The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.
Basic functional unit of plants.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Genus of BACTERIA in the family Frankiaceae. They are nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbionts of many species of woody dicotyledonous plants.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.
The broom-rape plant family of the order Lamiales.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.
Diseases of plants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)
The reproductive organs of plants.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.
A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Material prepared from plants.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.

The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems. (1/7586)

Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of mycorrhizas formed by genets belonging to the same fungal species.  (+info)

Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (2/7586)

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana. (3/7586)

In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system.  (+info)

Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme. (4/7586)

Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi.  (+info)

The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (5/7586)

In Arabidopsis embryogenesis, the primary root meristem originates from descendants of both the apical and the basal daughter cell of the zygote. We have isolated a mutant of a new gene named BODENLOS (BDL) in which the primary root meristem is not formed whereas post-embryonic roots develop and bdl seedlings give rise to fertile adult plants. Some bdl seedlings lacked not only the root but also the hypocotyl, thus resembling monopteros (mp) seedlings. In addition, bdl seedlings were insensitive to the auxin analogue 2,4-D, as determined by comparison with auxin resistant1 (axr1) seedlings. bdl embryos deviated from normal development as early as the two-cell stage at which the apical daughter cell of the zygote had divided horizontally instead of vertically. Subsequently, the uppermost derivative of the basal daughter cell, which is normally destined to become the hypophysis, divided abnormally and failed to generate the quiescent centre of the root meristem and the central root cap. We also analysed double mutants. bdl mp embryos closely resembled the two single mutants, bdl and mp, at early stages, while bdl mp seedlings essentially consisted of hypocotyl but did form primary leaves. bdl axr1 embryos approached the mp phenotype at later stages, and bdl axr1 seedlings resembled mp seedlings. Our results suggest that BDL is involved in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo.  (+info)

NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression. (6/7586)

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat.  (+info)

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (7/7586)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

AUX1 regulates root gravitropism in Arabidopsis by facilitating auxin uptake within root apical tissues. (8/7586)

Plants employ a specialized transport system composed of separate influx and efflux carriers to mobilize the plant hormone auxin between its site(s) of synthesis and action. Mutations within the permease-like AUX1 protein significantly reduce the rate of carrier-mediated auxin uptake within Arabidopsis roots, conferring an agravitropic phenotype. We are able to bypass the defect within auxin uptake and restore the gravitropic root phenotype of aux1 by growing mutant seedlings in the presence of the membrane-permeable synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. We illustrate that AUX1 expression overlaps that previously described for the auxin efflux carrier, AtPIN2, using transgenic lines expressing an AUX1 promoter::uidA (GUS) gene. Finally, we demonstrate that AUX1 regulates gravitropic curvature by acting in unison with the auxin efflux carrier to co-ordinate the localized redistribution of auxin within the Arabidopsis root apex. Our results provide the first example of a developmental role for the auxin influx carrier within higher plants and supply new insight into the molecular basis of gravitropic signalling.  (+info)

