Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Compounds that differ from COUMARINS in having the positions of the ring and ketone oxygens reversed so the keto oxygen is at the 1-position of the molecule.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.
Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
A CCN protein family member found at high levels in NEPHROBLASTOMA cells. It is found both intracellularly and in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may play a role in the regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It may play an important role in the development of branched CAPILLARIES during EMBRYOGENESIS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.

Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid in Azospirillum brasilense. Insights from quantum chemistry. (1/2256)

Quantum chemical methods AM1 and PM3 and chromatographic methods were used to qualitatively characterize pathways of bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The standard free energy changes (delta G(o)'sum) for the synthesis of tryptophan (Trp) from chorismic acid via anthranilic acid and indole were calculated, as were those for several possible pathways for the synthesis of IAA from Trp, namely via indole-3-acetamide (IAM), indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA), and indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN). The delta G(o)'sum for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid was -402 (-434) kJ.mol-1 (values in parentheses were calculated by PM3). The delta G(o)'sum for IAA synthesis from Trp were -565 (-548) kJ.mol-1 for the IAN pathway, -481 (-506) kJ.mol-1 for the IAM pathway, and -289 (-306) kJ.mol-1 for the IPyA pathway. By HPLC analysis, the possibility was assessed that indole, anthranilic acid, and Trp might be utilized as precursors for IAA synthesis by Azospirillum brasilense strain Sp 245. The results indicate that there is a high motive force for Trp synthesis from chorismic acid and for IAA synthesis from Trp, and make it unlikely that anthranilic acid and indole act as the precursors to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (2/2256)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and ethylene-inducible expression of Chib1 chitinase from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). (3/2256)

A soybean seed-specific PR-8 chitinase, named Chib2, has a markedly extended C-terminal segment compared to other plant Chib1 homologues of the PR-8 chitinase family known to date. To further characterize the molecular structure and the expression pattern of this chitinase family, we cloned two typical Chib1-similar cDNAs (Chib1-1 and Chib1-2) from soybeans by PCR-cloning techniques. The deduced primary sequence of Chib1-1 chitinase is composed of a signal peptide segment (26 amino acid residues) and a mature 273 amino acid sequence (calculated molecular mass 28,794, calculated pI 3.7). This Chib1-1 enzyme is more than 90% identical to Chib1-2 chitinase but is below 50% identical to Chib2 enzyme. Thus, we confirmed the occurrence of two distinct classes, Chib1 and Chib2 in the plant PR-8 chitinase family. The Chib1 genes, interrupted by one intron, were found to be up-regulated in response to ethylene in stems and leaves, but scarcely expressed in developing soybean seeds. Chib1 chitinases may be responsible for protecting the plant body from various pathogenic attacks.  (+info)

An allele of the ripening-specific 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (ACS1) in apple fruit with a long storage life. (4/2256)

An allele of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene (Md-ACS1), the transcript and translated product of which have been identified in ripening apples (Malus domestica), was isolated from a genomic library of the apple cultivar, Golden Delicious. The predicted coding region of this allele (ACS1-2) showed that seven nucleotide substitutions in the corresponding region of ACS1-1 resulted in just one amino acid transition. A 162-bp sequence characterized as a short interspersed repetitive element retrotransposon was inserted in the 5'-flanking region of ACS1-2 corresponding to position -781 in ACS1-1. The XhoI site located near the 3' end of the predicted coding region of ACS1-2 was absent from the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction product, revealing that exclusive transcription from ACS1-1 occurs during ripening of cv Golden Delicious fruit. DNA gel-blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses of genomic DNAs showed clearly that apple cultivars were either heterozygous for ACS1-1 and ACS1-2 or homozygous for each type. RNA gel-blot analysis of the ACS1-2 homozygous Fuji apple, which produces little ethylene and has a long storage life, demonstrated that the level of transcription from ACS1-2 during the ripening stage was very low.  (+info)

The auxin-binding protein Nt-ERabp1 alone activates an auxin-like transduction pathway. (5/2256)

