating growth between adjacent meristematic regions.  (+info)

Replication in the phloem is not necessary for efficient vascular transport of tobacco mosaic tobamovirus. (4/1627)

Plant viruses move systemically from one leaf to another via phloem. However, the viral functions needed for systemic movement are not fully elucidated. An experimental system was designed to study the effects of low temperature on the vascular transport of the tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV). Vascular transport of TMV from lower inoculated leaves to upper non-inoculated leaves via a stem segment kept at low temperature (4 degrees C) was not affected. On the other hand, several experiments were performed on tobacco leaves to demonstrate that virus replication did not occur at the same temperature. The data suggest that replication of TMV in the phloem of wild-type tobacco plants is not necessary for the vascular transport of TMV, and that the virus moves with photoassimilates as suggested previously.  (+info)

Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis phytochrome B in transgenic potato influences photosynthetic performance and tuber development. (5/1627)

Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing Arabidopsis phytochrome B were characterized morphologically and physiologically under white light in a greenhouse to explore their potential for improved photosynthesis and higher tuber yields. As expected, overexpression of functional phytochrome B caused pleiotropic effects such as semidwarfism, decreased apical dominance, a higher number of smaller but thicker leaves, and increased pigmentation. Because of increased numbers of chloroplasts in elongated palisade cells, photosynthesis per leaf area and in each individual plant increased. In addition, photosynthesis was less sensitive to photoinactivation under prolonged light stress. The beginning of senescence was not delayed, but deceleration of chlorophyll degradation extended the lifetime of photosynthetically active plants. Both the higher photosynthetic performance and the longer lifespan of the transgenic plants allowed greater biomass production, resulting in extended underground organs with increased tuber yields.  (+info)

The MADS-domain protein AGAMOUS-like 15 accumulates in embryonic tissues with diverse origins. (6/1627)

AGL15 (AGAMOUS-like 15), a member of the MADS-domain family of regulatory factors, accumulates preferentially in the organs and tissues derived from double fertilization in flowering plants (i.e. the embryo, suspensor, and endosperm). The developmental role of AGL15 is still undefined. If it is involved in embryogenesis rather than some other aspect of seed biology, then AGL15 protein should accumulate whenever development proceeds in the embryonic mode, regardless of the origin of those embryos or their developmental context. To test this, we used AGL15-specific antibodies to analyze apomictic embryogenesis in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), microspore embryogenesis in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), and somatic embryogenesis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In every case, AGL15 accumulated to relatively high levels in the nuclei of the embryos. AGL15 also accumulated in cotyledon-like organs produced by the xtc2 (extra cotyledon2) mutant of Arabidopsis and during precocious germination in oilseed rape. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of AGL15 appeared to be developmentally regulated in all embryogenic situations. AGL15 was initially present in the cytoplasm of cells and became nuclear localized before or soon after embryogenic cell divisions began. These results support the hypothesis that AGL15 participates in the regulation of programs active during the early stages of embryo development.  (+info)

BUNDLE SHEATH DEFECTIVE2, a novel protein required for post-translational regulation of the rbcL gene of maize. (7/1627)

The Bundle sheath defective2 (Bsd2) gene is required for ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) accumulation in maize. Using a Mutator transposable element as a molecular probe, we identified a tightly linked restriction fragment length polymorphism that cosegregated with the bsd2-conferred phenotype. This fragment was cloned, and sequences flanking the Mutator insertion were used to screen a maize leaf cDNA library. Using a full-length cDNA clone isolated in this screen, we show that an abundant 0.6-kb transcript could be detected in wild-type plants but not in bsd2-m1 plants. This 0.6-kb transcript accumulated to low levels in plants carrying an allele derived from bsd2-m1 that conditions a less severe mutant phenotype. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that we have cloned the Bsd2 gene. Sequence analysis of the full-length cDNA clone revealed a chloroplast targeting sequence and a region of homology shared between BSD2 and the DnaJ class of molecular chaperones. This region of homology is limited to a cysteine-rich Zn binding domain in DnaJ believed to play a role in protein-protein interactions. We show that BSD2 is targeted to the chloroplast but is not involved in general photosynthetic complex assembly or protein import. In bsd2 mutants, we could not detect the Rubisco protein, but the chloroplast-encoded Rubisco large subunit transcript (rbcL) was abundant and associated with polysomes in both bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. By characterizing Bsd2 expression patterns and analyzing the bsd2-conferred phenotype, we propose a model for BSD2 in the post-translational regulation of rbcL in maize.  (+info)

Independent regulation of flowering by phytochrome B and gibberellins in Arabidopsis. (8/1627)

Phytochromes and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate multiple aspects of Arabidopsis development. Phytochrome B (PHYB) promotes seed germination by increasing GA biosynthesis, but inhibits hypocotyl elongation by decreasing the responsiveness to GAs. Later in the life cycle of the plant, PHYB and GAs have opposite effects on flowering. PHYB delays flowering, while GAs promote flowering, particularly under noninductive photoperiods. To learn how PHYB and GAs interact in the control of flowering, we have analyzed the effect of a phyB mutation on flowering time and on the expression of the floral meristem-identity gene LFY (LEAFY). We show that the early flowering caused by phyB correlated with an increase in LFY expression, which complements our previous finding that GAs are required for activation of LFY under noninductive photoperiods (M.A. Blazquez, R. Green, O. Nilsson, M.R. Sussman, D. Weigel [1998] Plant Cell 10: 791-800). Since phyB did not change the GA responsiveness of the LFY promoter and suppressed the lack of flowering of severe GA-deficient mutants under short days, we propose that PHYB modulates flowering time at least partially through a GA-independent pathway. Interestingly, the effects of PHYB on flowering do not seem to be mediated by transcriptional up-regulation of genes such as CO (CONSTANS) and FT (Flowering locus T), which are known to mediate the effects of the photoperiod-dependent floral-induction pathway.  (+info)

Plants induce long-lasting systemic immunity after local pathogen attack by emitting resistance-priming signals from infection sites. A number of plant molecules have been proposed as mobile factors for this response, but many do not fully satisfy criteria for timing and action in systemic immunity. Azelaic acid has been identified as a pathogen-induced metabolite in Arabidopsis vascular sap that has several properties of a long-distance resistance-priming signal.. ...
Over the years, Ive learned three basic principles of plant growth that help me decide where to make a precise pruning cut. First, apical buds (at the tip of a branch) have dominance over lateral buds (on the side of a branch), so the removal of the apical bud results in the growth of lateral buds. When a cut is made just above a bud, that bud will usually become dominant, but if a cut is made mid stem, a flush of growth from a number of buds along the stem may occur ...
Click on an image for a larger view. axillary bud - a lateral bud located in a leaf axil. On a winter twig, the axillary bud is located above a leaf scar. Compare with: terminal bud. ...
This unit covers plant form and function.|p/| Chapters include:|p/| Chapter 37: Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Chapter 38: Transport in Vascular Plants Chapter 39: Plant Nutrition Chapter 40: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology Chapter 41: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals|p/| |b||p|This unit is part of the |a href=http://www.curriki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Coll_ALoom/BiologyLinksforOLPC| Biology Links for One Laptop Per Child|/a| course. |/p||/b|
1997-2006 Healthboard.com. Healthboard.com is a purely informational website, and should not be used as a substitute for professional legal, medical or technical advice. ...
In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions. Plant growth of both genotypes was monitored during 5 subsequent weeks starting one week before flower initiation occurred in C17. Axillary bud outgrowth was measured weekly and samples of shoot apex, stem and axillary buds were taken during the first two weeks. We combined auxin and cytokinin measurements by UPLC-MS/MS with RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in shoot ...
The control of shoot branching and its impact on plant architecture have fundamental implications for the development of more productive crops (reviewed in Xie et al., 2010; Brewer et al., 2013). Considerable progress has been made in understanding the hormonal control of axillary bud outgrowth. The discovery of the importance of the shoot apex, in decapitation experiments, led to the formulation of the apical dominance theory. According to this, auxin, known then as the growth substance, inhibits the outgrowth of lateral buds (Thimann & Skoog, 1933). Several early studies focused on the antagonistic roles of auxins and cytokinins (CKs) in controlling bud outgrowth (Skoog & Thimann, 1940; Gunckel & Thimann, 1949; Thimann et al., 1971; Morris, 1977), also detailed in more recent work (Bangerth et al., 2000; Pernisova et al., 2009; Shimizu-Sato et al., 2009).. However, experiments studying long-distance signals in mutants that exhibited increased branching or tillering suggested that factors in ...
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The shoot apical meristem (SAM) of angiosperm plants is a highly organized minute structure that gives rise to all aboveground organs. The SAM is divided into three different functional domains. The central zone (CZ) at the SAM tip harbors the self-renewing pluripotent stem cells and the organizing center, providing daughter cells that are continuously displaced into the interior rib zone (RZ) or to the surrounding peripheral zone (PZ), from which organ primordia are initiated. Despite the constant flow of cells from the CZ into the RZ or PZ, and cell recruitment for primordium formation, a stable balance is maintained between the distinct cell populations in the SAM. Here we combined an in depth phenotypic analysis with a comparative RNA-Seq approach to characterize meristems from selected combinations of clavat3 (clv3), jabba-1D (jba1D) and erecta (er) mutants. We demonstrate that CLV3 restricts meristem expansion along the apical basal axis, while class III HD-ZIP and ER pathways restrict ...
Aug 01 1978 the roles of auxin iaa and abscisic acid aba in controlling lateral bud development in young intact and decapitated tomato plants have been investigated using 235triiodobenzoic acid tiba as an inhibitor of the polar transport of apicallyproduced or exogenouslyapplied auxin when tiba was applied as a ring in lanolin to the stem there was a strong stimulation of growth of the lateral buds below the ring but these buds were suppressed in their outgrowth if either aba Get Quote ...
Fichtner, F.; Barbier, F. F.; Feil, R.; Watanabe, M.; Annunziata, M. G.; Chabikwa, T. G.; Hoefgen, R.; Stitt, M.; Beveridge, C. A.; Lunn, J. E.: Trehalose 6-phosphate is involved in triggering axillary bud outgrowth in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). The Plant Journal 92 (4), pp. 611 - 623 (2017 ...
Fichtner, F.; Barbier, F. F.; Feil, R.; Watanabe, M.; Annunziata, M. G.; Chabikwa, T. G.; Hoefgen, R.; Stitt, M.; Beveridge, C. A.; Lunn, J. E.: Trehalose 6-phosphate is involved in triggering axillary bud outgrowth in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). The Plant Journal 92 (4), S. 611 - 623 (2017 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a stelar-localized transport protein that facilitates root-to-shoot transfer of chloride in arabidopsis. AU - Li, Bo. AU - Byrt, Caitlin. AU - Qiu, Jiaen. AU - Baumann, Ute. AU - Hrmova, Maria. AU - Evrard, Aurelie. AU - Johnson, Alexander A.T.. AU - Birnbaum, Kenneth D.. AU - Mayo, Gwenda M.. AU - Jha, Deepa. AU - Henderson, Sam W.. AU - Tester, Mark. AU - Gilliham, Mathew. AU - Roy, Stuart J.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was funded by the Australian Research Council (ARC), Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC), and the King Abdullah University for Science and Technology funding to M.T., GRDC funding (UA00145) to S.J.R. and M.G., and ARC Centre of Excellence (CE140100008) and ARC Future Fellowship (FT130100709) funding to M.G. Publisher Copyright: © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.. PY - 2016/2. Y1 - 2016/2. N2 - Under saline conditions, higher plants restrict the accumulation of chloride ions (Cl-) in the ...
