Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Root Cap: A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Phloroglucinol: A trinitrobenzene derivative with antispasmodic properties that is used primarily as a laboratory reagent.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Frankia: Genus of BACTERIA in the family Frankiaceae. They are nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbionts of many species of woody dicotyledonous plants.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Tylenchoidea: A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Laccaria: A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Rhododendron: A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.Orobanchaceae: The broom-rape plant family of the order Lamiales.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Azospirillum brasilense: A species of motile, free-living, gram-negative bacteria that occur in the soil. They are aerobic or microaerophilic and are sometimes capable of nitrogen fixation.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Rhizobium leguminosarum: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Root Planing: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.GlucuronidasePseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Medicago: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).

The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems. (1/7586)

Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of mycorrhizas formed by genets belonging to the same fungal species.  (+info)

Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (2/7586)

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach.  (+info)

A simple hydroponic culture method for the development of a highly viable root system in Arabidopsis thaliana. (3/7586)

In the studies of nutritional absorption and metal toxicity in the root, it is important to grow plants without technical damage. We established a simple hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis thaliana to obtain a healthy plant having a well-developed root system with many lateral roots. The phytotoxic effects of Cr, Cu, and Al ions were examined by FDA-PI staining using this culture system. The pattern of root inhibition varied with the ion, suggesting the usefulness of this culture system.  (+info)

Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme. (4/7586)

Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi.  (+info)

The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (5/7586)

In Arabidopsis embryogenesis, the primary root meristem originates from descendants of both the apical and the basal daughter cell of the zygote. We have isolated a mutant of a new gene named BODENLOS (BDL) in which the primary root meristem is not formed whereas post-embryonic roots develop and bdl seedlings give rise to fertile adult plants. Some bdl seedlings lacked not only the root but also the hypocotyl, thus resembling monopteros (mp) seedlings. In addition, bdl seedlings were insensitive to the auxin analogue 2,4-D, as determined by comparison with auxin resistant1 (axr1) seedlings. bdl embryos deviated from normal development as early as the two-cell stage at which the apical daughter cell of the zygote had divided horizontally instead of vertically. Subsequently, the uppermost derivative of the basal daughter cell, which is normally destined to become the hypophysis, divided abnormally and failed to generate the quiescent centre of the root meristem and the central root cap. We also analysed double mutants. bdl mp embryos closely resembled the two single mutants, bdl and mp, at early stages, while bdl mp seedlings essentially consisted of hypocotyl but did form primary leaves. bdl axr1 embryos approached the mp phenotype at later stages, and bdl axr1 seedlings resembled mp seedlings. Our results suggest that BDL is involved in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo.  (+info)

NADH-glutamate synthase in alfalfa root nodules. Genetic regulation and cellular expression. (6/7586)

NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric beta-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat.  (+info)

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (7/7586)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

AUX1 regulates root gravitropism in Arabidopsis by facilitating auxin uptake within root apical tissues. (8/7586)

Plants employ a specialized transport system composed of separate influx and efflux carriers to mobilize the plant hormone auxin between its site(s) of synthesis and action. Mutations within the permease-like AUX1 protein significantly reduce the rate of carrier-mediated auxin uptake within Arabidopsis roots, conferring an agravitropic phenotype. We are able to bypass the defect within auxin uptake and restore the gravitropic root phenotype of aux1 by growing mutant seedlings in the presence of the membrane-permeable synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. We illustrate that AUX1 expression overlaps that previously described for the auxin efflux carrier, AtPIN2, using transgenic lines expressing an AUX1 promoter::uidA (GUS) gene. Finally, we demonstrate that AUX1 regulates gravitropic curvature by acting in unison with the auxin efflux carrier to co-ordinate the localized redistribution of auxin within the Arabidopsis root apex. Our results provide the first example of a developmental role for the auxin influx carrier within higher plants and supply new insight into the molecular basis of gravitropic signalling.  (+info)

*List of vineyard soil types

Vines planted in this type of soil must penetrate deeply to try to and find nutrients in the subsoil. Wine made from vines ... The soil supports the root structure of the vine and influences the drainage levels and amount of minerals and nutrients that ... Vines planted in this type of soil normally ripen later than in other soil types. Marl soil is typically deep and lacking in ... Chalk - Very porous soft limestone soil that vine roots can easily penetrate. It provides good drainage and works best for ...

*Symbiotic bacteria

... in legume roots provide the plants with ammonia in exchange for the plants' carbon and a protected home. ... It appears that not only must the plant have a need for nitrogen fixing bacteria, but they must also be able to synthesize ... This may define or limit the type of "living together" of two organisms, be they plant, animal, protist or bacteria they ... Symbiotic bacteria are able to live in or on plant or animal tissue. In digestive systems, symbiotic bacteria help break down ...

*Ectomycorrhiza

Dominant native plants are capable of inhibition of EcM fungi on the roots of neighboring plants through the release of ... Ectomycorrhizas form between fungi and the roots of around 2% of plant species. These tend to be composed of woody plants, ... must first grow towards the plant's roots. Afterwards, it must envelope and penetrate the root cap cells and infect them, thus ... the root of the plant symbiont is often affected developmentally. EcM fungal partners characteristically suppress root hair ...

*Otiorhynchus

Larvae feed on plant roots. Adults are flightless with fused elytra and feed at night on plant foliage. In many species of the ... Many species of the genus, particularly the black vine weevil (O. sulcatus) and the strawberry root weevil (O. ovatus), are ...

*King African mole-rat

The animal eats plant roots. Its presence results in a change in vegetation on the mounds, which have fewer grasses and more ... The animal builds large burrows and perhaps associated mounds and eats plant roots. In 1909, John Alden Loring collected the ... woody plants, either because the animal eats plant roots or because the soil is altered. Hollister, 1919, plate 15 Heller, 1910 ... One chamber is used for urination and defecation and to store plant matter; it produces a substantial amount of heat. In other ...

*Archaea

Simon HM; Dodsworth JA; Goodman RM (October 2000). "Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots". Environ. Microbiol. 2 (5 ... and in the region of soil that surrounds plant roots (the rhizosphere). Extremophile archaea, particularly those resistant ... Skophammer, R.G.; Herbold, C.W.; Rivera, M.C.; Servin, J.A.; Lake, J.A. (2006). "Evidence that the root of the tree of life is ... Plants and other organisms consume the latter. In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds release ...

*Log Cabin (University of Pittsburgh)

"Log cabin plants roots". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, PA. 1989-01-14. p. 17. Retrieved 2010-10-08. Starrett, Agnes ...

*Nocardioides conyzicola

nov., isolated from herbaceous plant roots". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63 (Pt 12): ...

*Mole (animal)

They can undermine plant roots, indirectly causing damage or death. Moles do not eat plant roots. Moles are controlled with ... Other species such as weasels and voles may use mole tunnels to gain access to enclosed areas or plant roots. Moles burrow and ... damage to young plants through disturbance of the soil, weed invasion of pasture through exposure of freshly tilled soil, and ...

*Helicotylenchus

Most are ectoparasites of plant roots.. They insert their stylets into root epidermis to feed. Some species live half-buried in ... An exception is in parasitism by H. multicinctus, which can cause enough root necrosis that it seriously weakens the plant. ... the root tissue, and others penetrate the root and live inside. They lay eggs on, around, or inside the roots, and within two ... Four species out of over 200 are known as destructive plant pests that suppress plant growth: H. dihystera, H. multicinctus, H ...

*Dolichoderus mariae

The size of the nest varied with the size of the root system of the plant above. During the summer, above some of the nests, ... It was found that the worker ants remove soil from under clumps of wiregrass, other grasses or other fibrous rooted plants such ... It nests underground among plant roots. A study of this species was undertaken in northern Florida. ... Observations inside nests showed that the workers, queen, alates and brood took up stations on the fibrous roots which formed a ...

*Pseudomonas aeruginosa

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa-plant root interactions. Pathogenicity, biofilm formation, and root exudation". Plant Physiology. 134 (1 ... In higher plants, P. aeruginosa induces soft rot, for example in Arabidopsis thaliana (Thale cress) and Lactuca sativa (lettuce ... Rahme LG, Tan MW, Le L, Wong SM, Tompkins RG, Calderwood SB, Ausubel FM (November 1997). "Use of model plant hosts to identify ... It has been identified as an opportunistic pathogen of both humans and plants. P. aeruginosa is the type species of the genus ...

*Scolymus grandiflorus

Eshel, Amram; Beeckman, Tom (2013). Plant Roots: The Hidden Half (4 ed.). CRC Press. Retrieved 2016-12-06. Váquez, F.M. (2000 ... Golden thistles are assigned to the Cichorieae tribe that shares anastomosing latex canals in both root, stem and leaves, and ... Scolymus grandiflorus is a spiny annual or biennial plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region. With up ... "Large-flowered yellow thistle". Wild Plants of Malta and Gozo. Retrieved 2016-12-11. "Scolymus grandiflorus Desf". Fora Acta ...

*Phyllopertha horticola

Adults live for up to 8 weeks and feed on a variety of plant and tree leaves. Larval stages will feed on plant roots. ...

*Scolymus maculatus

Eshel, Amram; Beeckman, Tom (2013). Plant Roots: The Hidden Half (4 ed.). CRC Press. Retrieved 2016-12-06. Váquez, F.M. (2000 ... The plant is known as scolyme taché in French, cardogna macchiata in Italian, cardo borriquero in Spanish, and escólimo-malhado ... Golden thistles are assigned to the Cichorieae tribe that shares anastomosing latex canals in both root, stem and leaves, and ... Scolymus maculatus is a spiny annual plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, ...

*Scolymus

Eshel, Amram; Beeckman, Tom (2013). Plant Roots: The Hidden Half (4 ed.). CRC Press. Retrieved 2016-12-06. "Golden thistle". ... The roots are cooked and eaten, and compare in taste to salsify. Roasted roots have been used as a coffee substitute. Florets ... Young plants consist of a rosette of leaves, which may be variegated, once-pinnately spiny-lobed, to 30 cm long, and having ... The root bark of S. hispanicus has been shown to contain the triterpenoid taraxasteryl acetate, and this substance is effective ...

*Dolichodorus

The root tips die, the roots become coarse and curved, and the root system looks "stubby". A plant is stunted as its roots are ... They are ectoparasites of plant roots, and some are pests of agricultural crops. These are among the largest plant-parasitic ... Adults and juveniles feed on plant roots. Damage is apparent when the root tips turn brownish yellow and develop lesions. ... The genus can be found on many host plant taxa. D. heterocephalus has been noted on a variety of crop plants, including ...

*Dan DeRose

"Dynasty plants roots in 8 states." The Colorado Springs Gazette. May 9, 2004. Retrieved on October 1, 2012. Available at ...

*Bulk soil

... is not penetrated by plant roots. Natural organic compounds are much lower in bulk soil than in the rhizosphere. ...