Hyperpolarization of tobacco protoplasts is amongst the earliest auxin responses described. It has been proposed that the auxin-binding protein, ABP1, or a related protein could be involved in the first step of auxin perception at the plasma membrane. Using for the first time homologous conditions for interaction between the protein Nt-ERabp1 or a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus and tobacco protoplasts, we have demonstrated that both can induce the hyperpolarization response. The results show that Nt-ERabp1 or the C-terminal peptide alone activates the auxin pathway from the outer face of the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Foliar modifications induced by inhibition of polar transport of auxin. (6/2256)

The effects of auxin polar transport inhibitors, 9-hydroxy-fluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA); 2, 3, 5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and trans-cinnamic acid (CA) on leaf pattern formation were investigated with shoots formed from cultured leaf explants of tobacco and cultured pedicel explants of Orychophragmus violaceus, and the seedlings of tobacco and Brassica chinensis. Although the effective concentration varies with the inhibitors used, all of the inhibitors induced the formation of trumpet-shaped and/or fused leaves. The frequency of trumpet-shaped leaf formation was related to the concentration of inhibitors in the medium. Histological observation of tobacco seedlings showed that there was only one main vascular bundle and several minor vascular bundles in normal leaves of the control, but there were several vascular bundles of more or less the same size in the trumpet-shaped leaves of treated ones. These results indicated that auxin polar transport played an important role on bilateral symmetry of leaf growth.  (+info)

Induction of ascorbate peroxidase by ethylene and hydrogen peroxide during growth of cultured soybean cells. (7/2256)

In cultured soybean cells, a transient ethylene burst in the pre-stationary phase was followed by an induction of ascorbate peroxidase (AsPOX) in the stationary phase. Treatment of cells with the ethylene antagonist, silver thiosulfate (STS), resulted in the suppression of enzyme activity. Application of the ethylene releasing agent 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) in the medium led to an increased enzyme activity when treated in the pre-stationary phase. On the contrary, a remarkable inhibitory effect on enzyme activity was elicited by 1,3-dimethyl-2-thiourea (DMTU), trapping the hydrogen peroxide generated when treated in the stationary phase. Likewise, a steady level of AsPOX transcript was reduced by STS treatment. Furthermore, its effect appeared to be more rapid and prominent during the pre-stationary phase. It is suggested that the induction of AsPOX in cultured soybean cells during the stationary phase could result, at least in part, by the hydrogen peroxide generated as a result of preceding ethylene production.  (+info)

Gene for a protein capable of enhancing lateral root formation. (8/2256)

Analysis of genes preferentially expressed in hairy roots caused by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes has provided insights into the regulation of lateral root formation. A hairy root preferential cDNA, HR7, has been cloned from hairy roots of Hyoscyamus niger. HR7 encodes a novel protein partially homologous to a metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor and is expressed exclusively in the primordium and base of lateral roots in hairy roots. Overexpression of HR7 in transgenic roots of H. niger dramatically enhances the frequency of lateral root formation. The results of this study indicate that expression of HR7 plays a critical role in initiating lateral root formation.  (+info)

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are natural or synthetic chemical substances that, when present in low concentrations, can influence various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. These processes include cell division, elongation, and differentiation; flowering and fruiting; leaf senescence; and stress responses. PGRs can be classified into several categories based on their mode of action and chemical structure, including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and others. They are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield and quality, regulate plant growth and development, and enhance stress tolerance.

Isocoumarins are a type of chemical compound that contains a benzene ring fused to a five-membered lactone ring, which is made up of one oxygen atom and four carbon atoms. This particular structure gives isocoumarins their unique chemical and biological properties. They can be found naturally in various plants and microorganisms, and have been shown to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer effects. Some isocoumarins are also used as starting materials for the synthesis of other chemical compounds.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

Cytokinins are a type of plant growth hormone that play a crucial role in cell division, differentiation, and growth. They were first discovered in 1950s and named for their ability to promote cytokinesis, the process of cell division. Cytokinins belong to a class of compounds called adenine derivatives, which are structurally similar to nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Cytokinins are produced in the roots and shoots of plants and are transported throughout the plant via the vascular system. They have been shown to regulate various aspects of plant growth and development, including shoot initiation, leaf expansion, apical dominance, and senescence. Cytokinins also interact with other hormones such as auxins, gibberellins, and abscisic acid to modulate plant responses to environmental stresses.