* found in: Casamino Acids, Wheat Regeneration Medium (MMS2C), Murashige & Skoog (MS) Medium, Gellan Gum Powder, Murashige & Skoog(MS) Medium,..
Caprifolium Miller; Euchylia Dulac; Xylosteon Miller.. Shrubs erect or dwarf, rarely small trees, sometimes climbers, deciduous or evergreen. Branches hollow or solid with white or brown pith; winter buds with 1 to several pairs of scales, rounded or acutely 4-angular, inner scales sometimes accrescent and reflexed. Accessory buds sometimes present, occasionally terminal buds reduced and substituted by 2 lateral buds. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled, margin entire, rarely dentate or divided; leaves usually estipulate, occasionally with interpetiolar stipules or a swollen interpetiolar line; sometimes 1 or 2 pairs of leaves below inflorescence connate and forming involucral bracts. Inflorescence thyrsoid, terminal or axillary, cymes opposite and usually reduced to paired flowers, rarely 1-, sometimes 3-flowered. Inflorescence occasionally pedunculate; cymes sessile, sometimes forming a capitulum, or cymes pedunculate with a pair of bracts and 2 pairs of bracteoles; bracts usually small, sometimes ...
a) Permanent branches. These are strong shoots which come from strong main buds. Such shoots continue growing for many years, and develop into the permanent structure of the plant. Most axillary main buds along a strongly growing shoot remain dormant, but eventually the main shoot axis becomes less vigorous, the terminal bud becomes weaker, and extension growth is stopped by the formation of a terminal fruiting mother branch (see below). Axillary main buds further down the stem then break dormancy to produce strong shoots, which ultimately develop into new permanent branches. Occasionally, weak main buds along the shoot break dormancy and produce fruiting, mother branches.. (b) Secondary branches. These are produced from strong lateral buds along the current extension growth of permanent branches. Secondary branches typically zigzag, because the direction of branch growth changes at each node. A secondary branch reaches its maximum length in its first year of life. The terminal growing point ...
10-25 mm large, ± globular galling of a lateral bud, with an irregular apical opening. The mature gall is reddish brown, mostly solitary; its surface is smooth, often somewhat sticky. The entire gall is filled with a corky mass, in which a single, central, gall chamber is left open. Adult wasps emerge in September. ...
Shoot branching is a major determinant of plant shoot architecture. Many factors contribute to the ability of an axillary bud to grow out to form a branch, including developmental, positional, genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. Auxin, cytokinin (CK), and strigolactones (SLs) are implicated in the hormonal regulation of bud outgrowth; auxin and SLs as inhibitors of bud outgrowth and CK as a promoter of bud outgrowth (Dun et al., 2009a; Leyser, 2009; Beveridge and Kyozuka, 2010). Many studies over a number of decades have investigated the antagonistic action of auxin and CK in bud outgrowth control (Shimizu-Sato et al., 2009) and, more recently, the relationships between auxin and SL (Brewer et al., 2009; Crawford et al., 2010; Liang et al., 2010), but how SL and CK integrate to antagonistically control bud outgrowth remains unclear.. Prior to their identification as hormones involved in shoot branching, certain properties of SLs were characterized based on studies of the long-distance ...
Po kalivosti sadika naredi dva klična lista, ki zrasteta 25-35 mm v dolžino in imata mrežaste listne žile.[14] Nato ta dva lista na robu naredita lesno krono. Stalni listi so nasprotni (pod pravim kotom glede na klične liste), amfistomatični (z režami na obeh straneh lista), mrežastimi listnimi žilami. Kmalu ko se pojavita lista, apical meristem umre in meristemsko dejavnost prenese na obod krošnje. Lista zato nenehno rasteta iz bazalnih meristem in dosežeta dolžino do 4 m. Konice listov so razcepljene na več ločenih trakov v obliki odsekov, ki jih izkrivljajo leseni deli, ki obdajajo apikalno zarezo, pa tudi veter in naključne zunanje poškodbe. [15] Največje so 1,5 m visoko nad tlemi, vendar obseg listov v stiku s peskom lahko presega 8 m. [16] Velbičevka ima podolgovat, plitev koreninski sistem, sestavljen iz zožene cevaste korenine z enim ali več necevastimi oddvojki, nekaterimi izrazito stranskimi koreninami in mrežo občutljivih gobastih korenin [17] in leseno, ...
Hi there !! I am searching for any great information on P - uptake into plants and its use for metabolism. Probably someone knows an interesting URL ? Thanks in advance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mycorrhizal impacts on root trait plasticity of six maize varieties along a phosphorus supply gradient. AU - Wang, Xin-Xin. AU - Li, Hongbo. AU - Chu, Qun. AU - Feng, Gu. AU - Kuyper, Thomas W.. AU - Rengel, Zed. PY - 2020/1/9. Y1 - 2020/1/9. N2 - Background and aims: Plasticity of plants refers to their ability to produce different phenotypes in different environments. Plants show plasticity aboveground as well as belowground. The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) symbiosis on root plasticity is poorly known. This study aimed to quantify plasticity of root-system related, morphological, physiological or mycorrhizal traits along a soil phosphorus (P) supply gradient. Methods: Six varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) were grown in pots with or without AMF at five rates of P supply. Fifteen root traits were measured and calculated after seven weeks of growth. Results: Root system traits (biomass and length) and physiological traits (phosphatase activity at the root ...
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Although they are not directly exposed to light in most plant species, light influences the growth characteristics of roots (Feldman, 1984; Halliday et al., 2009). How root growth is controlled by light and integrated with developmental responses in the above-ground organs to shape the overall plant architecture is still largely unknown. Here, we provide strong evidence that light regulates root growth by modulating shoot-to-root PAT and identify auxin as a crucial long-distance signal in the regulation of root growth by light. We show that chemical inhibition of PAT in the hypocotyl, or decreasing shoot-derived auxin by genetic approaches, mimic the effect of darkness on root growth. Our results using the DII-VENUS and DR5 auxin signaling sensors (Brunoud et al., 2012; Ulmasov et al., 1997; Friml et al., 2003), further suggest that dark-induced inhibition of shoot-to-root PAT in the hypocotyl results in auxin accumulation in the shoot apex and in a reduction in auxin levels at the base of the ...
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Meyerowitz and Somerville developed a research project employing live imaging of dynamic plant processes followed by computational image processing to study two key processes: cellular differentiation in shoot apical meristems and cellulose synthesis. Elliot Meyerowitz initially involved Marcus Heisler, a pioneer of the new live imaging method, who worked on the live imaging of growing shoot apical meristems and computational modeling of cell behaviour and cell- cell communication during meristem growth. After Dr. Heisler left Caltech to establish his own laboratory at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, the project involved two additional postdoctoral fellows, Dr. Wuxing Li and Dr. Paul Tarr, who carried the shoot apical meristem work forward by investigating the involvement of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin in the control of cell expansion, division and gene expression, and therefore, the contribution of these growth hormones to the interaction of physical and ...
|p style=text-align: justify;|The idea of not necessarily requiring a cultivable land to grow plants might seem far-fetched to some, but with advances in hydroponics this is a reality today. Hydroponics, a simple method that enables plant growth using water and essential mineral nutrients, is fast becoming a prevalent option. Hydroponics...
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In higher plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is the source of all the above-ground organs. Accordingly, key processes that elaborate shoot architecture are localized in the SAM. An aggregate of small cells located in the distal portion of the shoot, the SAM supplies cells that divide and differentiate to form the elements of the shoot (Medford, 1992). The initiation of lateral organs is related to the structure of the SAM, including its so-called zonation, which is based on anatomical features and cell division patterns. The central zone, in which cell division is less frequent, is located in the center of the SAM and acts as a pool of undifferentiated, indeterminate cells. In the peripheral zone flanking the SAM, cells divide more frequently and are incorporated into leaf primordia. The proximal region, called the rib zone, supplies the cells that form the body of the stem. At the same time, the SAM can be viewed in terms of clonally distinct cell layers (L1, L2, and L3). The outermost ...
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Peptide signaling plays a significant role in various aspects of plant growth and development and specific receptors for various peptides have been identified as being membrane-localized receptor kinases, the largest family of receptor-like molecules in plants. Signaling peptides include members of the following protein families. Systemin - is a small polypeptide functioning as a long-distance signal to activate chemical defenses against herbivores. It was the first plant hormone proven to be a peptide. Systemin induces the production of protein defense compound called protease inhibitors. Systemin was first identified in tomato leaves. It was found to be an 18-amino acid peptide processed from the C-terminus of a 200-amino acid precursor, which is called prosystemin. CLV3/ESR-related (CLE) peptide family - CLV3 encodes a small secreted peptide that functions as a short range ligand to the membrane-bound CLV1 receptor like kinase that together with CLV2 (a receptor-like protein) function to ...
Cytokinin application to dormant buds will cause them to develop. A witches broom is caused by a pathogen such as the bacterium Corynebacterium fascians (or A. tumefaciens) that produces cytokinin which, in turn, causes stimulates lateral bud development (branching). These results suggest that apical dominance may be related to cytokinin, too.. For example, when tobacco cells are infected with the Ti-plasmid that has been modified to possess the heat shock promoter, a heat treatment stimulates the cells to produce increased amounts of cytokinin. These plants exhibit less apical dominance and remain green longer than non-heat treated controls. Thus, these results support the conclusion that senescence and apical dominance are related to cytokinin levels.. G. Promote cell ...
Tomato plants are vines, initially decumbent, typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred, generally three feet tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are tender perennials, dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands), although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates.. Tomato plants are dicots, and grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. When that tip eventually stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other, fully functional, vines.[42]. Tomato vines are typically pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs. These hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture, especially if the vines connection to its original root has been damaged or ...
Hydroponics Introduction NAME HERE and I became fascinated by hydroponics and the idea that one doesnt have to get their hands dirty to be a great
I show you how I set up my hydroponics system, and the parts needed, the tools used and where I bought them. I am no expert in the Hydroponics field, but I am...
Learn to manage hydroponic systems and equipment; compare different options (including organic hydroponics, with tuition from experts incl. Dr Lyn Morgan and John Mason, author of Commercial Hydroponics.
Plant forms in wax : some methods employed in the Department of Preparation and Installation of the American Museum of Natural History. (Guide leaflet, no. 34 ...