Plant root systems and associated symbiotic organisms act as critical links between the growing shoot and the rhizosphere, providing both vital nutrients and water to sustain growth. Many tools have been developed to study plant root systems; however, the efficient quantification of root traits remains a key bottleneck to effectively utilizing expanding collections of genomic and germplasm resources during the study of root system development and function. This dissertation presents results from root system phenotyping research where root phenotyping platforms were developed and used to investigate the genetic components of root system architecture and development in crop plants. It begins with a review chapter that discusses the importance of root system architecture (RSA) during resource acquisition and provides an overview of established root growth and measurement techniques while highlighting modern root phenotyping approaches that have been developed for genetic mapping studies. ...
ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE4 (RSL4) is necessary and sufficient for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Root hair length is determined by the duration for which RSL4 protein is present in the developing root hair. The aim of this research was to identify genes regulated by RSL4 that affect root hair growth. To identify genes regulated by RSL4, we identified genes whose expression was elevated by induction of RSL4 activity in the presence of an inhibitor of translation. Thirty-four genes were identified as putative targets of RSL transcriptional regulation, and the results suggest that the activities of SUPPRESSOR OF ACTIN (SAC1), EXOCSYT SUBUNIT 70A1 (EXO70A1), PEROXIDASE7 (PRX7) and CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE11 (CPK11) are required for root hair elongation. These data indicate that RSL4 controls cell growth by controlling the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cell signalling, cell wall modification and secretion.
When entering the differentiation zone, the elongating root cells that are programmed to become trichoblasts drastically add a new growth pattern to allow the highly localized emergence of root hairs. The initiation of a root hair is characterized on the level of gene expression patterns (for review, see Schiefelbein, 2000). On the level of cell physiology, specific enzymes or proteins need to restructure a defined spot of the apical outer periclinal cell wall to allow local wall loosening and bulging. At the time of root hair initiation, inside the cytoplasm actin and microtubules rearrange (Emons and Derksen, 1986; Baluška et al., 2000a, 2000b). A highly localized acidification (pH 4.5) of the cell wall is associated with the initiation process (Bibikova et al., 1998). Once the initiation is completed, the wall pH returns to the pH (approximately 6) found in the rest of the trichoblast. Besides pH changes, other factors are likely to be important to predict the future site of root hair ...
Rice is one of the major pathways of arsenic (As) exposure in human food chain, threatening over half of the global population. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to examine the effects of Si application on iron (Fe) plaque formation, As uptake and rice grain As speciation in indica and hybrid rice genotypes with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) ability. The results demonstrated that Si significantly increased root and grain biomass. Indica genotypes with higher ROL induced greater Fe plaque formation, compared to hybrid genotypes and sequestered more As in Fe plaque. Silicon applications significantly increased Fe concentrations in iron plaque of different genotypes, but it decreased As concentrations in the roots, straws and husks by 28-35%, 15-35% and 32-57% respectively. In addition, it significantly reduced DMA accumulation in rice grains but not inorganic As accumulation. Rice of indica genotypes with higher ROL accumulated lower concentrations of inorganic As in grains than ...
Changes in growth, porosity, and radial oxygen loss from adventitious roots of selected mono- and dicotyledonous wetland species with contrasting types of ...
We found both altered root epidermis specification and cortex cell fate in the hda19 mutant. Based on the results of additional cortex cell divisions (Fig. 1, A and B), the disappearance of the cortex marker CO2pro:NLS-YFP signal, and altered expression level of cortex-specific gene expression in hda19 (Fig. 3, A-F), we conclude that HDA19 affects root cortex cell fate. Our results indicate that the abnormality of epidermal cell patterning is derived from abnormal cortex differentiation. In particular, no direct link was found between HDA19 and multiple epidermal pattern genes (Supplemental Figs. S2 and S3), and a ground tissue-specific promoter driving HDA19 was able to fully rescue the epidermal phenotype (Fig. 3, K-N). This supports the hypothesis that positional information originating in the cortex plays a role in determining epidermal cell fate in the Arabidopsis root.. HDA19 acts through interaction with SCR and by directly binding SCR target genes. Interaction between HDA19 and SCR is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High auxin and high phosphate impact on rsl2 expression and ros-homeostasis linked to root hair growth in arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Mangano, Silvina. AU - Denita-Juarez, Silvina P.. AU - Marzol, Eliana. AU - Borassi, Cecilia. AU - Estevez, José M.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by a grant from ANPCyT (PICT2014-0504 and PICT2016-0132) and ICGEB (CRP/ARG16-03. PY - 2018/8/14. Y1 - 2018/8/14. N2 - Root hair size determines the surface area/volume ratio of the whole roots exposed to the nutrient and water pools, thereby likely impacting nutrient and water uptake rates. The speed at which they grow is determined both by cell-intrinsic factors like hormones (e.g., auxin) and external environmental signals like nutrient availability in the soil (e.g., phosphate). Overall root hair growth is controlled by the transcription factors RSL4 and RSL2. While high levels of auxin promote root hair growth, high levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the media are able to ...
Discoveries on the genetics of resource acquisition efficiency are limited by the ability to measure plant roots in sufficient number and with adequate genotypic variability. This paper presents a root phenotyping study that explores ways to combine live imaging and computer algorithms for model-based extraction of root growth parameters. The study is based on a subset of barley Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) and a combinatorial approach was designed for fast identification of the regions of the genome that contribute the most to variations in root system architecture (RSA). Results showed there was a strong genotypic variation in root growth parameters within the set of genotypes studied. The chromosomal regions associated with primary root growth differed from the regions of the genome associated with changes in lateral root growth. The concepts presented here are discussed in the context of identifying root QTL and its potential to assist breeding for novel crops with ...
Water relations and root growth of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) were studied four weeks after seedlings from a half-sib family had been transplanted to one of three regimes of soil water availability at a root zone temperature of either 15 or 20 °C. About one-third of the variation in new root growth was explained by the root zone environment. The interaction between root zone temperature and soil water availability accounted for 10% of the variation in new root growth. In the most favorable root environment, new roots averaged 620 mm2 of projected surface area. Leaf water potential increased exponentially with new root projected surface area, becoming constant at about 300 mm2. Leaf conductance and root system water flux increased linearly with new root growth. ...
Limitation of immobile nutrients, such as iron (Fe) and phosphate (P), induces the development of additional root hairs that lead to an increase of the absorptive surface of the root. The increased root hair frequency of Fe- and P-deficient Arabidopsis was realized by different strategies. Phosphate-deficient plants increased the number of root hairs while in Festarved plants root hairs were branched. The Fe and P starvation responses in plants are thought to be regulated by a systemic signaling mechanism that communicates the nutrient status of the shoot to the root and by a local signaling mechanism that perceives the Fe or P availability in the soil. The influence of local and systemic signals on the respective root hair phenotype was investigated in split-root experiments. This treatment was combined with either a nutrient-sufficient or -deficient shoot. The root hair branching typical of Fe-deficient plants only occured in the presence of both a local and a systemic Fe-deficiency signal. As ...
In Arabidopsis, lateral root formation is a post-embryonic developmental event, which is regulated by hormones and environmental signals. In this study, via analyzing the expression of cyclin genes during lateral root (LR) formation, we report that cytokinins (CTKs) inhibit the initiation of LR through blocking the pericycle founder cells cycling at the G2 to M transition phase, while the promotion by CTK of LR elongation is due to the stimulation of the G1 to S transition. No significant difference was detected in the inhibitory effect of CTK on LR formation between wild-type plants and mutants defective in auxin response or transport. In addition, exogenously applied auxin at different concentrations could not rescue the CTK-mediated inhibition of LR initiation. Our data suggest that CTK and auxin might control LR initiation through two separate signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. The CTK-mediated repression of LR initiation is transmitted through the two-component signal system and mediated by ...
Tweet Plant Roots - Im going to beat on that drum again! Plant root systems - unfortunately - are the most neglected and least maintained part of the plant. Yet they are probably the most vital. Because these underground parts […]
Split-root systems (SRS) have many applications in plant sciences, but their implementation, depending on the experimental design, can be difficult and time-consuming. Additionally, the system is not exempt from limitations, since the time required for the establishment of the SRS imposes a limit to how early in plant development experiments can be performed. Here, we optimized and explained in detail a method for establishing a SRS in young Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, both in vitro and in soil. We found that the partial de-rooting minimized the recovery time compared to total de-rooting, thus allowing the establishment of the split-root system in younger plants. Analysis of changes in the Arabidopsis leaf proteome following the de-rooting procedure highlighted the distinct metabolic alterations that totally and partially de-rooted plants undergo during the healing process. This system was also validated for its use in drought experiments, as it offers a way to apply water-soluble compounds to
Image: A Simplified Model for Jasmonate-Stimulated Root Hair Development in Arabidopsis. (Image by HAN Xiao) They also discovered that the endogenous CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) -mediated jasmonate signaling pathway is critical for root hair development. The disruption of the COI1 receptor or accumulation of a JAZ repressor (e.g. JAZ4 or JAZ8) decreased root hair length. Further investigation showed that several JAZ repressors interactedwithRHD6 and RSL1, two bHLH transcription factors crucial for root hair development. JAZ proteins repressed the transcriptional function of RHD6 and interfered with the interaction between RHD6 and RSL1. Phenotypic analysis showed that jasmonate promoted root hair growth in a manner dependent on RHD6and RSL1. It also showed that overexpressing RHD6 largely rescued the root hair-defective phenotypes of coi1-2 and JAZ8-ΔJas-9 plants. Our study provides a mechanistic understanding of how JAZ repressors directly regulate ...
Chambliss New Phytol 2745-2750 ArticleTitleEpidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis determined by a Myb homolog, CPC. New Phytol (2000a) Sollner Am J Bot 44:596-601, Ryu KH, Kang YH, Y-h P, Hwang I, Schiefelbein J, Lee MM (2005) The WEREWOLF MYB protein directly regulates CAPRICE transcription during cell fate specification in the Arabidopsis root epidermis. Lockwood CAS Y (1999) DB FF Curr Opin Plant Biol J Exp Bot Poethig Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL38XlsVWrsbw%3D 206 Plant Cell Occurrence J Cell Sci HH Okada Root hairs are extensions of the epidermal cells on the surface of the root, and are continually being sloughed off by the soil and regrown. 407-417 W M Combining phylogenetics and transcriptomics, the authors have discovered conservation of a core set of root hair genes across all vascular plants, which may derive from an ancient program for unidirectional cell growth coopted for root hair development during vascular plant evolution. 166 5 (1993) 262 A Handle7687216, BC Stevenson Linstead ...
Visual examination of roots from 12,000 mutagenized Arabidopsis seedlings has led to the identification of more than 40 mutants impaired in root hair morphogenesis. Mutants from four phenotypic classes have been characterized in detail, and genetic tests show that these result from single nuclear recessive mutations in four different genes designated RHD1, RHD2, RHD3, and RHD4. The phenotypic analysis of the mutants and homozygous double mutants has led to a proposed model for root hair development and the stages at which the genes are normally required. The RHD1 gene product appears to be necessary for proper initiation of root hairs, whereas the RHD2, RHD3, and RHD4 gene products are required for normal hair elongation. These results demonstrate that root hair development in Arabidopsis is amenable to genetic dissection and should prove to be a useful model system to study the molecular mechanisms governing cell differentiation in plants.. ...
The root epidermis is involved in nutrition and defense against pathogens. This tissue is composed of only two cell types. These cell types can be distinguished from the differentiation zone where trichoblast cells are producing root hairs and atrichoblasts are remaining non-hair cells. Root hairs are thought to be important in water and nutrient uptake. The differentiation of trichoblast involve positional information from the cortex.. ...
A balanced supply of essential nutrients is an important factor influencing root architecture in many plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two nutrients on root growth are limited. Here, we investigated the interactive effect between phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) on root growth of Arabidopsis grown in pH-buffered agar medium at different P and Mg levels. The results showed that elongation and deviation of primary roots were directly correlated with the amount of P added to the medium but could be modified by the Mg level, which was related to the root meristem activity and stem-cell division. High P enhanced while low P decreased the tip-focused fluorescence signal of auxin biosynthesis, transport, and redistribution during elongation of primary roots; these effects were greater under low Mg than under high Mg. The altered root growth in response to P and Mg supply was correlated with AUX1, PIN2, and PIN3 mRNA abundance and expression and the accumulation of the protein. ...
Author summary Plants thrive in highly heterogenous soils. How they compute a multitude of contrasting stimuli and mount an adaptive response without a centralized information processing unit is an intriguing question. For instance, below ground, roots can sense and respond to the single or multiple nutrient stresses, and adjust its growth rate accordingly. Nevertheless, the genetic architecture of root growth responses under single and combined stress remains poorly understood. To fill this gap in our understanding about such crucial phenomenon for plant survival, we explored the natural variation of root growth rate (RGR) in Arabidopsis grown under single and combined nutritional stress, including deficiencies of iron (-Fe), zinc (-Zn), phosphate and iron (-P-Fe) and phosphate and zinc (-P-Zn). Our GWAS revealed distinct genetic architectures underlying root growth responses to single or combined nutrient stresses. By integrating GWAS and coexpression networks, we identified and validated genes
During the post-embryonic development of plants, new axes of growth emerge through lateral or adventitious organogenesis, and the reiteration of this process builds up the complex pattern of a plant body. Regulation of such lateral or adventitious organogenesis provides a flexible way for plants to alter their form and resource allocation in response to environmental changes or after injury. In this context, lateral or adventitious organogenesis plays an essential role in the post-embryonic development and survival of plants.. Among the processes of lateral and adventitious organogeneses, lateral root formation has been extensively studied by various approaches using the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Lateral root formation is considered to consist of two distinct phases: lateral root initiation and the establishment of the root apical meristem (Laskowski et al., 1995; Celenza et al., 1995). The histology of both these phases have been described in detail (Malamy and Benfey, 1997). During ...
Non‐destructive methods to quantify the root system architecture of a plant grown in soil are essential to aid our understanding of the factors that impact plant root development in natural environments
Methylation of lysine 4 in histone 3 (H3K4) is a post-translational modification that promotes gene expression. H3K4 methylation can be reversed by specific demethylases with an enzymatic Jumonji C domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, H3K4-specific JUMONJI (JMJ) proteins distinguish themselves by the association with an F/Y-rich (FYR) domain. Here, we report that jmj14 mutations partially suppress reduced root meristem size and growth vigor of brevis radix (brx) mutants. Similar to its close homologs, JMJ15, JMJ16 and JMJ18, the JMJ14 promoter confers expression in mature root vasculature. Yet, unlike jmj14, neither jmj16 nor jmj18 mutation markedly suppresses brx phenotypes. Domain-swapping experiments suggest that the specificity of JMJ14 function resides in the FYR domain. Despite JMJ14 promoter activity in the mature vasculature, jmj14 mutation affects root meristem size. However, JMJ14 protein is observed throughout the meristem, suggesting that the JMJ14 transcript region contributes ...
The phenotypic analysis of root system growth is important to inform efforts to enhance plant resource acquisition from soils; however, root phenotyping remains challenging because of the opacity of soil, requiring systems that facilitate root system visibility and image acquisition. Previously reported systems require costly or bespoke materials not available in most countries, where breeders need tools to select varieties best adapted to local soils and field conditions. Here, we report an affordable soil-based growth (rhizobox) and imaging system to phenotype root development in glasshouses or shelters. All components of the system are made from locally available commodity components, facilitating the adoption of this affordable technology in low-income countries. The rhizobox is large enough (approximately 6000 cm2 of visible soil) to avoid restricting vertical root system growth for most if not all of the life cycle, yet light enough (approximately 21 kg when filled with soil) for routine ...
Maize (Zea mays) is not only a key human food and animal feed crop throughout the world but also an important raw material for the food industry and energy production plants [1]. Low phosphate concentrations are frequently a constraint for maize growth and development, and therefore, enormous quantities of phosphate fertilizer are expended in maize cultivation, which increases the cost of planting. Although the total amount of phosphorus (P) in the soil may be high, plants mainly absorb P in the inorganic form (Pi), which is present at a low concentration, limiting plant growth and development [2].. Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms and plays important roles in energy metabolism; biosynthesis of nucleic acids, phospholipids and membranes; cellular signal transduction and the regulation of many enzymes [3, 4]. Plants have evolved two broad strategies to cope with phosphate starvation, which involve changes in physiology, biochemistry and root morphology that ...
Taproots develop from the radicle of a seed, forming the primary root. It branches off to secondary roots, which in turn branch to form tertiary roots. These may further branch to form rootlets. For most plants species the radicle dies some time after seed germination, causing the development of a fibrous root system, which lacks a main downward-growing root. Most trees begin life with a taproot,[3] but after one to a few years the main root system changes to a wide-spreading fibrous root system with mainly horizontal-growing surface roots and only a few vertical, deep-anchoring roots. A typical mature tree 30-50 m tall has a root system that extends horizontally in all directions as far as the tree is tall or more, but as much as 100% of the roots are in the top 50 cm of soil. Soil characteristics strongly influence the architecture of taproots; for example, deep rich soils favour the development of vertical taproots in many oak species such as Quercus kelloggii, while clay soils promote the ...
One of the responses of plants to low sources of external phosphorus (P) is to modify root architecture. In Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets grown on low P, the primary root length (PRL) is reduced whereas lateral root growth is promoted. By using the Bay-0 × Shahdara recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we have mapped three quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the root growth response to low P. The Shahdara alleles at these three QTL promote the response of the primary root to low P (i.e. root length reduction). One of these QTL, LPR1, located in a 2.8 Mb region at the top of chromosome 1, explains 52% of the variance of the PRL. We also detected a single QTL associated with primary root cell elongation in response to low P which colocalizes with LPR1. LPR1 does not seem to be involved in other typical P-starvation responses such as growth and density of root hairs, excretion of acid phosphatases, anthocyanin accumulation or the transcriptional induction of the P transporter Pht1;4. LPR1 might
The root system is essential for the growth and development of plants. In addition to anchoring the plant in the ground, it is the site of uptake of water and minerals from the soil. Plant root systems show an astonishing plasticity in their architecture, which allows for optimal exploitation of div …
Glacial forefields host young, poorly developed soils with highly unstable environmental conditions. Root system contribution to soil stabilization is a well-known phenomenon. Identifying the functional traits and root morphology of pioneer vegetation that establish on forefields can provide information useful in the practical application of plants in land restoration of high altitude mountain sites.This study aims to gather information on the root morphology and biomechanical characteristics of the 10 most dominant pioneer plant species of the forefield of Lys Glacier (NW Italian Alps).X-ray Computed Tomography (X-ray CT) was used to visualize and quantify non-destructively the root architecture of the studied species. Samples were cored directly from the forefield. Data on root traits such as total root length, rooting depth, root diameter, root length density and number of roots in relation to diameter classes as well as plant height were determined and compared between species. Roots were ...
We only have a limited understanding of the nutrient uptake physiology of individual roots as they age. Despite this shortcoming the importance of nutrient uptake processes to our understanding of plant nutrition and nutrient cycling cannot be underestimated. In this study we used a 15N depletion method that allowed for the measurement of nitrate-N uptake rates on intact individual fine roots of known age. We expected that N uptake would decline rapidly as fine roots aged regardless of the environmental conditions and species used. We compared age dependent uptake patterns of young grape cuttings with those of mature vines and with those of tomato. Although patterns of declining uptake with increasing root age were similar for all species and conditions tested large differences in maximum N uptake rates existed between young cuttings and mature vines and between woody and herbaceous species. Maximum rates were 10-fold higher for tomato and 3-fold higher for the grape cuttings when compared with ...
We only have a limited understanding of the nutrient uptake physiology of individual roots as they age. Despite this shortcoming the importance of nutrient uptake processes to our understanding of plant nutrition and nutrient cycling cannot be underestimated. In this study we used a 15N depletion method that allowed for the measurement of nitrate-N uptake rates on intact individual fine roots of known age. We expected that N uptake would decline rapidly as fine roots aged regardless of the environmental conditions and species used. We compared age dependent uptake patterns of young grape cuttings with those of mature vines and with those of tomato. Although patterns of declining uptake with increasing root age were similar for all species and conditions tested large differences in maximum N uptake rates existed between young cuttings and mature vines and between woody and herbaceous species. Maximum rates were 10-fold higher for tomato and 3-fold higher for the grape cuttings when compared with ...