Cytokinins have been used in horticulture and agriculture to enhance crop yields, improve plant quality, and delay senescence. They are also being studied for their potential role in human health, particularly in the context of cancer research.

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is not exactly a medical term, but rather a scientific term used in the field of biochemistry and physiology. It is a type of auxin, which is a plant hormone that regulates various growth and development processes in plants. IAA is the most abundant and best-studied natural auxin.

Medically, indole-3-acetic acid may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments related to plants or plant-derived substances. For example, some research has investigated the potential use of IAA in promoting wound healing in plants or in agricultural applications. However, it is not a substance that is typically used in medical treatment for humans or animals.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Gibberellins (GAs) are a type of plant hormones that regulate various growth and developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination of seeds, leaf expansion, and flowering. They are a large family of diterpenoid compounds that are synthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) in the plastids and then modified through a series of enzymatic reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm.

GAs exert their effects by binding to specific receptors, which activate downstream signaling pathways that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cellular responses. The biosynthesis and perception of GAs are tightly regulated, and disruptions in these processes can result in various developmental abnormalities and growth disorders in plants.

In addition to their role in plant growth and development, GAs have also been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as stress tolerance, nutrient uptake, and senescence. They have also attracted interest as potential targets for crop improvement, as modulating GA levels and sensitivity can enhance traits such as yield, disease resistance, and abiotic stress tolerance.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including seed dormancy, bud dormancy, leaf senescence, and response to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold temperatures. It is a sesquiterpene compound that is synthesized in plants primarily in response to environmental stimuli that trigger the onset of stress responses.

ABA functions by regulating gene expression, cell growth and development, and stomatal closure, which helps prevent water loss from plants under drought conditions. It also plays a role in the regulation of plant metabolism and the activation of defense mechanisms against pathogens and other environmental stressors. Overall, abscisic acid is an essential hormone that enables plants to adapt to changing environmental conditions and optimize their growth and development.

Diflubenzuron is an insect growth regulator that belongs to the benzoylphenyl urea class. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of chitin, a crucial component of the exoskeleton of insects, which results in the prevention of their normal molting and growth. Diflubenzuron is used primarily for pest control in agriculture, forestry, and vector management (such as controlling mosquito populations). It's important to note that this compound is not typically used in human medicine.

Methoprene is an insect growth regulator (IGR) that disrupts the developmental process in insects, preventing them from reaching maturity and reproducing. It works by mimicking the natural hormones found in insects, specifically juvenile hormone, which regulates their molting and metamorphosis. By interfering with this process, methoprene causes immature insects to continue molting without ever becoming adults, or it prevents larvae from transforming into pupae or adults.

Methoprene is commonly used in pest control applications, including public health, agriculture, and household settings, to control a wide range of insect pests, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, ants, cockroaches, and stored product pests. It has low toxicity to non-target organisms, including mammals, making it a relatively safe option for use in sensitive environments. However, like any pesticide, methoprene should be used responsibly and according to label instructions to minimize potential risks to human health and the environment.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

'Plant development' is not a term typically used in medical definitions, as it is more commonly used in the field of botany to describe the growth and differentiation of plant cells, tissues, and organs over time. However, in a broader context, plant development can be defined as the series of changes and processes that occur from the fertilization of a plant seed to the formation of a mature plant, including germination, emergence, organ formation, growth, and reproduction.

In medicine, terms related to plant development may include "phytotherapy" or "herbal medicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as medicinal treatments for various health conditions. The study of how these plants develop and produce their active compounds is an important area of research in pharmacology and natural products chemistry.

Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a class of sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a crucial role in the regulation of insect development, reproduction, and other physiological processes. They are primarily produced by the corpora allata, a pair of endocrine glands located in the head of insects.

JHs are essential for maintaining the larval or nymphal stage of insects, preventing the expression of adult characteristics during molting. As the concentration of JH decreases in the hemolymph (insect blood), a molt to the next developmental stage occurs, and if the insect has reached its final instar, it will metamorphose into an adult.