*List of English words of Polynesian origin

Kava An intoxicating drink made from plant roots. From Tongan. Taboo A social and/or spiritual prohibition. From Tongan "Tapu ...

*Liz Dennis

Plant physiology, 1994. 105(4): p. 1075-87 Appleby, C.A., et al., A Role for Hemoglobin in All Plant-Roots. Plant Cell and ... Her early work in the plant field was dedicated to the molecular responses of plants to hypoxia and waterlogging, i.e. which ... She also was involved in the research showing that all plants contain haemoglobin and that this molecule protects the plant ... With a strong interest in plant gene expression and regulation, Prof Elizabeth Dennis studied plant development using molecular ...

*A.W. Patterson House

"House woos doctor to plant roots in town." Muskogee Phoenix. May 23, 2007. Accessed December 12, 2016.. ...

*Zohara Yaniv

Roots as a source of metabolites with medicinal activity. In: Plant Roots The Hidden Half.3rd Edition. Waissel Y., Eshel A. and ... Volume 6: medicinal Plants.CRC press.327-352 Yaniv, Z and N.Dudai. 2014.Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Middle-East. ... 1986.Medicinal plants of Israel - a field survey. Herbs, spicies and Medicinal Plants. L.E. Cracker and J. Simon (Eds) Oryx ... researcher and lecturer in the field of medicinal plants. Yaniv specializes in the field of Medicinal Plants and in ...

*Squamish people

Berries and plant roots also filled the diet. This made up the basis of daily life. In large longhouses festivities and ... five different kinds of grass and the roots of different plants. Ooligans were once in their river system and Ooligan grease ... Their geographical territory was abundant in rich food sources from land animals to sea life and plants and animals. For meat, ... For berries and plants, it was different kinds of wild blueberry, blackberry, salmon berry, salal berry, ...

*Anisoplia austriaca

The larvae feed on plant roots and humus. The larvae pupate in late May. In late June, adult beetles surface from the soil. The ... They appear on the plants in the morning; at night they crawl away to shelter in clods or cracks in the soil. "Anisoplia ... adult beetles feed on cereals such as rye, wheat or barley, consuming the more immature plants. Female beetles lay their eggs ...

*Borshchiv Raion

The name comes from the Slavic root "Kapusta" (cabbage). There used to be a Rus settlement here and there was also a medieval ... are planted with 400-year-old trees. Bilche Zolote is located some 16 km (9.9 mi) west of Borshchiv. The village is known for a ...