Soil nutrients are essential for plant growth and metabolism. Plant roots acquire nutrients from soils and have developed adaptive mechanisms to ensure nutrient acquisition under the varying nutritional conditions in soil. When plants are deprived of nutrients such as potassium, roots activate two important adaptive mechanisms for the uptake of nutrients that help support growth and survival. One adaptation involves deploying additional nutrient acquisition and remobilization systems, such as transporters (Ashley et al., 2006; Gierth and Maser, 2007) or channels (Lebaudy et al., 2007). The other adaptation involves changes in developmental processes of roots, including primary root growth, lateral root formation, and root hair elongation (Lopez-Bucio et al., 2003). Architectural changes in root systems, in response to nutrition deprivation, help plants to take up more nutrients by increasing the absorptive surface in specific regions of the soil.. Plants require potassium in large quantities for ...
FERONIA (FER) is a receptor-like kinase (RLK) involved in a large number of processes in Arabidopsis. FER plays a role in cell elongation, mechanosensing, regulation of seed size, immunity and root hair development. A common theme in many of these processes is the involvement of FER as a regulator of location-specific growth (often called polar growth) and consistent with this observation FER is also known to interact with proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton (called Rho of plants, ROPs). The peptide, Rapid- Alkalinisation Factor 1 (RALF1), has been shown to elicit FER dependent signalling. Focusing within root tissue and using RALF1, we seek to explore early signalling events upon FER elicitation and clarify the interaction between FER and ROPs, using co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) and mass spectrometry (MS). We have identified potential FER interactors, including Receptor for Activated C kinase 1B (RACK1B) and have identified two proteins, CAND1 and ILITYHIA, which are common between FER, ...
Differences among plant species in morphology and patterns of growth are assumed to influence their ability to acquire resources and, consequently, their competitive ability. Despite the acknowledged importance of below-ground resources for plant growth, our knowledge of species differences in root morphology of non-agricultural plants is limited. Comparisons of root morphology, growth rate and topology of seedlings of 12 herbaceous plant species that occur in early to mid-successional fields revealed significant differences among species that were largely related to life history. Annuals grew faster and produced longer and more branched roots than did biennials and perennials. Only among the annuals was there a positive correlation between seed mass and root growth. The grasses allocated proportionately more biomass to roots than the dicots, but did not differ in root length or branching pattern. As seedlings, all 12 species exhibited a herringbone topology; although after 10 d there were ...
Soil pollutants may affect root growth through interactions among phytohormones like auxin and jasmonates. Rice is frequently grown in paddy fields contaminated by cadmium and arsenic, but the effects of these pollutants on jasmonates/auxin crosstalk during adventitious and lateral roots formation are widely unknown. Therefore, seedlings of Oryza sativa cv. Nihonmasari and of the jasmonate-biosynthetic mutant coleoptile photomorphogenesis2 were exposed to cadmium and/or arsenic, and/or jasmonic acid methyl ester, and then analysed through morphological, histochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches.In both genotypes, arsenic and cadmium accumulated in roots more than shoots. In the roots, arsenic levels were more than twice higher than cadmium levels, either when arsenic was applied alone, or combined with cadmium. Pollutants reduced lateral root density in the wild -type in every treatment condition, but jasmonic acid methyl ester increased it when combined with each pollutant. ...
Soil pollutants may affect root growth through interactions among phytohormones like auxin and jasmonates. Rice is frequently grown in paddy fields contaminated by cadmium and arsenic, but the effects of these pollutants on jasmonates/auxin crosstalk during adventitious and lateral roots formation are widely unknown. Therefore, seedlings of Oryza sativa cv. Nihonmasari and of the jasmonate-biosynthetic mutant coleoptile photomorphogenesis2 were exposed to cadmium and/or arsenic, and/or jasmonic acid methyl ester, and then analysed through morphological, histochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches.In both genotypes, arsenic and cadmium accumulated in roots more than shoots. In the roots, arsenic levels were more than twice higher than cadmium levels, either when arsenic was applied alone, or combined with cadmium. Pollutants reduced lateral root density in the wild -type in every treatment condition, but jasmonic acid methyl ester increased it when combined with each pollutant. ...
Plant roots are required for the acquisition of water and nutrients, for responses to abiotic and biotic signals in the soil, and to anchor the plant in the ground. Controlling plant root architecture is a fundamental part of plant development and evolution, enabling a plant to respond to changing e …
The geometrical and topological structure of a plants root system is crucial for the success of soil exploration and for the survival of the individual. For this reason, the genetic control of root development is under enormous selection pressure at various scales, from tissue patterning at the cellular level, to the 3D branching pattern of the entire below-ground root system, which can be more extensive than the above-ground shoot system. Root apical meristems (RAMs) produce cells that will form the root system. A group of seldom-dividing cells in the root apex, known as the quiescent center (QC), is crucial for RAM activity. The cells adjacent to the QC, initial cells/stem cells, divide asymmetrically to produce two cell populations, one for self-renewal and another population that will undergo transient amplification within the RAM, or meristematic zone, and later will be displaced into the elongation zone. After anisotropic expansion, cells that reached their final size leave the elongation zone.
We describe a novel robotic facility that makes it possible to conduct high-content, miniaturized screens for the effects of small molecules on both root and shoot development in a 96-well microtitre plate format. At the heart of this automated platform is a novel seedling growth device, the Phytostrip, which has been specifically designed to allow detailed analysis of the effects of chemical treatments on root system architecture. Roots are a particularly attractive subject for phenotyping studies because of the large number of individual traits that can be readily visualised (Fig. 4) and the extent to which each of these traits is responsive to environmental factors [30, 50]. Many previous investigations into the genetic control of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses have focussed on root development [51, 52] and powerful robotic and imaging technologies have been developed to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of soil-grown roots [53, 54, 55]. ...
Root hairs are extensions of the epidermal cells on the surface of the root, The parenchyma cells are living, thin-walled and undergo repeated cell division for growth of the plant. They arise from the nodes and internodes of the stem, e.g., Prop roots of banyan, stilt roots of sugarcane, clasping roots of money plant and roots from the stem cuttings. Water and dissolved minerals from the soil move into the Root does not bear nodes, internodes, leaves or buds (exceptions are sweet potato, wood apple etc.) A taproot, (With Methods), Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods , Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. As the name implies, it is the site of rapid and extensive cell elongation. Privacy Policy3. The tiny root The stems are the trunks and branches. ...
The effect of soil acidity on root and rhizosheath development in wheat and barley seedlings was investigated in an acid Ferrosol soil to which various amounts of lime (CaCO3) were applied to modify s
Root hairs, tubular structures that emerge from plant root epidermal cells, grow through localized exocytosis of cell-wall matrix, a process involving actin-dependent delivery of Golgi-derived vesicles containing matrix material to the growing tip. Researchers have long recognized that the cell nucleus maintains a fixed distance from the apex of the growing root hair. The mechanisms by which the nucleus maintains this position, however, and how it pertains to tip growth, remain unclear. Ketelaar et al. used time-lapse photography of Arabidopsis root hair tips to investigate nuclear behavior during root hair growth and did pharmacological analysis to implicate the actin cytoskeleton in nuclear localization. During active growth, the nucleus maintained a fixed distance from the tip, moving backwards when growth ceased to a random position in the root hair. In mutants with branched hairs, branches emerged from the site at which the nucleus was located; thereafter, nuclei moved between growing ...
A cell wall with intercellular spaces. Start studying root hair cell diagram biology year 10 gcse. Gcse Biology Root Hair Cell Diagram Diagram Quizlet Root hair cell root cortex cells xylem leaf mesophyll cells exam tip if you are asked to identify the xylem or phloem in a diagram showing a cross section of a […]
The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria which degrade PAHs have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits, however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in PAH-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls. Bacteria were isolated from plant roots (rhizobacteria) and selected for growth on anthracene and chrysene on PAH-amended plates. Rhizosphere isolates metabolized 3- and 4-ring PAHs and PAH catabolic intermediates in liquid incubations. Aromatic root exudate compounds, namely flavonoids and simple phenols, were also substrates for isolated rhizobacteria. In particular, the phenolic compounds - morin, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic acid - appear to be linked to bacterial ...
1. Tomlinson I (2013) Doubling food production to feed the 9 billion: a critical perspective on a key discourse of food security in the UK. Journal of rural studies 29: 81-90.. 2. Zhu C, Kobayashi K, Loladze I, Zhu J, Jiang Q, et al. (2018) Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels this century will alter the protein, micronutrients, and vitamin content of rice grains with potential health consequences for the poorest rice-dependent countries. Science advances 4: eaaq1012. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaq1012 29806023. 3. Hilty FM, Arnold M, Hilbe M, Teleki A, Knijnenburg JTN, et al. (2010) Iron from nanocompounds containing iron and zinc is highly bioavailable in rats without tissue accumulation. Nature nanotechnology 5: 374. doi: 10.1038/nnano.2010.79 20418865. 4. Abelson PH (1999) A potential phosphate crisis. Science 283: 2015-2015. doi: 10.1126/science.283.5410.2015 10206902. 5. Cordell D, Drangert J-O, White S (2009) The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought. Global environmental change ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptochrome photoreceptors cry1 and cry2 antagonistically regulate primary root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Canamero, Roberto C.. AU - Bakrim, Nadia. AU - Bouly, Jean Pierre. AU - Garay, Alvaro. AU - Dudkin, Elizabeth Anne. AU - Habricot, Yvette. AU - Ahmad, Margaret. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors controlling multiple aspects of plant growth and development. They are flavoproteins with significant homology to photolyases, but instead of repairing DNA they function by transducing blue light energy into a signal that can be recognized by the cellular signaling machinery. Here we report the effect of cry1 and cry2 blue light receptors on primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. Cry1 mutant seedlings show reduced root elongation in blue light while overexpressing seedlings show significantly increased elongation as compared to ...
Lateral roots are initiated postembryonically in response to environmental cues, enabling plants to explore efficiently their underground environment. However, the mechanisms by which the environment determines the position of lateral root formation are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana lateral root initiation can be induced mechanically by either gravitropic curvature or by the transient bending of a root by hand. The plant hormone auxin accumulates at the site of lateral root induction before a primordium starts to form. Here we describe a subcellular relocalization of PIN1, an auxin transport protein, in a single protoxylem cell in response to gravitropic curvature. This relocalization precedes auxin-dependent gene transcription at the site of a new primordium. Auxin-dependent nuclear signaling is necessary for lateral root formation; arf7/19 double knock-out mutants normally form no lateral roots but do so upon bending when the root tip is removed. Signaling ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L.. AU - Ng, Yuk Kiu. AU - Moore, Randy. N1 - Funding Information: This research represents a portion of a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Science degree in Biology at Baylor University. We thank Prof. J. D. Smith for providing us with the vp-9 mutants and Dr Jim Barrentine for providing us with Fluridone. This research was supported by funds provided by the University Research Committee and the Department of Biology of Baylor University.. PY - 1985/3. Y1 - 1985/3. N2 - The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation ...
Lateral roots originate deep within the parental root from a small number of founder cells at the periphery of vascular tissues and must emerge through intervening layers of tissues. We describe how the hormone auxin, which originates from the developing lateral root, acts as a local inductive signal which re-programmes adjacent cells. Auxin induces the expression of a previously uncharacterized auxin influx carrier LAX3 in cortical and epidermal cells directly overlaying new primordia. Increased LAX3 activity reinforces the auxin-dependent induction of a selection of cell-wall-remodelling enzymes, which are likely to promote cell separation in advance of developing lateral root primordia.. Nature Cell Biology 10 (8), 946-954 ...
Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 d- and 7 d-treatments on 2 and 8 different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 d were also evident on 14 different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences
Root system architecture is important for water acquisition and nutrient acquisition for all crops. In soybean breeding programs, wild soybean alleles have been used successfully to enhance yield and seed composition traits, but have never been investigated to improve root system architecture. Therefore, in this study, high-density single-feature polymorphic markers and simple sequence repeats were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing root system architecture in an inter-specific soybean mapping population developed from a cross between Glycine max and Glycine soja. Wild and cultivated soybean both contributed alleles towards significant additive large effect QTLs on chromosome 6 and 7 for a longer total root length and root distribution, respectively. Epistatic effect QTLs were also identified for taproot length, average diameter, and root distribution. These root traits will influence the water and nutrient uptake in soybean. Two cell division-related genes (D type
Certain crosses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) result in temperature-dependent hybrid weakness associated with a severe root phenotype. This is controlled by the interaction of the root- and shoot-expressed semidominant alleles dosage-dependent lethal 1 (DL1) and DL2, which communicate via long-distance signaling. Previously, apparent reciprocal effects on root growth and the restoration of normal root growth by exogenous sucrose led to the hypothesis that the dosage-dependent lethal (DL) system may control root-shoot carbon partitioning. Here, recombinant inbred lines were used to map the DL loci and physiological and biochemical analysis, including metabolite profiling, was used to gain new insights into the signaling interaction and the root phenotype. It is shown that the DL system does not control root-shoot carbon partitioning and that roots are unlikely to die from carbon starvation. Instead, root death likely occurs by defense-related programmed cell death, as indicated by salicylic ...
Roots show positive hydrotropism in response to moisture gradients, which is believed to contribute to plant water acquisition. This article reviews the recent advances of the physiological and molecular genetic studies on hydrotropism in seedling roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified MIZU-KUSSEI1 (MIZ1) and MIZ2, essential genes for hydrotropism in roots; the former encodes a protein of unknown function, and the latter encodes an ARF-GEF (GNOM) protein involved in vesicle trafficking. Because both mutants are defective in hydrotropism but not in gravitropism, these mutations might affect a molecular mechanism unique to hydrotropism. MIZ1 is expressed in the lateral root cap and cortex of the root proper. It is localized as a soluble protein in the cytoplasm and in association with the cytoplasmic face of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes in root cells. Light and ABA independently regulate MIZ1 expression, which influences the ultimate hydrotropic response. In addition, MIZ1 ...
Root release of phytosiderophores (PSs) is an important step in iron (Fe) acquisition of grasses, and this adaptive reaction of plants is affected by various plant and environmental factors. The objectives of this study were to study the effects of varied nitrogen (N) supply on (1) root and leaf concentrations of methionine, a precursor in the PS biosynthesis, (2) PS release from roots, (3) mobilization and uptake of Fe from (59) Fe-labeled Fe(III)-hydroxide [(59) Fe(OH)(3) ] and (4) root uptake of (59) Fe-labeled Fe(III)-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) by durum wheat (Triticum durum, cv. Balcali2000) plants grown in a nutrient solution. Enhanced N supply from 0.5 to 6 mM in a nutrient solution significantly increased the root release of PS under Fe deficiency. High N supply was also highly effective in increasing mobilization and root uptake of Fe from (59) Fe-hydroxide under low Fe supply. With adequate Fe, N nutrition did not affect mobilization and uptake of Fe from (59) Fe(OH)(3) . Root uptake and shoot
Auxin is involved in many aspects of root development and physiology, including the formation of lateral roots. Improving our understanding of how the auxin response is mediated at the protein level over time can aid in developing a more complete molecular framework of the process. This study evaluates the effects of exogenous auxin treatment on the Arabidopsis root proteome after exposure of young seedlings to auxin for 8, 12, and 24 h, a timeframe permitting the initiation and full maturation of individual lateral roots. Root protein extracts were processed to peptides, fractionated using off-line strong-cation exchange, and analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and data independent acquisition-based mass spectrometry. Protein abundances were then tabulated using label-free techniques and evaluated for significant changes. Approximately 2000 proteins were identified during the time course experiment, with the number of differences between the treated and control roots increasing over
Specific root respiration rates typically increase with increasing tissue N concentration. As a result, it is often assumed that external factors inducing greater root N concentration, such as chronic N deposition, will lead to increased respiration rates. However, enhanced N availability also alters root biomass, making the ecosystem‐level consequences on whole‐root‐system respiration uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of chronic experimental N deposition on root N concentrations, specific respiration rates, and biomass for four northern hardwood forests in Michigan. Three of the six measurement plots at each location have received experimental N deposition (3 g ‐N m−2 yr−1) since 1994. We measured specific root respiration rates and N concentrations of roots from four size classes (|0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, and 2-10 mm) at three soil depths (0-10, 10-30, and 30-50 cm). Root biomass data for the same size classes and soil depths was used in combination with specific
Experiments were conducted to compare differences in P uptake characteristics between two winter wheat cultivars Stephens and Yamhill (Triticum aestivum L) as related to root morphologies. Root length, root surface area and mean root radius were compared. Plant roots and shoots were separately analyzed for P content. The cultivars were grown in a growth chamber with a 16 hour light period at 22° C and an 8 hour darkness at 16° C for approximately three weeks. A growth medium deficient only in P and with a pH high enough (6.4 to 6.6) to prevent Al toxicity was prepared by mixing a silt loam and a sand. Soil P variables were established by adding phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) to the soil at rates of 0, 25 and 100 ug P g⁻¹ soil. The root growth rates of the cultivars were exponential with time. Stephens had more rapid root growth rate, greater root length and root surface area than Yamhill. There were no significant cultivar differences in root radius. Stephens had higher root to shoot ratio ...
In order to test the hypothesis that multiple integrated root phenotypes would co-optimize drought tolerance, we phenotyped the root anatomy and architecture of 400 mature maize genotypes under well-watered and water-stressed conditions in the field. We found substantial variation in all 23 root phenes measured. A phenotypic bulked segregant analysis revealed that bulks representing the best and worst performers in the field displayed distinct root phenotypes. In contrast to the worst bulk, the root phenotype of the best bulk under drought consisted of greater cortical aerenchyma formation, more numerous and narrower metaxylem vessels, and thicker nodal roots. Partition against medians (PAM) clustering revealed several clusters of unique root phenotypes related to plant performance under water stress. Clusters associated with improved drought tolerance consisted of phene states that likely enable greater soil exploration by reallocating internal resources to greater root construction (increased ...
PINOID, a serine threonine protein kinase in Arabidopsis, controls auxin distribution through a positive control of subcellular localization of PIN auxin efflux carriers. Compared with the rapid progress in understanding mechanisms of auxin action in dicot species, little is known about auxin action in monocot species. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of OsPID, the PINOID ortholog of rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rice genome contains a single PID ortholog, OsPID. Constitutive overexpression of OsPID caused a variety of abnormalities, such as delay of adventitious root development, curled growth of shoots and agravitropism. Abnormalities observed in the plants that overexpress OsPID could be phenocopied by treatment with an inhibitor of active polar transport of auxin, indicating that OsPID could be involved in the control of polar auxin transport in rice. Analysis of OsPID mRNA distribution showed a complex pattern in shoot meristems, indicating that it ...
Regulation of gene expression is crucial for organism growth, and it is one of the challenges in systems biology to reconstruct the underlying regulatory biological networks from transcriptomic data. The formation of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana is stimulated by a cascade of regulators of which only the interactions of its initial elements have been identified. Using simulated gene expression data with known network topology, we compare the performance of inference algorithms, based on different approaches, for which ready-to-use software is available. We show that their performance improves with the network size and the inclusion of mutants. We then analyze two sets of genes, whose activity is likely to be relevant to lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis, and assess causality of their regulatory interactions by integrating sequence analysis with the intersection of the results of the best performing methods on time series and mutants. The methods applied capture known interactions ...
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Using PI as an apoplastic tracer, we evaluated the presence of an apoplastic barrier in the myb36 mutants. To quantify this barrier function, we counted the number of endodermal cells from the onset of elongation to the point where PI fluorescence was no longer observed in the stele-facing cell wall of the endodermis. We found that blockage of PI penetration into the stele in the myb36 mutants was delayed compared with wild-type and was similar to the delay observed in esb1-1 (Fig. 2D). This result indicates that the loss of the centrally located Casparian strip in myb36 eliminates the apoplastic barrier in that region of the root. Furthermore, the ectopic lignin-like material deposited in the corners of myb36 endodermal cells is not able to form an effective barrier to apoplastic transport. However, the diffusional barrier in myb36 is recovered in the more mature region of the root, where suberin is normally deposited in wild-type (1).. Similar to esb1-1 and casp1;casp3 (4), the myb36 mutants ...
