Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (1/1131)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

Inverse relationship between systemic resistance of plants to microorganisms and to insect herbivory. (2/1131)

Pre-inoculation of plants with a pathogen that induces necrosis leads to the development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to subsequent pathogen attack [1]. The phenylpropanoid-derived compound salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for the full expression of both local resistance and SAR [2] [3]. A separate signaling pathway involving jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in systemic responses to wounding and insect herbivory [4] [5]. There is evidence both supporting and opposing the idea of cross-protection against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores [6] [7]. This is a controversial area because pharmacological experiments point to negative cross-talk between responses to systemic pathogens and responses to wounding [8] [9] [10], although this has not been demonstrated functionally in vivo. Here, we report that reducing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by silencing the expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) reduces SAR to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), whereas overexpression of PAL enhances SAR. Tobacco plants with reduced SAR exhibited more effective grazing-induced systemic resistance to larvae of Heliothis virescens, but larval resistance was reduced in plants with elevated phenylpropanoid levels. Furthermore, genetic modification of components involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis revealed an inverse relationship between SA and JA levels. These results demonstrate phenylpropanoid-mediated cross-talk in vivo between microbially induced and herbivore-induced pathways of systemic resistance.  (+info)

Calcein as a fluorescent probe for ferric iron. Application to iron nutrition in plant cells. (3/1131)

The recent use of calcein (CA) as a fluorescent probe for cellular iron has been shown to reflect the nutritional status of iron in mammalian cells (Breuer, W., Epsztejn, S., and Cabantchik, Z. I. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 24209-24215). CA was claimed to be a chemosensor for iron(II), to measure the labile iron pool and the concentration of cellular free iron(II). We first study here the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of iron binding by CA. Chelation of a first iron(III) involves one aminodiacetic arm and a phenol. The overall stability constant log beta111 of FeIIICAH is 33. 9. The free metal ion concentration is pFeIII = 20.3. A (FeIII)2 CA complex can be formed. A reversible iron(III) exchange from FeIIICAH to citrate and nitrilotriacetic acid is evidenced when these ligands are present in large excess. The kinetics of iron(III) exchange by CA is compatible with metabolic studies. The low reduction potential of FeIIICAH shows that the ferric form is highly stabilized. CA fluorescence is quenched by 85% after FeIII chelation but by only 20% using FeII. Real time iron nutrition by Arabidopsis thaliana cells has been measured by fluorimetry, and the iron buffer FeIIICAH + CA was used as source of iron. As a siderophore, FeIIICAH promotes cell growth and regreening of iron-deficient cells more rapidly than FeIIIEDTA. We conclude that CA is a good chemosensor for iron(III) in cells and biological fluids, but not for Fe(II). We discuss the interest of quantifying iron buffers in biochemical studies of iron, in vitro as well as in cells.  (+info)

Phloem transport: Are you chaperoned? (4/1131)

Long-distance transport via the vasculature in plants is critical for nutrient dissemination, as well as transport of growth regulatory molecules such as hormones. Evidence is now accumulating that protein and RNA molecules also use this transport pathway, possibly to regulate developmental and physiological processes.  (+info)

Plant graviperception and gravitropism: a newcomer's view. (5/1131)

Gravitropism is an adaptable mechanism corresponding to the directed growth by which plants orient in response to the gravity vector. The overall process is generally divided into three distinct stages: graviperception, gravitransduction, and asymmetric growth response. The phenomenology of these different steps has been described by using refined cell biology approaches combined with formal and molecular genetics. To date, it clearly appears that the cellular organization plays crucial roles in gravisensing and that gravitropism is genetically different between organs. Moreover, while interfering with other physical or chemical stimuli and sharing probably some common intermediary steps in the transduction pathway, gravity has its own perception and transduction systems. The intimate mechanisms involved in these processes have to be unveiled at the molecular level and their biological relevance addressed at the cellular and whole plant levels under normal and microgravitational conditions. gravitropism: a newcomer's view.  (+info)

Statoliths motions in gravity-perceiving plant cells: does actomyosin counteract gravity? (6/1131)