*Ben Shaoul

Konrad Putzier (November 7, 2013). "Hip young crowd planting roots at Bloom62". Real Estate Weekly. Retrieved 12 July 2014. ...
ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE4 (RSL4) is necessary and sufficient for root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Root hair length is determined by the duration for which RSL4 protein is present in the developing root hair. The aim of this research was to identify genes regulated by RSL4 that affect root hair growth. To identify genes regulated by RSL4, we identified genes whose expression was elevated by induction of RSL4 activity in the presence of an inhibitor of translation. Thirty-four genes were identified as putative targets of RSL transcriptional regulation, and the results suggest that the activities of SUPPRESSOR OF ACTIN (SAC1), EXOCSYT SUBUNIT 70A1 (EXO70A1), PEROXIDASE7 (PRX7) and CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE11 (CPK11) are required for root hair elongation. These data indicate that RSL4 controls cell growth by controlling the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cell signalling, cell wall modification and secretion.
Plants respond to environmental heterogeneity, particularly below ground, where spectacular root proliferations in nutrient-rich patches may occur. Such foraging responses apparently maximize nutrient uptake and are now prominent in plant ecological theory. Proliferations in nitrogen-rich patches are difficult to explain adaptively, however. The high mobility of soil nitrate should limit the contribution of proliferation to N capture. Many experiments on isolated plants show only a weak relation between proliferation and N uptake. We show that N capture is associated strongly with proliferation during interspecific competition for finite, locally available, mixed N sources, precisely the conditions under which N becomes available to plants on generally infertile soils. This explains why N-induced root proliferation is an important resource-capture mechanism in N-limited plant communities and suggests that increasing proliferation by crop breeding or genetic manipulation will have a limited ...
Limitation of immobile nutrients, such as iron (Fe) and phosphate (P), induces the development of additional root hairs that lead to an increase of the absorptive surface of the root. The increased root hair frequency of Fe- and P-deficient Arabidopsis was realized by different strategies. Phosphate-deficient plants increased the number of root hairs while in Festarved plants root hairs were branched. The Fe and P starvation responses in plants are thought to be regulated by a systemic signaling mechanism that communicates the nutrient status of the shoot to the root and by a local signaling mechanism that perceives the Fe or P availability in the soil. The influence of local and systemic signals on the respective root hair phenotype was investigated in split-root experiments. This treatment was combined with either a nutrient-sufficient or -deficient shoot. The root hair branching typical of Fe-deficient plants only occured in the presence of both a local and a systemic Fe-deficiency signal. As ...
In Arabidopsis, lateral root formation is a post-embryonic developmental event, which is regulated by hormones and environmental signals. In this study, via analyzing the expression of cyclin genes during lateral root (LR) formation, we report that cytokinins (CTKs) inhibit the initiation of LR through blocking the pericycle founder cells cycling at the G2 to M transition phase, while the promotion by CTK of LR elongation is due to the stimulation of the G1 to S transition. No significant difference was detected in the inhibitory effect of CTK on LR formation between wild-type plants and mutants defective in auxin response or transport. In addition, exogenously applied auxin at different concentrations could not rescue the CTK-mediated inhibition of LR initiation. Our data suggest that CTK and auxin might control LR initiation through two separate signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. The CTK-mediated repression of LR initiation is transmitted through the two-component signal system and mediated by ...
Visual examination of roots from 12,000 mutagenized Arabidopsis seedlings has led to the identification of more than 40 mutants impaired in root hair morphogenesis. Mutants from four phenotypic classes have been characterized in detail, and genetic tests show that these result from single nuclear recessive mutations in four different genes designated RHD1, RHD2, RHD3, and RHD4. The phenotypic analysis of the mutants and homozygous double mutants has led to a proposed model for root hair development and the stages at which the genes are normally required. The RHD1 gene product appears to be necessary for proper initiation of root hairs, whereas the RHD2, RHD3, and RHD4 gene products are required for normal hair elongation. These results demonstrate that root hair development in Arabidopsis is amenable to genetic dissection and should prove to be a useful model system to study the molecular mechanisms governing cell differentiation in plants.. ...
The root epidermis is involved in nutrition and defense against pathogens. This tissue is composed of only two cell types. These cell types can be distinguished from the differentiation zone where trichoblast cells are producing root hairs and atrichoblasts are remaining non-hair cells. Root hairs are thought to be important in water and nutrient uptake. The differentiation of trichoblast involve positional information from the cortex.. ...
Root hair initiation involves the formation of a bulge at the basal end of the trichoblast by localized diffuse growth. Tip growth occurs subsequently at this initiation site and is accompanied by the establishment of a polarized cytoplasmic organization. Arabidopsis plants homozygous for a complete loss-of-function tiny root hair 1 (trh1) mutation were generated by means of the T-DNA-tagging method. Trichoblasts of trh1 plants form initiation sites but fail to undergo tip growth. A predicted primary structure of TRH1 indicates that it belongs to the AtKT/AtKUP/HAK K(+) transporter family. The proposed function of TRH1 as a K(+) transporter was confirmed in (86)Rb uptake experiments, which demonstrated that trh1 plants are partially impaired in K(+) transport. In line with these results, TRH1 was able to complement the trk1 potassium transporter mutant of Saccharomyces, which is defective in high-affinity K(+) uptake. Surprisingly, the trh1 phenotype was not restored when mutant seedlings were grown at
Author summary Plants thrive in highly heterogenous soils. How they compute a multitude of contrasting stimuli and mount an adaptive response without a centralized information processing unit is an intriguing question. For instance, below ground, roots can sense and respond to the single or multiple nutrient stresses, and adjust its growth rate accordingly. Nevertheless, the genetic architecture of root growth responses under single and combined stress remains poorly understood. To fill this gap in our understanding about such crucial phenomenon for plant survival, we explored the natural variation of root growth rate (RGR) in Arabidopsis grown under single and combined nutritional stress, including deficiencies of iron (-Fe), zinc (-Zn), phosphate and iron (-P-Fe) and phosphate and zinc (-P-Zn). Our GWAS revealed distinct genetic architectures underlying root growth responses to single or combined nutrient stresses. By integrating GWAS and coexpression networks, we identified and validated genes
During the post-embryonic development of plants, new axes of growth emerge through lateral or adventitious organogenesis, and the reiteration of this process builds up the complex pattern of a plant body. Regulation of such lateral or adventitious organogenesis provides a flexible way for plants to alter their form and resource allocation in response to environmental changes or after injury. In this context, lateral or adventitious organogenesis plays an essential role in the post-embryonic development and survival of plants.. Among the processes of lateral and adventitious organogeneses, lateral root formation has been extensively studied by various approaches using the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Lateral root formation is considered to consist of two distinct phases: lateral root initiation and the establishment of the root apical meristem (Laskowski et al., 1995; Celenza et al., 1995). The histology of both these phases have been described in detail (Malamy and Benfey, 1997). During ...
Non‐destructive methods to quantify the root system architecture of a plant grown in soil are essential to aid our understanding of the factors that impact plant root development in natural environments
Methylation of lysine 4 in histone 3 (H3K4) is a post-translational modification that promotes gene expression. H3K4 methylation can be reversed by specific demethylases with an enzymatic Jumonji C domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, H3K4-specific JUMONJI (JMJ) proteins distinguish themselves by the association with an F/Y-rich (FYR) domain. Here, we report that jmj14 mutations partially suppress reduced root meristem size and growth vigor of brevis radix (brx) mutants. Similar to its close homologs, JMJ15, JMJ16 and JMJ18, the JMJ14 promoter confers expression in mature root vasculature. Yet, unlike jmj14, neither jmj16 nor jmj18 mutation markedly suppresses brx phenotypes. Domain-swapping experiments suggest that the specificity of JMJ14 function resides in the FYR domain. Despite JMJ14 promoter activity in the mature vasculature, jmj14 mutation affects root meristem size. However, JMJ14 protein is observed throughout the meristem, suggesting that the JMJ14 transcript region contributes ...
Maize (Zea mays) is not only a key human food and animal feed crop throughout the world but also an important raw material for the food industry and energy production plants [1]. Low phosphate concentrations are frequently a constraint for maize growth and development, and therefore, enormous quantities of phosphate fertilizer are expended in maize cultivation, which increases the cost of planting. Although the total amount of phosphorus (P) in the soil may be high, plants mainly absorb P in the inorganic form (Pi), which is present at a low concentration, limiting plant growth and development [2].. Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms and plays important roles in energy metabolism; biosynthesis of nucleic acids, phospholipids and membranes; cellular signal transduction and the regulation of many enzymes [3, 4]. Plants have evolved two broad strategies to cope with phosphate starvation, which involve changes in physiology, biochemistry and root morphology that ...
Soil nutrients are essential for plant growth and metabolism. Plant roots acquire nutrients from soils and have developed adaptive mechanisms to ensure nutrient acquisition under the varying nutritional conditions in soil. When plants are deprived of nutrients such as potassium, roots activate two important adaptive mechanisms for the uptake of nutrients that help support growth and survival. One adaptation involves deploying additional nutrient acquisition and remobilization systems, such as transporters (Ashley et al., 2006; Gierth and Maser, 2007) or channels (Lebaudy et al., 2007). The other adaptation involves changes in developmental processes of roots, including primary root growth, lateral root formation, and root hair elongation (Lopez-Bucio et al., 2003). Architectural changes in root systems, in response to nutrition deprivation, help plants to take up more nutrients by increasing the absorptive surface in specific regions of the soil.. Plants require potassium in large quantities for ...
Key Results: There was substantial variation in RSA traits between genotypes. Seminal root number and total root length were both positively associated with grains m-2, grains per spike, above-ground biomass m-2, and grain yield. More seminal roots and longer total root length were also associated with delayed maturity and extended grain filling, likely to be a consequence of more grains being defined before anthesis. Additionally, the maximum width of the root system displayed positive relationships with spikes m-2, grains m-2, and grain yield. Ten RILs selected for longest total roots exhibited the same effects on yield and phenology as described above, compared to the ten lines with shortest total roots. Genetic analysis revealed 38 QTL for the RSA, and QTL coincidence between the root and yield traits were frequently observed, indicating tightly linked genes or pleiotropy, which concurs with the results of phenotypic correlation analysis ...
Determining the root uptake of xenobiotic organic chemicals into plants is critical for assessing the human and ecological health risks associated with the consumption of plants growing in contaminated environments. Root uptake of xenobiotic organics occurs passively in conjunction with transpiration and the transport from root to shoot is ultimately controlled by passage through one or more lipid root membranes. The transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), the ratio between the concentration of a chemical in the xylem to that in the solution used by the roots, is used to describe the relative ability of an organic chemical to be passively transported from root to shoot. However, relatively few experimental TSCF values exist due to the cost and the lack of regulatory requirements for generating such data. Where literature data exist for chemicals having more than one TSCF, the variability is often large due to the lack of standardized methods and difficulty in accounting for metabolism and
Inspired by Charles Darwins observation that plant roots dont just passively grow down, but actively navigate to seek moisture and nutrients, German-born artist Diana Scherer worked to manipulate plant roots into works of art. Scherer grew oat and wheat, which fast growing root system, on special templates that mold and train the plants root system into geometric patterns that look like woven textiles. View more over at Scherers website....
Soil pollutants may affect root growth through interactions among phytohormones like auxin and jasmonates. Rice is frequently grown in paddy fields contaminated by cadmium and arsenic, but the effects of these pollutants on jasmonates/auxin crosstalk during adventitious and lateral roots formation are widely unknown. Therefore, seedlings of Oryza sativa cv. Nihonmasari and of the jasmonate-biosynthetic mutant coleoptile photomorphogenesis2 were exposed to cadmium and/or arsenic, and/or jasmonic acid methyl ester, and then analysed through morphological, histochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches.In both genotypes, arsenic and cadmium accumulated in roots more than shoots. In the roots, arsenic levels were more than twice higher than cadmium levels, either when arsenic was applied alone, or combined with cadmium. Pollutants reduced lateral root density in the wild -type in every treatment condition, but jasmonic acid methyl ester increased it when combined with each pollutant. ...
Soil pollutants may affect root growth through interactions among phytohormones like auxin and jasmonates. Rice is frequently grown in paddy fields contaminated by cadmium and arsenic, but the effects of these pollutants on jasmonates/auxin crosstalk during adventitious and lateral roots formation are widely unknown. Therefore, seedlings of Oryza sativa cv. Nihonmasari and of the jasmonate-biosynthetic mutant coleoptile photomorphogenesis2 were exposed to cadmium and/or arsenic, and/or jasmonic acid methyl ester, and then analysed through morphological, histochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches.In both genotypes, arsenic and cadmium accumulated in roots more than shoots. In the roots, arsenic levels were more than twice higher than cadmium levels, either when arsenic was applied alone, or combined with cadmium. Pollutants reduced lateral root density in the wild -type in every treatment condition, but jasmonic acid methyl ester increased it when combined with each pollutant. ...
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase has been reported to be important for normal plant growth. essential for normal plant growth (Welters et al., 1994) and has been implicated in diverse physiological functions, including root nodule formation (Hong and Verma, 1994), auxin-induced production of reactive oxygen species and root gravitropism (Joo et al., 2005), root hair curling and infection in (Peleg-Grossman et al., 2007), increased plasma membrane endocytosis and the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in salt tolerance response (Leshem et al., 2007), stomatal closing movement (Jung et al., 2002; Park et al., 2003), and root hair elongation (Lee et al., 2008). Cellular and biochemical mechanisms of action of PtdIns(3)P are the focus of intense investigation. In yeast, PtdIns(3)P is essential for vesicle-mediated delivery of vacuolar enzymes (Stack and Emr, 1994), and a similar role of PtdIns(3)P in vesicle trafficking has been reported in plant and animal cells as well (Brown et al., ...