Both trichomes and root hairs, the rhizoids of many vascular plants, are lateral outgrowths of a single cell of the epidermal layer. Root hairs form from trichoblasts, the hair-forming cells on the epidermis of a plant root. Root hairs vary between 5 and 17 micrometres in diameter, and 80 to 1,500 micrometres in length (Dittmar, cited in Esau, 1965). Root hairs can survive for two to three weeks and then die off. At the same time new root hairs are continually being formed at the top of the root. This way, the root hair coverage stays the same. It is therefore understandable that repotting must be done with care, because the root hairs are being pulled off for the most part. This is why planting out may cause plants to wilt. The genetic control of patterning of trichomes and roots hairs shares similar control mechanisms. Both processes involve a core of related transcription factors that control the initiation and development of the epidermal outgrowth. Activation of genes that encode specific ...
Both trichomes and root hairs, the rhizoids of many vascular plants, are lateral outgrowths of a single cell of the epidermal layer. Root hairs form from trichoblasts, the hair-forming cells on the epidermis of a plant root. Root hairs vary between 5 and 17 micrometres in diameter, and 80 to 1,500 micrometres in length (Dittmar, cited in Esau, 1965). Root hairs can survive for two to three weeks and then die off. At the same time new root hairs are continually being formed at the top of the root. This way, the root hair coverage stays the same. It is therefore understandable that repotting must be done with care, because the root hairs are being pulled off for the most part. This is why planting out may cause plants to wilt. The genetic control of patterning of trichomes and roots hairs shares similar control mechanisms. Both processes involve a core of related transcription factors that control the initiation and development of the epidermal outgrowth. Activation of genes that encode specific ...
Nitrogen (N), the primary limiting factor for plant growth and yield in agriculture, has a patchy distribution in soils due to fertilizer application or decomposing organic matter. Studies in solution culture over-simplify the complex soil environment where microbial competition and spatial and temporal heterogeneity challenge roots ability to acquire adequate amounts of nutrients required for plant growth. In this study, various ammonium treatments (as 15N) were applied to a discrete volume of soil containing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots to simulate encounters with a localized enriched patch of soil. Transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes differentially expressed in roots 53 hrs after treatment. The ammonium treatments resulted in significantly higher concentrations of both ammonium and nitrate in the patch soil. The plant roots and shoots exhibited increased levels of 15N over time, indicating a sustained response to the enriched environment. Root transcriptome analysis identified
Formulated with nine wild-crafted traditional botanicals, New Roots Essence promotes the elimination of accumulated toxins through the kidneys, skin, and mucous membranes. Nutrient-rich burdock root serves as the botanical backbone of New Roots Essence with its potent ant... Where can I buy New Roots Essence
General Hydroponics EuroGrower - 8 Pots Complete EuroGrower - 8 Pots Complete (eco-4746-2) EuroGrower - 8 Pots Complete The new EuroGrower from General Hydroponics is the ideal system for someone new to gardening. The EuroGrower provides users with a simple, elegant approach to home hydroponics. The heart of the EuroGrower is our custom designed 40-gallon Panda reservoir, which is more than adequate for its eight 2-gallon buckets. Growers can use the EuroGrower virtually anywhere. The EuroGrower comes complete with Flora Series nutrients, which are currently the industry standard. EuroGrower General Hydroponics EuroGrower - Drip Hydroponic System - The new EuroGrower from General Hydroponics is the ideal system for someone new to gardening. The EuroGrower provides users with a simple, yet elegant approach to home hydroponics. The heart of the EuroGrower is our custom designed 40-gallon Panda reservoir, which is more than adequate for its eight 2-gallon buckets. Whether using a soil or soil-less medium,
Buy Structure and Functioning of Cluster Roots and Plant Responses to Phosphate Deficiency (9781402004346): NHBS - Edited By: Hans Lambers and Pieter Poot, Kluwer Academic Publishers
With climate change and an ever-increasing human population threatening food security, developing a better understanding of the genetic basis of crop performance under stressful conditions has become increasingly important. Here, we used genome-wide association studies to genetically dissect variation in seedling growth traits in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-limited (i.e., osmotic stress) conditions, with a particular focus on root morphology. Water limitation reduced seedling size and produced a shift toward deeper rooting. These effects varied across genotypes, and we identified 13 genomic regions that were associated with traits of interest across the two environments. These regions varied in size from a single marker to 186.2 Mbp and harbored numerous genes, some of which are known to be involved in the plant growth/development as well as the response to osmotic stress. In many cases, these associations corresponded to growth traits where the common allele
When primary Arabidopsis roots grow down a tilted agar plate, they do not elongate following the gravitational vector along a straight line, but instead they slant noticeably to the right-hand. This process is seen mostly in the ecotypes Wassilewskji
Scarecrow appears in Batman: Arkham Knight. Seeking revenge on Batman, Scarecrow re-emerges in Gotham City two years after being attacked by Killer Croc in Arkham Asylum. Scarecrows appearance has changed drastically following his encounter with Killer Croc, with Scarecrow now sporting a leg brace and having his gas mask now permanently grafted on his face. Scarecrow joins forces with a man known only as the Arkham Knight, a paramilitary commander who commands a militia that answers only to him and Scarecrow. In his latest campaign against Gotham, Scarecrow unites all of Gothams criminals in an attempt to finally kill Batman. At the beginning of the game, Scarecrow threatens to release his new strain of fear toxin on the streets of Gotham, resulting in the evacuation of most of the citys civilian population. The Arkham Knights militia then conquers Gotham, preventing the authorities from interfering with Scarecrows plan. Batman soon discovers that Scarecrows new fear gas is being ...
A Natural Approach To Health Eating For Aluminum Toxicity We had a question the other day about aluminum toxicity. Aluminum isnt a heavy metal
Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux rates into and from excised barley roots are compared with the maximum capacity of accumulation. Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux involve a cation exchange that is independent of simultaneous exchange of the accompanying anion. These exchange fluxes depend on the concentration and cation composition of the solutions from which they originate. Selective differences between K+ and Na+ fluxes are sufficient to account for a cationic distribution within the roots that differs markedly from that of the external solution and that persists for extended time periods. The accumulation maximum is a cation exchange equilibrium with the cation influx and efflux rates approaching equality. The equilibrium level is independent of the individual cation fluxes and the external solution concentration. It is a finite quantity which appears to be determined by the internal anion concentration including accumulated as well as endogenous anions.. ...
After wounding, nitric oxide promotes, in AR development in response to nitric oxide has been also observed in, ss [95]. controlling the localization and transcription of, 78]. Phytohormones, together with many other internal and external stimuli, coordinate and guide every step of AR formation from the first event of cell reprogramming until emergence and outgrowth. ; Benson, F.C. fic Ethylene-Insensitive Mutants in Arabidopsis. ; Black, C.R. The WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene WOX11 is, Zhao, Y.; Cheng, S.; Song, Y.; Huang, Y.; Zhou, S.; Liu, X.; Zhou, D.-X. Provide Support 3. Adventitious roots form from stem tissues, generally as a result of damage or removal of the primary root system. In addition, gene products related to gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and signaling, auxin homeostasis, and xylem differentiation were confirmed to participate in adventitious root formation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. All rights reserved. ; Kumari, S.; Cho, M.; Lee, S.H. which encodes an AP2/ERF ...
The word mycorrhizae comes from the Greek words for fungus and root, and refers to the symbiotic relationship that exists between plant roots and certain fungi. In natural settings, these mycorrhizal fungi are present in the soil in association with plant roots. The fungi colonize by attaching to the surface of the root (ectomycorrhizal) or to the inside of the root cells (endomycorrhizal). Then they send their filaments (called mycelium) into the surrounding soil, effectively extending the plants roots and root absorbing capacity ten to 1000 times-far beyond what the plant can do alone.3 Several miles of these ultra-fine filaments can be present in less than a thimbleful of soil. Mycorrhizae supply the water and nutrients needed by the plant for establishment and survival, and, in return, receive from the plant roots sugars and other compounds needed by the fungus. Mycorrhizae are much smaller than roots, so they can easily penetrate into smaller spaces between soil particles, where they ...
The patterned assignment of different cell fates, shortly termed patterning, lies at the basis of growth, development and reproduction of multicellular organisms. The single-layered epidermal tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by hair-like cellular protuberances, the root hairs and the leaf trichomes, respectively, emerging from a subset of cells. Specification of hair and non-hair cell fate occurs in a tightly controlled fashion by gene regulatory networks of overlapping components that, however, often have opposite functions in root and shoot. Moreover, the root epidermis displays organization in hair- and non-hair cell files while leaf trichomes are distributed in a regular spacing pattern over the leaf. In contrast to the shoot, assignment of a cell files fate in the root epidermis depends on the cells position with respect to the underlying root cortical cell layer, which defines cells atop the border of two cortical cells as hair- and cells atop a single cortical cell as ...
The roots of some plants, including Zea mays, have been shown to bend differently when exposed to different temperature ... Hooker, Jr., H. D. (1914). "Thermotropism in Roots". The Plant World. 17: 136. Retrieved 23 May 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged ... Thermotropism or thermotropic movement is the movement of a plant or part of a plant in response to a change in temperature. A ... From this information, a hypothesis has formed that the plant cell plasma membrane is an important site of plant temperature ...
Raw, DEANE in Edible; Grain/Nuts/Seeds; Herb, Greens/Pot; Medicinal; Uses, Plant; plants; Roots/Tubers/Corms; Vegetable (2012- ... "Plants Profile for Rumex confertus (Asiatic dock)". Retrieved 2019-10-10. v t e. ... Rumex confertus (Russian dock) is a flowering plant species in the family Polygonaceae. It grows quickly, reproduces from ...
Randall King, "Planting roots". Winnipeg Free Press, November 20, 2014. v t e. ...
"Log cabin plants roots". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, PA. 1989-01-14. p. 17. Retrieved 2010-10-08. Starrett, Agnes ...
"Planting Jewish roots in Siberia". Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS. May 24, 2004. Archived from the original on ... Cochin Jews also called Malabar Jews, are the oldest group of Jews in India, with possible roots that are claimed to date back ... В России проживает около миллиона иудеев Interfax, 26 февраля 2015 года Study: About 1.5 Million People with Jewish Roots Live ... whose root suggests 'trouble, terror'. In these contexts it never translated any term in the original Tanakh drawn from the ...
Silicon Valley billionaires plant roots. Given the context, it seems likely that Spalding House will be sold to a foreign buyer ...
Larvae feed on plant roots. Adults are flightless with fused elytra and feed at night on plant foliage. In many species of the ... Many species of the genus, particularly the black vine weevil (O. sulcatus) and the strawberry root weevil (O. ovatus), are ...
The primary function of plant roots is the uptake of soil nutrients, and it is this purpose which drives swarm behavior. Plants ... While he was referring to more broad observations of plant morphology, and was focused on both root and shoot behavior, recent ... After copulation, females lay the eggs on a host plant. Quality of host plant may be a factor influencing the location of ... "Swarming Behavior in Plant Roots". PLOS ONE. 7 (1): e29759. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...729759C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029759. ISSN ...
The animal eats plant roots. Its presence results in a change in vegetation on the mounds, which have fewer grasses and more ... The animal builds large burrows and perhaps associated mounds and eats plant roots. In 1909, John Alden Loring collected the ... woody plants, either because the animal eats plant roots or because the soil is altered. Hollister, 1919, plate 15 Heller, 1910 ... One chamber is used for urination and defecation and to store plant matter; it produces a substantial amount of heat. In other ...
"Genealogy Library Planting New Roots." Great Falls Tribune. December 30, 2000. "Laing-Malcomson Resigns From Job at Paris ... Puckett, Karl (September 17, 2019). "From park bond to promoting Great Falls to slaughter plant, city candidates quizzed on ... The renovations included the planting of native flowers and the construction of picnic tables. Pacific Steel & Recycling ... "Property Taxes Paid By Private Electricity Generating Plants and Dams in Montana." Great Falls Tribune. January 26, 2003. " ...
Simon HM, Dodsworth JA, Goodman RM (October 2000). "Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots". Environmental Microbiology ... and in the region of soil that surrounds plant roots (the rhizosphere). Extremophile archaea, particularly those resistant ... Plants and other organisms consume the latter. In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds release ... Skophammer RG, Herbold CW, Rivera MC, Servin JA, Lake JA (September 2006). "Evidence that the root of the tree of life is not ...
Plant Operations Establish Local Roots". 2012. Construction of TMM's powertrain plant began in April ... In the beginning, the engines were shipped from the Toyota Kamigo plant in Toyota City, Japan; however, an on-site engine plant ... The plant has three automobile assembly lines (two Toyota lines and one Lexus line) with an annual capacity of 550,000 vehicles ... "It is also fitting that we chose Kentucky because it was Toyota's first stand-alone plant in America. So in a way, for ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Willis, Kathy; Fry, Carolyn (2015). Plants: From Roots to Riches. p. 368. ISBN 978- ... They were large plants with attractive flowers. The lack of fertile seeds despite repeated efforts at crossing the parents was ... She made measurements of chromosome length, width and number during meiosis in both plants (such as smooth hawk's-beard (Crepis ... Her work provided the first demonstration that a fertile polyploid hybrid had formed between two cultivated plant species. She ...
Plants with roots "Pleiospilos nelii". Encyclopedia of Succulents. Llife. Retrieved 15 February 2021. "Pleiospilos nelii". RHS ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Plant List African Plant Database Tropicos Cactus-art SANBI - ... This plant closely resembles a small cracked rock (hence the common name), an appearance which may have evolved as a defence ... African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique. Gibbs Russell, G. E., W. G. Welman, E. ...
"Planting Jewish roots in Siberia". 24 May 2004. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2010. " ... with its very shallow roots. Outside the extreme northwest, the taiga is dominant, covering a significant fraction of the ...
They are actinorhizal plants, that host nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their roots, and are the only ones that are non-woody, ... doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the ... International Plant Names Index. 2. Retrieved 7 September 2013. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm ... This species is strictly dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants. It is grown for ornamental foliage and ...
... a liquor made from ti roots. Samoan plant names Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia "Cordyline fruticosa". Germplasm ... They are also planted on burial grounds. Among the Balinese and Karo people, ti plants are planted near village or family ... ti plants are regarded as magical plants and are believed to be spiritual beings themselves. Unlike other magical plants which ... Red plants are used in white magic rituals, while green plants are used in black magic rituals. They are also commonly used in ...
They cannot survive on plant roots. Another problem is that the plant sometimes blocks the betta's passage to the water surface ... Plants remove some nutrients through their roots, either in or at the substrate level or via aerial roots floating in the water ... Some sellers claim the fish eat the plant roots. However, bettas are carnivorous and need live food or pellet foods. ... In a planted aquarium, aquatic plants also metabolize ammonium and nitrate as nutrients, removing them from the water column ...
The root is used in Tanganyika to wash small children and mothers' breasts. In South Africa, a root decoction with other plants ... The plant has perennial tuberous roots. Local names for the plant include concombre sauvage (French for "wild cucumber"), ... The root is considered edible in Sudan. [medical citation needed] Like its relative M. charantia, the plant contains a number ... The plant's presence is believed to be an indicator that the soil is appropriate for planting cocoa tree. The closest relatives ...
The plant has multiple thick roots. The roots have a brown skin on the outside and a white color internally. The roots come to ... The roots are called Behman Safed, also known as White Behmen, Safaid Behmen, in Ayurvedic Indian medicine. The plant is grown ... The plant's leaves near ground-level are relatively large, comparable to broad dock or spinach leaves. Rising above those ... Including the upper stalks, the plant is typically a little less than a meter high off the ground. ...
This plant has cylindrical, grayish roots. The solitary flower heads are 6-8 mm (0.24-0.31 in) in diameter, with white florets ... University of California United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile Eclipta prostrata in West African plants - A ... The plant has traditional uses in Ayurveda. It is bitter, hot, sharp, and dry in taste. In India, it is known as bhangra or ... In Southeast Asia, the dried whole plant is used in traditional medicine, although there is no high-quality clinical research ...
Stone said that the Record Plant was not going to abandon its roots in audio-only recordings. By 1986, Jim Pace and Jeff Evans ... Johnson, Heather (2006). "16 - The Record Plant: New Roots". If These Halls Could Talk: A Historical Tour Through San Francisco ... ISBN 1-59863-141-1. A copy of the Record Plant chapter is hosted online by the author as "The Record Plant: Magical Seeds ... Stone founded Filmsonix in 1987, sold the Record Plant in 1989, and was the founder and CEO of World Studio Group. He co- ...
"Dynasty plants roots in 8 states." The Colorado Springs Gazette. May 9, 2004. Retrieved on October 1, 2012. Available at ...
nov., isolated from herbaceous plant roots". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63 (Pt 12): ...
"The Pharmacology of Sacred, Plants & Roots". Magika Hiera. pp. 138-174. Hesiod. Theogony [Birth of the Gods]. Translated by S. ... Pliny was convinced of the powers of certain herbs or roots as revealed to humanity by the gods. Pliny argued that the divine ... Thus Solomon was seen as the greatest scientist, but also the greatest occultist of his time, learned in astrology, plant magic ... Circe were early investigators of plants - and that Orpheus was the first writer on the subject of botany. These miracles of ...
Cobb, Edward D. (October 1959). "Cornell University Celebrates its Botanical Roots". Plant Science Bulletin. Botanical Society ... He carried out important research into plant chromosomes of iris, orchid genus and corn plants (such as maize). He was ... Plant Regeneration and Genetic Variability, p. 203, at Google Books A. Mujeeb-Kazi and L. A. Sitch Review of Advances in Plant ... In 1925, they discovered a corn plant had three complete sets of chromosomes (meaning it was a triploid). They also studied the ...
"Roots Were Planted in New Kensington". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette: June 24, 2011. D-7. Butler, Ann. "Tough Guys: When they get ... "This exhibit adds a new chapter as we trace the roots of mixed martial arts in the United States back to the Pittsburgh region ... was the first grass roots movement to develop mixed martial arts into a modern American sport in 1980 (although the term MMA ...
Plants lacked leaves or true roots; spore-forming organs or sporangia were borne on the ends of branched clusters. It is ... Psilophyton is a genus of extinct vascular plants. Described in 1859, it was one of the first fossil plants to be found which ... Plants consisted of bare stems (axes) ending in blunt tips. Lower down they repeatedly branched dichotomously; higher up they ... The internal structure of the stems of P. dawsonii was considerably more complex than that of other plants of a similar age, e. ...
They can undermine plant roots, indirectly causing damage or death. Moles do not eat plant roots. Moles are controlled with ... Other species such as weasels and voles may use mole tunnels to gain access to enclosed areas or plant roots. Moles burrow and ... However, they do not eat plant roots; they only cause damage indirectly, as they eat earthworms and other small invertebrates ... feeding on slugs and other small creatures that do eat plant roots, and providing prey for other wildlife. In Middle English, ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) McLennan, Scott (July 6, 2010). "Nateva plants musical roots in Maine". Boston Globe. ...
The plant was officially closed in July 1986, due to a poor economic climate and the decline of American steel in the 1980s. ... In the Downtown Arts District is the roots of the Baytown Public Art Program spearheaded by the City of Baytown Tourism ... Exxon-Mobil is still one of the major employers in the city and now runs over 10 plants in the area including a newly announced ... The Cedar Bayou plant, in operation since 1963, is Chevron Phillips Chemical's largest manufacturing site in the United States. ...
Mela names the river Vistula (3.33), Pliny uses Vistla (4.81, 4.97, 4.100). The root of the name Vistula is Indo-European *u ... The climate of the Vistula valley, its plants, animals, and its very character changed considerably during the process of ...
... because aquatic plants are not as productive as long-lived terrestrial plants such as trees. Ecological trophic pyramids are ... root exudates and leachates, dissolved organic matter, extra-cellular matrix, mucilage). The relative importance of these forms ... not all plant material is edible and the nutritional quality or antiherbivore defenses of plants (structural and chemical) ... Plants generally have the greatest biomass. Names of trophic categories are shown to the right of the pyramid. Some ecosystems ...
2003). The Roots of Ayurveda: Selections from Sanskrit Medical Writings. Translated by D. Wujastyk. London and New York: ... De Smet, Peter A.G.M. (December 1997). "The Role of Plant-Derived Drugs and Herbal Medicines in Healthcare". Drugs. 54 (6): 801 ... 2002). "Integrative medicine: Bringing medicine back to its roots". JAMA Internal Medicine. 162 (4): 395-97. doi:10.1001/ ... Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments, with some animal products, and added minerals, including ...
Tilling uproots all the plants in the area, turning their roots into food for bacteria and fungi. This damages their ability to ... adversely affecting most plants, including trees and vegetables. For plants to thrive a certain quantity of organic matter ( ... Living roots drill millions of tiny holes in the soil and thus provide oxygen. They also create room for beneficial insects and ... Periodically ground layer plants including weeds may be cut and left on the surface, returning their nutrients to the soil, ...
Barry, PC (2001-04-07). "Avocado: The Early Roots of Avocado History". Canku Ota. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-12-29. ... Ohr, HD; Coffer MD & McMillan RT (2003-08-04). "Common Names of Plant Diseases". American Phytopathological Society. பார்த்த ...
Ancient roots[edit]. Although it is not clear whether Proto-Indo-Iranians celebrated a feast as the first day of the calendar, ... It's a tradition for people to plant trees, dredge irrigation canals, clean houses and prepare scrumptious food for guests ... Nowruz is partly rooted in the tradition of Iranian religions, such as Mitraism and Zoroastrianism. In Mitraism, festivals had ... "Key Afghan, US leadership plant trees for Farmer's Day". United States Central Command. Retrieved 2012-12-03 ...