Statocytes from plant root caps are characterized by a polar arrangement of cell organelles and sedimented statoliths. Cortical microtubules and actin microfilaments contribute to development and maintenance of this polarity, whereas the lack of endoplasmic microtubules and prominent bundles of actin microfilaments probably facilitates sedimentation of statoliths. High-resolution video microscopy shows permanent motion of statoliths even when sedimented. After immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies against actin and myosin II the most prominent labeling was observed at and around sedimented statoliths. Experiments under microgravity have demonstrated that the positioning of statoliths depends on the external gravitational force and on internal forces, probably exerted by the actomyosin complex, and that transformation of the gravistimulus evidently occurs in close vicinity to the statoliths. These results suggest that graviperception occurs dynamically within the cytoplasm via small-distance sedimentation rather than statically at the lowermost site of sedimentation. It is hypothesized that root cap cells are comparing randomized motions with oriented motions of statoliths and thereby perceiving gravity.  (+info)

Mitochondrial gene organization and expression in petunia male fertile and sterile plants. (7/1131)

In cytoplasmic male-sterile Petunia lines, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (nad3) and ribosomal protein S12 (rps12) are cotranscribed with the chimeric gene pcf and located in the region of the mitochondrial genome associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Petunia. In fertile Petunia line 3704, the genes for nad3 and rps12 are cotranscribed with an unidentified open reading frame (orf143). In the homologous region of fertile line 3699, there is an ORF that lacks a genomic DNA-encoded stop codon; instead an RNA editing event creates a stop codon, resulting in an ORF of 161 codons. While expressed sequences homologous to this open reading frame can be detected in sterile lines, a contiguous orf143/orf161 gene does not exist in the CMS-encoding mitochondrial genome. Transcription at the CMS-associated pcf locus and the fertile orf143/nad3/rps12 locus is complex, with multiple 5' and 3' termini. The presence of the nuclear fertility restorer gene affects the abundance of a transcript class with 5' termini--121 nucleotides before the pcf start codon, and greatly reduces the abundance of a pcf gene product with apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa which is present in both vegetative and reproductive tissues of CMS plants. In addition to the 25 kDa protein product, small amounts of precursor and processed pcf products with higher molecular mass have been detected; their possible role in the CMS phenotype is unknown. Current hypotheses for the mechanism of action of CMS-associated and fertility restorer genes are discussed.  (+info)

Ethylene plays multiple nonprimary roles in modulating the gravitropic response in tomato. (8/1131)

Ethylene is known to interact with auxin in regulating stem growth, and yet evidence for the role of ethylene in tropic responses is contradictory. Our analysis of four mutants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) altered in their response to gravity, auxin, and/or ethylene revealed concentration-dependent modulation of shoot gravitropism by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors reduce wild-type gravicurvature, and extremely low (0.0005-0.001 microliter L-1) ethylene concentrations can restore the reduced gravitropic response of the auxin-resistant dgt (diageotropica) mutant to wild-type levels. Slightly higher concentrations of ethylene inhibit the gravitropic response of all but the ethylene-insensitive nr (never-ripe) mutant. The gravitropic responses of nr and the constitutive-response mutant epi (epinastic) are slightly and significantly delayed, respectively, but otherwise normal. The reversal of shoot gravicurvature by red light in the lz-2 (lazy-2) mutant is not affected by ethylene. Taken together, these data indicate that, although ethylene does not play a primary role in the gravitropic response of tomato, low levels of ethylene are necessary for a full gravitropic response, and moderate levels of the hormone specifically inhibit gravicurvature in a manner different from ethylene inhibition of overall growth.  (+info)