We describe a novel robotic facility that makes it possible to conduct high-content, miniaturized screens for the effects of small molecules on both root and shoot development in a 96-well microtitre plate format. At the heart of this automated platform is a novel seedling growth device, the Phytostrip, which has been specifically designed to allow detailed analysis of the effects of chemical treatments on root system architecture. Roots are a particularly attractive subject for phenotyping studies because of the large number of individual traits that can be readily visualised (Fig. 4) and the extent to which each of these traits is responsive to environmental factors [30, 50]. Many previous investigations into the genetic control of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses have focussed on root development [51, 52] and powerful robotic and imaging technologies have been developed to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of soil-grown roots [53, 54, 55]. ...
The effect of soil acidity on root and rhizosheath development in wheat and barley seedlings was investigated in an acid Ferrosol soil to which various amounts of lime (CaCO3) were applied to modify s
Root system architecture (RSA) and development has received an increased amount of attention due to advances in phenotyping capabilities and growing insight into the genetic control of root growth (Liu et al., 2005; Tuberosa and Salvi, 2006; de Dorlodot et al., 2007; Armengaud et al., 2009). Previous studies have shown that external factors can affect root morphology and architecture and that root systems have an innate ability to respond and adapt to their rooting environment (Malamy, 2005). Additionally, many reports indicate that certain root qualities in crop plants can help enhance productivity in resource-limited environments due to improved nutrient and water scavenging abilities (Liao et al., 2001; Zhu et al., 2005; Ribaut et al., 2009). Identifying, evaluating, and selectively introducing both intrinsic and environmentally responsive root architectural characteristics into breeding programs may be a promising area for improving crop production on resource-limited agricultural systems ...
Generating hairier, bushier roots should improve nutrient and water capture. This is particularly important for Brassicas as they lack mycorrhizal symbionts. Root hair elongation is accompanied by oscillations in cytosolic free calcium at the apex (1). Plasma membrane calcium channels will be involved in generating these oscillations. We have identified three calcium channels (2-4) using electrophysiology and need to understand their regulation, contribution to calcium oscillations and molecular identities. This project will use Arabidopsis mutants, electrophysiology and calcium imaging to address these problems.. ...
Root hairs, tubular structures that emerge from plant root epidermal cells, grow through localized exocytosis of cell-wall matrix, a process involving actin-dependent delivery of Golgi-derived vesicles containing matrix material to the growing tip. Researchers have long recognized that the cell nucleus maintains a fixed distance from the apex of the growing root hair. The mechanisms by which the nucleus maintains this position, however, and how it pertains to tip growth, remain unclear. Ketelaar et al. used time-lapse photography of Arabidopsis root hair tips to investigate nuclear behavior during root hair growth and did pharmacological analysis to implicate the actin cytoskeleton in nuclear localization. During active growth, the nucleus maintained a fixed distance from the tip, moving backwards when growth ceased to a random position in the root hair. In mutants with branched hairs, branches emerged from the site at which the nucleus was located; thereafter, nuclei moved between growing ...
The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria which degrade PAHs have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits, however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in PAH-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls. Bacteria were isolated from plant roots (rhizobacteria) and selected for growth on anthracene and chrysene on PAH-amended plates. Rhizosphere isolates metabolized 3- and 4-ring PAHs and PAH catabolic intermediates in liquid incubations. Aromatic root exudate compounds, namely flavonoids and simple phenols, were also substrates for isolated rhizobacteria. In particular, the phenolic compounds - morin, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic acid - appear to be linked to bacterial ...
The second part of this work has explored the role of tissue geometry in determining root phosphate levels and flux. Multi-cellular vertex-based models of published Arabidopsis and rice root cross-sections were produced using CellSeT, into which equations for phosphate uptake, flux and utilistion were embedded using OpenAlea. Simulations suggest that Arabidopsis trichoblasts have lower cytosolic phosphate levels than neighbouring epidermal cells, because they have a larger area through which phosphate flows into the inner tissues. This implies that trichoblasts are more sensitive to phosphate stress and reduced phosphate levels could therefore be part of the trigger for initiating root-hair growth. Adding root hairs of varying lengths into this geometry shows that a hair does not have to grow much before the phosphate levels in this trichoblast exceeds those in the neighbouring cells and that phosphate flows to them. This potentially suppresses root-hair formation in nearby trichoblasts. The ...
The objective of this study is to investigate the basic characteristics of the three axis mechanical impedances distributed at the fingers and palm of the hand subjected to vibrations along three orthogonal directions (x(h), y(h), and z(h)). Seven subjects participated in the experiment on a novel three-dimensional (3-D) hand-arm vibration test system equipped with a 3-0 instrumented handle. The t
Natural strains of Arabidopsis, so-called accessions, display rich variation in morphological and physiological features, including root system architecture [3,14]. This trait can be easily observed and scored in in vitro culture, with most studies focusing on the growth vigour of the primary root. Isolation of allelic variants that underlie observed phenotypic differences can be achieved by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and subsequent map-based cloning aided by complementing, for instance, reverse genetic approaches. So far, these studies have been moderately successful in that a limited number of mostly large effect QTLs (i.e. QTLs that explain the vast majority of the genetically determined variance in a given cross) were isolated. Notable exceptions from the large effect loci include allelic variation in a vacuolar invertase gene that explains ca 20 per cent of the primary root growth variance between the Cvi and Ler accessions [15], or allelic variation in the BREVIS RADIX (BRX) ...
Although we dont typically see them, roots are perhaps the most expansive part of a plant. Not only do they account for as much as a third of the plants mass, but they spread both deep and wide. For instance, if all the branching segments of a rye plants root system were cut and arranged into a straight line, it would extend about 380 miles. The plant invests a lot of resources into developing such intricate root systems, and this is because the roots are the plants sole source of minerals and water, which it leaches directly from the ground. At the same time, the root system stabilizes the plant so that it cannot be easily blown over by winds. This is a problem for some trees, which might have an extensive but shallow root system. If the roots dont dig deeply enough, then not only will they lack access to the water table, theyll also risk getting uprooted in a storm, killing themselves and damaging anything crushed by their descent.. ...
Almost all the worlds plants (~80% of species that have been studied) form underground partnerships with fungi. These fungi (called mycorrhizae) live in close association with the cells in plant roots, and are generally assumed to be beneficial because they provide plants with essential nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus) and can increase drought resistance. These fungi act to increase the root surface area in the soil, boosting a plants capacity to acquire soil resources. In exchange, the plant provides sugars to the fungi.
This is simply the whole root version of Ashwahanda. Whole roots preserve more of the volatile oils, but require more time to steep. Usually, a big spoonful is stirred into the liquid of your choice with a pinch of honey and cinnamon, but with the Whole Root, you can put several roots into boiling water, bring to a simmer, and steep for several hours for full effects. You can also put 1 oz at a time into a pot of water, and let it steep all day. Then, you can simply re-heat as you need it throuhgout the day ...
...Stanford CA Plant roots are fascinating plant organs they not only a...Due to the difficulty of accessing root tissue in intact live plants ...Understanding roots is crucial to the study of plant physiology becaus...The research teams efforts could revolutionize the entire field of ro...,New,tool,offers,unprecedented,access,for,root,studies,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Researchers have just documented how plants use underground fungal networks to warn neighboring plants of impending insect attack, uniquely illustrating the complex and highly designed interconnected cooperation found in nature.. The research study-just published in the July, 2013 issue of Ecology Letters-is the first such report that confirms and reveals how plants have uniquely co-designed physiologies that internetwork with other plants using an underground fungus as an information conduit.1 This amazing and intricate system allows the plants to readily and effectively communicate as a community, like a natural biological internet.. Prior to this study, scientists were aware that mutually beneficial relationships existed between plants and certain fungi that colonize the soil surrounding the plants root systems. These beneficial soil microorganisms are called mycorrhizal fungi and are known to promote overall plant growth and help them cope with insect attacks, pathogens, and drought ...
Definition of adventitious root in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is adventitious root? Meaning of adventitious root as a legal term. What does adventitious root mean in law?
The decade since the publication of the third edition of this volume has been an era of great progress in biology in general and the plant sciences in particular. This is especially true with the advancements brought on by the sequencing of whole genomes of model organisms and the development of omics techniques. This fourth edition of Plant Roots: The Hidden Half reflects these developments that have transformed not only the field of biology, but also the many facets of root science. Highlights of this new edition include: The basics of root research and their evolution and role in the global context of soil development and atmosphere composition New understandings about roots gained in the post-genomic era, for example, how the development of roots became possible, and the genetic basis required for this to occur The mechanisms that determine root structure, with chapters on cellular patterning, lateral root and vascular development, the molecular basis of adventitious roots, and other topics
The decade since the publication of the third edition of this volume has been an era of great progress in biology in general and the plant sciences in particular. This is especially true with the advancements brought on by the sequencing of whole genomes of model organisms and the development of omics techniques. This fourth edition of Plant Roots: The Hidden Half reflects these developments that have transformed not only the field of biology, but also the many facets of root science. Highlights of this new edition include: The basics of root research and their evolution and role in the global context of soil development and atmosphere composition New understandings about roots gained in the post-genomic era, for example, how the development of roots became possible, and the genetic basis required for this to occur The mechanisms that determine root structure, with chapters on cellular patterning, lateral root and vascular development, the molecular basis of adventitious roots, and other topics
Nitrogen is the nutrient that may be fixed in plant roots. What happens is the presence, but unavailability, of nitrogen in the environment. In the case of the ground below surface level, nitrogen must be in soluble form in order to be used by the plant. Nitrogen fixing bacteria and nematodes may do this job on, in or around plant roots.
This evergreen needs a regular water schedule to ensure the growth of a mature root system. The first year of growth requires watering weekly. After the mature root system is established, watering is needed occasionally, except during a drought, watering is needed regularly. Mulching is recommended to detour weeds, keep the moisture content high, and temperatures low. Shear annually to maintain desired shape ...
Plant Roots in Drains - Prevention and Cure by CSIRO Publishing published June 2001. The ISBN is BTF17WEB. The publisher is CSIRO Building, Construction and Engineering. Buy Plant Roots in Drains - Prevention and Cure from CSIRO PUBLISHING online.
Home » Health Economics and Policy » Access or Barriers to Care » Building the Foundation for a Science-Community Partnership to Address the Early Roots of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in ...
Curry played by actor Michael David Simms might look familiar to horror fans as one of those actors who has appeared in several horror films over the years. He leads the team as they all search the fields for the stolen loot. The camera keeps panning onto a particular set of scarecrows who we believe to be residual from the former residents. They stay unmoved, while of them suspiciously is always seen slightly breathing. The mood here is one of the best Ive seen in horror for setting a strikingly appropriate atmosphere. This also provides the scarecrows a gloomy backdrop to lurk about and kill off its unlucky victims. The lighting in the film was always presented as a moonlit cast.. "Scarecrows" always keeps a sense of the supernatural per way of walking straw-filled bodies, zombies and ghostly voiceover radio broadcasts. The intent here is to play mind games with the crew in addition to actually coming to life. The climax of Scarecrows reveals one bad-ass scary smiling scarecrow corpse that ...
Just as your veins move important substances through your body, plant vascular tissue does the same for plants. Here well learn about the vascular...
In higher plants, root nitrate (N) absorption has to be considered as a function of the number of transporters and their activity per root surface. Until now, the first term in the equation has only been intensively investigated and many positive or negative effectors implicated in regulation of N transporter transcription and/or activity and have been recognized (Touraine et al., 2001; Forde, 2002; Beuve et al., 2004). Recent studies have brought some new insights into the modulation of the root surface equation for terms related to different macronutrients such as N, sulfate (S), and phosphate (P; Lopez-Bucio et al., 2003). The root surface depends on root architecture development and can be divided into two structural components; the exploratory root system component, which is composed of primary roots and lateral roots (LRs) of different orders, and the root hair system component, which is composed of root hair cells. These two components are built progressively over time and composed of the ...
Bare-root plants are available during the dormant season, usually beginning in January to March, depending on where you live. Once the weather warms up they begin growing, and must be planted quickly. To keep the roots from drying out, nurseries usually store bare-root trees and shrubs in beds of damp sawdust.. When selecting a bare root plant, look for the thickest stem or trunk. Since tops have sometimes been pruned, height is not a good indication of vigor. The roots should look plump and healthy. Many are necessarily cut or broken when they are dug, but the major roots should be intact. Since much of the plants energy is stored in the roots system in the form of starch, plants with larger root systems will get off to a faster start in the spring.. If the roots have just begun to grow, its OK, but plant the tree or shrub as soon as you get home. If the new roots have grown long enough that they begin to look like spaghetti, they will be difficult to handle, and many will break; new roots ...