... it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a ... Other plant parts like stems or roots have non-determinate growth, and will usually continue to grow as long as they have the ... 2011) [1984-2000]. The European Garden Flora, Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe ... Esau, Katherine (2006) [1953]. Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ...
The Harappan Civilisation has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BC. The two greatest ... Clay and stone tablets unearthed at Harappa, which were carbon dated 3300-3200 BC., contain trident-shaped and plant-like ...
... root maggots, cutworms, moths, and flea beetles.[2] The plant is susceptible to black rot, black leg, club root, black leaf ... "American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628.. *^ a b c "Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for ... water-soluble pigments that are found in many other plants and plant-based products, such as red cabbage and red wine.[18] ... In the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History: "Ex ...
Root respiration, exchange of gases between plant roots and the atmosphere. *Photorespiration, enzymatic combination of RuBP ...
... many varieties of seeds and plant matter,[63] and roots and tubers.[65] During the breeding season, male birds were recorded to ... plant matter, while laying females ate 71.9% animal matter and only 28.1% plant matter.[66] Plants generally make up the larger ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[69] However, in 2017 a ... eat water plants and small animals, and are social animals preferring to congregate in groups or flocks of varying sizes. This ...
In general, their actual diet in the wild is about 95% plant-based, with the remaining 5% filled with insects, eggs, and baby ... Paleolithic hunting and gathering people ate varying proportions of vegetables (including tubers and roots), fruit, seeds ( ... During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and ... Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for ...
"RHS Plant Selector - Cortaderia selloana 'Pumila'". Retrieved 16 June 2013.. *^ "RHS Plant Selector - Cortaderia selloana ' ... Burning pampas grass does not always kill it at the roots, but chemical weedkiller does. ... "RHS Plant Selector - Cortaderia selloana 'Aureolinata'". Retrieved 16 June 2013.. *^ " ... a b c Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN ...
They tear up the ground with their powerful beaks in search of bulbs and edible roots.[4] Northern populations mainly eat ... They also eat the shoots and leaves of wetland and upland plants, cereal grains, seeds, insects, mollusks, crustaceans, frogs ... The nest, which is built by both sexes, is a raised mound of sticks, uprooted grass, and other plant material sited on a small ... If no grasses are available, mud or roots unearthed from marsh beds are employed. Sometimes the birds make hardly any nest, ...
... plant root nodules that fix nitrogen yet most of the proteins of the Caulobacter cell cycle control are also found in these ... For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen, Brucella abortus is an animal pathogen, and Sinorhizobium meliloti ... and the breakdown of plant-derived carbon sources, in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the ...
"Perfect Plants (angleščina). 2019-01-04. Pridobljeno dne 2021-01-07.. *↑ "How to Apply the 1/3 Rule When Pruning Shrubs". The ... "The Anatomical Relationship Between Cambial Regeneration and Root Initiation in Wounded Winter Cuttings of the Apple Rootstock ... "Plant Development II: Primary and Secondary Growth". Organismal Biology (angleščina). 2016-11-11. Pridobljeno dne 2020-12-21.. ... Galun, Esra, 1927- (2007). Plant patterning : structural and molecular genetic aspects. Singapore: World Scientific. ISBN 981- ...
The Plant List Flowering Plants of the Santa Monica Mountains, Nancy Dale, 2nd Ed., 2000, p. 175 Medicinal Plants of the SW - ... An infusion of roots can be taken as a diuretic to treat rheumatic diseases like gout by ridding the body of excess uric acid, ... Plants For A Future database Medicinal plants Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Medicinal Uses and Harvesting. ... Medicinal Plants of the Desert and Canyon West. Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe, NM, 1989. Soule, J. A. 2011. Father ...
Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... "Arab(?) Roots of European Medicine". Heart Views. 4 (2).. copy Archived 30 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine ... Prehistoric medicine incorporated plants (herbalism), animal parts, and minerals. In many cases these materials were used ... Pharmacology developed in part from herbalism and some drugs are still derived from plants (atropine, ephedrine, warfarin, ...
They combine the root bark of Viburnum prunifolium with leaves of other plants of other plants and use it to strengthen female ... In May, the Lenape planted kidney beans near the maize plants; the latter served as props for the climbing bean vines. They ... Blackfoot Dictionary of Stems, Roots, and Affixes. University of Toronto Press, 1995. ISBN 978-0-8020-7136-1. ... Lenape practiced companion planting, in which women cultivated many varieties of the "Three Sisters:" maize, beans, and squash ...
Norfolk Plant Sciences About Norfolk Plant Sciences Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ... Tomatoes resistant to a root knot nematode have been created by inserting a cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene from taro.[26] A ... edible plants ever created.[20] Tobacco osmotic genes overexpressed in tomatoes produced plants that held a higher water ... The plant peptide hormone, systemin was first identified in tomato plants and genetic modification has been used to demonstrate ...
They are also considerad the ancestors of chloroplasts in plants and algae.. Narayanese 16:47, 30 November 2007 (UTC). Sadly, I ... I feel like a single sentence explaining the common Greek root and dispelling the misconception of cyanide in the bacteria ... didn't take root as soon as it was introduced. Anyone with more insight in biology's academia want to help out with this? ... "Plant" regnum doesn't mean it has become an "Animal." ...
Anna Carbentus van Gogh was an amateur artist who enjoyed making drawings of plants and flowers[1] and was a "keen ...
They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great ... The general short-term effect of nitrogen fertilization on coniferous seedlings is to stimulate shoot growth more so than root ... Seed germinates and seedling grows into a mature plant.. *When the plant is mature, it produces cones and the cycle continues. ... Plants with unusual growth habits, sizes, and colours are propagated and planted in parks and gardens throughout the world.[25] ...
It may also cause intermittent double vision.[30][33] Lyme radiculopathy is an inflammation of spinal nerve roots that often ... ornamental plants and perennial groundcover (about a quarter), and lawns (about 30 times less).[130] Ixodes larvae and nymphs ... Lyme radiculopathy affecting the limbs is often misdiagnosed as a radiculopathy caused by nerve root compression, such as ... or altered sensation in the areas of the body served by nerves connected to the affected roots, e.g. limb(s) or part(s) of ...
The plant densities for lentils vary between genotypes, seed size, planting time and growing conditions and also from region to ... Pythium root and seedling rot Pythium aphanidermatum. Pythium ultimum Rust Uromyces craccae. Uromyces viciae-fabae = Uromyces ... In West Asia and North Africa, some lentils are planted as a winter crop before snowfall. Plant growth occurs during the time ... "Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding (The). 76 (4): 530. doi:10.5958/0975-6906.2016.00071.7. ISSN 0019-5200.. ...
Myron E. Gillett and his son D. Collins Gillett later went on to plant the largest orange grove in the world in the 1920s ( ... When she looked outside, she saw a sycamore tree disappear as if it were being pulled downward by the roots, making a sound ... Over the next four years they plotted the town, opened streets, built a town hall and a store, planted orange trees, and ...
... which is the release of chemicals from plant parts by leaching, root exudation, volatilization, residue decomposition and other ... Mauseth, James (2008). Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 596. ISBN 0-7637-5345-9.. ... The burrows of great gerbils for example are also regularly distributed,[3] which can be seen on satellite images.[4] Plants ... This flower releases chemicals called terpenes which inhibit the growth of other plants around it and results in uniform ...
"US Labor Department's MSHA cites corporate culture as root cause of Upper Big Branch Mine disaster: Massey issued 369 citations ... Currently, Alpha affiliates operate approximately 60 mines and 22 prep plants.. Black Bear Surface Mines was previously ... "Gas Rally Boosts Coal's Allure for Power Plants: Energy Markets". 2010-06-15.. ... the company controlled 150 coal mines and 40 preparation plants, which was up significantly from the 65 mines under its control ...
"The Plant Cell. 9 (10): 1767-1780. doi:10.1105/tpc.9.10.1767. PMC 157020. PMID 12237347.. ... In red onions, higher concentrations of quercetin occur in the outermost rings and in the part closest to the root, the latter ... "Plant Physiology. 126 (2): 485-93. doi:10.1104/pp.126.2.485. PMC 1540115. PMID 11402179.. ... Quercetin, a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols, is found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves, and grains; ...
One of the fundamental problems in plant morphogenesis is the molecular and cellular basis of left-right asymmetry that often ... Wada H., Matsumoto D. (2018) Twisting Growth in Plant Roots. In: Geitmann A., Gril J. (eds) Plant Biomechanics. Springer, Cham ... Geitmann A, Ortega JKE (2009) Mechanics and modeling of plant cell growth. Trends Plant Sci 14:467-478CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Dumais J (2012) Can mechanics control pattern formation in plants? Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:58-62CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Scientists in Italy are working on creating robots that mimic the properties of plant roots, including the capacity for growth ... Before creating their root-like robots, researchers needed first to understand how real roots behave underground - a far from ... "Plants roots evolve in a very complex environment; deep in the ground. ...
Shop plant roots leggings that bring out your unique personality. Designed by thousands of artists from around the world, our ...
The formation of the root tissue depends firstly on the accumulation of the plant hormone auxin, which is channeled to the root ... they have succeeded in demonstrating how the plant forms its first roots: the root founder cell in the tiny group of cells ... These insights could contribute to the breeding of plants with a particularly effective root system in the future. (Nature, ... Marked in green are cells that are responding to the hormone Auxin and that will later on form the roots. Image: Martin Bayer ...
Artificial-plant garden takes root. The plants are fake, but the effect is real on a talent agents terrace. Just because you ... "Faux plants are very lightweight, and you dont have any dirt to deal with," explains the florist, who arranged the plants in ... And secondly, you need to get hands-on with artificial plants.". In an effort to make the faux plants appear as realistic as ... The artificial plants cost three times as much as real ones, but Woods points out that they dont need to be tended, and they ...
Fibrous-rooted begonias can be further divided into the wax, or bedding, begonias (Semperflorens-Cultorum group), including the ... offshoots of B. semperflorens used most often as summer bedding plants; the so-called cane stem types (angelwing begonias), ... Fibrous-rooted begonias can be further divided into the wax, or bedding, begonias (Semperflorens-Cultorum group), including the ... offshoots of B. semperflorens used most often as summer bedding plants; the so-called cane stem types (angelwing begonias), ...
Plant root-associated bacteria preferentially colonize their native host-plant roots. Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding ... Plant root-associated bacteria preferentially colonize their native host-plant roots Peer-Reviewed Publication Max Planck ... making them an important interface between plants and the soil environment. The roots of land plants associate with a wide ... Plants, including crops such as rice and wheat, obtain their essential mineral nutrients and water through their roots, ...
... producing the cells of the root cap. The cells derived from the other faces continue to divide mostly by forming transverse ... In plant: Leaves and roots. …of loose cells called the root cap. Just beneath the root cap is the region of cell division of ... In plant development: The root tip. …producing the cells of the root cap. The cells derived from the other faces continue to ... In angiosperm: Roots. …living parenchyma cells called the root cap. As the cells of the root cap are destroyed and sloughed off ...
Roots can thus effectively adapt plant growth to the light conditions in the environment. ... that roots react directly to light which is transmitted from the shoot to the underground parts of Arabidopsis thaliana plants ... Hence, these plants had "blind" roots. The scientists grew these modified plants along with control plants; their roots were in ... Plant roots in the dark see light Light transmitted from the shoot to the roots activates photoreceptors in the roots and ...
S5) reveals three distinct root-WTD relations: roots independent of WTD, roots tapping groundwater (pulled deeper), and roots ... Along this gradient, plant rooting depths vary systematically (see text). SI Appendix, Fig. S3 gives examples of published root ... Knowledge of plant rooting depth is critical to understanding plant-mediated global change. Earth system models are highly ... Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/ ...
Given its humble historical roots, dasheen or taro has not typically received any degree of noteworthy acclaim in the Caribbean ... Given that the entire plant, from leaves to roots, can be utilised in cooking, there is minimal post-harvest waste, which means ... The root can even be pulverised and converted into flour. Dasheen has a higher nutritional value than most other roots and ... The root is high in fibre, and is rich in vitamins and minerals such as Vitamin B6, C, E, potassium and manganese. The leaves ...
... the popular West Coast fast-casual restaurant concept offering craveable and familiar 100-percent plant-based food, announced ... Veggie Grill Plants Roots in Seattles South Lake Union New restaurant to offer 100-percent plant-based menu that is delicious ... Everything is plant-based and free of animal fat, dairy, cholesterol, trans fats and high-fructose corn syrup. Veggie Grills ... We serve delicious and approachable plant-based food in a friendly and convenient setting. People who try our food for the ...
Hairy root biotechnology is recognized as most sought after and a dynamic research area. The book explores hairy roots with the ... A contributory volume presenting conceptual information on hairy root culture systems based on the latest research. ... Hairy Roots. An Effective Tool of Plant Biotechnology. Editors: Srivastava, Vikas, Mehrotra, Shakti, Mishra, Sonal (Eds.) ... Hairy Roots. Book Subtitle. An Effective Tool of Plant Biotechnology. Editors. * Vikas Srivastava ...
Dangerous plant setting roots in Maine. Giant hogweed can cause painful blisters and blindness if it comes into contact with ... This photo shows a giant hogweed plant in New York state. The dangerous plant has begun to appear in Maine. Photo courtesy of ... NORTHPORT, Maine - Officials in a Maine town are warning residents to be on the lookout for a noxious plant that can cause ... Last summer, Northport identified and eliminated two giant hogweeds that set down roots. Now residents are on alert for the ...
California Garden plants BI roots. One of the regions leading canned food manufacturers has implemented business intelligence ...
Therefore, the role and importance of their roots is a matter of debate. Aquatic carnivorous species... ... Carnivorous plants may benefit from animal-derived nutrients to supplement minerals from the soil. ... The roots of carnivorous plants. In: Lambers H., Colmer T.D. (eds) Root Physiology: from Gene to Function. Plant Ecophysiology ... carnivorous plants insectivorous plants morphology nutrition root This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ...
... plants have their own kind of intelligence - and may even cry out in pain ... Root intelligence: Plants can think, feel and learn. With an underground "brain network" and the ability to react and remember ... In the past decade, researchers have been making the case for taking plants more seriously. They are finding that plants have a ... Had Aristotle hung out among redwoods, he might not have consigned plants to the bottom rungs of his "ladder of life". But he ...
The symptoms of root-eating insects, including loss of plant vigor, stunted growth, wilting and discoloration, often resemble ... Common pests of root vegetables and other plants, root maggots cause wilting, yellowing and stunted growth in host plants. ... If you suspect root-feeding insects are damaging your plant, dig the soil around the plant and sift through it for insects. You ... Cultivate the soil well in the fall to remove all plant debris, including roots, where root maggot pupae hide for the winter. ...
Rooting for Plants!. Objective: The children will be able to identify a root plant and how a root plant can grow without a seed ... roots - the part of a plant that grows under the ground. Roots take in water and food, and they hold the plant in the soil. ... carrot - a long orange root that people eat as a vegetable.. *vegetable - a plant or part of a plant that is used for food, ... Parts of a Plant. The children will learn the basic parts of plants (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds) and the function ...
In the apparently noisy patterns formed by growing roots, episodic alignments are observed as the roots grow close to each ... Here, we show that roots can be influenced by their neighbors to induce a tendency to align the directions of their growth. ... We present experimental results and a theoretical model that describes the growth of maize roots in terms of swarming. ... and recent research has revealed that plants also demonstrate social behavior based on mutual interaction with other ...
PLANTS Home , , NRCS. , Site Map , Policies and Links Accessibility Statement , Privacy Policy , Non-Discrimination ... This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists. Click on a place ... Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Rank. Scientific Name and Common Name. ... name to get a complete protected plant list for that location.. ... Fact Sheets & Plant Guides. Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious ...
Roots of many plants have light receptors, and now we may have discovered why. They seem to channel light underground using ... They found that the plant stem acts like a fibre-optic cable, conducting light down to receptors in the roots known as ... Light receptors in stems, leaves and flowers have long been known to regulate plant growth. Roots also have these receptors, ... The researchers found that it took 2 hours from initial illumination for plants to activate their root phytochromes - longer ...
Hibiscus plants are merely brightly colored transients, and St. Augustine grass is a thirsty fugitive from water conservation ... If people knew how to germinate and use native plants in their proper habitat, they could preserve the plants and our water ... The early naturalists were overwhelmed by the beauty of all these new plants, but the colonists didnt like native plants, so ... The Native Plant Society chapters in north and south Brevard are out to do just that, to help people understand and grow to ...
Root modularity forms the basis for adaptation of roots of perennial plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. The ability to make ... Examples of plants with true root tubers (not those plants derived from aerial parts, such as potatoes [Solanum tuberosum]) ... Root apical meristems allow the plants to explore the soil vertically, whereas lateral meristems develop new roots from the ... Relative growth rate of roots correlated with anatomical characteristics that contribute to root robustness, whereas plant ...
... - unfortunately - are the most neglected and least maintained part of the plant. Yet they are probably the ... are many times the most neglected and least maintained part of the plant. Yet they are probably the most vital. ... Tweet Plant Roots - Im going to beat on that drum again! ... Plant Roots - Im going to beat on that drum again! Plant root ... Roots develop rapidly where plant nutrients are abundant. With an increased root system the plant can consume more plant ...
The root system includes those parts of the plant below ground, such as the roots, tubers, and rhizomes. ... A plant has two organ systems. The shoot system is above ground and includes the organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers or ... Plant consider as an organ system because plants has a transportation system , the roots of plants carries water from ground ... What is a part of plants?. The stem, roots, petals...These are several parts of a flower plant. However different plants vary ...
Scientists at Oxford University have discovered the oldest known population of plant root stem cells in a 320 million-year-old ... The cells, which gave rise to the roots of an ancient plant, were found in a fossilised root tip held in the Oxford University ... These roots were important because they comprised the rooting structures of the plants growing in the Earths first global ... Scientists discover oldest plant root stem cells. ResearchScience. Scientists at Oxford University have discovered the oldest ...
Irish firm plants roots in Indian potato firm. Consumption of potatoes has increased rapidly in the country over the last 20 ... ...
The idea that plants communicate with each other is normally based in science-fiction or fantasy, however new research out of ... 2 thoughts on "Plants Can Talk To Each Other by Clicking Their Roots" * ... Through a series of experiments, Dr Gagliano and her team found that the roots of young corn plants made regular clicking ... "Everyone knows that plants react to light, and scientists also know that plants use volatile chemicals to communicate with each ...
Roots also anchor plants into the ground, offering th ... is to absorb water and minerals from the soil for the plant to ... The main function of a plant root is to absorb water and minerals from the soil for the plant to use. Roots also anchor plants ... In some plants, such as carrots, roots store carbohydrates that the plant has made through photosynthesis for later use. ... What Does the Root of a Plant Do? By Staff WriterLast Updated Apr 8, 2020 1:37:57 PM ET ...
  • Plants, including crops such as rice and wheat, obtain their essential mineral nutrients and water through their roots, making them an important interface between plants and the soil environment. (
  • The roots of land plants associate with a wide range of microbes - including bacteria - that are recruited from the surrounding soil and assemble into structured communities known as the root microbiota. (
  • In turn, these commensal bacteria mediate multiple processes that are beneficial to their plant host, such as providing defense against pathogens, improving nutrient mobilization from the soil and positively impacting growth. (
  • Although it is well known that plants secrete diverse small molecules into the soil via their roots that serve as chemoattractants for root colonization by a subset of soil-dwelling bacteria, the degree of active selection performed by the host and the extent to which root-associated microbial communities are adapted to specific plant species remain largely unknown. (
  • These findings indicate that diverse soil-dwelling bacteria associate with and prefer a specific host plant, similar to pathogens or beneficial symbionts of plants. (
  • their roots were in the dark soil and their shoots exposed to light, just like in nature. (
  • Through observations and modeling, we demonstrate that soil hydrology is a globally prevalent force driving landscape to global patterns of plant rooting depth. (
  • Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. (
  • Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage). (
  • We assess the global significance of these hydrologic mechanisms by estimating root water-uptake depths using an inverse model, based on observed productivity and atmosphere, at 30″ (∼1-km) global grids to capture the topography critical to soil hydrology. (
  • Carnivorous plants may benefit from animal-derived nutrients to supplement minerals from the soil. (
  • In xerophytes, however, large, extended and/or deep-reaching roots and sub-soil shoots develop. (
  • If you suspect root-feeding insects are damaging your plant, dig the soil around the plant and sift through it for insects. (
  • Cultivate the soil well in the fall to remove all plant debris, including roots, where root maggot pupae hide for the winter. (
  • Keep roots healthy with loosely packed soil for oxygen and proper irrigation for the particular plant. (
  • The eggs hatch, and nymphs burrow into the soil where they feed on roots for several years. (
  • Roots also have these receptors, but it has been unclear how they sense light deep in dark soil. (