  • Sourindra Mohan Sircar was a botanist specializing in plant physiology and anatomy. (
  • He founded the school of Plant Physiology, which has made significant contributions to plant science research and teaching in India. (
  • It is useful in studies including physiology of humans, animals, plants and microorganisms, differential diagnosis of diseases and identification of pathogens, biotaxonomy of organisms, stress and pathogenesis physiology, physiological basis for disease resistance, developmental physiology and screening for commercially important enzymes and many other applications. (
  • - O. L. LANGE, P. S. NOBEL, C. B. OSMOND, and H. ZIEGLER In the original series of the Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, plant water relations and photosynthesis were treated separately, and the connection between phenomena was only considered in special chapters. (
  • Until recently, there has also been a tendency to cover these aspects of plant physiology separately in most text books. (
  • Accordingly, this separate coverage has been maintained in the New Series of the Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. (
  • His research interests have centred primarily on plant-parasitic nematodes, especially focusing on nematode hatching, sensory perception, behaviour and survival physiology, and several of his past PhD and post-doctoral students are currently involved in nematology research. (
  • He co-edited ' The Physiology and Biochemistry of Free-living and Plant-parasitic Nematodes ' (1997) and the text book ' Plant Nematology ' (2006). (
  • 2 Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Plant Stress Physiology and Molecular Biology, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, China . (
  • This research should help us identify novel Al tolerance genes, and in turn, the discovery of Al tolerance genes will open up new avenues whereby plant breeders and biotechnologists can use this information to improve the acid tolerance of many crop species. (
  • The developments of both pupae and adults were severely affected upon their transfer to Arabidopsis thaliana , but this might be independent of the cross-kingdom regulation of the three plant-derived miRNAs on their target genes in P. xylostella , based on expression analysis. (
  • These photoreceptors control numerous functions throughout the life of the plant, including whether seeds germinate, how rapidly cells expand and divide, which genes are expressed, what shape and form a plant will take, and when the organism will flower and produce new seeds. (
  • Genes in the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP-box) gene family encode SBP proteins, which perform a variety of regulatory functions that are involved in leaf development, vegetative phase change, flower and fruit development, plant architecture, sporogenesis, gibberellic acid signaling, and toxin response [ 4 ]. (
  • If you have genes lighting up and going dark in unpredictable ways, the functions of a plant or a body can change randomly. (
  • We will then argue that this platform of work provides a great resource for Myrtaceae, as well as other plants, to identify candidate genes that control flux through the biosynthetic pathways and how this will inform further studies into the ecological implications of quantitative variation of terpenes. (
  • A comparison to transcriptional data of M. oryzae undergoing the same physiological stresses indicates that sRNAs play a role in transcriptional regulation for a small subset of genes. (
  • SQUAMOSA promoter-binding proteins (SBP) perform a variety of regulatory functions in leaf, flower, and fruit development, plant architecture, and sporogenesis. (
  • Several approaches have been used to identify plant MT-binding proteins. (
  • These have included biochemical purification methods, mutant screens, and the identification of plant homologs to animal MT-binding proteins using antibody cross-reactivity and sequence database mining ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • One of the first biochemical purification approaches involved the polymerization of endogenous plant tubulin in the presence of taxol, followed by pelleting of the resulting MTs and their associated proteins. (
  • The proteins at issue in the research, called phytochromes, are familiar to generations of plant biologists but only in a broad sense. (
  • Vegetative phase change is promoted by a group of plant-specific transcription factors (SBP/SPL proteins), whose expression is repressed during the juvenile phase by the miRNAs, miR156 and miR157. (
  • To respond to these problems we made major changes to the organization of nutritional phenomena for the 2016 Medical Subject Headings. (
  • 2016). More and more evidence has accumulated suggesting that ROS play an important role in plant salinity tolerance (Wang et al. (
  • Three principle families of photoreceptors have been identified for light perception in higher plant tissues, the red/far-red (R/FR) light-absorbing phytochromes (PHY) and the UV-A/blue light (B)-absorbing cryptochromes and phototropins (for review, see Quail, 2002 ). (
  • The physiological and pathological significance of the two signal systems in a variety of cells and tissues as well as in pancreatic β-cells has recently been recognized. (
  • However, the strength of fluorescence was insufficient for macro level observations of tissues or of the whole plant, and the fluorescent flowers that have been generated so far needed high-sensitive imaging equipment for the observation. (
  • We describe a recently developed method to measure mechanical properties of the surfaces of plant tissues using atomic force microscopy (AFM) micro/nano-indentations, for a JPK AFM. (
  • Plants can be schematized in a source = all those tissues producing complex carbon molecules such as sugars and lipids (leaves), and a sink = all tissues requiring those compounds/energy to grow or accomplish physiological cycles (root growth, flowering, seed development, etc. (