cross section monocot root - 28 images - function external anatomy anatomy specialized, flashcards angiosperm and gymnosperms lab, plants day 3 monocot dicots ppt, herbaceous stems, plant tissues blaze hyatt
Start: 2019 - End: 2021. A proper and steady supply of vital nutrients to plant crops is one of the most important goals in local and global agricultural industries. This supply is usually performed through the plant roots, which has been proven as less than effective due to unwanted reactions with various soil components. The nutrients are therefore lost in great amounts with low delivery yields, and their loss continues as they are many times washed away by rainwater. An alternate strategy of delivering these nutrients through the plants foliage has been attempted as well, yet with only limited success. The reason for this is the plant leaves coating material, and its physical repellence from the applied nutrients. Side implications are also present in this strategy as the nutrients were seen to get caught in interactions with certain plant tissues which act as a sort of an anatomical obstacle. The outcome from this is low delivery yields that directly affect the availability and ...
Plant Cell Environ., 38: 375-384, 2015. Full text Arabidopsis thaliana root cell wall proteomics: increasing the proteome coverage using a combinatorial peptide ligand library and description of unexpected Hyp in peroxidase amino acid sequences. ...
Dear networkers, I am looking for an Arabidopsis root cDNA librairy. I am presently walking to locus involved in phosphate transport in the roots. Would anyone have such a librairy or would recommend one particular librairy which was made by somebody else? Thank you for your help. Yves Poirier ...
If your child is learning about plant parts in school, he might come home eager to explore your garden, or he might have a curiosity about plant roots that...
New Roots Herbal Certified Organic Prostate Perform - Prostate Perform is an effective prostate-support formulation. Prostate Perform relieves the symptom
Buy New Roots L-Methionine 500 Mg 50C now from Natures Source at the lowest prices. Free Canadian Shipping on orders $59.99+ with fast delivery.
Before creating their root-like robots, researchers needed first to understand how real roots behave underground - a far from simple task, as Barbara Mazzolai, a biologist at the Italian Institute of Technology and coordinator of the Plantoid Project explained: "Plants roots evolve in a very complex environment; deep in the ground.. Full story. ...
Remember those X-Rooted carrots looks like male and females lower body parts? Now here is another human-shaped plant root recently found in China. A man shows off a knotweed root in the shape of a […]
Find plant root oxygen articles on agriculture-xprt.com, the worlds largest agricultural industry marketplace and information resource.
I am currently a Leverhulme Early Career Fellow based at the Centre for Plant Integrative Biology at the University of Nottingham, with joint affiliation to the School of Biosciences and the School of Mathematical Sciences.. My research group develops multiscale models to understand plant growth and development.. Biological interests. Hormone transport The dynamic spatial distributions of plant hormones play essential roles in controlling plant growth and development. These distributions depend, often unintuitively, on the spatial arrangement of proteins (e.g. PIN, AUX1/LAX and ABCBs) on the cell membranes as well as the dynamics of biosynthesis and degradation network within individual cells. We are developing models to understand how these cellular and subcellular scale processes control dynamic hormone distributions at the organ scale. In the root tip, for example, auxin dynamics affects growth rates, growth direction and lateral root initiation, and therefore our auxin-transport models ...
Interactions between individuals that are guided by simple rules can generate swarming behavior. Swarming behavior has been observed in many groups of organisms, including humans, and recent research has revealed that plants also demonstrate social behavior based on mutual interaction with other individuals. However, this behavior has not previously been analyzed in the context of swarming. Here, we show that roots can be influenced by their neighbors to induce a tendency to align the directions of their growth. In the apparently noisy patterns formed by growing roots, episodic alignments are observed as the roots grow close to each other. These events are incompatible with the statistics of purely random growth. We present experimental results and a theoretical model that describes the growth of maize roots in terms of swarming.
Roots are the highway system of the plant world -- moisture and nutrients flow up and down the roots and stems to supply the rest of the plant with sustenance. Depending on the species, roots also act as storage facilities to preserve the plant through extreme conditions, from drought to nutrient deficiencies. Plants ...
These pumps disappeared in excised root segments. In excised root tips, there appeared to be weak K+ pumps at both sites in the ...
The outermost layer of cells (epidermis) on the plants roots contain root hair cells.These cells are surrounded by soilparticles.The root hair cells that make up the epidermis have large projections which increase the surface area of the root. ...
Population dynamics of ring, mint and stubby-root nematodes are basically similar and appear to be related to the dynamics of root growth. Densities of all three species increase in the spring after the peak in root growth, decline after the decline in root weight, increase again after the summer flush in root growth and decline after the drop in root biomass following harvest. There is also some indication that stubby-root nematodes increase again in late fall but they probably decline rapidly again during the winter. ...
Chesterfield MO (PRWEB) April 23, 2004 -- Unibased Systems Architecture, Inc., (USA) has reached an agreement with Provider Advantage (PA) to provide
Representation in the model the processes influencing the auxin distribution along the central root axis. a. Acropetal flow is considered in the model along the
The plant endodermis plays an important role in selecting what gets into the plant from the soil. Here you will learn what it is, where it is, and...
Narukawa Megumi , Kanbara Kaori , Tominaga Yuji , AITANI Yurika , FUKUDA Kazumasa , KODAMA Takaaki , MURAYAMA Noriko , NARA Yoshiki , ARAI Takashi , KONNO Masae , KAMISUKI Shinji , SUGAWARA Fumio , IWAI Masako , INOUE Yasunori Plant and cell physiology 50(3), 504-514, 2009-03-01 参考文献34件 被引用文献2件 ...
Once you have chosen the ideal plant for the garden, what better start can you give your cherished one than to put its first roots into the finest, sustainable, peat-free growing media available?
The ground tissue of plants contains three main cell types called parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma. These cells types primarily support storage, mechanical support, but can also serve for food production in the photosynthetic cells, or serve in wound healing and regeneration, depending on which class of cells they belong to.. ...
My main challenge that I have faced as I have become increasingly interested in exploring education is how to serve. I feel that there is so much I have to learn before I can actually address this issue; however, I feel that I have many strengths that may be useful. First, I consider myself to have an ability to listen, assess, and then focus on a specific root. If I could find an organization and professor that would be willing to help me find a root, I think that I would be an asset in conducting research. I also think that writing is a particular strenth of mine. In addition, I think that I am extremely empathetic but also have the ability to step back and think about the bigger picture ...
The hierarchic indexed sequential access method (HISAM) database organization adds some badly needed capabilities not provided by HSAM. Like HSAM, HISAM databases store segments within each record in physically adjacent sequential order. Unlike HSAM, each HISAM record is indexed, allowing direct access to each record. This eliminates the need to read sequentially through each record until the desired record is found. As a result, random data access is considerably faster than with HSAM. HISAM databases also provide a method for sequential access when that is needed.. A HISAM database is stored in a combination of two data sets. The database index and all segments in a database record that fit into one logical record are stored in a primary data set that is a VSAM KSDS. Remaining segments are stored in the overflow data set, which is a VSAM ESDS. The index points to the CI containing the root segment, and the logical record in the KSDS points to the logical record in the ESDS, if ...
小口 理一 , 菱 拓雄 , 谷 友和 , 齋藤 隆実 , 鍋嶋 絵里 日本生態学会誌 59(1), 71-82, 2009 CiNii 外部リンク 日本農学文献記事索引 J-STAGE 参考文献94件 ...
This paper describes the principles and theoretical investigations, supported by experimental measurements, aimed at designing and developing a novel mecha
I remember the day the landscaper came to our home to finalize details for the new garden. It was Spring and the earth was soft. It was time to begin planting. There was only one problem. I wondered if I had changed my mind. We had saved and planned for...
General model for osmotic and pressure-induced flow in plant roots: This paper presents a general model to describe coupled solute and water flow through plant
Before daylight decreases and temperatures drop, August is the time to take cuttings or "slips" from summer plants you want to reproduce. Later timing reduces your chance for success. What is a cutting or slip? It means that you take a stem of new, healthy growth to stimulate root production resulting in a true clone of a parent plant. Why would you want to reproduce a plant when so many new and different ones are available in the spring at nurseries? 1. It may not be available next year.. ...
Brauer, D., 2001: Rapid inhibition of root growth in wheat associated with aluminum uptake as followed by changes in morin fluorescence
Got an email from Jamie and Nev, from Shoreham Village, Kent, in the United Kingdom. They were inspired by my site and entered a scarecrow competition - and took first place ...
Abstract:Upon initiating our investigation, the hypothesis was that the legume (peapod) seedlings would progress at a better rate using a nitrogen-based nutrient solution and a plant growth inoculum. In our experiment, we planted four separate sets of...
Im curious.. What do you folks use to treat the root cuts on say a large main root that needed to be removed such as what might be encountered collecting Yamad
Fourth gradeWhat is the primary purpose of plants roots?A. To help the plant reproduceB. To connect the stems and the leavesC. To carry nutrients to the leavesD. To anchor the plant and absorb
Also known as Brazilian ginseng, suma root can make you more resistant to stress. Find out how it works.. Learn more at eVitamins.com.
Binary option pips #### FOREX KNOWLEDGE What happens to stock options when a private company is acquired #### System architecture tradeoff analysis method
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptochrome photoreceptors cry1 and cry2 antagonistically regulate primary root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Canamero, Roberto C.. AU - Bakrim, Nadia. AU - Bouly, Jean Pierre. AU - Garay, Alvaro. AU - Dudkin, Elizabeth Anne. AU - Habricot, Yvette. AU - Ahmad, Margaret. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors controlling multiple aspects of plant growth and development. They are flavoproteins with significant homology to photolyases, but instead of repairing DNA they function by transducing blue light energy into a signal that can be recognized by the cellular signaling machinery. Here we report the effect of cry1 and cry2 blue light receptors on primary root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, through analysis of both cryptochrome-mutant and cryptochrome-overexpressing lines. Cry1 mutant seedlings show reduced root elongation in blue light while overexpressing seedlings show significantly increased elongation as compared to ...
Lateral roots originate deep within the parental root from a small number of founder cells at the periphery of vascular tissues and must emerge through intervening layers of tissues. We describe how the hormone auxin, which originates from the developing lateral root, acts as a local inductive signal which re-programmes adjacent cells. Auxin induces the expression of a previously uncharacterized auxin influx carrier LAX3 in cortical and epidermal cells directly overlaying new primordia. Increased LAX3 activity reinforces the auxin-dependent induction of a selection of cell-wall-remodelling enzymes, which are likely to promote cell separation in advance of developing lateral root primordia.. Nature Cell Biology 10 (8), 946-954 ...
Im doing a project for school. 2 questions - what is hydroponics? Also, what are the benefits of hydroponics? Hydroponics, from the Greek words (water-working). Hydroponics is a system of gardening without soil. In hydroponics, you provide all the nutrients to your plants through a water/nutrient solution. There are lots of ways to apply hydroponics but, basically, all of them supply nutrient solution directly to the plants root system. In most cases you mix nutrients into water and feed this solution directly to your plants. Soil doesnt make plants grow. Its just something for the plants to hold on to while they search with their roots for the food and water thats mixed into the soil. Since the food and water are randomly scattered about, plants have to use up energy growing ever-larger root systems to reach out in a constant search for these elements. In a hydroponic garden, a soil-less, inert growing medium is used and food and water are delivered directly to your plants roots. Your ...
Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient for growth and development of plant, is often limiting in soils. Plants have evolved an array of adaptive strategies including modulation of root system architecture (RSA) for optimal acquisition of Pi. In rice, a major staple food, RSA is complex and comprises embryonically developed primary and seminal roots and post-embryonically developed adventitious and lateral roots. Earlier studies have used variant hydroponic systems for documenting the effects of Pi deficiency largely on primary root growth. Here, we report the temporal effects of Pi deficiency in rice genotype MI48 on 15 ontogenetically distinct root traits by using easy-to-assemble and economically viable modified hydroponic system. Effects of Pi deprivation became evident after 4 d- and 7 d-treatments on 2 and 8 different root traits, respectively. The effects of Pi deprivation for 7 d were also evident on 14 different root traits of rice genotype Nagina 22 (N22). There were genotypic differences
Root system architecture is important for water acquisition and nutrient acquisition for all crops. In soybean breeding programs, wild soybean alleles have been used successfully to enhance yield and seed composition traits, but have never been investigated to improve root system architecture. Therefore, in this study, high-density single-feature polymorphic markers and simple sequence repeats were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing root system architecture in an inter-specific soybean mapping population developed from a cross between Glycine max and Glycine soja. Wild and cultivated soybean both contributed alleles towards significant additive large effect QTLs on chromosome 6 and 7 for a longer total root length and root distribution, respectively. Epistatic effect QTLs were also identified for taproot length, average diameter, and root distribution. These root traits will influence the water and nutrient uptake in soybean. Two cell division-related genes (D type
Certain crosses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) result in temperature-dependent hybrid weakness associated with a severe root phenotype. This is controlled by the interaction of the root- and shoot-expressed semidominant alleles dosage-dependent lethal 1 (DL1) and DL2, which communicate via long-distance signaling. Previously, apparent reciprocal effects on root growth and the restoration of normal root growth by exogenous sucrose led to the hypothesis that the dosage-dependent lethal (DL) system may control root-shoot carbon partitioning. Here, recombinant inbred lines were used to map the DL loci and physiological and biochemical analysis, including metabolite profiling, was used to gain new insights into the signaling interaction and the root phenotype. It is shown that the DL system does not control root-shoot carbon partitioning and that roots are unlikely to die from carbon starvation. Instead, root death likely occurs by defense-related programmed cell death, as indicated by salicylic ...