Dear Colleagues: Will you be so kind to help us with pursuing the research of the cytokinin receptor from maize? Previously, we have isolated and characterized a cytokinin-binding protein with the molecular mass of 70 kDa (CBP-70) and showed its receptor properties [1,2]. Monoclonal antibodies were obtained for this receptor [3]. Several antibodies were able to regulate the basic function of the receptor: activation of cytokinin-dependent RNA synthesis [4]. At present we are studying the receptor content in plant organs and their parts (2 - 5 day old etiolated maize shoots) by immunochemical methods. Preliminary results are, in our opinion, very interesting. We think that elucidation of the correlation between the content of cytokinins in tissue (or in the cell) and the content, synthesis and activity of the receptor is of great scientific and practical interest. Please help us to find colleagues possessing IPT transformed maize plants or planning to obtain transformants with controlled ...
Price $131.25 Up for grabs are a lot of 7 Plantmax Hydroponics light bulbs that are good for E40 light bulb sockets & for growing plants. These li
Leaves: Opposite; once pinnately compound; 4 to 7 long; deciduous; 5 to 9 leaflets with short stalks, coarsely serrate margins, narrow and ovate to oblong, 1 to 6 long, green and glabrous on top, lighter and glabrous or pubescent beneath.. Twigs/buds: Twigs stout; somewhat angled or ridged; brownish-red; large, triangular leaf scars that nearly circle stem; pith large and soft. No terminal bud; lateral buds green, scaly.. Flowers/fruit: Flowers perfect; small; yellow-white; in large, showy, flat-topped clusters at the ends of the branches; appear in June or July. Fruit a berry-like drupe; dark blue; 1/4 diameter; sweet, juicy, and edible; matures in late summer.. Bark: Brown with some red; thin; scaly.. Wood: Not important; soft; weak; heartwood yellow; diffuse-porous.. General: Native to much of the western U.S., including most of Utah. Grows in moist areas along streams in the mountains. Fairly short-lived. Shade intolerant, but likes protected sites.. Landscape Use: Seldom used, but ...
The body produced by this early development is initially linear in many cases, laying out the primary axis of the plant body. The embryo grows from the zygote and as it matures is included in integuments that develop into the seed coat. A primary root and primary stem grow from a root apical meristem and a shoot apical meristem, respectively ...
Contains the macronutrients and micronutrients as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962). Also contains adenine hemisulfate, indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, and modified vitamins. Store at 2˚ to 8˚C.. Find this and many more products.
Contains the macronutrients and micronutrients as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962). Also contains adenine hemisulfate, indole-3-acetic acid, kinetin, and modified vitamins. Store at 2˚ to 8˚C.. Find this and many more products.
Background Grafting is widely used in the agriculture of fruit-bearing crops; rootstocks are known to confer differences in scion biomass in addition to improving other traits of agricultural...
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The Active Aqua Dual Diaphragm Air Pump is ideal for all hydroponic applications where quiet, consistent, and powerful airflow output is required. Its multi-outlet divider accepts 0.25 tubing and provides up to four separate channels of high volume air output which, if desired, can be further distributed with tees in order to provide aeration via air stones to up to twelve hydroponics buckets or system reservoirs.. FEATURES:. ...
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Mar 23, 2021 - United States Hydroponics Market is expected to grow significantly in future and is believed to reach USD 3,695.7 Million by the end of 2025 by witnessing a CAGR of 20.3% between the years 2018-2025.
In experiments on transport tissues in plants, researchers from Heidelberg University were able to identify factors of crucial importance for the formation of the plant tissue known as phloem. According to Prof. Dr Thomas ...
During vegetative growth, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) produces lateral organ primordia but remains roughly the same size, as WUSCHEL-CLAVATA signaling…
A simple gel chamber is described for measurement of seedling root traits. Seedlings are located between two closely spaced flat layers of transparent gel,
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 2n=24, Family- Poaceae is the worlds most important staple food crop, which not only provide food but also influenced traditions, religions, culture and life style since Vedic period.
Young flowering shoot. Cultivated plant. Scopolia carniolica Jacq. Single flower, showing long, slender pedicel and cup-like ... The plant is a source of scopolamine, which was used as an anesthetic in the past. The plant was used in the late Middle Ages ... Cultivated plant, arboretum in southern Finland. Flower and leaves viewed from beneath, UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin Poland ... Young shoot sprouting: scale leaves pigmented purple: adult leaves somewhat dentate. Fresh young foliage and abundant flowers ...
... plastics plant shooting". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 28, 2008. Smith, Beth (2008-06-26). "Rampage at ... The shooting is the worst in the history of Henderson County in terms of casualties, surpassing triple homicides occurring in ... A workplace shooting occurred at an Atlantis Plastics factory in Henderson on June 25, 2008. The gunman, 25-year-old Wesley ... Tobacco warehouses and plants closed, and the community's economic fortunes reversed. The last tobacco facility, the Soaper ...
Handly's Lessee v. Anthony, 18 U.S. 374 (1820) Lenz, Ryan (2008-06-25). "6 dead in Henderson, Ky., plastics plant shooting". ... A workplace shooting occurred at an Atlantis Plastics factory in Henderson, Kentucky, United States on June 25, 2008. The ... Although most, if not all, of the photographs were either purchased from other agencies or shot by employees, the name "Ewing ... gunman, 25-year-old Wesley Neal Higdon, shot and killed five people and critically injured a sixth, before taking his own life ...
Higgins, Adrian (30 November 2011). "Photographer Robert Llewellyn shoots insects and plants". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017- ... One such shoot resulted in "a four-page spread featuring American beech trees." Llewellyn's operated as a professional ... The photographic work considers the forest as "a complex, interconnected ecosystem filled with plants, birds, mammals, insects ...
The plant also produces annual fertile shoots. They are more robust than the sterile stems and stand erect. They are usually 3- ... These two plants form a small clade that is sister to all other Selaginella species. It is a small, delicate, low-growing plant ... The fertile shoots bear stout, yellowish cones which are only slightly differentiated from the branch. The cones usually bear ... It resembles a moss in appearance but is a vascular plant belonging to the division Lycopodiophyta. It has a number of common ...
Moderately grazed plants produce new shoots regularly. However, severely grazed plants produce very few new shoots. Therefore, ... This plant species is rare, and with such a small population, heavily grazed on plants are unable to reproduce or flourish. ... "Olearia adenocarpa". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian ... or rhizomatous roots and shoots from nodes on the stem of the plant. Olearia adenocarpa has opposite egg-shaped leaves, ranging ...
The plants shoot up; the sun swells. Refreshment arises for all creation, when Parjanya aids the earth with his semen 5 yásya ... Parjanya is the God who forms in kine, in mares, in plants of earth, And womankind, the germ of life.Offer and pour into his ... The constantly roaring bull of lively drops deposits his semen as embryo in the plants. 2 ví vṛkṣân hanty utá hanti rakṣáso ... You have begotten the plants for nourishment, and you have found (this?) inspired thought for the creatures. Parjanya also ...
"Cupertino cement plant shooting". San Jose Mercury News. 6 October 2011. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved ... "Cupertino cement plant shooting". San Jose Mercury News. 6 October 2011. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. ...
They bore the shoots of their host plant. Full-grown larvae reach a length of about 5 mm. Pupation takes place in a cocoon ...
"Nitrate assimilation in plant shoots depends on photorespiration". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... C4 plants include sugar cane, corn (maize), and sorghum. CAM plants, such as cacti and succulent plants, also use the enzyme ... This allows CAM plants to reduce water loss (transpiration) by maintaining closed stomata during the day. CAM plants usually ... Under these conditions, photorespiration does occur in C4 plants, but at a much reduced level compared with C3 plants in the ...
They bore the shoots of their host plant. "Fauna Europaea". Faunaeur.org. Retrieved 2012-06-11. De Prins, J.; De Prins, W. ( ...
They mine the shoots of their host plant. Larvae leave the stem to pupate. Full-grown larvae are light green and reach a length ... Argyresthia oreasella, the cherry shoot borer moth, is a moth of the family Yponomeutidae. It is found in North America, ...
They mine the shoots of their host plant. Fauna Europaea microlepidoptera.nl Archived July 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine ...
Mulu planted le they sfu shoot soging. banana Mulu le sfu soging. planted they shoot banana "They planted banana shoots." Tboli ...
The plant is dioecious. The young shoots are red-coloured. The larvae of the moth Deoptilia heptadeta mine the leaves to feed. ... These biotic traits attract ants, which remove herbivores from the plant. The plant can change its combination of defence ... Furthermore, the plant bears extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) on its leaf edges and food bodies (pearl bodies) on its leaf and stem ... Mallotus japonicus (Chinese: 野梧桐), also known as East Asian mallotus, the food wrapper plant or "Akamegashiwa" in Japanese, is ...
They bore in the shoots of their host plant. Nuss, Matthias; Landry, Bernard; Vegliante, Francesca; Tränkner, Andreas; Mally, ...
They live in spun shoots of their host plant. Larvae can be found from May to June. Pupation may take place in the larval ...
They feed within the shoots of their host plant. Markku Savela. "Acrobasis Zeller, 1839". Lepidoptera and some other life forms ... Acrobasis caryae, the hickory shoot borer, is a species of snout moth in the genus Acrobasis. It was described by Augustus ...
They feed on the shoots of their host plant. Revised Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Turkey Falkovitsh, M. I. (2006). "Host- ... plant Relationships of the Casebearers (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae): Communication III". Entomological Review (86). doi:10.1134 ...
They feed in the shoots of their host plant. The Old World Hilarographini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) HOSTS - a Database of the ...
They tunnel into the shoots of their host plant. Pupation occurs in the soil. Markku Savela. "Acrobasis". Lepidoptera and some ...
The plant sends up erect flowering shoots in summer. The usually pink or mauve flowers have a tube-like calyx and an irregular ... "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Schauer, Thomas (1978). A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain and ... "RHS Plant Selector - Thymus serpyllum 'Pink Chintz'". RHS. Retrieved 5 March 2021. "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal ... "Elfin Thyme Care - How Do I Plant Elfin Thyme In The Garden". Gardening Know How. Caterpillar food plants 'A Modern Herbal' ( ...
They feed in the shoots of their host plant. Pupation takes place in the feeding chambers. Taxonomic and Biological Studies of ...
It eats seeds, plant shoots, berries, insects and snails. Surprised birds run or fly, sometimes flying to branches like some ...
They feed on the shoots of their host plant. Catálogo Mundial Sistemático y de Distribución de la Familia Coleophoridae ... Archived 2012-09-24 at the Wayback Machine Falkovitsh, M. I. (2006). "Host-plant Relationships of the Casebearers (Lepidoptera ...
They bore the top-shoots of their host plant. Li, H.; Zhang, Z.; Sinev, S.Yu, 2012: Review of the genus Scaeosopha Meyrick, ...
The larvae feed on broom (Cytisus scoparius). They feed in spun shoots of their host plant. Larvae can be found from June to ...
They bore in the shoots of their host plant. "GlobIZ search". Global Information System on Pyraloidea. Retrieved July 4, 2017. ...
They feed on the shoots of their host plant. Zimmerman, Elwood C. (1978). Insects of Hawaii. 9 Microlepidoptera. The University ...
They bore into young shoots of their host plant. The species overwinters in the larval stage. "global Pyraloidea database". ... Sinomphisa plagialis, the Manchurian catalpa shoot borer, is a moth in the family Crambidae. It is found in Japan, China and ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) BOLD Systems Korea Red List Japanese Moths Bionomics of the Manchurian catalpa shoot ...