  • 41. Physiological botany is that department which relates to the vital action of the several organs and tissues, including both the vital and chemical phenomena in the germination , growth, and reproduction of plants. (
  • Salmonella does not induce symptoms on contaminated tomato plants and fruits (Figure 1 A & B) even if the Salmonella population in tissues can reach up to 10 7 CFU per fruit (Figure 1C). (
  • Pictures of asymptomatic tomato plant tissues contaminated with Salmonella. (
  • Once in close contact with the plant tissues, Salmonella can survive on the surface of the plant for several weeks in the phyllosphere and up to months in the rhizosphere depending on the environmental conditions, diversity of the plant associated organism, management practices, and nutriments available. (
  • Niu, Mengliang;Huang, Yuan;Sun, Shitao;Sun, Jingyu;Cao, Haishun;Shabala, Sergey;Bie, Zhilong 2017-11-14 00:00:00 Abstract Plant salt tolerance can be improved by grafting onto salt-tolerant rootstocks. (
  • Among the most striking examples are the strong indirect interactions between spatially separated leaf- and root-feeding insects sharing a host plant. (
  • D. virgifera strongly avoided leaf-infested plants by recognizing systemic changes in soluble root components. (
  • Roots of leaf-infested plants showed altered patterns in soluble free and soluble conjugated phenolic acids. (
  • Furthermore, bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed a direct link between the avoidance response of D. virgifera and changes in soluble conjugated phenolic acids in the roots of leaf-attacked plants. (
  • Our study provides a physiological mechanism for a behavioral pattern that explains the negative effect of leaf attack on a root-feeding insect. (
  • Among the most striking examples of indirect plant-mediated interactions is the interplay between root- and leaf-feeding insects ( Blossey and Hunt-Joshi, 2003 ). (
  • Despite their nonoverlapping feeding niches, leaf and root herbivores determine each other's performance through shared host plants ( Bezemer and van Dam, 2005 ). (
  • Understanding why root feeders perform worse on leaf-infested plants would allow for more detailed investigations regarding the adaptive and evolutionary context of the phenomenon, and may allow for its exploitation in agriculture (for instance, by triggering root resistance through targeted leaf treatments). (
  • This hypothesis has been veried within a three-year eld study, where zinc fertilizer was applied to maize plants at the 5th leaf stage. (
  • Overexpression of OsEXPA8 in rice plants yielded pleiotropic phenotypes of improved root system architecture (longer primary roots, more lateral roots and root hairs), increased plant height, enhanced leaf number and enlarged leaf size. (
  • They then grew them in controlled-environment chambers maintained at atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 350 and 700 ppm, after which they determined the effects of the doubled CO2 concentration on leaf quality and allowed the larvae of the Common Blue Butterfly to feed upon the plants' leaves. (
  • This physiological stage was termed "interfronoce," Interfronoce could not be reliably predicted from visual growth phenomena such as leaf coloration, leaf fall, and terminal bud formation. (
  • Pumpkin grafting significantly increased the salt tolerance of cucumber plants, as revealed by higher plant dry weight, chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and lower leaf Na+ content. (
  • The decreased leaf Na+ content of pumpkin-grafted plants was achieved by higher Na+ exclusion in roots, which was driven by the Na+/H+ antiporter energized by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, as evidenced by the higher plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and higher transcript levels for PMA and SOS1. (
  • A falling leaf often catches a poet's eye, but scientists also wonder about the phenomenon that causes leaves to fall, or abscission in plants. (
  • Early dormancy involves a number of phenomena: cessation of active growth, formation of terminal buds, formation of abscission layers in leaves, development of cold resistance, development of winter rest (a chilling requirement), and leaf fall. (
  • At the same time, besides their harmful effects, ROS can also act as signaling molecules that regulate plant development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses (Mittler et al. (
  • Recent studies demonstrated that microbial symbionts of crop plants are capable of enhancing the abiotic stress tolerance of their host. (
  • Thus, research and new tools are needed to develop a better understanding of the interrelationship between crop plant abiotic stress tolerance and crop plant microbiomes. (
  • The technique was invented by Professor Elsayed Elsayed Wagih in collaboration with Professor Jacqueline Fletcher of the Department of Plant Pathology, Noble Research Centre, Oklahoma State University, USA in 1993. (
  • The past decades have seen a rapid increase in the understanding of plant morphogenesis at the molecular-genetic level. (
  • Physiological and genetic evidence implicates this protein in an early step in the signal-transduction pathway for phototropism ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • There is a wide range of genetic variation within and between species in response to photoperiod, winter chilling, water nutrients, and other environmental factors which affect the dormancy condition of plants. (
  • Collectively, the results indicated that the beneficial effects of inoculation on plant performance under saline conditions were mainly attributed to the improved stomata operation associated with higher rate of K delivery into the shoots. (
  • Stomata are natural openings in the plant epidermis responsible for gas exchange between plant interior and environment. (