In addition to their role in development, JHs also influence various aspects of insect reproductive physiology, such as vitellogenesis (yolk protein synthesis), oocyte maturation, and spermatogenesis. Furthermore, JHs have been implicated in regulating diapause (a period of suspended development during unfavorable environmental conditions) and caste determination in social insects like bees and ants.

Overall, juvenile hormones are vital regulators of growth, development, and reproduction in insects, making them attractive targets for the development of novel pest management strategies.

Kinetin is a type of plant growth hormone, specifically a cytokinin. It plays a crucial role in cell division and differentiation, as well as promoting growth and delaying senescence (aging) in plants. Kinetin has also been studied for its potential use in various medical applications, including wound healing, tissue culture, and skin care products. However, it is primarily known for its role in plant biology.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seedling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an agricultural and horticultural term that refers to a young plant grown from a seed, typically during the early stages of its growth. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

A plant cell is defined as a type of eukaryotic cell that makes up the structural basis of plants and other forms of multicellular plant-like organisms, such as algae and mosses. These cells are typically characterized by their rigid cell walls, which provide support and protection, and their large vacuoles, which store nutrients and help maintain turgor pressure within the cell.

Plant cells also contain chloroplasts, organelles that carry out photosynthesis and give plants their green color. Other distinctive features of plant cells include a large central vacuole, a complex system of membranes called the endoplasmic reticulum, and numerous mitochondria, which provide energy to the cell through cellular respiration.

Plant cells are genetically distinct from animal cells, and they have unique structures and functions that allow them to carry out photosynthesis, grow and divide, and respond to their environment. Understanding the structure and function of plant cells is essential for understanding how plants grow, develop, and interact with their surroundings.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

In the context of medical terminology, "germination" is not typically used as a term to describe a physiological process in humans or animals. It is primarily used in the field of botany to refer to the process by which a seed or spore sprouts and begins to grow into a new plant.

However, if you are referring to the concept of germination in the context of bacterial or viral growth, then it could be defined as:

The process by which bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms become active and start to multiply, often after a period of dormancy or latency. This can occur when the microorganisms encounter favorable conditions, such as moisture, warmth, or nutrients, that allow them to grow and reproduce. In medical contexts, this term is more commonly used in relation to infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

A meristem, in the context of plant biology, refers to a type of tissue found in plants that is responsible for their growth. These tissues are composed of cells that have the ability to divide and differentiate into various specialized cell types. Meristems are typically located at the tips of roots and shoots (apical meristems), as well as within the vascular bundles (cambial meristems) and in the cork layers (phellogen meristems). They contribute to the increase in length and girth of plant organs, allowing plants to grow throughout their life.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Cyclopentanes are a class of hydrocarbons that contain a cycloalkane ring of five carbon atoms. The chemical formula for cyclopentane is C5H10. It is a volatile, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of polymers. Cyclopentanes are also found naturally in petroleum and coal tar.

Cyclopentanes have a unique structure in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a pentagonal shape, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms and one or two hydrogen atoms. This structure gives cyclopentane its characteristic "bowl-shaped" geometry, which allows it to undergo various chemical reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that can lead to the formation of other chemicals.

Cyclopentanes have a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For example, they are used in the production of plastics, resins, and synthetic rubbers. They also have potential uses in the development of new drugs and medical technologies, as their unique structure and reactivity make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Ethylenes" is not a medical term or a medical condition. Ethylene is actually a colorless gas with a sweet and musky odor, which belongs to the class of hydrocarbons called alkenes. It is used widely in industry, including the production of polyethylene, antifreeze, and other chemicals.