  • However, the light's intensity would be too low for creatures in the soil to see it illuminating the roots, or for bacteria to use it for photosynthesis, he says. (
  • Plant roots in soil stimulate microbial decomposition, a mechanism called the priming effect. (
  • The surface of the permafrost thaws in summer, allowing plant and soil life to thrive. (
  • On top of that, plant roots feed sugar to the microorganisms in the soil, which the microbes can use to break down more soil organic matter - the priming effect - resulting in even higher greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • The team of researchers combined maps of plant activity and data on soil carbon content from the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database with an extensive literature survey on priming and plant root properties, to estimate the priming effect in permafrost ecosystems and its influence on greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • The plant is anchored in the soil by the roots, and the ability of the roots to hold the plant upright may affect crop value. (
  • Roots also provide channels through which plant nutrients and water move from the soil into the plant. (
  • Roots are really the mouths of plants, but they do not hunt out plant nutrients in the soil as dogs chase rabbits. (
  • The gardener can to a degree vary the depth at which roots grow in the soil. (
  • Roots or Soil? (
  • Most likely what happens is they watch and water the soil - not the roots. (
  • Like animals, some plants do possess a vascular system that helps in transporting water and minerals from the soil to all parts of the plant and synthesized carbohydrates from leaves to all parts of the plant. (
  • Oxford Plant Sciences PhD student Alexander (Sandy) Hetherington, who made the discovery during the course of his research, said: 'I was examining one of the fossilised soil slides held at the University Herbaria as part of my research into the rooting systems of ancient trees when I noticed a structure that looked like the living root tips we see in plants today. (
  • The main function of a plant root is to absorb water and minerals from the soil for the plant to use. (
  • If you leave them on, plant the roots so the new stems are above the soil level - otherwise they will rot. (
  • Cut 2- to 4-inch pieces about as thick as a pencil or a finger from the mother plant and place them in soil in flats or pots. (
  • Scoop soil back into the planting hole until it's approximately two-thirds full. (
  • A team headed by WSL researchers Matthias Arend and Frank Hagedorn now reports in the renowned scientific journal 'Nature Plants' that photosynthesis is also regulated from under the soil surface, namely by the roots. (
  • As soon as the levels of soil moisture were back to adequate levels, drought-experienced plants absorbed significantly more CO 2 than control plants that had not experienced a drought under the same environmental conditions. (
  • For a hands-on activity, give your child a packet of seeds and a pot of soil to grow his own plant. (
  • The larvae enter the soil and feed upon the roots of plants for several months. (
  • A sophisticated mechanism that allows plant roots to quickly respond to changes in soil conditions has been identified by an international research team. (
  • Over the next few weeks it began rooting and is now ready to be planted in soil. (
  • Scientists have discovered a way plants improve foraging for nutrients in the soil - a discovery that will help create new varieties of crops that can meet the challenges of the changing climate. (
  • Plants need to take up sufficient levels of the essential nutrient phosphate (P) from the soil to grow. (
  • To increase their surface area to take up more P from the soil, plants elongate root hairs. (
  • The research - "Rice auxin influx carrier OsAUX1 facilitates root hair elongation in response to low external phosphate" and " A mechanistic framework for auxin dependent Arabidopsis root hair elongation to low external phosphate " - has discovered that low soil phosphate levels increase levels of the plant hormone auxin and that this promotes root hair elongation. (
  • The research was originally started in rice where team members observed that disrupting the auxin transport protein OsAUX1 gene blocked root hair elongation in response to low soil phosphate. (
  • This led the team to conclude that the root hair growth response to low soil P and auxin was highly conserved across the plant kingdom. (
  • Using innovative x-ray CT and laser imaging techniques the inter-disciplinary team of scientists (drawn from plant, crop, soil and computer sciences) were able to reveal how roots grow and develop in soil, forage for nutrients and adapt to changing conditions. (
  • For example, if the tree roots and soil are 50 centimeter (19.7 in) /20" wide, dig a hole 60 centimeter (23.6 in) /2' wide to allow for maximum root spread. (
  • Bare root plants of course have bare roots, without typical media (potting soil) contained within cans or pots. (
  • By the time they wake up in spring, they are already in their new home, where they immediately adapt and start to disperse their roots into relatively uniform soil. (
  • If they do not get planted immediately, plants that were pulled from sand in nurseries should get heeled into damp soil or mulch, and watered to settle the fill. (
  • Soil can be mounded into a small cone (known as a volcano) in the middle of each hole to spread roots over. (
  • Graft unions (seen as kinks low on trunks of fruit trees or where rose plants branch) of grafted plants should stand above the surface of the soil. (
  • Even though dormant plants get more moisture than they need from rain through winter, freshly planted bare root plants should get soaked twice immediately after planting to settle the soil around their roots. (
  • The composition of the soil microbial community can be altered dramatically due to association with individual plant species, and these effects on the microbial community can have important feedbacks on plant ecology. (
  • Negative plant-soil feedback plays primary roles in maintaining plant community diversity, whereas positive plant-soil feedback may cause community conversion. (
  • Because of this, incorporating a full view of microbial dynamics is essential to explaining the dynamics of plant-soil feedbacks and therefore plant community ecology. (
  • Version 1 of FRED contains more than 70,000 observations of some 300 different types of root traits as well as associated data such as soil temperature, moisture, and sunlight, from about 800 data sources. (
  • We think a lot about what's happening beneath our feet, how roots are entangled with the surrounding soil environment, and we're trying to predict what might happen to plants and soils in the future as the environment changes," said principal investigator Colleen Iversen, senior scientist in ORNL's Environmental Sciences Division and Climate Change Science Institute (CCSI). (
  • Luke McCormack, a plant ecologist at the University of Minnesota who helped design and build FRED, said, "One of our biggest goals is to develop an understanding of how a root trait would change when you go from a cold ecosystem to a hot, tropical one, or from a really fertile soil to a nutrient-poor soil. (
  • Plant root systems can grow to be complex due to a variety of species and microorganisms existing in a common soil. (
  • Plants have adapted to respond to the soil conditions and presence of microbes through various mechanisms, one of which is the secretion of root exudates. (
  • Various types of root cells have been suggested to sense microbes or compounds in the soil and secrete exudates accordingly. (
  • The rhizosphere is the thin area of soil immediately surrounding the root system. (
  • It is a densely populated area in which the roots compete with invading root systems of neighboring plant species for space, water, and mineral nutrients as well as form positive and negative relationships with soil-borne microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and insects. (
  • Root exudates are seen as key mediators in the interaction between plants and soil microbiota. (
  • Root exudates contain a wide variety of molecules released by the plant into the soil. (
  • They act as a signaling messenger that allows for communication between soil microbes and plant roots. (
  • Root exudates play a major role in root-soil contact, the exact purpose of the exudates and the reactions they cause are still poorly understood. (
  • Researchers have speculated that these organic molecules help regulate the distinctive microbial communities that surround roots in the soil, possibly selecting organisms that assist in plant growth or thwart pathogenic species. (
  • In addition to mimicking a single root, researchers are also looking at how roots interact with each other, coordinating their movements through soil. (
  • There is great potential for the use of AI and analytics in agriculture to improve plant health, soil productivity and crop yields. (
  • In the spring, the air is warm and the soil is cool, conditions that promote top growth rather than root growth. (
  • Right now, the soil is warmer than the air, thus promoting root growth. (
  • Plants need time to integrate into the soil and site before their roots and trunks go dormant. (
  • Dig a saucer-shaped planting hole, use humus-rich soil when backfilling, water well immediately and repeatedly until the ground freezes, provide no fertilizer, wrap the trunk if it is a thin-barked tree, and stake and tie if the soil is sandy or the site is windy, and always add a mulch 4 inches deep around the plant that you keep away from the stem. (
  • While scientists studying global climate change recognize the importance of vegetation in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and in local cooling through transpiration, they have assumed a simple model of plants sucking water out of the soil and spewing water vapor into the atmosphere. (
  • Twenty years ago, however, some small plants were found to do more than lift water from the soil to the leaves - they also lifted deep water with their tap root and deposited it in shallow soil for use at a later time, and reversed the process during the rainy season to push water into storage deep underground. (
  • These trees are using their root system to redistribute water into different soil compartments," Dawson said. (
  • The process is a passive one, he noted, driven by chemical potential gradients, with tree roots acting like pipes to allow water to shift around much faster than it could otherwise percolate through the soil. (
  • Although most salmonella outbreaks are linked to contamination from post-harvest handling and transportation, this infectious bacterium can also enter the plant earlier, from contaminated soil. (
  • When a lateral root pierces open the wall of the primary root to spread across the soil, it leaves behind a tiny opening. (
  • The researchers found that when salt concentration in the soil increases, plants produce more lateral roots and therefore become more vulnerable to salmonella infection. (
  • In a taproot system, a primary root emerges from the seed upon germination and grows deep into the soil to anchor the plant. (
  • These so-called adventitious roots form a shallow network in the soil that supports the mature plant. (
  • Epiphytic plants, such as orchids, can live their entire lives without touching soil. (
  • Other types of aerial roots, such as those of the strangler fig or banyan, germinate aboveground but grow downward, eventually penetrating the soil below and appearing to "strangle" their host plant. (
  • Another source is resident soil organic P, which becomes plant-available via root and microorganism processes. (
  • Hence, of special interest to the evaluation of soil fertility is the bioavailability of soil organic P mediated by an array of enzymes associated with roots and soil microorganisms. (
  • Slowly pour near the plant stem into the soil and let stand for at least 1 hour - longer contact times are best. (
  • The hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA) mediates responses to different environmental factors, such as the presence of nitrate in the soil, water stress and salt, shaping the structure of the root system by regulating the production of lateral roots as well as controlling root elongation by modulating cell division and elongation. (
  • In a process known as gravitropism, the roots learned to follow gravity so they could anchor in the soil and gain access to water and nutrients. (
  • Now that we have started to understand what plants need to grow stable anchorage in order to reach nutrients and water in deep layers of the soil, we may eventually be able to figure out ways to improve the growth of crop and other plants in very arid areas," said study lead author Yuzhou Zhang. (
  • The area of the root crown is usually located around or at the soil level and can be vaguely or clearly apparent. (
  • Plant and Soil. (
  • The twisting mutants of the Arabidopsis roots and hypocotyl exhibit a helical pattern of epidermal cell files with a handedness that is opposite to that of the underlying cortical microtubule arrays in the epidermis. (
  • Based on their studies of the thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana, they have succeeded in demonstrating how the plant forms its first roots: the root founder cell in the tiny group of cells contained in the seed is activated by a combination of a plant hormone and a transcription factor. (
  • Together with an already established culture collection from roots of the model crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana, synthetic microbial communities (SynComs) were designed to explore the microbiota assembly of different plant species. (
  • They used plants of the thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana , a model organism in plant research, which were genetically modified in a way that the photoreceptor was only silenced in their roots, but not in their shoots. (
  • Stem-piped light activates phytochrome B to trigger light responses in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. (
  • Here, we present nontargeted metabolomics assays of five Arabidopsis GFP-tagged lines representing core cell types in the plant root, providing a metabolic map of an organ, composed of its different cell types. (
  • With the goal of profiling metabolite content in different cell populations within an organ, we used FACS to dissect GFP-marked cells from Arabidopsis roots for metabolomics analysis. (
  • Hyo-Jun Lee at Seoul National University in South Korea and his colleagues used Arabidopsis thaliana - a small flowering plant from the mustard family - as a model to study this phenomenon. (
  • Here, we report the tunicamycin (TM) -induced ER stress response in Arabidopsis roots by monitoring expression patterns of immunoglobulin-binding protein 3 (BiP3), a representative marker for the response. (
  • Experiments using Arabidopsis roots demonstrated that a tug-of-war between cytokinin and auxin results in this auxin minimum being positioned either closer to the root tip (if cytokinin is "winning" the tug-of-war), or it being positioned further away from the tip (when auxin is "winning" the tug-of-war). (
  • Twelve PLDs have been identified in the model plant species Arabidopsis , which were initially classified in two groups based on their N-terminal lipid-binding domain. (
  • Genetic experiments pinpointed a specific transporter molecule in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana called PIN2 that directs auxin flow and guides root growth. (
  • 4. Move your hands through the plants to give them a more natural shape: Thin out the leaves, bend the stems, fold the leaves. (
  • While most species favor leaves and stems, some aphids attack fruit tree and vegetable roots. (
  • Light receptors in stems, leaves and flowers have long been known to regulate plant growth. (
  • Or should I plant them with the stems sticking out of the ground? (
  • Or, you can leave it alone and it should develop into thik, healthy stems once you plant the roots. (
  • Place the bottom of the stems in flats or small pots and keep cuttings out of direct sun until their new roots develop. (
  • Dip the stems in a rooting compound or soak them in willow water (water that has had willow pieces soaked in it for 24 hours) overnight before planting to promote rooting. (
  • Give the stems a light tug when new top growth appears to determine if they have established new roots. (
  • For kids ages 6 and older, "Plant Stems & Roots," by David M. Schwartz, teaches kids about plant roots that we can eat, such as carrots, radishes and yams. (
  • Most provide delicious and nutritious fruit, but many also have edible leaves, seeds, flowers, stems or roots, or they yield edible or useful oil. (
  • If desired, dip ends of stems in purchased rooting mix. (
  • Most bare root fruit trees have far more stems than they should for padding in transportation and to allow more options for pruning. (
  • For centuries we have collectively marveled at plant diversity and form-from Charles Darwin's early fascination with stems and flowers to Seymour Krelborn's distorted doting in Little Shop of Horrors. (
  • A handsome plant even before flowering, it stands up to seven feet tall with deep green leaves in groups of three to seven surrounding the upright stems in whorls like collars. (
  • Inspired by the principles of Ayurveda and Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) and reinforced with evidence-based nutrition science, URBL shots are unique "superfood decoctions" created by extracting healing compounds from the stems, roots, bark, and other parts of botanical ingredients and formulating them into three unique products with different ingredients, different functionalities, and completely different flavor profiles - spicy, green, or a tad sweet. (
  • The primary organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves, but these structures can be highly variable, adapted for the specific needs and environment of different plant species. (
  • Tissue removed aseptically from young stems was cultured on the same nutrient medium used for tomato roots. (
  • Since roots and stems have quite different vascular anatomies, major vascular changes take place at this point. (
  • In a new study published in Nature Microbiology , a team of researchers from the Department of Plant-Microbe Interactions at the MPIPZ in Cologne, Germany, and Århus University in Denmark, aimed to gain a deeper understanding of these complex multi-species interactions. (
  • Strikingly, host preference was only observed in a community context, where different microbes compete among each other, but not when individual bacterial species were allowed to colonize the plant roots in the absence of competition. (
  • Analysis of gene expression of both plant species when interacting with different synthetic communities further showed that this process was at least in part driven by the host. (
  • Based on this observation, the authors then hypothesized that native strains have a competitive advantage when colonizing the roots of their corresponding host plant via the formation of species-specific host niches. (
  • To test this hypothesis, the scientists performed a series of complex experiments, where SynComs from different host species were allowed to invade already established root-associated bacterial communities in host and non-host plants. (
  • Their results showed that native SynComs had a competitive advantage when invading an already established microbiota in their host plant, indicating that adaptation of commensal bacteria to their native plant species leads to increased invasiveness and persistence. (
  • To find out, the scientists want to perform experiments with another plant species, the coyote tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, a model plant in ecology, which is adapted to an extremely strong exposition to light. (
  • This framework explains the contrasting rooting depths observed under the same climate for the same species but at distinct topographic positions. (
  • Aquatic carnivorous species lack roots completely, and many hygrophytic and epiphytic carnivorous species only have a weakly developed root system. (
  • Those native trees are just a fraction of the 2,200 species of plants that naturally grow in Central Florida, she said. (
  • Indeed, this process happens in several other plant species with rapid growth that we commonly find in gardens, such as strawberries ( Fragaria × ananassa ) or raspberries ( Rubus idaeus ). (
  • While limited to this one species, she suggests similar results might be found in other plants. (
  • The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). (
  • A young plant is growing and thriving close to a west-facing wall at Kew Botanical gardens[K]. This species is not the true 'China root' of medicine, see the record for S. pseudo-china[178]. (
  • Nodules are relatively distinct organs among plant species, essentially representing a controlled microbial invasion of the root. (
  • Somewhat like the human gut, the plant provides an environment in which specific microbes can thrive-but unlike the gut, nodule microbial composition is limited to a small number of species. (
  • In addition to his groundbreaking research into avocado plants and hybridizing many new daylily species that continue to delight visitors to the Garden each summer, Dr. Stout partnered with Cornell University's New York State Agricultural Experiment Station to make a better grape. (
  • They later discovered that the auxin induced root hair growth response was also found in distantly related plant species. (
  • The second step involves differential effects of the microbes on the plant species. (
  • The net consequence of this negative feedback on plant communities is illustrated at the bottom left, with both species maintained in the community over time. (
  • The species of the plant as well as its developmental stage can also influence the chemical mixture that is released through exudates. (
  • The plant family (Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) is the most important source of variation in exudation rates and microbial community structure between plant species. (
  • To maximize water use efficiency, plants use a large array of signaling mediators such as hormones, protein kinases, and phosphatases, Ca 2 + , reactive oxygen species, and low abundant phospholipids that together form complex signaling cascades. (
  • Dawson discovered in 1990 that trees do this, too, and to date, so-called hydraulic redistribution has been found in some 60 separate deeply rooted plant species. (
  • Curiously, ABA controls different aspects of root architecture in different plant species, perhaps providing some insight into the great diversity of root architecture in different plants, both from different taxa and from different environments. (
  • Plants display an extraordinary diversity of form that distinguishes not only members of different taxa, but also individuals of the same species, even those that are genetically identical. (
  • Thus, changes in the environment of a plant change its architecture, and this is why, although different individuals of the same species will look similar, none will have the same pattern of branching as another, either in the root or the shoot. (
  • A number of pests and diseases affect specifically this part of the plant, including root-crown rot (or root-crown fungus) and a number of species of root-crown weevil. (
  • These microbial communities are sustained by the plant host, which provides them with nutrients, primarily in the form of organic carbon compounds secreted by the root. (
  • We compare nutrient uptake by the roots with the acquisition of nutrients via the traps. (
  • Adamec L 2002 Leaf absorption of mineral nutrients in carnivorous plants stimulates root nutrient uptake. (
  • Roots develop rapidly where plant nutrients are abundant. (
  • With an increased root system the plant can consume more plant nutrients and produce more root and top growth. (
  • The main parts of photosynthesis is the fact that plants are getting their food and nutrients from the sun. (
  • The name was changed to reflect the project's emphasis on narrow-diameter, short-lived "fine" roots that help plants take up needed water and nutrients. (
  • The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (
  • They anchor the plant and take up water and nutrients from the environment. (
  • White calculated that by this time any nutrients and regulatory substances in the original root tip would have been diluted to ∼10 −40 , and he concluded that the nutrient medium had supported indefinite growth of the root tips. (
  • Geitmann A, Ortega JKE (2009) Mechanics and modeling of plant cell growth. (
  • Scientists in Italy are working on creating robots that mimic the properties of plant roots, including the capacity for growth. (
  • As a first step in this quest, they established a comprehensive collection of root-derived bacteria from the model legume Lotus japonicus, a small proportion of which are symbiotic bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen for plant growth. (
  • Light is not only a source of energy, but also an important signal which regulates many light-dependent growth processes in a plant in order to adapt it to its environment in the best possible way. (
  • Even if the intensity of the transmitted light was low, it was sufficient to activate the photoreceptors, trigger downstream light signaling, and influence growth in the control plants," Chung-Mo Park, the leader of the project at Seoul National University, explains. (
  • Photoreception in the roots triggers a signaling chain which influences plant growth, especially the root architecture," says Ian Baldwin, leader of the study at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena. (
  • The researchers propose that the newly found sensory modality of roots is enhancing the ecological performance of plants in nature, by allowing for a better timing of resource allocations for growth, reproduction and defense. (