  • The focus of this ERC Starting Grant will be the application of classical microbiological, physiological and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays, to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize microbial communities underpinning novel and innovative, low-temperature, anaerobic waste (and other biomass) conversion technologies, including municipal wastewater treatment and, demonstration- and full-scale biorefinery applications. (
  • Markedly greater shifts in climatic patterns are projected for the coming decades in many regions, including much warmer temperatures and altered precipitation patterns that drive the availability of water to plants. (
  • The robustness of plant-pollinator assemblages: linking plant interaction patterns and sensitivity to pollinator loss. (
  • This project aims to use sensors to monitor physiological signals, sleep patterns, vocal characteristics, activity, location and phone usage in study patients with depression who are recei. (
  • We worked out all of the necessary analytical procedures and mathematics, published 20 research papers, and demonstrated that we could see many useful patterns and could measure physiological age quantitatively. (
  • Rhythms in Plant Life. (
  • Written by a diverse group of leading researchers, Rhythms in Plants will spark the interest of readers from many branches of science: from physicists and chemists wishing to learn about the multi-faceted rhythms in plants, to biologists and ecologists involved in the state-of-the-art modelling of complex rhythmic phenomena. (
  • Transgenic arabidopsis plants containing the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were developed as biological sensors for monitoring physiological responses to unique environments. (
  • The experimental results established the feasibility of using a digital monitoring system for collecting gene expression data in real time from Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) biosensor plants during space exploration experiments. (
  • 2003). The NaCl-induced activation of the PM Na+/H+ antiporter has been reported in various plant species, such as tomato (Wilson and Shannon, 1995), Arabidopsis (Qiu et al. (
  • They will use Arabidopsis thaliana - common mustard weed - as a plant model. (
  • The first plant to have its genome sequenced, Arabidopsis has become the botanical equivalent of the lab mouse in that discoveries it helps produce can be applied across many other species. (
  • Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. (
  • Phytochrome-mediated perception of the ratio of red to far-red wavelengths in the ambient light environment is fundamental to plant growth and development. (
  • The efficient perception, interpretation, and transduction of such signals allow plants to synchronize their development with seasonal changes and to minimize the adverse effects of environmental perturbations. (
  • Phytochromes regulate many aspects of plant growth and development by measuring the duration, intensity, and wavelengths of light. (
  • The whole regeneration process, starting from explant preparation to complete plant development, took 12-13 weeks. (
  • The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the physiological stage of development at which leaves can be removed from deciduous trees without adversely affecting survival and regrowth. (
  • Ian Sussex: simple tools, clever experiments and new insights into plant development. (
  • 2,000 years) at three different tree senescent levels (healthy, sub-healthy and senescent) at the world's largest planted pure forest in the Mausoleum of Yellow Emperor, Shaanxi Province, China. (
  • Scientists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have entered partnerships with industry to characterize the influence of microbes on human, non-human animals, and plant health from a genomics perspective. (
  • Plant molecular biology in India - The beginnings" (PDF). (
  • An assistant professor of biochemistry and molecular biology with the Plant Research Laboratory at MSU, Montgomery in July landed a four-year, $765,249 National Science Foundation grant funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to study that process. (
  • Professor Montgomery has taken an innovative approach to studying how plants adjust as light conditions change," said Thomas Sharkey, a fellow plant researcher and chairman of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology . (
  • Dr. Casteel received her B.S. in Biology from the University of Missouri, Columbia (2003) and her Ph.D. in Plant Biology from the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana (2010). (
  • We concluded that the pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants increase their salt tolerance via a mechanism involving the root-sourced respiratory burst oxidase homologue-dependent H2O2 production, which enhances Na+ exclusion from the root and promotes an early stomatal closure. (
  • This sensing mechanism can be observed by the change in behaviour in plants like Mimosa pudica (Touch Me Not) which closes its leaves when touched or Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) which closes its trap when an insect gets in it. (
  • Michigan State University researcher Beronda Montgomery is probing the mechanism by which plants sense their neighbors' encroachment and signal the stem to grow taller. (
  • The pattern of fruits and seeds set in some plant species often decreases from base to apex of the inflorescence [19,and this pattern is often attributed to competition of developing fruits for nutritional resources [30, (
  • This phenomenon occurs due to imbalances which result from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (
  • Since the plant ecological diversity is great in each biotope scientist believe that this co-evolution allowed the AM groups to interact with many (or most) of the plant species in that environment. (