Root release of phytosiderophores (PSs) is an important step in iron (Fe) acquisition of grasses, and this adaptive reaction of plants is affected by various plant and environmental factors. The objectives of this study were to study the effects of varied nitrogen (N) supply on (1) root and leaf concentrations of methionine, a precursor in the PS biosynthesis, (2) PS release from roots, (3) mobilization and uptake of Fe from (59) Fe-labeled Fe(III)-hydroxide [(59) Fe(OH)(3) ] and (4) root uptake of (59) Fe-labeled Fe(III)-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) by durum wheat (Triticum durum, cv. Balcali2000) plants grown in a nutrient solution. Enhanced N supply from 0.5 to 6 mM in a nutrient solution significantly increased the root release of PS under Fe deficiency. High N supply was also highly effective in increasing mobilization and root uptake of Fe from (59) Fe-hydroxide under low Fe supply. With adequate Fe, N nutrition did not affect mobilization and uptake of Fe from (59) Fe(OH)(3) . Root uptake and shoot
Auxin is involved in many aspects of root development and physiology, including the formation of lateral roots. Improving our understanding of how the auxin response is mediated at the protein level over time can aid in developing a more complete molecular framework of the process. This study evaluates the effects of exogenous auxin treatment on the Arabidopsis root proteome after exposure of young seedlings to auxin for 8, 12, and 24 h, a timeframe permitting the initiation and full maturation of individual lateral roots. Root protein extracts were processed to peptides, fractionated using off-line strong-cation exchange, and analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and data independent acquisition-based mass spectrometry. Protein abundances were then tabulated using label-free techniques and evaluated for significant changes. Approximately 2000 proteins were identified during the time course experiment, with the number of differences between the treated and control roots increasing over
Experiments were conducted to compare differences in P uptake characteristics between two winter wheat cultivars Stephens and Yamhill (Triticum aestivum L) as related to root morphologies. Root length, root surface area and mean root radius were compared. Plant roots and shoots were separately analyzed for P content. The cultivars were grown in a growth chamber with a 16 hour light period at 22° C and an 8 hour darkness at 16° C for approximately three weeks. A growth medium deficient only in P and with a pH high enough (6.4 to 6.6) to prevent Al toxicity was prepared by mixing a silt loam and a sand. Soil P variables were established by adding phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄) to the soil at rates of 0, 25 and 100 ug P g⁻¹ soil. The root growth rates of the cultivars were exponential with time. Stephens had more rapid root growth rate, greater root length and root surface area than Yamhill. There were no significant cultivar differences in root radius. Stephens had higher root to shoot ratio ...
PINOID, a serine threonine protein kinase in Arabidopsis, controls auxin distribution through a positive control of subcellular localization of PIN auxin efflux carriers. Compared with the rapid progress in understanding mechanisms of auxin action in dicot species, little is known about auxin action in monocot species. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of OsPID, the PINOID ortholog of rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rice genome contains a single PID ortholog, OsPID. Constitutive overexpression of OsPID caused a variety of abnormalities, such as delay of adventitious root development, curled growth of shoots and agravitropism. Abnormalities observed in the plants that overexpress OsPID could be phenocopied by treatment with an inhibitor of active polar transport of auxin, indicating that OsPID could be involved in the control of polar auxin transport in rice. Analysis of OsPID mRNA distribution showed a complex pattern in shoot meristems, indicating that it ...
General Hydroponics General Hydroponics FloraNectar 6 Gallon General Hydroponics FloraNectar FloraNectar contains all natural raw-cane sugar, molasses, malt syrup, select plant based esters, L-amino acids, polyflavonoids, vitamins and essential minerals. This unique blend of ingredients helps your plants regulate enzymes that trigger specific reactions involved in maintaining optimal metabolism. This allows your plants to achieve a balance between respiration and photosynthesis in high intensity growing environments where the rate of respiration can sometimes exceed the rate of photosynthesis. General Hydroponics: General Hydroponics FloraNectar 6 Gallon [732179] - Nutrients & Supplements - Gardening & Hydroponics Store -
General Hydroponics General Hydroponics FloraNectar Gallon General Hydroponics FloraNectar FloraNectar contains all natural raw-cane sugar, molasses, malt syrup, select plant based esters, L-amino acids, polyflavonoids, vitamins and essential minerals. This unique blend of ingredients helps your plants regulate enzymes that trigger specific reactions involved in maintaining optimal metabolism. This allows your plants to achieve a balance between respiration and photosynthesis in high intensity growing environments where the rate of respiration can sometimes exceed the rate of photosynthesis. General Hydroponics: General Hydroponics FloraNectar Gallon [732177] - Nutrients & Supplements - Garten & Hydroponics Shop -
Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot
Buy Structure and Functioning of Cluster Roots and Plant Responses to Phosphate Deficiency (9781402004346): NHBS - Edited By: Hans Lambers and Pieter Poot, Kluwer Academic Publishers
where root development could be visually monitored. The effect of layer geometry, irrigation and textural heterogeneity on root development was investigated as well as the relationship between root length and diesel degradation. Adding a thin layer of clean soil on top of a contaminated layer allowed germination but all treatments showed severe stress symptoms, such as reduced shoot and root growth, in the presence of diesel and in response to water stress. The presence of a diesel contaminated layer at five cm depth allowed root development in the uncontaminated surface soil without roots penetrating the contamination. With a thinner layer of clean soil roots did penetrate the contaminated layer but showed reduced root development. Natural attenuation was responsible for most of the degradation with a variation between 78 % and 84 % for all treatments. Root length was positively correlated (r2 = 0.52) to diesel degradation but improved degradation was also dependent on spatial distribution of ...
Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number
Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux rates into and from excised barley roots are compared with the maximum capacity of accumulation. Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux involve a cation exchange that is independent of simultaneous exchange of the accompanying anion. These exchange fluxes depend on the concentration and cation composition of the solutions from which they originate. Selective differences between K+ and Na+ fluxes are sufficient to account for a cationic distribution within the roots that differs markedly from that of the external solution and that persists for extended time periods. The accumulation maximum is a cation exchange equilibrium with the cation influx and efflux rates approaching equality. The equilibrium level is independent of the individual cation fluxes and the external solution concentration. It is a finite quantity which appears to be determined by the internal anion concentration including accumulated as well as endogenous anions.. ...
A number of decades ago, two pioneering works postulated that decreased root growth is a consequence of the inhibition of cell division (Clarkson 1965) and cell elongation (Klimashevski and Dedov 1975). The root apex has been recognized as a primary site of Al-induced injury in plants (Ryan et al. 1993). To survive in the elevated Al of acidic soils, proper root growth is essential. Therefore, we have investigated a mechanism associated with Al tolerance by comparing it with Al sensitivity in soybeans. Short-term experiments using hydroponic culture have been conducted because this approach is rapid and highly reproducible (Campbell and Carter 1990) and, hence, has been used widely to screen soybean cultivars for Al resistance (Horst et al. 1992, 1997; Sartain and Kamprath 1978). In the present study, root growth rate was used as an index for Al-tolerance variation. The results show that the Sowon cultivar was the most Al tolerant and the Poongsan cultivar was the most Al sensitive among the 17 ...
This study aimed to elucidate seasonal dynamics of ryegrass root systems in field swards. Established field swards of perennial ryegrass with white clover removed by herbicide and fertilised with nitrogen (N) to replace clover N fixation were subjected to lax and hard grazing management and root biomass deposition monitored using a root ingrowth core technique over a 13 month period. A previously published phytomer-based model of plant morphology that assumes continuous turnover of the root system was used to estimate mean individual root weight (mg) not previously available for field swards. The predicted root weights compared credibly with root data from hydroponic culture and the model output explained much of the seasonal variation in the field data. In particular, root deposition showed a seasonality consistent with influence of an architectural signal (AS) determined by plant morphology. This AS arises because it is theoretically expected that with rising temperatures and decreasing phyllochron in
The patterned assignment of different cell fates, shortly termed patterning, lies at the basis of growth, development and reproduction of multicellular organisms. The single-layered epidermal tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by hair-like cellular protuberances, the root hairs and the leaf trichomes, respectively, emerging from a subset of cells. Specification of hair and non-hair cell fate occurs in a tightly controlled fashion by gene regulatory networks of overlapping components that, however, often have opposite functions in root and shoot. Moreover, the root epidermis displays organization in hair- and non-hair cell files while leaf trichomes are distributed in a regular spacing pattern over the leaf. In contrast to the shoot, assignment of a cell files fate in the root epidermis depends on the cells position with respect to the underlying root cortical cell layer, which defines cells atop the border of two cortical cells as hair- and cells atop a single cortical cell as ...
article{445484, abstract = {The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation ...
article{592986, abstract = {Plant development is governed by signaling molecules called phytohormones. Typically, in certain developmental processes more than 1 hormone is implicated and, thus, coordination of their overlapping activities is crucial for correct plant development. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the hormonal crosstalk are only poorly understood. Multiple hormones including cytokinin and auxin have been implicated in the regulation of root development. Here we dissect the roles of cytokinin in modulating growth of the primary root. We show that cytokinin effect on root elongation occurs through ethylene signaling whereas cytokinin effect on the root meristem size involves ethylene-independent modulation of transport-dependent asymmetric auxin distribution. Exogenous or endogenous modification of cytokinin levels and cytokinin signaling lead to specific changes in transcription of several auxin efflux carrier genes from the PIN family having a direct impact on auxin efflux ...
Read "Sporamin-mediated resistance to beet cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) is dependent on trypsin inhibitory activity in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots, Plant Molecular Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) association between terrestrial plants and soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota is the most widespread beneficial plant-microbe interaction on earth. In the course of the symbiosis, fungal hyphae colonise plant roots and supply limiting nutrients, in particular phosphorus, in exchange for carbon compounds. Owing to the obligate biotrophy of mycorrhizal fungi and the lack of genetic systems to study them, targeted molecular studies on AM symbioses proved to be difficult. With the emergence of plant genomics and the selection of suitable models, an application of untargeted expression pro. ling experiments became possible. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, high-throughput expressed sequence tag (EST)-sequencing in conjunction with in silico and experimental transcriptome pro. ling provided transcriptional snapshots that together defined the global genetic program activated during AM. Owing to an asynchronous development of the symbiosis, several hundred ...
Quantifying sap fluxes and ABA concentrations of xylem saps collected from different parts of the root system may assist in modelling leaf xylem ABA concentration ([X-ABA](leaf)) of plants grown with heterogeneous soil moisture distribution. To investigate the contribution of different parts of the root system to total sap flow and [X-ABA](leaf), individual shoots were grafted onto the root systems of two plants grown in two separate compartments and sap flow sensors placed on each hypocotyl below the graft union. Two different irrigation regimes were imposed: conventional deficit irrigation (DI) where both pots received the same volumes of water, and partial rootzone drying (PRD) where only one pot (designated "wet") was watered and other (designated "dry") dried the substrate. In plants grown in 3 L pots that were vertically divided into two watertight compartments, soil water content (theta) and sap flow were continuously monitored. In plants grown in 2 appressed 0.43 L pots, xylem sap was ...
Evaluation of the Anti-obesity Activity of Platycodon grandiflorum Root and Curcuma longa Root Fermented with Aspergillus oryzae Platycodon grandiflorum;Curcuma longa;fermentation;lipid accumulation;anti-obesity; In the present study, the phenolic compound level, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of lipid accumulation in Aspergillus oryzae-fermented water extracts of the Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) root and the Curcuma longa (CL) root were determined. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were decreased after fermentation. However, the flavonoid content of the fermented PG (FPG) was increased by 2.9-fold that of the PG before fermentation. In addition, the antioxidant activities were significantly decreased following fermentation. The potential anti-obesity activity was assessed by determining lipid accumulation and mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) in 3T3-L1 cells. Aspergillus
Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. belonging to the Apiaceae family, is well known for its medicinal and nutritional importance, endemic to Iran. Seed dormancy is a major problem present in Kelussia odoratissima leading to low germination percentage; thus, improvement of seed germination and breaking seed dormancy is important. Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus, promotes plant growth, development and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to evaluate the effects of different treatments of P. indica on seed germination traits of Kelussia odoratissima, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The experimental treatments were application of fungal mycelium of P. indica (M), spore suspension of P. indica (S), the combination of Gibberellic acid and fungal mycelium (H+M), the combination of Gibberellic acid and spore suspension (H+S), and control (C). Based on the results the highest percentage of
Looking for Eurycoma Longifolia Jack - Longjack Power Eurycoma Longifolia 2275mg - Libido Enhancer For Men (1 Bottle - 60 Tablets)? Buy it at Rs.2,395 from Rediff Shopping today! FREE Shipping for Eurycoma Longifolia Jack - Longjack Power Eurycoma Longifolia 2275mg - Libido Enhancer For Men (1 Bottle - 60 Tablets) & other Health & Fitness.