Fire chief David Jennings estimated damages to the plant at $1.1 million, and two of the plant's 600 workers were hospitalized ... The killer, Ricky Ray Malone, was allegedly in a drug-induced haze from methamphetamine use at the time he shot Green, and his ... On April 26, 2006, a flash fire damaged a Leiner pharmaceutical plant in the Lakemont Business Park of Fort Mill, South ... citing difficulties related to poor results on a FDA inspection of the company's Fort Mill plant during an inspection in 2007. ...
"Three Kurds killed in Syria shooting, human rights group says - Middle East". MonstersAndCritics.com. Archived from the ... It's a tradition for people to plant trees, dredge irrigation canals, clean houses and prepare scrumptious food for guests ... three Kurds were shot dead by Syrian security forces.[124] [125] ... "Key Afghan, US leadership plant trees for Farmer's Day" ...
... s are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant ... Production of Vindoline and Catharanthine in Multiple Shoot Cultures". In Bajaj, Y. P. S. Biotechnology in Agriculture and ... Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. VI. Springer-Verlag. pp. 46-55. ISBN 9783540563914.. ... Cooper, Raymond; Deakin, Jeffrey John (2016). "Africa's gift to the world". Botanical Miracles: Chemistry of Plants That ...
The plants are also available later in the season, as young plants or plugs. They are grown up canes, with the new shoots being ... The sweet pea plant does suffer from some pests, the most common being aphids. These insects suck the sap out of the plants, ... Because of this, growers are encouraged to plant sweet peas away from fruit trees among other plants prone to early dieback or ... The sweet pea, Lathyrus odoratus, is a flowering plant in the genus Lathyrus in the family Fabaceae (legumes), native to Sicily ...
... it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a ... 2011) [1984-2000]. The European Garden Flora, Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe ... Esau, Katherine (2006) [1953]. Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ... According to Agnes Arber's partial-shoot theory of the leaf, leaves are partial shoots,[36] being derived from leaf primordia ...
... plant matter, while laying females ate 71.9% animal matter and only 28.1% plant matter.[66] Plants generally make up the larger ... Walsingham, Lord (2016). Tips for Pheasant Shooting from some of the Finest Hunters. Read Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1473357051. .. ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[69] However, in 2017 a ... plant matter, most notably the grass Echinochloa crus-galli, and nonlaying females ate 37.0% animal matter and 63.0% ...
Plants - berry and juices questions.[edit]. Strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries roughly have the same lifespan, they ... More recently I've heard people over 60 who have already had two shots are being advised to get a third shot. Some people with ... similar to hydroelectric power plant? Or would the costs of maintaining the superfluidity be too high? 212.180.235.46 (talk) 14 ... and people who had recovered from infection to get one shot. ...
Shot sizesEdit. Shot sizes vary significantly from country to country. In the United Kingdom, serving size in licensed premises ... It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants. It is used in mixed drinks, liqueurs, and tinctures, and also as ... Aiming to pour one shot of alcohol (1.5 ounces or 44.3 ml), students on average poured 45.5 ml & 59.6 ml (30% more) ...
The sac is close enough to the funnel for the octopus to shoot out the ink with a water jet. Before it leaves the funnel, the ... while at the same time mimicking plant matter.[78] This form of locomotion allows these octopuses to move quickly away from a ...
They also eat the shoots and leaves of wetland and upland plants, cereal grains, seeds, insects, mollusks, crustaceans, frogs ... The nest, which is built by both sexes, is a raised mound of sticks, uprooted grass, and other plant material sited on a small ... The adult diet is omnivorous and includes plant matter, invertebrates and small vertebrates. ...
Co-financier Brian Oliver told Variety they would shoot in Ötztal Alps in Italy for six weeks, a month in Iceland, and then ... Rob reaches the summit on time and is joined by other climbers including Yasuko, who jubilantly plants her Japanese flag. ... You really see and feel that."[19] The film was shot with Arri Alexa XT cameras, using the Arriraw format.[19] ... McNary, Dave (12 November 2013). "'Everest' Set to Start Shooting in Italy on Jan. 13". variety.com. Archived from the original ...
... existing Municipal Light System and opposed construction of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Plant and Perry Nuclear Power Plant ... A hit man from Maryland planned to shoot him in the head during the Columbus Day Parade, but the plot fell apart when Kucinich ...
In May, the Lenape planted kidney beans near the maize plants; the latter served as props for the climbing bean vines. They ... Sagundai was thrown when his horse stepped into a prairie-dog hole, but avoided the Comanche's lance, shot the warrior dead, ... They combine the root bark of Viburnum prunifolium with leaves of other plants of other plants and use it to strengthen female ... Lenape practiced companion planting, in which women cultivated many varieties of the "Three Sisters:" maize, beans, and squash ...
They most often form from smoke issuing from a power plant's smokestack. Hot springs and deserts may also be suitable locations ... Composite of eight images shot in sequence as a tornado formed in Kansas in 2016 ...
They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great ... The general short-term effect of nitrogen fertilization on coniferous seedlings is to stimulate shoot growth more so than root ... Seed germinates and seedling grows into a mature plant.. *When the plant is mature, it produces cones and the cycle continues. ... Plants with unusual growth habits, sizes, and colours are propagated and planted in parks and gardens throughout the world.[25] ...
He is shot and killed by a number of Sophia's people while trying to help Leila and Simon escape.[12] ... Sophia informs President Martinez that she believes Thomas intends to steal uranium from a nuclear power plant to open a portal ... Meanwhile, Sean is shot by one of the assassins who survived the explosion, forcing Leila to kidnap a doctor to perform surgery ... He then takes a pistol and commits suicide with a shot to his own head, leaving the shocked Sean with a bag containing the ...
... ornamental plants and perennial groundcover (about a quarter), and lawns (about 30 times less).[130] Ixodes larvae and nymphs ... people develop shooting pains or tingling in their arms and legs.[1] Despite appropriate treatment, about 10 to 20% of people ...
The Holocene extinction is mainly caused by human activities.[5][11][25][39] Extinction of animals, plants, and other organisms ... The last wild bird is thought to have been shot in 1901. ... Hawaii is notable for its endemism of plants, birds, insects, ... The use of certain plants and animals for food has also resulted in their extinction, including silphium and the passenger ... Extinctions in Australia continued from original settlement until today in both plants and animals, whilst many more animals ...
Their diet includes fish, shellfish, deer, elk, and antelope, and plants such as buckeye, sage seed, and yampah (Perideridia ... the natives revitalized patches of land and provided fresh shoots to attract food animals. A form of fire-stick farming was ... The Spanish built 20 additional missions in California.[17] Their introduction of European invasive plant species and non- ... and wetlands to ensure availability of food and medicine plants. They controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low- ...
This is from its preference of dried herbs and plant material sometimes used as drugs; e.g. drugstore beetles have been known ... Telltale signs of infested items are shot-like holes puncturing the outside packaging of food items and pockmarking solid items ... brown beetle that can be found infesting a wide variety of dried plant products, where it is among the most common non-weevils ...
Under certain conditions, they develop into active shoots, such as when damage occurs to higher parts of the plant,[1] or light ... An epicormic shoot is a shoot growing from an epicormic bud, which lies underneath the bark of a trunk, stem, or branch of a ... Epicormic buds lie dormant beneath the bark, their growth suppressed by hormones from active shoots higher up the plant. ... Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Retrieved 27 December 2010.. *^ Pausas, J.G. 1997. Resprouting of Quercus suber in NE ...
It has been planted in Spain.[1] External links[edit]. *^ "Chilean plants cultivated in Spain" (PDF). José Manuel Sánchez de ... It is an evergreen small tree or shrub that measures up to 8 m (26 ft) tall, smooth grey bark, young shoots are densely hairy, ...
The plant also contains saponins. Although deadly, the plant has been used as a folk remedy in moderate amounts,[23] and is ... New upright shoots are formed at the ends of stolons in summer,[4] these upright dormant stems are often called pips.[5] These ... məˈdʒeɪlɪs/[1]), sometimes written lily-of-the-valley,[2] is a sweetly scented, highly poisonous woodland flowering plant that ... Gleason, Henry A. and Cronquist, Arthur, (1991), Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, ...
The young shoots are used as vegetable.[citation needed] Some plants in the genus Cannabis are cultivated as hemp for the ... In the dioecious plants the masculine inflorescences are long and look like panicles, while the feminine are shorter and bear ... 1790 (12-42 spp.) Carbon dating has revealed that these plants may have been used for ritual/medicinal purposes in Xinjiang, ... Cannabaceae is a small family of flowering plants. As now circumscribed, the family includes about 170 species grouped in about ...
In Africa, the mucilaginous cooked shoots are most commonly used.[6]. Names[edit]. Basella alba is usually referred to as the " ... The plant is native to tropical Asia.[5] Growth is slow in low temperatures resulting in low yields. Flowering is induced ... Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys ...
"Police accidentally shot a member of the public after London terror attack". The Independent. Retrieved 12 October 2018.. ... Baghdad gas plant. *Yemen police bombings (15 May). *Baghdad bombings (17 May) ... "Live: Police shoot terrorists who killed at least six in London Bridge attack". ABC News. 4 June 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017.. ... "Updates: Two men shot dead by police following terrorist attack named". met.police.uk. Metropolitan Police. Archived from the ...
"RHS Plant Selector - Pinus patula". Retrieved 30 June 2013.. *^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. ... The shoots are rough and scaly when the leaf fascicles have fallen, yellow- to red-brown, foliage shoots with prominent, ... It is planted at high altitudes in Ecuador (3500 m), Bolivia, Colombia (3300m), Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zimbabwe, Papua New ... Leaves in fascicles of 3-4(-5), in drooping tufts, typically in two rows on either side of the upturned shoot, persisting 2-3 ...
... and dull or shooting pains about the region of the liver, take one of the powders in a little sugar and water, every six hours ... the poisonous root of a Mexican plant, Ipomoea purga, related to the morning glory, which was dried and powdered before ... but was shot down due to great controversy. Dr. Chesterfield later fell victim to the sickness and died due to excessive ...
... the fish and aquatic plants that live nearby and the composition of the surrounding seawater. Aquarius houses sophisticated lab ...
The next step after farmers ensure soil is well suitable for planting and growing is planting the rhizome seed. In India, ... and arise directly from the rhizome on separate shoots.[3] ... to the plant beds directly after planting and again 45 and 90 ... Medicinal Plants. 6. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 398. ISBN 9781420073867. .. *^ a b Viestad A (2007). Where Flavor Was Born: ... Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia. References. *^ "Zingiber officinale". Germplasm Resources Information Network ( ...
In the bald cypress (Taxodium) and dawn redwood (Metasequoia), the short shoots look like double-sided combs and are shed each ... transient special determinate twigs called short shoots that carry most of the photosynthetic leaves. ... Other articles where Short shoot is discussed: conifer: Stem: … ... Short shoot. plant anatomy. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. ... In the bald cypress (Taxodium) and dawn redwood (Metasequoia), the short shoots look like double-sided combs and are shed each ...