  • The symptoms of root-eating insects, including loss of plant vigor, stunted growth, wilting and discoloration, often resemble plant diseases or deficiencies. (
  • Common pests of root vegetables and other plants, root maggots cause wilting, yellowing and stunted growth in host plants. (
  • Explain you will be planting the carrot and observing its growth. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Root growth" applicable to this article? (
  • These trigger the production of a protein called HY5, which promotes healthy root growth. (
  • Moreover, when they treated A. thaliana specimens in the dark with common plant signalling chemicals such as sucrose, no significant increase in root growth was observed - suggesting that such chemicals were not driving growth. (
  • Most plants have phytochromes, suggesting that directly piping sunlight down the stem is a common mechanism used to optimise root growth, says Lee. (
  • Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. (
  • Roots, like the top growth, have characteristic habits of development. (
  • The types of root growth are as varied as the different kinds of plants. (
  • Yes, often the different strains of the same crop will have a variation in the style of root growth. (
  • To care for and protect the roots, growers must be entirely familiar with their growth habits. (
  • Fertilizer must be placed so that the young tender roots may come into early contact with it soon after root growth starts. (
  • Gardeners have long believed that what music they play affects the growth of their plants, but Dr. Gagliano's research, done with colleagues Professor Daniel Robert at the University of Bristol (UK) and Professor Stefano Mancuso at the University of Florence (Italy), shows that the roots of young plants emit and react to particular sounds. (
  • Bacterial DNA sequencing analyses show date palms that are cultivated over a vast stretch of the Tunisian Sahara Desert consistently attract two types of growth-promoting bacteria to their roots, regardless of the location. (
  • Plants have hormones that program them for upward growth, so take cuttings from the lower branches, which carry less of the upward-growing hormones. (
  • Willow water can also be used to water the new cuttings to promote root growth. (
  • Keep the growing medium moist until new growth appears and roots are well established. (
  • The conclusion given by Arthur Gessler, Leader of WSL's Forest Growth and Climate Group, is clear: 'Roots regulate plants' carbon balance. (
  • The root is harvested in early spring as new growth is beginning and is used to make a homeopathic remedy[232]. (
  • Scientists from the John Innes Centre and Sapienza University, Rome, combined mathematical and computer modelling with molecular genetics to show how roots can regulate their growth via the interactions of two antagonistic hormones, auxin and cytokinin. (
  • Antagonistic cross-talk between auxin and another hormone, cytokinin , could both stabilise the size of the meristem zone, and even change it - thus, either stabilising root growth, or changing its velocity. (
  • In nature this mechanism allows the root to respond to its environment, proliferating in favourable conditions while restricting growth in adversity. (
  • Just take a few snips from a plant that you love, being sure to include a growth node or two. (
  • Professor Bennett concludes: "Now we understand more about the hormone signals and genes which affect root hair growth we can look at which combinations are required for crop improvement to underpin global food security efforts. (
  • After one year, the tree should be securely rooted, and the stake will hinder the tree's future growth. (
  • D. Leitner and A. Schnepf, "Root growth simulation using L-systems," in Proceedings of the Conference on Scientific Computing (ALGORITMY '09) , pp. 313-320, 2009. (
  • First, the composition of the microbial community differentiates on the plants because of host-specific microbial growth rates. (
  • As a result, the plants that were initially most abundant have the lowest growth rates. (
  • Alexander A, Singh VK, Mishra A, Jha B. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BJ01 augments endurance against N2 starvation by modulating physiology and biochemical activities of Arachis hypogea. (
  • Mycorrhizae are known to promote plant growth and increase water use efficiency. (
  • This is important as a plants' habitat is crucial towards their growth as it dictates energy, water intake, nutrient intake and others [1]. (
  • Adequate water supply is of utmost importance for growth and reproduction of plants. (
  • Professor Sadanandom explained: "Plants are relatively immobile and therefore their growth and development is very much dependent on their environment. (
  • Our research has identified the particular protein which can modify, and even inactivate root branching, therefore limiting plant growth and development. (
  • In the spring, the day length is growing longer and the ever-increasing light helps to support the development and expansion of leaf growth, thus increasing the in-balance between top and root growth. (
  • Shortening of day length keys the plant to drop its foliage, shut down top growth and direct the flow of plant energy to the below portions of woody plant. (
  • providing a transfer arrangement for transferring liquid directly to and/or from an internal zone of a growth medium inside the pot, the internal zone spaced from a bottom wall of the pot, and a local environment adjacent the bottom wall, the transferred liquid passing through a bottom wall and an inwardly extending conduit adapted to resist root escape. (
  • The plant should be watered into the medium, covered with the bag and left in a shady spot until root growth is evident. (
  • Plants modulate root growth in response to changes in the local environment, guided by intrinsic developmental genetic programs. (
  • Coordination of growth and development in different tissues and different regions of the root system in response to this environmental stimulus is usually mediated by hormones. (
  • White (1939a) defined a plant tissue culture as a system in which cells satisfied two main requirements of remaining "undifferentiated yet capable of unlimited growth" ( White, 1939a ). (
  • These could be excised from the plant with minimal trauma and grown aseptically for a few weeks in nutrient media, but ultimately growth ceased. (
  • 400 d, the cultured roots showed no diminution of growth rate. (
  • Thus, while he had demonstrated "potentially unlimited growth," the second part of his definition of a tissue culture had not been met because the roots clearly were not undifferentiated. (
  • The researchers found two crucial components which evolved in seed plants to promote a more efficient form of gravity-driven root growth. (
  • This ultimately enables the root to transport auxin towards the shoot and regulate downward growth. (
  • Root-crown temperature has been found to affect plant growth and physiology in a number of ways. (
  • Photoreceptors in the roots are activated by light which is transmitted from the shoot to the underground roots through the stem. (
  • The optical detector system was used to measure light which was transmitted in the stem down to the roots. (
  • They found that the plant stem acts like a fibre-optic cable, conducting light down to receptors in the roots known as phytochromes . (
  • To check whether light was directly transmitted through the plant rather than it activating signalling chemicals that travelled to the roots, the researchers attached a light source to the stem of plants via an optical fibre. (
  • In addition, the study only investigated a handful of signalling chemicals that could act as mobile intermediaries between light, the stem and the roots, says Haydon. (
  • yes,they have circulatory system which consist of stem,which circulate the food made by leaves to other parts of the plant. (
  • The stem, roots, petals. (
  • Scientists at Oxford University have discovered the oldest known population of plant root stem cells in a 320 million-year-old fossil. (
  • As well as revealing the oldest plant root stem cells identified to date, the research also marks the first time an actively growing fossilised root has been discovered - in effect, an ancient plant frozen in time. (
  • I began to realise that I was looking at a population of 320 million-year-old plant stem cells preserved as they were growing - and that it was the first time anything like this had ever been found. (
  • Stem cells - self-renewing cells responsible for the formation of multicellular organisms - are located in plants at the tips of shoots and roots in groups called meristems. (
  • A cutting is part of a stem, leaf or root that is removed from a plant and forms a new plant that looks like its parent. (
  • The most common types of cuttings are stem and root cuttings. (
  • Never break off a stem by hand or peel back bark on woody cuttings to try to promote rooting. (
  • Other studies by Dr Grieneisen, Dr Marée and colleagues had shown that the hormone auxin was present at very high levels at the root tip to maintain certain cells as stem cells, and that this was the result of fast dynamics of auxin swirling around due to PINs (proteins that pump auxin through the root). (
  • Later, many thin roots branch from the stem underground. (
  • The hybrid plants produced tumor-like calluses and galls on the stem and leaves. (
  • A root crown, also known as the root collar or root neck, is that part of a root system from which a stem arises. (
  • The detective work in the plant researchers' genetics laboratory does not end here, however. (
  • Although the bacterial communities of the two plants were similar, the researchers observed a clear preference by these bacteria to colonize their native host. (
  • In the past decade, researchers have been making the case for taking plants more seriously. (
  • The researchers found that it took 2 hours from initial illumination for plants to activate their root phytochromes - longer than might be expected if the light is directly conducted. (
  • Just one cellular pathway produces the raw ingredients plants use to make thousands of compounds, from molecules with anticancer properties to the active ingredient in catnip, according to a team of researchers at Purdue University and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology. (
  • The research also could have important implications for researchers trying to harness plant pathways to produce essential oils, often used as flavor additives in food and medicine or as fragrance in body-care products, said Natalia Dudareva, professor of horticulture and lead researcher of the study. (
  • The researchers hope that FRED's release will encourage plant scientists to submit even more data. (
  • The researchers concluded that when roots are exposed to moisture ARF7 remains active and promotes root branching, but when exposed to air, ARF7 is modified and inactivated, blocking root branching. (
  • Plants may soon have robotic counterparts, thanks to Italian researchers who are developing a system that mimics the behaviour of roots. (
  • Researchers unveiled a project called PLANTOID to build a machine that grows roots - just like a plant does. (
  • According to researchers, modelling a growing root is difficult as it bends while increasing in length, adding cells on the opposite side from the direction in which it is heading. (
  • A root perceives several physical and chemical stimuli at once and prioritises them, researchers said. (
  • The researchers estimate this effect increases photosynthesis and the evaporation of water from plants, called transpiration, by 40 percent in the dry season, when photosynthesis otherwise would be limited. (
  • Using fluorescent tagging and imaging, the researchers figured out that salmonella bacteria were using this gap to enter the plant. (
  • The researchers also noticed that under the same conditions, a plant with a greater number of lateral roots harboured a greater concentration of salmonella than one with fewer lateral roots. (
  • Probiotic inoculants tailored to specific crop plants with an enhanced capacity to invade and persist in standing microbial communities could help overcome the variation in efficacy of currently used biologicals in agriculture. (
  • Microbial population and community dynamics on plant roots and their feedbacks on plant communities. (
  • Host-specific differentiation of the microbial community results from the trade-offs associated with overcoming plant defense and the specific benefits associated with plant rewards. (
  • Accumulation of host-specific pathogens likely generates negative feedback on the plant, while changes in the density of microbial mutualists likely generate positive feedback. (
  • Root exudation impacts microbial activities as well as the diversity of active microbiota involved in root exudate assimilation. (
  • Root mediated uptake of Salmonella is different from phyto-pathogen and associated with the colonization of edible organs, BMC Plant Biology (2018). (
  • One of the fundamental problems in plant morphogenesis is the molecular and cellular basis of left-right asymmetry that often leads to various chiral structures such as the coils of tendrils and twisted leaves. (
  • Stories are told of African slaves foraging for the large, elephant ear leaves of the dasheen plant to make a stew called callaloo or in cassava fufu, a popular West African staple. (
  • These nutritional deficiency symptoms which leave a tell-tale pattern on leaves and other parts of the plants show their mark plainly to those who have learned to read the signs. (
  • Photosynthesis takes place mostly inside the plants leaves as that is where the most chloroplast is kept. (
  • The team's research, published in the leading international journal Trends in Plant Science, concludes that the discovery of plant communication needs serious investigation as it "leaves serious gaps (in) our current understanding of the sensory and communicatory complexity of these organisms. (
  • However, this reduction is not dictated solely by the leaves, as has previously been assumed, but primarily by the roots. (
  • In beech trees, not primarily the leaves but the roots determine when the tree absorbs CO2 for photosynthesis and how much of it. (
  • Therefore, up to now biologists assumed that when suffering from a water deficit, plants only absorb less carbon dioxide from the atmosphere because they close the stomata in their leaves to reduce water loss. (
  • A yellow dye is made from the root and leaves when alum is used as a mordant[4, 178]. (
  • Especially valuable as a diuretic and stimulant, as well as an astringent tonic[4], a tea made from the roots and leaves has been used to eliminate stones from the urinary tract, to treat urinary incontinence in children, cystitis, urethritis, impotence etc[222, 254, 268]. (
  • This weevil damages both the leaves and the roots of plants. (
  • Other plants (not carrying leaves over winter) will take less. (
  • Carrot seeds come from flowers that are produced on the top of the carrot by a mature plant that has been left in the ground. (
  • The early naturalists were overwhelmed by the beauty of all these new plants, but the colonists didn't like native plants, so they imported seeds from England and ignored what was here. (
  • Their seeds bear plants identical to the parent," she says. (
  • As tulips bloom and the trees are finally a little greener, thoughts of planting seeds suddenly "Spring" to mind. (
  • Before you even touch a packet of seeds though, check out this clearly clever idea for keeping track of what those roots actually DO. (
  • Been thinking of some dirt and seeds planted in Dixie cups? (
  • Older nodules then regulate the number of nodules on a root system by suppressing the development of nodule primordia. (
  • Very few genes that regulate root architectural traits such as root hairs have been identified in crops so it is very exciting that our team and our collaborators are making new discoveries in this area. (
  • Ramon M, Dang TVT, Broeckx T, Hulsmans S, Crepin N, Sheen J, Rolland F. Default Activation and Nuclear Translocation of the Plant Cellular Energy Sensor SnRK1 Regulate Metabolic Stress Responses and Development. (
  • Information about the structure and functioning of roots of carnivorous plants is limited, but this knowledge is essential for a sound understanding of the plants' physiology and ecology. (
  • Adventitious roots have varied origins and functions, as illustrated by three case studies that highlight their physiology under flooding, nutrient deficiency, and wounding stress. (
  • One idea is to set up a matching game where your child has to match the name of a plant with the picture of the plant's edible roots. (
  • Some 20% of such chemicals are synthesized in a plant's roots. (
  • About one-half of the microbes that are drawn to this plant's roots are influenced by this chemical network, says Anne Osbourn, a plant biologist at the John Innes Center who co-led the work with Yang Bai, a plant biologist at the Chinese Academy of Science. (
  • Unlike other disease-causing bacteria that enter the root, fruit or leaf by producing enzymes to break down the plant's cell wall, salmonella sneaks in through a tiny gap created when a lateral root branches out from the plant's primary root, the study shows. (
  • Around 2000 B.C, the Egyptians used the marshmallow plant's root sap and mixed it with honey to make a candy. (
  • The pattern of root branching and elongation, and thus the overall shape of the root system, is determined by a series of interactions of the root with its environment over the course of the plant's lifetime. (
  • To quote Kathrin Wippel, first author of the study: "We were amazed to learn that root colonization by native and non-native SynComs resulted in differential transcriptional reprogramming of plant roots, possibly contributing to the formation of specific root niches for native commensal bacteria. (
  • These findings could have a meaningful impact on agriculture, as they highlight the importance of competitiveness between different bacteria and the impact of host preference for successful root colonization. (
  • The bacteria excrete lipochitin oligosaccharides, triggering a developmental process that is controlled by the plant and can be suppressed. (
  • Studied for more than 130 years ( 1 ), the intimate and unusual relationship established between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria ( Rhizobia ) allows plants to use atmospheric nitrogen in exchange for their photosynthetic-derived carbohydrates. (
  • Engineered Root Bacteria Release Plant-Available Phosphate from Phytate. (
  • Plants establish these mutualistic relationships with bacteria and fungi by modulating the composition of the root exudates. (
  • Karmakar and colleagues studied how different types of bacteria including salmonella colonize the roots of tomato plants . (
  • While other bacteria were spread across the root, salmonella bacteria clustered almost exclusively around areas where lateral roots emerge. (
  • Studying the entire matrix of plant ecology can lead to discoveries regarding general plant health, carbon storage, crop survival under drought conditions, and even how best to engineer plants for nutrient or water uptake, Iversen explained. (
  • Without more data we can't make a good prediction as to what those changes might be-for instance, whether roots might change to be slower or faster in nutrient uptake," he said. (
  • The new study in the Amazonian forest shows that trees use water in a much more complex way: The tap roots transfer rainwater from the surface to reservoirs deep underground and redistribute water upwards after the rains to keep the top layers moist, thereby accentuating both carbon uptake and localized atmospheric cooling during dry periods. (
  • Root hairs are thought to be important in water and nutrient uptake. (
  • Scientists from the Center for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP) of the University of Tbingen and the University of Wageningen, in cooperation with colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, have investigated how this process is controlled. (
  • For more than three decades, scientists have been speculating whether roots are also able to perceive light. (
  • Everyone knows that plants react to light, and scientists also know that plants use volatile chemicals to communicate with each other, for instance, when danger - such as a herbivore - approaches," Dr Gagliano said. (
  • Scientists previously discovered that two independent pathways, located in different compartments within a plant cell, use these precursor molecules to produce terpenoids. (
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) scientists have released a new global, centralized database of plant root traits, or identifying characteristics, that can advance our understanding of how the hidden structure of plants belowground may interact with and relate to life aboveground. (
  • As part of its support, SAS will embed full-time data scientists within the NC Plant Sciences Initiative to collaborate on various research efforts. (
  • BERKELEY - Trees, particularly those with deep roots, contribute to the Earth's climate much more than scientists thought, according to a new study by biologists and climatologists from the University of California, Berkeley. (
  • By informing the research and teaching community about the major strides made in HRC-based interventions in plant biology and their applications, the book is sure to spark further research in this fascinating field. (
  • The paper 'Unique Cellular Organization in the Oldest Root Meristem' is published in Current Biology . (
  • Once you've taken this course, if you are interested in a more in-depth study of plants, check out my follow-up course, Fundamentals of Plant Biology ( (
  • What a wonderful take on plant biology! (
  • This shifting of water by roots has a physiological effect on the plants, letting them pull more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as they conduct more photosynthesis," said co-author Todd Dawson, professor of integrative biology at UC Berkeley. (
  • This is the first time we have shown how different it is from other plant pathogens based on its ability to colonize the roots," says Kapudeep Karmakar, Ph.D. student in the Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, IISc, and first author of the paper published in BMC Plant Biology. (
  • One of the stellar achievements of twentieth century plant biology was the genetic transformation of somatic cells enabling the regeneration of whole plants that were stably transformed and capable of transmitting the inserted genetic material to subsequent generations. (
  • If dry seasons follow, the crop which is rooted deeply will not feel the effects of dry weather as soon as the shallow rooted crop. (
  • The pothos is a shallow-root plant. (
  • Another place we may find a shallow rooted plant is in new plant arrivals. (
  • Earlier this year, Dawson's colleague and former UC Berkeley doctoral student Rafael Oliveira of the Laborat rio de Ecologia Isot pica at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, discovered that Amazonian trees also use hydraulic redistribution to maintain the moisture around their shallow roots during the long dry season. (
  • We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. (
  • Perennial plants can be divided into herbaceous (or perennial herbs) and woody perennials (trees and shrubs), and therefore, they represent very diverse organisms in size and complexity from some herbs that weigh a few grams to huge trees like sequoias ( Sequoia sempervirens ). (
  • Cuttings can be taken from a variety of herbaceous and woody plants, but the easiest are softwood or semi-hardwood cuttings. (
  • I would point out that conditions, both weather and planting conditions, are prime for planting woody and herbaceous plants. (
  • Discuss that the orange part of the carrot is the root, which grows underground. (
  • Were the children able to explain the difference between the way a root plant grows compared with a seed? (
  • Michelle Brody's Harlem Roots work grows plants into paper. (
  • If you choose an edible plant, choose something that grows in a pot well, such as cucumbers, peas, tomatoes and strawberries. (
  • As the root grows and meristem cells at the tip continuously divide, they are left behind in relation to the moving root tip. (
  • We see that the plant grows up towards gravity. (
  • These roots were important because they comprised the rooting structures of the plants growing in the Earth's first global tropical wetland forests with tall trees over 50m in height and were in part responsible for one of the most dramatic climate change events in history. (
  • Even the structures that are placed in the garden are in keeping with nature, sandstone or natural wood, in lines that harmonize with the graceful shapes of garden plants. (
  • Allelochemicals released by the roots do this by inducing changes in cell structures, inhibiting cell division and elongation, destabilizing the antioxidant system, and increasing membrane permeability. (
  • In most legume nodules, the di-nitrogen (N 2 )-fixing rhizobia are present as organelle-like structures inside their root host cells. (
  • Given their importance for plant health, the study of the root microbiota has evolved into a promising research field that aims to understand how these interactions occur, and could eventually help increase the yield and resilience of crop plants. (
  • Plants which have a limited root system may be uprooted by winds with the result that crop return is poor. (
  • While not successful as a commercial crop, all seedless grapes that we enjoy today are descended from this Bronx native, the result of NYBG's commitment to plant science and conservation that continues to be one of our core values. (