One Rooted Yarrow Plant (Achillea millefolium) - Project Tree CollardOne Rooted Yarrow Plant (Achillea millefolium) - Project Tree Collard

One Rooted Yarrow Plant (Achillea millefolium). $8.99. One rooted and vigorous yarrow (Achillea millefolium) plant in a 2 inch ... This listing is for one medicinal yarrow plant in a 2 inch pulp pot. The plants are fully rooted and shipped from our certified ... Medicine is more potent when plants are given less water. We will not make claims on its medicinal uses, but they are easily ... so yarrow is a wonderful way to control worms in every apple when planted around apple trees. ...
more infohttps://www.projecttreecollard.org/product/1-rooted-yarrow-plant-achillea-millefolium/

Plant Roots Leggings | Society6Plant Roots Leggings | Society6

Shop plant roots leggings that bring out your unique personality. Designed by thousands of artists from around the world, our ...
more infohttps://society6.com/leggings/plant-roots

Twisting Growth in Plant Roots | SpringerLinkTwisting Growth in Plant Roots | SpringerLink

One of the fundamental problems in plant morphogenesis is the molecular and cellular basis of left-right asymmetry that often ... Wada H., Matsumoto D. (2018) Twisting Growth in Plant Roots. In: Geitmann A., Gril J. (eds) Plant Biomechanics. Springer, Cham ... Geitmann A, Ortega JKE (2009) Mechanics and modeling of plant cell growth. Trends Plant Sci 14:467-478CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Dumais J (2012) Can mechanics control pattern formation in plants? Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:58-62CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-79099-2_6

Swarming Behavior in Plant RootsSwarming Behavior in Plant Roots

In the apparently noisy patterns formed by growing roots, episodic alignments are observed as the roots grow close to each ... Here, we show that roots can be influenced by their neighbors to induce a tendency to align the directions of their growth. ... We present experimental results and a theoretical model that describes the growth of maize roots in terms of swarming. ... and recent research has revealed that plants also demonstrate social behavior based on mutual interaction with other ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0029759

A robot that grows like plant roots | Digital Single MarketA robot that grows like plant roots | Digital Single Market

Scientists in Italy are working on creating robots that mimic the properties of plant roots, including the capacity for growth ... Before creating their root-like robots, researchers needed first to understand how real roots behave underground - a far from ... "Plants roots evolve in a very complex environment; deep in the ground. ...
more infohttps://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/news/robot-grows-plant-roots

Phys.org - plant rootsPhys.org - plant roots

When plant roots learned to follow gravity. Highly developed seed plants evolved deep root systems that are able to sense ... New findings in plant root and fungal interaction help to resolve the complexity of soil carbon cycling. Two new scientific ... Optimizing fertilizer source and rate to avoid root death. Fertilizer is used worldwide in farming. Its used to give plants a ... Plant gene discovery could help reduce fertilizer pollution in waterways. Over-fertilization of agricultural fields is a huge ...
more infohttps://phys.org/tags/plant+roots/

Plant Roots | Plant PhysiologyPlant Roots | Plant Physiology

Strigolactones play a role in root development, root response to nutrient deficiency, and plant interactions in the rhizosphere ... Radial Transport of Nutrients: The Plant Root as a Polarized Epithelium Marie Barberon, Niko Geldner ... Root morphological traits that are relevant for nutrient acquisition are regulated by nutrients and the plants nutritional ... Different routes underlie radial transport of nutrients in plant roots and are influenced by the endodermis permeability and ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/plant_roots

Plant roots in the dark see light | EurekAlert! Science NewsPlant roots in the dark see light | EurekAlert! Science News

Roots can thus effectively adapt plant growth to the light conditions in the environment. ... that roots react directly to light which is transmitted from the shoot to the underground parts of Arabidopsis thaliana plants ... Hence, these plants had "blind" roots. The scientists grew these modified plants along with control plants; their roots were in ... Plant roots in the dark see light Light transmitted from the shoot to the roots activates photoreceptors in the roots and ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-11/mpif-pri110316.php

Plant Root Hair | ClipArt ETCPlant Root Hair | ClipArt ETC

plant anatomy, plant cells, plant epidermal outgrowth, plant root hair, protoplast, root hair apex, vacuole ... "A single root hair on a large scale, showing that it is an outgrowth of an epidermal cell, and the fact that it possesses a ...
more infohttp://etc.usf.edu/clipart/46500/46524/46524_root_hair.htm

Hormone signalling in plant root growthHormone signalling in plant root growth

... Author(s). Mourik, S. van; Esse, W. van; Stigter, J.D.; Hove, C.A. ten; Molenaar, J.; ...
more infohttp://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/427576

Plant RootsPlant Roots

new Plant Roots guidance: s transduction. A fiscal road of the pages of professional part, giving the uppers of general methods ... general capable Plant Roots to Sign stressed by the US Institute of Management Accountants( IMA). 21 in the personal credit, ... The Plant Roots subspecies content is drawn. Please perform that you provide much a anti-virus. Your office refers ... valid You must have in to complete crosstown Plant Roots characters. For more report be the excellent June,2016 sense address. ...
more infohttp://sprintseries.org/libraries/openid/Auth/library.php?q=Plant-Roots---From-Cells-to-Systems%3A-Proceedings-of-the-14th-Long-Ashton-International-Symposium-Plant-Roots-%E2%80%94-From-Cells-to-Systems%2C-held-in-Bristol%2C-U.K.%2C-13%E2%80%9315-September-1995-1997.html

Irish firm plants roots in Indian potato firm - Independent.ieIrish firm plants roots in Indian potato firm - Independent.ie

Irish firm plants roots in Indian potato firm. Consumption of potatoes has increased rapidly in the country over the last 20 ... www.independent.ie/business/irish/irish-firm-plants-roots-in-indian-potato-firm-37984119.html ...
more infohttps://www.independent.ie/business/irish/irish-firm-plants-roots-in-indian-potato-firm-37984119.html

Bacteria send messages to colonize plant roots | ScienceBacteria send messages to colonize plant roots | Science

1Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132, USA.. *. 2Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri- ... Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132, USA. Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, ... Bacteria-derived RNA fragments target host plant genes to promote root colonization ... Bacteria-derived RNA fragments target host plant genes to promote root colonization ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/365/6456/868.summary

Activities to Do With Kids Using Plant Roots | LIVESTRONG.COMActivities to Do With Kids Using Plant Roots | LIVESTRONG.COM

... or he might have a curiosity about plant roots that... ... If your child is learning about plant parts in school, he might ... Plant Root Learning Activities. Create games that help him remember the importance of plant roots and also what plant roots are ... Reading About Plant Roots. Reading with your child about the roots of plants can help your child better understand how they ... For kids ages 6 and older, "Plant Stems & Roots," by David M. Schwartz, teaches kids about plant roots that we can eat, such as ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/562573-activities-to-do-with-kids-using-plant-roots/

CONCEPT Plant RootsCONCEPT Plant Roots

Plant Roots Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0242726 MSH: The usually underground portions of a plant that ... can reproduce plant vegetatively, and is usually the largest part of the plants body.,NCI: The underground (typically) part of ... From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990),CSP: organ of higher plants growing underground ... a seed plant body that usually originates from the hypocotyl, functions as an organ of absorption, aeration, and food storage ...
more infohttp://linkedlifedata.com/resource?uri=http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0242726

A Novel Plant Root Foraging Algorithm for Image Segmentation ProblemsA Novel Plant Root Foraging Algorithm for Image Segmentation Problems

"Root production and root mortality of winter barley and its implication with regard to phosphate acquisition," Plant and Soil, ... A Novel Plant Root Foraging Algorithm for Image Segmentation Problems. Lianbo Ma,1,2 Kunyuan Hu,1 Yunlong Zhu,1 Hanning Chen,1 ... Clair, and J. F. Cahill Jr., "Focusing the metaphor: plant root foraging behaviour," Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 24, ... Z. Wang, M. van Kleunen, H. J. During, and M. J. A. Werger, "Root foraging increases performance of the clonal plant potentilla ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/471209/ref/

Marshmallows Were Originally Made From Marshmallow Plant RootsMarshmallows Were Originally Made From Marshmallow Plant Roots

Marshmallow plants usually grow in swamps and marshlands in the wild. ... There really is a marshmallow plant and marshmallow candy used to be made from its roots. ... There really is a marshmallow plant and marshmallow candy used to be made from its roots. Marshmallow plants usually grow in ... About the Marshmallow Plant. The Marshmallow Plant (Althaea officinalis). The marshmallow plant (Althaea officinalis) is not ...
more infohttps://wizzley.com/did-you-know-there-s-a-marshmallow-plant/

Plant roots | Barr Report Forum - Aquarium PlantsPlant roots | Barr Report Forum - Aquarium Plants

Ludwigia Repens and Rotala Indica and Cambomba Carolina roots seem to be appearing all throughout... ... In several of my stem plants Hygrophila Polysperma, ... Plant roots * preventing plants from growing roots in water ... plants growing roots out of top naz, Dec 31, 2008, in forum: General Plant Topics ... plants throwing out tons of roots ccLansman, Feb 27, 2008, in forum: General Plant Topics ...
more infohttps://barrreport.com/threads/plant-roots.3784/

How plant roots know when to branch out | Uncommon DescentHow plant roots know when to branch out | Uncommon Descent

We keep discovering more information systems in plants and the amount of time for them to develop has been growing shorter. As ... Darwinism Intelligent Design Plants How plant roots know when to branch out. Posted on December 27, 2018. December 27, 2018. ... Their teams observed plant roots lacking ARF7 were no longer able to hydropattern. The researchers concluded that when roots ... also:Can plants be as smart as animals? Seeking to thrive and grow, plants communicate extensively, without a mind or a brain ...
more infohttps://uncommondescent.com/intelligent-design/how-plant-roots-know-when-to-branch-out/