Swollen shoot is a viral disease transmitted to the plant by mealybugs that has devastated Ghanaian and Nigerian cocoa crops. ... Other articles where Swollen shoot is discussed: cacao: Pests and diseases: ... Swollen shoot is a viral disease transmitted to the plant by mealybugs that has devastated Ghanaian and Nigerian cocoa crops. ... Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy… ...
... who argue that it amounts to a de facto moratorium on field tests of any transgenic plant. Five members of the federal ...
A mass shooting occurred at an ABB power plant in St Louis, Missouri, on January 7, 2010. An ABB Power employee, armed with ... Louis plant shooting". Yahoo News. Associated Press. January 7, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged ... During the shooting, an employee at the facility retrieved a firearm from his car and returned fire when the gunman was moving ... The first 911 call came in around 6:45 a.m., saying that a gunman was moving about the complex and that he had shot several ...
Police in southern Taiwan shot a man on Saturday suspected of planting a possible explosive device outside a campaign office ... TAIPEI (Reuters) - Police in southern Taiwan shot a man on Saturday suspected of planting a possible explosive device outside a ... The device, planted outside the entrance to a Kuomintang office in Tainan city, contain wires, liquid and powder, the report ... to the neighbouring city of Kaohsiung and after a lengthy stand-off stormed a building and shot the man, who was taken to ...
The shooting occurred around 4:07 a.m. local time during a shift change at the plant in Claycomo, Mo. ... The shooting occurred around 4:07 a.m. local time during a shift change at the plant in Claycomo, Mo. ... A Ford employee was shot and killed this morning in the parking lot outside the Kansas City Assembly Plant, which makes the F- ... A Ford employee was shot and killed this morning in the parking lot outside the Kansas City Assembly Plant, which makes the F- ...
A molecule with a specific four-ring structure in plant hormone strigolactone has been shown to inhibit shoot branching ... The discovery of a new plant hormone that controls shoot branching is likely to impact forestry, plant science and agriculture ... plant hormone, plant improvement, plant science, plants and animals, principal investigator, ring structure, staple food crops ... Sydney, Aug 12 (IANS) The discovery of a new plant hormone that controls shoot branching is likely to impact forestry, plant ...
Plant Uses. Edible Uses Medicinal Uses Other Plant uses Woodland Gardening. Why Perennial Plants?. Top Edible Plants. Top ... Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a ... Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may ... Plants For A Future have a number of books available in paperback and digital form. Book titles include Edible Plants, Edible ...
However, the regeneration of plants through the spreading of rhizomes and development of new shoots is a type of non-sexual, ... Some agricultural plants are also propagated in this way, such as sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), arrowroot (Canna edulis), ... Rhizomes are most commonly produced by perennial, herbaceous species of plants, that die back to the ground at the end of the ... Rhizomes are capable of storing energy, usually as starch, which is used to fuel the regeneration of new shoots. Rhizomes are ...
After a memorial service was held for the mother of Caleb Plant April 1, the world champion boxer took to Facebook to say he ...
A Tiburon man was arrested after fatally shooting a doe and her fawn that were eating his yard plants. ... Marin man arrested after fatally shooting fawn, doe eating his yard plants ... Marin man arrested after fatally shooting fawn,… Share this:. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) ... Police took a Tiburon mans pellet rifle into evidence Saturday after he fatally shot a doe and a fawn on his property. ( ...
Shooting at St. Louis Plant Leaves Several Dead. Shooting at St. Louis Plant Leaves Several Dead ... Several Dead in Christian College Shooting. Several Dead in Christian College Shooting ... louis manufacturing plant assault rifle handgun three dead five wounded news cbnnews newswatch newswatchclip newswatchclip ... Ferguson Police Deny Beating Shooting Suspect. The man accused of firing the gunshots that injured two police officers in ...
A gunman angry about a child custody dispute with his girlfriend shot her Monday after a confrontation outside the New Mexico ... manufacturing plant where she works, then forced his way inside and killed two employees before turning the gun on himself. ... ALBUQUERQUE NEW MEXICO MANUFACTURING PLANT ROBERT REZA NEW MEXICO MANUFACTURING PLANT SOLAR MANUFACTURING PLANT HUMAN INTEREST ... a child custody dispute with his girlfriend shot her Monday after a confrontation outside the New Mexico manufacturing plant ...
The internal anatomy of a plant will change as the plant matures. The shoot tissues arise from the shoot apical meristem as ... Main Plant Page:. External Morphology:. The node is the location of leaf attachment to the stem. The internode is that region ... Shoot Apical Meristem. Primary Stem Tissues. Dermal Tissue. Ground Tissue. Vascular Tissue. Secondary Stem Tissues: Vascular ... This layer acts to protect the plant.. Top of Page. Growth Rings: growth rings are formed by the action of the vascular cambium ...
ABBs plant in St. Louis will reopen Thursday. ... One week after a disgruntled employee shot and killed three co- ... ABB Set To Reopen Plant After Shooting. One week after a disgruntled employee shot and killed three co-workers and injured five ... plant in St. Louis will reopen on Thursday, one week after a disgruntled employee shot and killed three co-workers and injured ... 7 shooting spree.. A funeral for 55-year-old Terry Mabry of Moscow Mills is Tuesday, while the funeral for 57-year-old Carlton ...
North Carolina is in the running to lure an automobile manufacturing plant planned as part of an alliance between Toyota and ...
But this stubborn bully of a plant might have a shot at redemption. A recent study from the Smithsonian Environmental Research ... Why This Invasive Plant Has A Shot At Some Redemption. 05:06. ... The plant, which typically grows about 13 feet high, looms over ... And the plant only stores carbon permanently when it decomposes into peat, and the peat is left alone. But Phragmites may offer ... Around him towers a stand of bushy-topped Phragmites australis, an invasive plant commonly known as the common reed. Or, as ...
AP) - A fire hydrant plant in Alabama reopened Monday, nearly a week after a gunman killed two co-workers and wounded two ... Hydrant plant reopens after shooting killed 2, wounded 2 June 21, 2021 at 3:52 pm Updated June 21, 2021 at 3:53 pm ... AP) - A fire hydrant plant in Alabama reopened Monday, nearly a week after a gunman killed two co-workers and wounded two ... Police said he apparently had shot himself.. Police identified the dead men as Michael Dobbins and David Horton, both of Boaz. ...
Dead Island Plant Shot: 7 assigned downloads, like Young saplings on a dead tree, Fantail Bay, Coromandel, North Island, New ... plantshot • shots • tree • western Top tags: sound effects • games shop • service repair manual • yamaha ...
Suggested means for control of insects and diseases follow the plant list. House Plants AFRICAN-VIOLET Soil: […] ... This list includes plants commonly grown as houseplants. The temperature given refers to night temperature. Daytime ... Tweet This list includes plants commonly grown as houseplants. The temperature given refers to night temperature. Daytime ... Search Plant Care. * Plant-Care.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising ...
22 ROE DEER SHOT DEAD SO FAR SO THEY CAN PLANT TREES. http://www.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.stv.tv%2Fscotland% ...
Beauty In Nature Close-Up Detail Flower Flower Head Fragility Freshness Natural Pattern Nature No People Plant ... Join as a photographerSell your photosGet booked for shootsOngoing MissionsEyeEm AwardsNeed help? ...
... and molecular examination of key photoperiod signaling molecules reveals functional differences between these two plant model ... and molecular examination of key photoperiod signaling molecules reveals functional differences between these two plant model ... 2015). "Role of the circadian clock in cold acclimation and winter dormancy in perennial plants," in Advances in Plant Dormancy ... Pin, P. A., and Nilsson, O. (2012). The multifaceted roles of FLOWERING LOCUS T in plant development. Plant Cell Environ. 35, ...
... brown powdery areas of fungal growth on the leaves and stems of a wide range of plants. Many rusts regularly alternate... ... Get expert info and easy to follow monthly care reminders for the plants in your garden by signing up for a free Shoot account. ... I have rust on the leaves my young Fuchsia plant, it is called swing time. How should I treat my plant . I has been very wet ... Login or register to add a comment or question about this plant problem. ...
Get expert info and easy to follow monthly care reminders for the plants in your garden by signing up for a free Shoot account. ... Both of my newly planted Passion Flowers have been eaten by earwigs (I found them inside the flower bud having eaten the petals ... Login or register to add a comment or question about this plant problem. ... Enter your details below and click Subscribe and youll have a free Shoot account. ...
I heard pops, said Yeprem Barbarian, who passed the plant during the shooting on his way to his tire shop. I thought it was ... Death toll rises to three in Fresno chicken plant shooting. November 6, 2012 , 1:40 pm ... a 34-year-old shot in the head and a 28-year-old shot in the neck. The victims were all taken to a local hospital, along with ... Jones, a discharged parolee who had worked at the plant for about 14 months, clocked in to work shortly before 5 a.m. and at ...
Download this Time Lapse Shot Of Power Plant At Sunrise video now. And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock ... Time lapse shot of power plant at sunrise - Stock video. .... Built Structure, Factory, Mitochondrion, Power Station, Power ...
Bakery workers abruptly laid off in January by the bankruptcy of Bake-Line protested yesterday outside the closed Pittsburgh factory while
... poems inspired by plants - Saturday, 21 May 2016 at Lion Gate Lodge . Find event and ticket information. ... The Royal Botanic Garden Sydney presents NEW SHOOTS: ... NEW SHOOTS: poems inspired by plants. by The Royal Botanic ... NEW SHOOTS: poems inspired by plants at Lion Gate Lodge Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, Australia ... This NEW SHOOTS project is a partnership between The Red Room Company and the Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, in conjunction with ...
... and pea shoots) couldnt be easier with the help of Wasatch Community Garden e-classes and your very own green thumb. ... Plant Your Own Peas (and Pea Shoots). Play your peas right, well make a gardener out of you yet. ... It just so happens that now (mid-to-late) March is the optimum time to plant peas in your garden. Ive gone about planting peas ... WCGs Spring Plant Sale is scheduled for May 9, 2020, and here is an update from the director of the Green Team, James Loomis: ...