  • As a global leader in accelerating plant science innovation and talent development, the NC Plant Sciences Initiative at NC State convenes experts from academia, government and industry to drive vital cross-disciplinary research that increases crop yields, creates new varieties, extends growing seasons, enhances sustainability, and produces new and improved technology. (
  • I am starting astibles and bleeding hearts in pots, using bare root packages I bought at Home Depot. (
  • When planting a bare-root hibiscus, make sure you plant the hibiscus within 1 to 2 days after purchasing. (
  • Inspect the roots of the bare-root hibiscus. (
  • Planting bare root trees is a fun and economical way to have lush green trees on your property without the higher cost of purchasing established trees. (
  • Carefully unpack the bare root tree from the container or material it came in. (
  • Can I plant a bare root tree in November in zone 7? (
  • If the ground freezes after I plant a bare root tree will it harm it? (
  • I have three bare root silver birch about six foot tall. (
  • As soon as unsold Christmas trees move out of nurseries, bare root plants move in. (
  • Like Christmas trees, bare root plants are available within a limited season-while they are dormant through winter. (
  • Because bare root plants need much less space than canned (potted) plants, many more different kinds of deciduous fruit trees, roses, grapes, berries and even a few ornamentals are available. (
  • Bare root plants also cost about half as much as typical canned plants. (
  • A main advantage of bare root plants is that they get established in the garden more efficiently than typical canned (potted) plants do. (
  • Bare root plants should get into the garden as soon as possible. (
  • Bare root plants that are wrapped in bags of sawdust should be safe for more than a week in the shade outside. (
  • Physicists from Korea and biologists from Jena teamed and combined knowledge from both disciplines in order to find out, whether plant vascular bundles could act as light optical fibers and transmit light from the shoot to the roots," Sang-Gyu Kim, one of the first authors of the study and co-initiator of the project, describes the successful cooperation. (
  • With this approach, we could show clearly and without ambiguity that light is transmitted into the roots via vascular bundles. (
  • Xylem transports water to parts of the plant (it is the vascular system). (
  • These plants are called as vascular plants. (
  • Physiological processes in the plant are mediated by light signaling molecules. (
  • Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. (
  • Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). (
  • Right) The root apical meristem appears immediately behind the protective root cap . (
  • Their computational work had revealed how these currents of auxin allowed the auxin maximum and its associated gradient to move together with the growing root, providing part of the necessary positional information r equired to coordinate the meristem zone. (
  • The cells in the root, as they move over the auxin landscape, transit from high auxin in the meristem into a region of low levels, and then rapidly again experience rises in auxin. (
  • Left ) For host-specific pathogens, the light and dark green microbes have strongest negative effects on the broad- and narrow-leaved plants, respectively, with relative virulence represented by the thickness of the red clubs. (
  • The root epidermis is involved in nutrition and defense against pathogens. (
  • Both of these genes are required for the formation of the root tissue. (
  • Roots promptly responded to the TM-induced ER stress through the induction of similar sets of ER stress-responsive genes. (
  • The team has also identified several key genes that control root hair elongation. (
  • Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. (
  • Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. (
  • Examples of extreme longevity in perennial plants. (
  • agroecosystems of perennial plants, to choose the most appropriate plants for their requirements and site conditions. (
  • No orchid, no herb or flowering perennial is worth risking your other plants and the health of your entire grow space in an attempt to wait out harvest on an affected plant. (
  • A representative 3D image of an emerged lateral root. (
  • Red arrow head shows the colony of Salmonella (green) in the gap created between the primary and lateral root (marked with dotted line). (
  • Similarly, when plants were artificially induced to produce more lateral roots, the salmonella concentration increased. (
  • Much smaller lateral roots then branch off of the primary root. (
  • The architecture of the root system is determined by three factors: the position of branch roots (called lateral roots), the angle that they form with the parent root, and root length. (
  • Caterpillars of these moths are frequent feeders on the roots of trees, shrubs and vines. (
  • They can be grown as small trees or large shrubs, and they make for an attractive specimen plant or addition to a flower garden. (
  • A climbing plant, supporting itself by means of tendrils and thorns as it scrambles through small trees and shrubs. (
  • Understand also that trees and shrubs planted now will gain a full year in establishment over spring-planted trees and shrubs. (
  • Carrots are root vegetables that grow different parts over 2 years. (
  • Carrots are usually harvested for use before the plant begins to flower. (
  • If you keep carrots in your kitchen, they might begin to sprout small white roots along the orange root. (
  • You cannot grow more carrots from these roots. (
  • In some plants, such as carrots, roots store carbohydrates that the plant has made through photosynthesis for later use. (
  • Your child might be amazed to learn he already eats plant roots, such as carrots. (
  • You can make any number of dishes using plant roots such as carrots, potatoes, radishes, beets, turnip and sweet potatoes. (
  • Earth system models are highly sensitive to this particular parameter with large consequences for modeled plant productivity, water-energy-carbon exchange between the land and the atmosphere, and silicate weathering regulating multimillion-year-timescale carbon cycle. (
  • Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. (
  • Permafrost is permanently frozen ground which stores as much carbon as there is in all plants on Earth and in the atmosphere together. (
  • Plant consider as an organ system because plants has a transportation system , the roots of plants carries water from ground and transport in all parts of plant .Plants has also a process of photosynthesis,in which they give oxygen and take carbon dioxide from atmosphere. (
  • During the day, plants absorb carbon dioxide from the air and with the help of sunlight convert the carbon in the CO 2 into sugar (carbohydrates), what is known as photosynthesis. (
  • The rhizosphere is a very fruitful area since nearly 5% to 21% of all photosynthetically fixed carbon is transferred from plants to the rhizosphere via root exudates. (
  • Many processes operate and interact within the symbiotic relationship between plants and nodules, including nitrogen (N)/carbon (C) metabolisms, oxygen flow through nodules, oxidative stress, and phosphorous (P) levels. (
  • However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. (
  • 20-m-deep roots in caves offer glimpses of the enormous plasticity of root response to its environment, but the drivers and the global significance of such deep roots are not clear. (
  • Those are some deep roots. (
  • However, the competitive dynamics among microbes depends on the multidimensional costs of virulence and mutualism, the fine-scale spatial structure within plant roots, and active plant allocation and localized defense. (
  • Right ) However, for host-specific mutualists, the light and dark green microbes have strongest positive effects on the broad- and narrow-leaved plants, respectively. (
  • These secretion influence the rhizosphere around the roots to inhibit harmful microbes and promote the grow of self and kin plants. (
  • The contents of exudates and the amount of substance released is reliant on multiple factors, including the root system architecture, presence of harmful microbes, and metal toxicity. (
  • While positive relationships like this do exist, it is worth noting that most microbes have incompatible interactions with plants. (
  • These insights could contribute to the breeding of plants with a particularly effective root system in the future. (
  • In general, the larger and deeper root system transmits a greater amount of plant food and water for the growing plant. (
  • They assume all plants must have a vigorous root system. (
  • Stop and take a look at the root system before jumping into any regular maintenance routine. (
  • Some plants don't have a vigorous root system or deep root system. (
  • Not all plants need a thorough soaking, but would prefer a light watering - depending on the plant and root system. (
  • A plant in a 10 inch pot may only have the developed root system of an 8 inch pot. (
  • What Plant Parts Are Inside The Plants Root System? (
  • The root system includes those parts of the plant below ground, such as the roots, tubers, and rhizomes. (
  • What plant system is affected when the xylem tissue is removed? (
  • Why plant consider as an organ system? (
  • What do you think will happen to the plant if any of the plants make up the shoot system parts were injured or deceased? (
  • What do plants have instead of a cardiovascular system? (
  • Why do plants need a transport system? (
  • Do plants has an circulatory system? (
  • In growing plants in an aeroponics grow room, the water and nutrient system is placed inside the semi-closed container and the plant and the root system is placed above it. (
  • Dudareva used snapdragon flowers in this research, a model plant system she also uses in her studies of floral scent regulation. (
  • Make sure the top of the root system will be sitting approximately 1 1/2 to 2 inches below the rim of its pot. (
  • Check the root system, as in step 2 above. (
  • Dig a planting hole for the hibiscus that is 2 to 3 times the width and depth of its root system. (
  • That way, your child can see the root system grow. (
  • Is the high pH inhibiting the development of a rooting system? (
  • PA reportedly binds to a number of proteins that play a role during water limiting conditions, such as drought and salinity and has been shown to play an important role in maintaining root system architecture. (
  • Members of two osmotic stress-activated protein kinase families, sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 and mitogen activated protein kinases were recently shown bind PA and are also involved in the maintenance of root system architecture and salinity stress tolerance. (
  • In a fibrous root system, however, the primary root supports only seedling development. (
  • Hydrologic regulation of plant rooting depth: Breakthrough or observational conundrum? (
  • The production of root nodules in which the symbiotic interaction takes place requires complex developmental regulation by the plant. (
  • These processes, which influence the regulation of N 2 fixation and are finely tuned on a whole-plant basis, are extensively reviewed in this paper. (
  • How legumes specifically sense N-status and how this stimulates all of the regulatory factors are key issues for understanding N 2 fixation regulation on a whole-plant basis. (
  • Faux plants are very lightweight, and you don't have any dirt to deal with," explains the florist, who arranged the plants in the agent's existing containers, filling them with packing popcorn topped with a 2-inch-thick solid layer of plastic foam. (
  • The plants, so to speak, 'stuff themselves' again after a starvation period', explains Gessler. (
  • Heirloom plants, Beam explains, are varieties that originated 50 years ago or more. (
  • Professor Liam Dolan, Head of the Department of Plant Sciences at Oxford University and senior author of the paper, said: 'These fossils demonstrate how the roots of these ancient plants grew for the first time. (
  • SAS is also enhancing agricultural research and talent development through its support of the North Carolina Plant Sciences Initiative at North Carolina State University (NC State). (
  • NC State is proud to have SAS partner in the NC Plant Sciences Initiative, a critical effort to keep the university at the forefront of plant science research and education, and to keep North Carolina agriculture competitive in a global market," said Chancellor Randy Woodson. (
  • The NC Plant Sciences Initiative will enhance plant breeding and genetics, improve farm production practices, and advance the development and integration of precision agriculture techniques and technologies like drones, sensors, artificial intelligence and machine learning," said College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Dean Richard Linton. (
  • Make individual holes or trenches in the growing medium and position cuttings so that the planting end is touching the medium and it is firmly packed against the base. (
  • Dig the planting holes 36 inches apart if planting more than one hibiscus. (
  • Planting holes should be just large enough to accommodate the roots. (
  • A plant regulator controlling development of symbiotic root nodules. (
  • Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing root nodules on legumes are founded by root cortical cells that de-differentiate and restart cell division to establish nodule primordia. (
  • Bacterial microsymbionts invade these primordia through infection threads laid down by the plant and, after endocytosis, membrane-enclosed bacteroids occupy cells in the nitrogen-fixing tissue of functional nodules. (
  • Aerial roots are any roots that emerge aboveground. (
  • A walk through the woods demonstrates the strong effect that the distribution of light and shade has on the architecture of plants aboveground [ 1 ], but the environment belowground can be just as varied. (
  • When the embryo has grown into a small cluster of cells, the connective tissue cell that borders the embryo is stimulated by activating signals to become part of the embryo and form the root tissue. (
  • Dasheen is among a family of root crops or "ground provisions" grown on the islands of the English-speaking Caribbean, dating back to the early 16th century. (
  • One of the most widely grown indoor plants is the pothos or golden pothos. (
  • Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. (
  • Plants can be grown in quite coarse grass, which can be cut annually in the autumn[233]. (
  • I've grown large roots on Crypts in Tanganyikan tanks (pH about as high as I can get it with NaHCO3). (
  • Adamec L 2003 Ecophysiological characterization of dormancy states in turions of the aquatic carnivorous plant Aldrovanda vesiculosa . (
  • In some aquatic plants, some plant parts like leaf petiole are swollen due to air chambers so that these plants can float in water. (
  • Parts of photosynthesis in a plant? (
  • Dudareva and her colleagues report in the current issue (Tuesday, Jan. 18) of Proceedings of the National Academy of Science that the molecular precursors to a group of compounds called terpenoids - the largest and most diverse family of natural products - come from a single plant pathway, located inside the same part of a cell where photosynthesis occurs. (
  • Plants suffering from drought reduce the level of their form of 'food intake', photosynthesis, and therefore also their absorption of CO 2 . (
  • In a drought situation, plants' level of photosynthesis and therefore also of CO 2 absorption decreases, but they continue to consume sugar. (
  • Our work proves that roots are able to perceive light, even though they are usually found belowground. (
  • FRED Version 1 is detailed in a newly published article in New Phytologist, "A global Fine-Root Ecology Database to address belowground challenges in plant ecology. (
  • This secretion allows plants to largely influence the rhizosphere as well as the organisms that exist within it. (
  • Root symbiotic associations impacts the rate of sugar exudation in the rhizosphere. (
  • This is hugely exciting as it opens up the possibility for us to adapt this protein interaction and potentially develop plants that could continue to branch roots even in challenging conditions such as water scarcity. (
  • Set the hibiscus in a bucket of water to soak for 30 minutes if its roots feel or appear dried out. (
  • Allow the tree to soak for 4-6 hours prior to planting. (
  • This will allow the roots of the tree to soak up water and not dry out during the initial shock of planting. (
  • 7. If an artificial plant doesn't fool you the first time you see it, move on to one that does. (
  • In the case of an under rooted plant, it may need time to fill out it's growing media in its new surrounding. (
  • The roots are normally harvested in the autumn, because they are at their richest at this time[213], and are dried for later use. (
  • From the time that I was little, there was nearly always a cutting from a plant sitting in a glass in a sunny window in my grandmother's kitchen. (
  • Roots that are constricted do not grow as well and are not able to provide as much water to the tree, something that is critical especially during the critical time the tree is first planted. (
  • We keep discovering more information systems in plants and the amount of time for them to develop has been growing shorter. (
  • Launched this spring, URBL is a line of premium plant-based functional supplement shots created by the startup Pebble Roots Inc. The release of their new beverage line comes at a time when functional drinks and shots are exploding within the health and wellness community. (
  • In the spring, the microbiological population (bacterial and fungal) is at a low ebb as they have been suppressed by the cool temperatures and will require time to build up to levels needed for root development. (
  • White (1934) succeeded in growing excised tomato root tips for potentially unlimited periods of time in a liquid medium containing inorganic salts, 2% sucrose, and 0.01% yeast extract. (
  • In order to cope with water deprivation, plants have to adapt their development and metabolism to ensure survival. (
  • Plants have to adapt to various changes in their environment and signals from the outside have to pass the membrane in order for the cell to respond. (
  • When plants made the move from water to land around 500 million years ago, their root systems were forced to adapt and grow downward. (
  • Boudaoud A (2010) An introduction to the mechanics of morphogenesis for plant biologists. (
  • In an interdisciplinary effort, molecular biologists and optical physicists developed a highly sensitive optical detector along with the idea to compare plants with "blind" and "sighted" roots. (
  • That tells us that some of the mechanisms controlling root formation in plants and trees have now become extinct and may have been more diverse than thought. (
  • And outside of that, other trees feature prominently in various myths (Yggdrasil is a yew tree, tree roots resemble the FSM's noodly appendages. (
  • AFL partnered with TreesGreenville and the Greenville County Recreation District planting 26 trees at Herdklotz Park in Greenville, South Carolina. (
  • Part of AFL s Take Root tree planting initiative , 36 AFL volunteers, friends and family, came out to plant trees and spread mulch and pine needles, despite the rain, to help to enhance the landscape. (
  • AFL provided a $2,000 grant for TreesGreenville to complement the Take Root Program which aims to plant 12,000 trees by the end of 2015. (
  • AFL is close to meeting its goal with just over 11,000 trees planted to date. (
  • Over the last 10 years, AFL has planted approximately 16,000 trees and will continue to do so to fulfill their ongoing goal of making a positive impact on our community. (
  • TreesGreenville is a membership-based nonprofit organization whose mission is to plant, promote and protect trees in Greenville County. (
  • Founded in 2005, TreesGreenville has planted more than 3,700 trees logging more than 8,000 volunteer hours. (
  • Book titles include Edible Plants , Edible Perennials , Edible Trees , and Woodland Gardening . (
  • Highlighting the latest research in genetics and more, we will delve into the inner lives of plants and draw parallels with the human senses to reveal that we have much more in common with sunflowers and oak trees than we may realize. (
  • Wangari's success planting trees in Kenya is a reminder of how trees support life everywhere. (
  • for a display that will change as the embedded plants sprout and bloom! (
  • All of these impact the relationships that plants have with each other as well as soilborne microorganisms. (
  • The formation of the root tissue depends firstly on the accumulation of the plant hormone auxin, which is channeled to the root founder cell by the embryo. (
  • Phloem is a tissue in higher plants that conducts synthesised food substances to all parts of the plant. (
  • We suggest that ER stress response in roots has tissue specificity. (
  • This achievement grew out of three independent lines of research initiated early in the twentieth century: plant tissue culture, regeneration of plants from single somatic cells, and the study of crown gall disease. (
  • We're interested in root responses to the environment, and in the interactions between roots and the above-ground portion of a plant, but it's been difficult to find the data to inform our thinking or to represent roots in models. (
  • At sufficient concentrations, exudates are capable of mediating[clarification needed] both positive and negative plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions. (
  • Interactions with the environment require perception at the root surface and subsequent activation of a response within the root. (
  • Marked in green are cells that are responding to the hormone Auxin and that will later on form the roots. (
  • Grieneisen and Sabatini joined forces, and together with the Marée lab developed a computerised root model in which the action of cytokinin on auxin transport and breakdown was examined. (
  • They found that cytokinin's influence generated a very typical pattern of auxin concentrations in the root: as before, with an auxin maximum at the tip, but they noticed that a dip in auxin appeared right at the transition zone of this computational root. (
  • These images showed that when the plant hormone auxin increased so did the elongation of the root hairs. (
  • Placing dirt around the tree trunk above the root ball will cause the tree to grow in a way that will make it likely to fall over prematurely. (
  • for some reason it just doesn't grow roots in my 20 gallon. (
  • however, a limited number of studies are available on the ER stress responses in roots. (
  • Highly developed seed plants evolved deep root systems that are able to sense Earth's gravity. (
  • The Fine-Root Ecology Database (FRED) brings together information from observations and experiments around the world into one accessible online resource, available publicly at no charge. (
  • FRED was initially named the "Fantastic Root Ecology Database" by an enthusiastic Powell and another researcher helping with the project, Holly Vander Stel. (
  • There is considerable diversity in how plants reproduce and consequently in the reproductive organs that they possess. (
  • We will consider how the implementation of the ABA signaling module might be a target of natural selection, to help contribute to the diversity of root architecture in nature. (
  • President Michael D Higgins planted a tree in Dublin's Phoenix Park to commemorate Ireland's launch of the International Year of Plant Health 2020. (
  • Intriguingly, root colonization by native and non-native SynComs exhibited contrasting gene expression profiles for a number of well-known regulators of plant immunity. (
  • Until now, it has remained largely unknown what their responsibilities in the roots are and how they interact with light signals which are transmitted from the shoots. (
  • Because the transcription factor TM07 is involved in other regulatory network of plant development, there can be no doubt that it holds further insights in store for us," says Jrgens. (
  • Mr Higgins highlighted the importance of plant health in the UN-agreed Sustainable Development Goals by planting a native sessile oak tree at Ashtown Castle. (
  • Among various available strategies for their production, the development of Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated hairy root cultures (HRCs) is generally considered the most feasible approach. (
  • NIN protein has regional similarity to transcription factors, and the predicted DNA-binding/dimerization domain identifies and typifies a consensus motif conserved in plant proteins with a function in nitrogen-controlled development. (
  • The genetic control of nodulation development is complex, with recent work showing a dependency on small RNAs (sRNAs) trafficked from shoot to root ( 2 ). (
  • Yet, it is root regeneration and development that aid in plant establishment. (
  • Development of a phosphatase activity assay using excised plant roots. (
  • Since most of plant development occurs after the plant escapes the confines of the seed, the environment has a major influence on the overall shape, or architecture of the plant. (
  • He completed his joint PhD at the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP, Lucknow) and Lucknow University, India. (
  • Dr Shakti Mehrotra received her joint PhD from the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP, Lucknow) and Lucknow University, India. (
  • Though little known as a medicinal plant, rose root has been used in traditional European medicine for over three thousand years, mainly as a tonic. (
  • Like so many of our native plants, Veronicastrum virginicum has medicinal uses-the plant purportedly gets its common name, Culver's root, from a Doctor Culver, who prescribed the plant as a cathartic. (