Plant root hair discovery could restyle crop production - The University of NottinghamPlant root hair discovery could restyle crop production - The University of Nottingham

To increase their surface area to take up more P from the soil, plants elongate root hairs. New research from the University of ... a discovery that will help create new varieties of crops that can meet the challenges of the changing climate.Plants need to ... Scientists have discovered a way plants improve foraging for nutrients in the soil - ... This led the team to conclude that the root hair growth response to low soil P and auxin was highly conserved across the plant ...
more infohttps://www.nottingham.ac.uk/news/pressreleases/2018/april/plant-root-hair-discovery-could-restyle-crop-production.aspx

Science Botany Micrograph Plant Root Tissue Stock Photo 98143499 - ShutterstockScience Botany Micrograph Plant Root Tissue Stock Photo 98143499 - Shutterstock

science botany micrograph plant root tissue background, 100 times magnified - buy this stock photo on Shutterstock & find other ... plant root science scientific section sweet technology texture tissue tree vascular wall water wood xylem ...
more infohttps://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/science-botany-micrograph-plant-root-tissue-98143499

Intel branches out into tablets, plants roots in mobile computingIntel branches out into tablets, plants roots in mobile computing

Rather than letting their leaves blow aimlessly in the breeze, Intel is digging in and planting roots deep in the mobile ...
more infohttps://www.gottabemobile.com/intel-branches-out-into-tablets-plants-roots-in-mobile-computing/

Twisting Growth in Plant Roots | Springer for Research & DevelopmentTwisting Growth in Plant Roots | Springer for Research & Development

One of the fundamental problems in plant morphogenesis is the molecular and cellular basis of left-right asymmetry that often ... Wada H., Matsumoto D. (2018) Twisting Growth in Plant Roots. In: Geitmann A., Gril J. (eds) Plant Biomechanics. Springer, Cham ... Geitmann A, Ortega JKE (2009) Mechanics and modeling of plant cell growth. Trends Plant Sci 14:467-478CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... Dumais J (2012) Can mechanics control pattern formation in plants? Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:58-62CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-79099-2_6

Ecology, growth, nature, plant roots, roots, seedling, underground icon | Icon search engineEcology, growth, nature, plant roots, roots, seedling, underground icon | Icon search engine

... roots, seedling, underground icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by Vectors Market found in the icon set Nature Circular ... Ecology, growth, nature, plant roots, roots, seedling, underground icon. * Basic license · Categories: Agriculture, farming, & ...
more infohttps://www.iconfinder.com/icons/780116/ecology_growth_nature_plant_roots_roots_seedling_underground_icon

Researchers identify new factors that guide organization of plant rootsResearchers identify new factors that guide organization of plant roots

New cells must take on the appropriate identities and positions to form distinct layers of tissue that give the root its ... ... As the root of a growing plant pushes its way through soil, its cells have a lot of organizing to do. ... A plants roots grow and spread into the soil, taking up necessary water and minerals. The tip of a plants root is a place of ... Biologists demonstrate how signals in plant roots determine the activity of stem cells. May 29, 2015 The roots of a plant are ...
more infohttps://phys.org/news/2015-10-factors-roots.html
  • They also attract a beneficial wasp that attacks coddeling moth, so yarrow is a wonderful way to control worms in every apple when planted around apple trees. (projecttreecollard.org)
  • For kids ages 6 and older, "Plant Stems & Roots," by David M. Schwartz, teaches kids about plant roots that we can eat, such as carrots, radishes and yams. (livestrong.com)
  • There were hints that the BIRDs might help corral SHORT-ROOT, which is produced in the vascular tissue, into the right layer of a developing root to exert its effects, but Benfey and his colleagues wanted to understand their roles more completely. (phys.org)
  • Professor Maria Harrison has received part of a $1.2 million grant from the Department of Energy to support the development of biosensors to track and measure the movement of phosphate from soil fungi into plant cells in real time. (eurekalert.org)
  • NCI: The underground (typically) part of a seed plant body that usually originates from the hypocotyl, functions as an organ of absorption, aeration, and food storage as well as a means of anchor and support. (linkedlifedata.com)
  • Boudaoud A (2010) An introduction to the mechanics of morphogenesis for plant biologists. (springer.com)
  • Physicists from Korea and biologists from Jena teamed and combined knowledge from both disciplines in order to find out, whether plant vascular bundles could act as light optical fibers and transmit light from the shoot to the roots," Sang-Gyu Kim, one of the first authors of the study and co-initiator of the project, describes the successful cooperation. (eurekalert.org)
  • In an interdisciplinary effort, molecular biologists and optical physicists developed a highly sensitive optical detector along with the idea to compare plants with "blind" and "sighted" roots. (eurekalert.org)
  • Unlike cells in a developing animal, plant cells don't move in relation to one another-and that has given developmental biologists something of a headstart in determining exactly how a root forms. (phys.org)
  • Photoreceptors in the roots are activated by light which is transmitted from the shoot to the underground roots through the stem. (eurekalert.org)
  • The optical detector system was used to measure light which was transmitted in the stem down to the roots. (eurekalert.org)
  • In several of my stem plants Hygrophila Polysperma, Ludwigia Repens and Rotala Indica and Cambomba Carolina roots seem to be appearing all throughout the stem. (barrreport.com)
  • Both layers, which together are known as ground tissue, are formed from stem cells clustered in the very tip of the root. (phys.org)
  • Benfey and his colleagues have learned that two factors they call SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW work together to initiate this process, directing a stem cell to divide into two non-identical cells. (phys.org)
  • Studied for more than 130 years ( 1 ), the intimate and unusual relationship established between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria ( Rhizobia ) allows plants to use atmospheric nitrogen in exchange for their photosynthetic-derived carbohydrates. (sciencemag.org)
  • New cells must take on the appropriate identities and positions to form distinct layers of tissue that give the root its structure, protect it from the environment, and ensure that it can properly transport materials to and from the rest of the plant. (phys.org)
  • The factors, known as the BIRDs, help a root maintain its organization as it grows, guiding several distinct steps in the development of two interior layers of tissue. (phys.org)
  • That means that plants must continue to specify the identity of new cells and maintain tissue patterns after embryonic development is complete. (phys.org)
  • His research has focused on how cells in a growing plant become the specialized cell types that comprise a root's four concentric cylinders of tissue. (phys.org)
  • In plants without BLUEJAY, JACKDAW, and SCARECROW, ground tissue developed normally in the embryo, but stopped developing as the plant matured. (phys.org)
  • We don't know of any other instance in plants where a combination of mutant factors causes a tissue to disappear entirely," Benfey says. (phys.org)
  • This tissue is a functioning, key part to the plant, and yet it's completely gone. (phys.org)
  • The study reveals that xanthones are produced and stored in the exodermis and the endodermis, the outermost and the innermost cell layers, respectively, of the cortex tissue in roots. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The endodermis generates a waterproofing structure called the Casparian strip, whereas the cortex provides structural support for the root (and likely carries out specialized functions of its own). (phys.org)
  • In plants, a lot of what we consider developmental biology happens post-embryonically," Benfey says. (phys.org)
  • Adventitious roots have varied origins and functions, as illustrated by three case studies that highlight their physiology under flooding, nutrient deficiency, and wounding stress. (plantphysiol.org)
  • If you choose an edible plant, choose something that grows in a pot well, such as cucumbers, peas, tomatoes and strawberries. (livestrong.com)
  • We plan to translate this fundamental knowledge to re-engineer root traits and optimise yields in crops relevant to Europe (wheat), Asia (rice) and Africa (pearl millet) in collaboration with teams based in these countries and continents. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • With this approach, we could show clearly and without ambiguity that light is transmitted into the roots via vascular bundles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Until now, it has remained largely unknown what their responsibilities in the roots are and how they interact with light signals which are transmitted from the shoots. (eurekalert.org)
  • Few studies have asked at what spatial scale environmental stimuli regulate plant development and when during the patterning process these signals act. (pnas.org)
  • Plants need to take up sufficient levels of the essential nutrient phosphate (P) from the soil to grow. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • I am very excited about the project because the sensors will allow us to measure phosphate in colonized root cells and potentially within the subcellular compartments of roots cells," said Harrison, who is the William H. Crocker Professor at BTI. (eurekalert.org)
  • however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. (pnas.org)
  • This is hugely exciting as it opens up the possibility for us to adapt this protein interaction and potentially develop plants that could continue to branch roots even in challenging conditions such as water scarcity. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Eventually the plant dies, sheds leaves, or loses a branch or two, and that carbon is added to the soil. (astrobiology.com)
  • Miguel A. Moreno-Risueno, a postdoctoral researcher in Benfey's lab who now heads a lab at the Center for Plant Biotechology and Genomics in Madrid, carried out a series of experiments in which he examined what happened to growing roots when they were missing certain BIRD proteins. (phys.org)
  • One of the fundamental problems in plant morphogenesis is the molecular and cellular basis of left-right asymmetry that often leads to various chiral structures such as the coils of tendrils and twisted leaves. (springer.com)
  • Physical processes such as elasticity and geometry might be important factors to coordinate the chirality across different length scales and to organize an entire plant body. (springer.com)
  • Physiological processes in the plant are mediated by light signaling molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • Another source is resident soil organic P, which becomes plant-available via root and microorganism processes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Safety Health and Welfare at Work( General Application) Regulations of 1993 are parts retrieving with temporary Plant of cells and Display Screen Delivery. (sprintseries.org)
  • Eventually, marshmallow root sap was replaced by other binding agents such as gum arabic and gelatin. (wizzley.com)
  • One idea is cut up a bunch of root vegetables into bite-size pieces and let your child help you toss them with seasoning, olive oil and a little honey. (livestrong.com)
  • Marshmallow root has also been used as a food, particularly during times of famine where it is found in more abundance than other vegetables. (wizzley.com)
  • Our work proves that roots are able to perceive light, even though they are usually found belowground. (eurekalert.org)
  • He found that roots that were missing just one BIRD protein developed with few defects. (phys.org)
  • Xanthones are specialized metabolites with antimicrobial properties that are found in the roots of medicinal plants called Hypericum perforatum, also known as St. John's wort. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Once a cell is born, it is stuck in the same position, and so the cells essentially line up as a developmental timeline, Benfey explains: the youngest cells stay at the tip of a root, and cells next to and above the original cell are progressively more mature. (phys.org)
  • Highly developed seed plants evolved deep root systems that are able to sense Earth's gravity. (phys.org)
  • He already looks into the future: "There are more photoreceptors in the roots. (eurekalert.org)
  • The BS Plant in future and neuronal Phone is s bureaus for a Accountant learning reservoir and scan new as blogs. (sprintseries.org)