  • This should really be the goodwill garden," says Roots and Shoots Director Linda Philips of the Rudyard Kipling inspired garden the London charity is creating in the Grand Pavilion at Chelsea Flower Show with Pennard Plants. (kitchengarden.co.uk)
  • The Glory of the Garden, which celebrates the 150th anniversary of Kipling's birth, marks Pennard Plants and Roots and Shoots' third Chelsea collaboration. (kitchengarden.co.uk)
  • MSc-thesis abstract (submitted 20 March 2017): The objective of this research was to determine whether the effect of Phytochrome Photostationary State (PSS) defined by R:FR ratios on partitioning to the roots and shoots can be explained by auxin biosynthesis and signalling. (wur.nl)
  • So, I don't want to cut off the growing point, as this will stop the upper pitchers for at least a few months, but would like some basal shoots to appear, as they have in some of the other plants. (cpukforum.com)
  • i didn't think the bicals did basal shoots or at least never heard of it. (terraforums.com)
  • However, the regeneration of plants through the spreading of rhizomes and development of new shoots is a type of non-sexual, vegetative propagation, because the progeny are genetically identical to the parent. (jrank.org)
  • Some species of tree can regenerate extensively by issuing new vegetative shoots from their underground rhizomes, after damages caused by disturbance by fire or harvesting. (jrank.org)
  • However, phenological and molecular examination of key photoperiod signaling molecules reveals functional differences between these two plant model systems suggesting alternative components and/or regulatory mechanisms operating during poplar vegetative growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • In apple, the first-order branch of a tree has a characteristic architecture constituting three shoot types: bourses (rosettes), bourse shoots, and vegetative shoots. (frontiersin.org)
  • Organ Formation at the Vegetative Shoot Meristem. (plantcell.org)
  • Due to the regulated balance between stem cell maintenance and organogenesis, the structure and morphology of the shoot meristem are constrained during vegetative development. (g3journal.org)
  • There is one report that this plant has an edible fruit[177] but this is somewhat dubious, the fruit is a dry capsule containing the very hard seeds[K]. (pfaf.org)
  • This year I'll be direct-planting an organic tendril-climbing variety of ' Sugar Snap ' peas from Johnny's Selected Seeds. (saltlakemagazine.com)
  • Seeds are sown compactly in a growing tray ( like done here ), once they get past their cotyledon or true leaves, in it's first inches the pea is considered a microgreen or pea shoot. (saltlakemagazine.com)
  • Talking of cold snaps, it is time to replace the greenhouse heater to protect our precious seeds that will soon be sown, overwintering plants and our Christmas lettuces. (harrodhorticultural.com)
  • Thanks to this wall, viruses have no active way of penetrating plant cells but rely on mechanical wounds or infected seeds for transmission. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Police took a Tiburon man's pellet rifle into evidence Saturday after he fatally shot a doe and a fawn on his property. (mercurynews.com)
  • A Tiburon man was arrested after fatally shooting a doe and her fawn that were eating his yard plants. (mercurynews.com)
  • Thomas Eugene Bradford, 43, is accused of fatally shooting 38-year-old Raymond V. Lee, of Grovetown, at a Martinez wastewater treatment plant on April 1. (augusta.com)
  • Toledo Police Department investigators today are continuing to investigate why a Jeep worker armed with a double-barreled shotgun shot three supervisors last night in an office area at DaimlerChrysler s North Toledo assembly plant, fatally wounding one and injuring two others. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • He fatally wounded Roy Thacker, 50, of Oregon, who died at 9:20 p.m. about 40 minutes after the shooting. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • Plants have survived temperatures down to about -5°c overwinter with us[K]. This species is often grown as a summer bedding plant in Britain, especially in sub-tropical bedding schemes. (pfaf.org)
  • This list includes plants commonly grown as houseplants. (plant-care.com)
  • A, Rosette branches formed 10 d after primary shoot decapitation in plants grown in short days for 4 weeks and long days for ∼3 weeks, as described by Greb et al. (plantphysiol.org)
  • B, Total branches (rosette and cauline) formed in Columbia-0 (Col-0) and arr1-4 plants grown in long days for ∼6 weeks ( n = 30-31). (plantphysiol.org)
  • C to E, Shoot-branching phenotypes of Col-0 and arr1-4 plants grown in long days for ∼7 weeks. (plantphysiol.org)
  • B, NPA dose response of wild-type and arr1 plants grown for 6 weeks on different concentrations of NPA under sterile conditions ( n = 18-42). (plantphysiol.org)
  • C, NPA dose response of wild-type and arr3,4,5,6,7,15 plants grown for 6 weeks on different concentrations of NPA under sterile conditions ( n = 13-24). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Plants can be grown from seed or by rhizome and culm cuttings. (pfaf.org)
  • Shooting Star Wax Plant is an indestructible houseplant can be grown as a hanging basket or a windowsill specimen with its stems trailing over the pot's rim. (logees.com)
  • We despatch our fresh, nursery-grown live plants (including vegetables, trees and flowers) when they are at a stage of growth ready for you, the customer, to plant on at home. (marshalls-seeds.co.uk)
  • Plants were then grown with their roots separated into two parts, each receiving different levels of nitrogen, to explore the roles of CEPD1 and CEPD2. (phys.org)
  • Usually new yucca plants are grown from cut off bits of main stem. (burkesbackyard.com.au)
  • Plants ( Solanum tuberosum L.) were grown in the presence of M. brunneum applied either as non-formulated mycelium or as mycelium containing beads. (springer.com)
  • In my experience basals form spontaneously when the main stem gets long enough (and side shoots form when it gets even longer). (cpukforum.com)
  • Don's Expert Answers: my yucca has multiple side shoots up its trunk. (burkesbackyard.com.au)
  • Plant species that have well developed rhizomes often rely on these organs as a means of propagation. (jrank.org)
  • Horticulturalists take advantage of the ease of propagation of certain plants with rhizomes by using bud-containing segments of these organs to grow new plants. (jrank.org)
  • This also includes the search for mechanical support by circumnutations of aerial organs in climbing plants, namely, pendular, elliptical or circular oscillatory movements. (frontiersin.org)
  • The size, shape and spatial orientation of plant organs are, therefore, not pure coincidence but the result of a morphogenetic program which is carried out by a whole range of physiological processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ecophysiological experiments aim at changing the microenvironment of a selected plant and its organs and even at pushing it to an extreme limit, in order to obtain knowledge about the growth and developmental potential in a certain parameter space. (frontiersin.org)
  • FSPM aims at the integration of the dynamics of known physiological processes with information about the topology and geometry of organs (plant architecture) using mainly rule-based mathematical modeling ( Buck-Sorlin, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The maize ( Zea mays ) shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) arises early in embryogenesis and functions during stem cell maintenance and organogenesis to generate all the aboveground organs of the plant. (plantcell.org)
  • The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and controls initiation of all aerial plant organs. (g3journal.org)
  • Phenotypic correlations of meristem morphology with adult plant traits showed an association between the meristem and flowering time, leaf shape, and yield traits, revealing links between the control and architecture of undifferentiated and differentiated plant organs. (g3journal.org)
  • The shoot tissues arise from the shoot apical meristem as dermal tissue, ground tissue, and vascular tissue. (furman.edu)
  • Plant shoots develop new leaves, stems, and buds throughout the life cycle via the maintenance of an organogenic population of stem cells within the stem cell niche or shoot apical meristem ( SAM ). (plantcell.org)
  • The study presented here expanded on this by investigating shoot apical meristem morphology across a diverse set of maize inbred lines. (g3journal.org)
  • Such responses to night break experiments suggest that poplar shoot growth and Arabidopsis flowering share a similar photoperiod regulation mechanism. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, nutations occur also in some non-climbing plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana , without any obvious purpose (see Figure 1 and Video 1). (frontiersin.org)
  • To identify the gene(s) switched on when the CEP receptor is activated, researchers screened genetic candidates that were highly upregulated following treatment of the model plant Arabidopsis with CEP. (phys.org)
  • The first 911 call came in around 6:45 a.m., saying that a gunman was moving about the complex and that he had shot several people. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the shooting, an employee at the facility retrieved a firearm from his car and returned fire when the gunman was moving down the hall towards a group of workers who were hiding in a break room. (wikipedia.org)
  • ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. - A gunman angry about a child custody dispute with his girlfriend shot her Monday after a confrontation outside the New Mexico manufacturing plant where she works, then forced his way inside and killed two employees before turning the gun on himself. (onlineathens.com)
  • ALBERTVILLE, Ala. (AP) - A fire hydrant plant in Alabama reopened Monday, nearly a week after a gunman killed two co-workers and wounded two others there, news outlets reported. (seattletimes.com)
  • Two more people have died after a worker opened fire at a Fresno chicken plant Tuesday morning, authorities said, including the suspected gunman. (latimes.com)
  • One person is dead and three are in critical condition after a gunman opened fire at a Fresno, Calif., processing plant. (provisioneronline.com)
  • The gunman, 25-year-old Wesley Neal Higdon, shot and killed five people and critically injured a sixth person before taking his own life. (wikipedia.org)
  • 'Chrysler Toledo Plants Idled by Shooting' is part of the paid WardsAuto Premium content. (wardsauto.com)
  • Content of proline and flavonoids in the shoots of halophytes inhabiting the South Urals Rakhmankulova, Z. (deepdyve.com)
  • in this plant, salt accumulation in the shoots depended on the sodium content in soil. (deepdyve.com)
  • Ritchard Blake away from the scene of a shooting on Livonia Ave. in Brooklyn on Aug. 2, 2018. (nydailynews.com)
  • transient special determinate twigs called short shoots that carry most of the photosynthetic leaves. (britannica.com)
  • The leaves are harvested in late summer after the plant has flowered, they are scraped to remove the outer skin and are then soaked in water for 2 hours prior to cooking. (pfaf.org)
  • The plant has large leaves and dislikes windy conditions since this can tear the leaves to shreds[200]. (pfaf.org)
  • Vascular bundles branch off from the stem into the leaves of the plant. (furman.edu)
  • When Phragmites sheds its lower leaves, or dies, it creates a thick layer of wrack that keeps native plants from germinating. (wbur.org)
  • These cause small, brown powdery areas of fungal growth on the leaves and stems of a wide range of plants. (shootgardening.co.uk)
  • Its overall architecture as well as that of each shoot thus determines the distribution of sources (leaves) and sinks (fruits) and could have an influence on the amount of sugar allocated to fruits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Comparisons of shoot meristems initiating juvenile leaves, adult leaves, and husk leaves illustrate differences in phase-specific (juvenile versus adult) and meristem-specific ( SAM versus lateral meristem) transcript accumulation during maize shoot development. (plantcell.org)
  • This CEP signal is received by a receptor protein in the leaves, but the molecules involved in the shoot-to-root response signal were unknown. (phys.org)
  • Avoid doing any pruning other than to remove dead leaves or stems down near the base of the plant. (perennials.com)
  • If you want to you can put a pot under where the leaves of the runner are and anchor the long shoot with an unbent paperclip. (growsonyou.com)
  • Development of callus tissue and browning was eliminated by culturing the shoot tip explants on primary MS medium supplemented with thiadiazuron (0.30 mg L -1 ) and coconut milk (15%) which also promoted development of shoots but with stunted curled leaves. (niscair.res.in)
  • Shoots (5.2) with healthy leaves were obtained when these shoots were transferred to a secondary MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgL -1 BA. (niscair.res.in)
  • Rhizomes are capable of storing energy , usually as starch, which is used to fuel the regeneration of new shoots. (jrank.org)