  • 43. Descriptive botany, or phytology, is the art of expressing the distinctive characters of species and groups of plants with accuracy and precision, in order to their complete recognition. (
  • Postprandial relative to preprandial drinking increased in all four species, indicating that eating increases the physiological requirement for water. (
  • He graduated with a BSc (Hons) in Zoology from the Newcastle University, UK, where he also obtained a PhD in Zoology on physiological aspects of desiccation survival of Ditylenchus spp. (
  • This phenomenon has attracted the interest of plant ecologists (Janzen 1971 ), with the majority of research addressing one of two distinct questions concerning mast seeding: (1) Which "ultimate factors" cause masting to occur? (
  • they occur exclusively in one plant family, Orchidaceae . (
  • ABM and MTM are highly specialized types and occur in a few plant genera including Arbutus and Monotropa , respectively. (
  • Short-lived electrical events called action potentials occur in several types of animal cells which are called excitable cells, a category of cell include neurons, muscle cells, and endocrine cells, as well as in some plant cells. (
  • Natural separation of leaves, flowers and fruits from plants, generally associated with deterioration of a specialized layer of thin-walled cells. (
  • To our knowledge, these results are the first demonstration in a physiological context that insulin signaling through Akt controls a specific cell division program and leads to the physiologic generation of binucleated tetraploid liver cells. (
  • however maintaining favorable environmental conditions for both plant epidermal peels and bacterial cells has been challenging. (
  • It was hypothesized that osmotic potential of cells and the ionic status of cytoplasm were considerably different in interfronoce vs. pre-interfronoce plants, and that these differences could be used to predict interfronoce. (
  • Next, we describe the physiological and pathological roles of the CD38-cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) signal system in insulin secretion and the regenerating gene protein (Reg)-Reg receptor system for β-cell regeneration, the elucidations for both of which were developed on the basis of the Okamoto model. (
  • Plants were monitored in vivo during exposure to hypoxia, high salt, cold, and abcissic acid in experiments designed to characterize the utility and responses of the Adh/GFP biosensors. (
  • Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses. (
  • Such monitoring enables plants to detect neighboring vegetation and initiate avoidance responses, thus conferring considerable selective advantage. (
  • The shade avoidance syndrome in plants is characterized by elongation growth and early flowering, responses that are fully induced by end-of-day far-red light treatments. (
  • Neighbor detection initiates shade avoidance responses, enabling plants to compete for light. (
  • The roles of individual PHY in regulating these responses have been largely inferred from studies of mutant plants. (
  • Most plants have more than one gene coding for different phytochromes, and these different products of the phytochrome gene family frequently control different responses to the light environment. (
  • Highlighting parallels and contrasts between parasitic and free-living nematode groups, this book integrates strategies that enable nematodes to persist in the absence of food with tactics used by parasitic forms to survive the defence responses of a plant or animal host. (
  • The temperature at which heat units are accumulated by seed greatly affects its physiological age , as indicated by differences in plant establishment, stem numbers, tuber set, and yield responses for seed that had accumulated a particular number of degree-days at the different temperatures. (
  • This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. (
  • The physiological relevance of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. (
  • However, as most of the Na+ delivered to the shoot remains in the shoot, and only a small portion can be recirculated back to the root via the phloem (Munns and Tester, 2008), the salt tolerance largely depends on the capacity of plants to limit the net transport of Na+ from the root to the shoot. (
  • In this study, the plant-derived miRNAs in the hemolymph of a cruciferous specialist Plutella xylostella were identified by small RNAs sequencing. (
  • Our findings provide new insights into the co-evolution of insect herbivore and host plant, and novel direction for pest control using plant-derived miRNAs. (
  • Poethig, R. S. (2013) Vegetative phase change and shoot maturation in plants. (
  • The J02 tree in MeSH includes food items, while the B tree contains plants and animals. (
  • For many years the fact that some plants and animals are also treed under food has been source of confusion for searchers. (
  • Recently, it has been suggested that plants and artificial agents may be able to detect and interpret environmental information in an analogous manner to animals. (
  • First you will look at what happens to the chromosomes of animals and plants during the process of sexual reproduction. (
  • Participants were asked to generate and evaluate a list of factors that influence one's ability to notice, appreciate, and recognize the importance of plants as well as factors that affect individual's comparison of plants to animals. (
  • 33. Animals, like plants, are organized bodies endowed with vitality, and composed of distinct parts, no one of which is complete in itself, but they are elevated above either plants or minerals by their power of perception. (
  • In other words, plants feed on minerals, animals feed on plants. (
  • Articles that discuss a specific plant or chemical in the context of food can still be found through use of coordination of topics rather than using tree inheritance. (