  • A protocol was developed by in vitro regeneration by shoot induction of Cucumis anguria , a plant used as medicine and vegetable belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. (academicjournals.org)
  • High frequencies of multiple shoot regeneration were achieved from nodal explants on MS fortified with 2 mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) and 0.5 mg/l indole acetic acid (IAA). (academicjournals.org)
  • rapid and efficient plant regeneration from shoot apical meristems of finger millet [eleusine coracana (l.) gaertn. (academicjournals.org)
  • A simple and efficient plant regeneration system via direct organogenesis was established in finger millet using in vitro derived shoot apical meristems. (academicjournals.org)
  • Statistical analysis indicated that plant regeneration response varied greatly among the varieties. (academicjournals.org)
  • This plant regeneration system has potential for production of transgenic finger millet crops. (academicjournals.org)
  • I, For PIN7:PIN7-GFP, plants were sectioned transversely (∼2 mm thickness), and the amount of GFP signal was quantified in at least five vascular bundles from five independent plants with inflorescence stems stage matched at 24 to 26 cm in height ( n = 25). (plantphysiol.org)
  • For PIN7:PIN7-GFP, plants were stage matched by comparing plants with inflorescence stems 18 to 20 cm in height. (plantphysiol.org)
  • I've had some stems die right back to the roots and others grow a side shoot and carry on like nothing happened. (cpukforum.com)
  • A small number of plants, representing 2.3 GW, received extensions until April 2017. (forbes.com)
  • Shoot-to-root mobile polypeptides involved in systemic regulation of nitrogen acquisition, Nature Plants (2017). (phys.org)
  • Behie SW, Moreira CC, Sementchoukova I, Barelli L, Zelisko PM, Bidochka MJ (2017) Carbon translocation from a plant to an insect-pathogenic endophytic fungus. (springer.com)
  • Rhizomes are most commonly produced by perennial, herbaceous species of plants, that die back to the ground at the end of the growing season, and must grow a new shoot at the beginning of the next season. (jrank.org)
  • In the case of some agricultural species, the rhizome is also the harvested part of the plant. (jrank.org)
  • As nanotechnology is gaining interest with regard to agricultural applications, plant science research focusing on investigation of plant genomics and gene function as well as improvement of crop species has become a nanotechnology frontier. (nanotech-now.com)
  • No bigger than a sesame seed, the shot hole borer invaded Southern California early in the millennium and has been a growing problem since 2010, damaging or destroying trees of many species, natives as well as non-natives. (cnps.org)
  • The pest was determined to be a previously unknown species and was dubbed the polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB). (cnps.org)
  • Na+ and K+ ion accumulation in the shoots of four species of halophytes from the family Chenopodiaceae inhabiting the territory of the South Urals at different levels of salinity were studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • Book titles include Edible Plants , Edible Perennials , Edible Trees , and Woodland Gardening . (pfaf.org)
  • Toronto-based tech company Flash Forest is using a fleet of aerial drones to plant trees. (cbc.ca)
  • They have already managed to plant several thousand trees across Ontario and Canada. (cbc.ca)
  • James in Vernon Parish asked, "What citrus plants trees can grow here? (lsuagcenter.com)
  • A type of beetle, the shot hole borer tunnels into trees, far from the reach of chemicals and pesticides. (cnps.org)
  • Named the Kuroshio shot hole borer (KSHB), after an ocean current, it subsequently has affected trees in Orange County and has been found in San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties, having jumped over L.A. and Ventura, she says. (cnps.org)
  • It was a perfect day for planting and I was impressed when Shaun reported that all 117 trees were in the ground and watered by day's end. (themarthablog.com)
  • When planting trees, we like to use this organic Bio-tone Starter fertilizer to help promote root growth. (themarthablog.com)
  • One week after a disgruntled employee shot and killed three co-workers and injured five others before turning the gun on himself, ABB's plant in St. Louis will reopen Thursday. (manufacturing.net)
  • Atlantis Plastics plant in Henderson where an employee shot and killed four people at the Atlantis Plastics plant in Henderson before killing himself early Wednesday June 25, 2008, according to Henderson police Lt. David Piller. (statesboroherald.com)
  • The day after a Toledo Jeep employee shot two supervisors and a team leader inside the factory, a top Chrysler official said that production will resume tomorrow. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • BEGONIA (house plant varieties not including Christmas and tuberous begonia) Soil: 1/4 each: soil, sand, manure and peat or leafmold. (plant-care.com)
  • Child planting seedlings of vegetables to soil. (pond5.com)
  • For instance, nitrogen (usually in the form of nitrate ) is essential for plant growth, but is often only present as patches in the soil. (phys.org)
  • The plant response to a lack of nitrogen therefore depends on the availability of nitrate in the soil surrounding its roots," corresponding author Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi says. (phys.org)
  • Within a single taxonomic group, different strategies of salt tolerance related to the level of soil salinity and specific features of salt accumulation in the shoots were revealed. (deepdyve.com)
  • with salt accumulation in the shoots independent on the level of soil salinity, inhabited the regions with the higher salinity. (deepdyve.com)
  • Balemi T, Negisho K (2012) Management of soil phosphorus and plant adaptation mechanisms to phosphorus stress for sustainable crop production: a review. (springer.com)
  • J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 12:547-562. (springer.com)
  • Behie SW, Bidochka MJ (2014) Ubiquity of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to plants by endophytic insect-pathogenic fungi: an additional branch of the soil nitrogen cycle. (springer.com)
  • In vitro propagated plants were transferred to soil with a survival rate of 85% after 1 month. (scialert.net)
  • Swollen shoot is a viral disease transmitted to the plant by mealybugs that has devastated Ghanaian and Nigerian cocoa crops. (britannica.com)
  • They are excellent plants for attracting beneficial pollinators into the allotment too, that may pollinate other fruiting crops too like tomatoes, cucumbers or even kiwis. (marshalls-seeds.co.uk)
  • With a nationwide trend into no-till agriculture since 2000, 1/3 of US crops are now planted without tillage or with only minimal tillage. (hayandforage.com)
  • Despite its integral role in maize shoot development, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of SAM initiation. (plantcell.org)
  • Molecular markers of key events during maize embryogenesis are described, and comprehensive transcriptional data from six stages in maize shoot development are generated. (plantcell.org)
  • Plants are cultivated for their edible root in the Tropics. (pfaf.org)
  • Young shoots are edible either raw or cooked. (pfaf.org)
  • The UAW's Ford Department said in a Facebook post that it was made aware of the incident and that local union leaders are "working with authorities" at the plant. (autonews.com)
  • Some witnesses compared the scene to the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, and authorities said the plant made materials similar to that used to fuel the bomb that tore apart that city's Murrah Federal Building. (huffingtonpost.ca)
  • Homicide detectives responded to the scene, where it appeared that the man was riding his bicycle or was next to it when the shooting happened, authorities said. (dailynews.com)
  • Authorities say Bradford, a driver for Thomson-based Hudsons Grassing Co. Inc., and Lee argued at the Reed Creek Water Pollution Control Plant on Stevens Creek Road in Martinez on April 1. (augusta.com)
  • AP) - Authorities say two people are dead after a shooting that was reported outside of a cosmetics factory near Little Rock. (kasu.org)
  • A rhizome is a root-like, underground stem, growing horizontally on or just under the surface of the ground, and capable of producing shoots and roots from its nodes. (jrank.org)
  • News 2 has obtained the body cam video of the Cheatham County officer-involved shooting that killed Beth Plant, mother of boxing champ Caleb Plant. (wkrn.com)
  • Caleb Plant posted a heartfelt remembrance of his mother on Facebook shortly after the shooting. (wkrn.com)
  • Caleb Plant is from Ashland City and is the reigning IBF Super Middleweight World Boxing Champion. (wkrn.com)
  • Under long day conditions, internode elongation and shoot organogenesis occur continuously. (frontiersin.org)
  • These dual SAM functions of stem cell maintenance and organogenesis are ultimately responsible for the production of all aboveground plant tissues. (plantcell.org)
  • To induce rooting, in vitro regenerated plants cultured on MS medium was supplemented with different concentrations of indole-3- acetic acid. (academicjournals.org)
  • In vitro germinated plants were successfully transferred to the greenhouse after hardening, with 300 shoots developing into fertile plants, which were indistinguishable with wild type plants. (academicjournals.org)
  • An efficient protocol was established for in vitro shoot multiplication from shoot tip explants of Vitex negundo on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 8.87 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). (scialert.net)
  • Though shoot formation occurred in media supplemented with BA (2 mg L -1 ), 96.67% of the shoots developed callus at the cut basal end and the explants turned brown and necrotic due to the phenolic exudates released into the medium. (niscair.res.in)
  • García JE, Posadas JB, Perticari A, Lecuona R (2011) Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin promotes growth and has endophytic activity in tomato plants. (springer.com)
  • Three men were found inside: the 32-year-old who was pronounced dead at the scene, a 34-year-old shot in the head and a 28-year-old shot in the neck. (latimes.com)
  • A wayward bull managed to escape while en route to a meat processing plant, only to be shot dead by an animal control officer. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Even though he didn't die, in most cases, when shot in the head, you would be dead. (terraforums.com)
  • A 32-year-old man was found dead inside the plant with a gunshot wound to the head. (provisioneronline.com)
  • 15-year-old Keylin Mosely was shot dead and his 14-year old friend was paralyzed over what family calls a stupid teenage prank. (kfor.com)
  • Police: 2 shot dead at Kraft plant in Pa. (websleuths.com)
  • He was pronounced dead in the office area of the body shop after shooting himself in the head. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • ALBERTVILLE, Ala. ( NewsNation Now ) - At least two people are dead and two are injured after an employee began firing at an Alabama manufacturing plant Tuesday morning, law enforcement said. (wjhl.com)
  • Much of the research on shot hole borers has been funded by the California Avocado Commission. (cnps.org)
  • Coal piles sit outside the Hunter Power plant operated by PacifiCorp waiting to be burned to produce electricity on June 3, 2016 outside Castle Dale, Utah. (forbes.com)
  • The Project is directed at enabling designers of 'carbon farms' and 'food forests': agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. (pfaf.org)
  • agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. (pfaf.org)
  • The following were killed in the shooting: Carlton Carter, 57 Terry Mabry, 55 Cory Wilson, 27 Police identified the shooter as 51-year-old Timothy Hendron, a resident of Webster Groves, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis, and an employee of ABB. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAIPEI (Reuters) - Police in southern Taiwan shot a man on Saturday suspected of planting a possible explosive device outside a campaign office for the island's main opposition party, the Kuomintang, the official Central News Agency reported. (reuters.com)
  • Police tracked a suspect, a man with the family name Wu, to the neighbouring city of Kaohsiung and after a lengthy stand-off stormed a building and shot the man, who was taken to hospital, it said. (reuters.com)
  • Police said he apparently had shot himself. (seattletimes.com)
  • Jones, a 'discharged parolee' who had worked at the plant for about 14 months, clocked in to work shortly before 5 a.m. and at about 8:30 'pulled out a handgun and began opening fire' near a cold storage section of the building, Fresno Police Chief Jerry Dyer said. (latimes.com)
  • Photo: Police search an area where a workplace shooting occurred that killed one person and wounded several others at Valley Protein in Fresno. (latimes.com)
  • A 27-year-old man from North Hills was shot to death in a McDonald's parking lot in Panorama City on Wednesday, and Los Angeles police are looking for answers. (dailynews.com)
  • The shooting was reported around 3 p.m. Wednesday in the 7900 block of Van Nuys Boulevard, the Los Angeles Police Department said. (dailynews.com)
  • A disgruntled employee opened fire at a western Kentucky plastics plant after an argument early Wednesday, shooting a supervisor and four others before committing suicide, police and a company official said. (statesboroherald.com)
  • Hours after the shooting, police had set up a roadblock on the street leading to the plant, which is in an industrial area on the southern side of Henderson. (statesboroherald.com)
  • About 3 1/2 hours later, he pulled out a handgun and opened fire, shooting four people, police said. (provisioneronline.com)
  • PLANT CITY, Fla (WFLA) - The Florida Department of Law Enforcement is investigating after a police officer in Plant City shot and killed a man who allegedly drove a stolen car at him. (wfla.com)
  • Plant City police have not identified the suspect, but News Channel 8 spoke with his family, and they identified him as Steven Kerr Jr. (wfla.com)
  • It was in the early morning hours of October 9th that Denver Police say Mosley and his 14-year-old friend hopped a fence attempting to steal a marijuana plant from the illegal backyard grow. (kfor.com)
  • Seymour Police Chief Bill Abbott held a press conference and revealed new details about the shooting. (abc57.com)
  • Escorted by police, the storage silo was transported from its manufacturing base at Deception Bay in the early hours of Wednesday morning and travelled through the streets of Palmwoods to one of South East Queensland's most important water treatment plants. (seqwater.com.au)
  • Then, he arrived at the plant mid-shift with a 20-gauge, double-barreled shotgun, police said. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • Police Chief Mike Navarre said that based on initial interviews with witnesses, the assailant walked into a long narrow office along the body shop on the west side of the plant about 8:40 p.m. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • About 15 police crews were at the plant within a few minutes, the chief said. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • Police said that Myles Meyers, 54, of East Rowland Road, Toledo used a shotgun last night to shoot a supervisor in the plant s body shop, and two others. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • After shooting the three, Meyers shot and killed himself, police said. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • Albertville Police Chief Jamie Smith confirmed to NewsNation affiliate WHNT an employee began shooting at the Mueller Co. plant around 2:30 a.m. local time. (wjhl.com)
  • WHNT crews on the scene reported seeing Albertville and Boaz Police, along with the Marshall County Sheriff's Office, at the plant on Industrial Blvd. (wjhl.com)
  • According to Sharpton, BLM isn't in favor of shooting police officers, they just want police officers to stop shooting innocent civilians, "particularly those in the black community. (lawenforcementtoday.com)
  • Not Jacob Blake, who refused to cooperate with police, did not drop a weapon when ordered to do so and resisted arrest before getting shot. (lawenforcementtoday.com)
  • Why he died will have to be determined by an investigation, but one thing is clear: Police didn't shoot him nor did they try to cause his death. (lawenforcementtoday.com)
  • And why should Sharpton be particularly concerned about black criminals shot by police? (lawenforcementtoday.com)
  • Does he not care about the more numerous white criminals shot by police? (lawenforcementtoday.com)
  • Maybe he thinks, like many liberals do, that the fact that more white people are shot by police than blacks doesn't matter. (lawenforcementtoday.com)
  • The plant yields a fibre - from the stem? (pfaf.org)
  • The girth of the plant increases due to cell divisions perpendicular to the stem surface. (furman.edu)
  • A, Amount of apically applied [ 14 C]indole-3-acetic acid (cpm) transported to the basal end of inflorescence stem internodes from ∼6 week-old wild-type, arr1 , and arr3,4,5,6,7,15 plants in 6 h ( n = 24-32). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Explanatory plant growth parameters were mainly dry mass partitioning to root, stem and leaf and plant height, because of its big interest in the shade avoidance response. (wur.nl)
  • A recent study from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center found that the very traits that make Phragmites a tough invader - larger plants, deeper roots, higher density - enable it to store more carbon in marshy peat. (wbur.org)
  • And the plant only stores carbon permanently when it decomposes into peat, and the peat is left alone. (wbur.org)
  • Most of the plants that installed pollution controls added activated carbon injection equipment, in which activated carbon flows from a storage silo through the ducts that carry exhaust to the smokestack. (forbes.com)
  • Coal plants also face competition from inexpensive renewables and a showdown with the Clean Power Plan, which seeks to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. (forbes.com)
  • WEST POINT, GA-Investigators are trying to determine why an assembly line worker shot a co-worker at the Kia Motors assembly plant here. (assemblymag.com)
  • The killings stunned the Ohio River town of about 28,000 people, were nearly everyone is related to or knows a worker at the plant. (statesboroherald.com)
  • The identities of the suspended worker and the shooting victims weren't immediately released. (websleuths.com)
  • Chief Navarre said Meyers pointed a shotgun at the head of a female office worker and said he was there to shoot the supervisors and team leader. (workplaceviolence911.com)
  • Subsequent reports indicate that Taylor had reprimanded Higdon twice before the shooting, once for talking on his cell phone too much and for not wearing safety glasses, then later for an altercation with co-worker Joshua Hinojosa at a convenience store across the street from the factory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The roots, or rhizomes, secrete a chemical that prevents other plants from growing, and they grow so deep they are nearly impossible to pull out. (wbur.org)
  • Today we have been planting strawberry plants, we know it's a bit late in the year but we have some plants left in the greenhouse that were looking a bit sorry for themselves and the unseasonal high temperatures prompted us to get them in situ. (harrodhorticultural.com)
  • In the 2011 floods, Landers Shute WTP played an integral role in supporting Brisbane's water supply needs when the Mt Crosby Water Treatment Plant went offline. (seqwater.com.au)
  • We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. (pfaf.org)
  • The two shooting victims inside the plant are in critical condition, and the woman is in serious condition. (provisioneronline.com)
  • The victims were all shot with a Hi-Point Model JHP .45-caliber pistol. (wikipedia.org)
  • NPA application on 21 days old Moneymaker wildtype plants was not effective, however effects of a disturbed auxin transport were observed after NPA application on 14 days old Moneymaker phyB1phyB2 mutant plants. (wur.nl)
  • These observations indicate that auxin transport to the root system is requisite for healthy plant growth. (wur.nl)
  • Disturbed auxin transport to the roots under high PSS gave a similar shading response as plants under low PSS, with undisturbed auxin transport. (wur.nl)
  • Roots play a critical, but largely unappreciated, role in aboveground anti-herbivore plant defense (e.g. resistance and tolerance) and root-leaf connections may therefore result in unexpected coupling between above- and belowground consumers. (nih.gov)
  • Join The Red Room Company and The Planthunter in the Royal Botanic Garden Sydney for a guided garden tour to celebrate NEW SHOOTS - a collaborative project culminating in a network of "poetic pathways" mapping the Garden. (eventbrite.com.au)
  • Secondary meristems (vascular cambium and cork cambium) then add girth to the plant by adding secondary xylem, phloem, and cork. (furman.edu)
  • In dicots and gymnosperms the majority of the plant tissue is composed of secondary vascular tissues. (furman.edu)
  • Vascular plants have developed different architectures as part of their genetic blueprint and in response to a changing environment ( Sussex and Kerk, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • VANCOUVER, British Columbia - May 19, 2021 - PRLog -- The makers of plant-based functional supplement beverages are hoping to disrupt the functional shot category with the launch of their new line of powerful superfood decoctions. (prlog.org)
  • Courgettes are hungry plants so be sure to provide plants with rich loamy compost and / or Organic Extra throughout the growing season. (marshalls-seeds.co.uk)
  • Just to make sure, if you want to produce new plants, you should put a plant-pot full of compost under it and gently push it in to the compost. (growsonyou.com)
  • leaf drop due to poor light, dry air, or natu-ral causes on old woody plants. (plant-care.com)
  • Models based on allometric relations have been established in this study in order to predict the leaf areas of the three different shoot types of three apple cultivars with different branch architectures: "Fuji," "Ariane," and "Rome Beauty. (frontiersin.org)
  • The allometric relations derived from experimental data allowed us to model the total shoot leaf area as well as the individual leaf area for each leaf rank, for each shoot type and each genotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • This was achieved using two easily measurable input variables: total leaf number per shoot and the length of the biggest leaf on the shoot. (frontiersin.org)
  • The models were tested using a different data set, and they were able to accurately predict leaf area of all shoot types and genotypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, plants integrate roots in resistance and tolerance mechanisms for leaf defense, and such root-leaf connections inherently link the dynamics of above- and belowground consumers. (nih.gov)
  • Leaf spots on any plant happen because of prolonged wet weather. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Yes, its a runner - they throw out a long shoot with a leaf or two on the end, and if it touches the ground, it roots itself, making a new plant. (growsonyou.com)
  • Highest shoot induction was observed in medium supplemented with 1.75 mg/l BAP in GBK-043050 (3.00) whereas GBK-043094 (1.28) had the least response in medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP. (academicjournals.org)
  • The rate shoot multiplication (6.3) after 4 week of culture on MS basal medium supplemented with 8.87 μM BA, 2.69 μM NAA. (scialert.net)
  • Behie SW, Jones SJ, Bidochka MJ (2015) Plant tissue localization of the endophytic insect pathogenic fungi Metarhizium and Beauveria . (springer.com)
  • Davidson is quick to say that his research doesn't advocate removing native plants in favor of Phragmites . (wbur.org)
  • Ivey announced that he would use deadly force, ordered Ms. Plant to drop the weapon and retreated. (wkrn.com)
  • During one of those recordings, Blake admitted to planting the weapon. (nydailynews.com)
  • Well I wouldn't have actually shot unless he pulled out a weapon and came at me. (terraforums.com)
  • Light: full sun except light shade in summer for plants either outdoors or indoors. (plant-care.com)
  • A mass shooting occurred at an ABB power plant in St Louis, Missouri, on January 7, 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • No scientists are advocating for actually planting Phragmites , and Mass. Audubon, the state, the National Park Service and many other groups have active programs to combat it. (wbur.org)
  • The Atlantis Plastics shooting was an incident of mass murder that took place at an Atlantis Plastics factory in Henderson, Kentucky, United States on June 25, 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do plants pay a price for evolving with complex defense mechanisms? (thaindian.com)
  • Thanks to the simultaneous occurrence of these two oscillatory mechanisms, we are able to reproduce a variety of complex behaviors, including trochoid-like patterns, which evolve into circular orbits as the shoot length increases, and the amplitude of the exogenous oscillations becomes dominant. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nagoya University researchers discovered the molecular mechanisms underlying the shoot-to-root stage of nitrogen-demand signaling in plants. (phys.org)
  • These results form the basis for further exploration of the mechanisms underlying this family of peptides and suggest their putative roles in distinct developmental events of higher plants. (nih.gov)
  • Both of my newly planted Passion Flowers have been eaten by earwigs (I found them inside the flower bud having eaten the petals). (shootgardening.co.uk)
  • If you want to contact Roots, Shoots, Fruits and Flowers , please send your questions and pictures to Keith Hawkins, Area Horticulture Agent (AHA), 337-463-7006 or [email protected] . (lsuagcenter.com)
  • 67%). Shoot apical meristems from three-day old seedlings were evaluated for their potency of shoot induction on varied 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentrations. (academicjournals.org)
  • SAM , shoot apical meristems. (academicjournals.org)
  • The plant, which typically grows about 13 feet high, looms over native marsh plants, blocking out their sunlight. (wbur.org)
  • The nature of plant circumnutations has been intensively investigated over the last century, and this produced three main hypotheses ( Stolarz, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)