However, if you meant something else or need information on a specific medical topic related to ethylene or its derivatives, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I would be happy to help.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Structures" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of botany to refer to the different parts of a plant, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Each of these structures has specific functions that contribute to the overall growth, reproduction, and survival of the plant. If you have any questions related to biology or botany, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Nephroblastoma overexpressed protein, also known as NOV or CCN3, is a member of the CCN family of proteins that are involved in cell growth, differentiation, and migration. It was originally identified as being highly expressed in nephroblastoma (also known as Wilms' tumor), a type of kidney cancer that typically affects children. NOV has been found to play a role in various biological processes, including angiogenesis, cell adhesion, and apoptosis. It can act as both a positive and negative regulator of cell growth and differentiation, depending on the context. Abnormal expression of NOV has been implicated in several types of cancer, including nephroblastoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Edible plants are those that can be safely consumed by humans and other animals as a source of nutrition. They have various parts (such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, roots, stems, and leaves) that can be used for food after being harvested and prepared properly. Some edible plants have been cultivated and domesticated for agricultural purposes, while others are gathered from the wild. It is important to note that not all plants are safe to eat, and some may even be toxic or deadly if consumed. Proper identification and knowledge of preparation methods are crucial before consuming any plant material.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Growth substances, in the context of medical terminology, typically refer to natural hormones or chemically synthesized agents that play crucial roles in controlling and regulating cell growth, differentiation, and division. They are also known as "growth factors" or "mitogens." These substances include:

1. Proteins: Examples include insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). They bind to specific receptors on the cell surface, activating intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

2. Steroids: Certain steroid hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, can also act as growth substances by binding to nuclear receptors and influencing gene expression related to cell growth and division.

3. Cytokines: Some cytokines, like interleukins (ILs) and hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs), contribute to the regulation of hematopoiesis, immune responses, and inflammation, thus indirectly affecting cell growth and differentiation.

These growth substances have essential roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue repair, and wound healing. However, abnormal or excessive production or response to these growth substances can lead to pathological conditions, including cancer, benign tumors, and other proliferative disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Endophytes are microorganisms, typically bacteria or fungi, that live inside the tissues of plants without causing any visible disease or harm to the plant. They can be found in almost all plant species and are known to exist in a mutualistic relationship with their host plants. Endophytes can provide various benefits to the plants such as growth promotion, increased resistance to pathogens, and protection against herbivores. Some endophytic fungi also produce bioactive compounds that have potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry.

"Plant immunity" refers to the complex defense mechanisms that plants have evolved to protect themselves from pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and nematodes. Plants do not have an adaptive immune system like humans, so they rely on their innate immune responses to detect and respond to pathogen invasion.

Plant immunity can be broadly categorized into two types: PTI (PAMP-triggered immunity) and ETI (Effector-triggered immunity). PTI is activated when the plant recognizes conserved microbial patterns, known as PAMPs (Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns), through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the cell surface. This recognition triggers a series of defense responses, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the expression of defense genes.

ETI is activated when the plant recognizes effector proteins produced by pathogens to suppress PTI. Effector recognition typically occurs through resistance (R) proteins that can directly or indirectly recognize effectors, leading to the activation of stronger defense responses, such as the hypersensitive response (HR), which involves localized programmed cell death to limit pathogen spread.

Overall, plant immunity is a complex and dynamic process involving multiple layers of defense mechanisms that help plants protect themselves from pathogens and maintain their health and productivity.

The rhizosphere is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of biology and agriculture. It refers to the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated microorganisms, typically including a zone of about 1-2 mm around the root surface. The rhizosphere is characterized by increased microbial activity due to the release of organic compounds from the roots, which can affect nutrient availability, plant growth, and disease suppression.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Stomata are microscopic pores found in the epidermis of plant leaves, stems, and other organs. They are essential for gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, allowing the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and the release of oxygen. Plant stomata consist of two guard cells that surround and regulate the size of the pore. The opening and closing of the stomatal pore are influenced by environmental factors such as light, humidity, and temperature, as well as internal signals within the plant.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Plant Epidermis" is not a medical term. Instead, it is a term used in botany to describe the outermost layer of cells in plant tissues. The epidermis serves as a protective barrier for the plant, regulating gas exchange and water loss through stomata, and producing cutin, a waxy substance that helps prevent water loss.

In summary, "Plant Epidermis" is a term related to plant biology and not medicine.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Growth inhibitors, in a medical context, refer to substances or agents that reduce or prevent the growth and proliferation of cells. They play an essential role in regulating normal cellular growth and can be used in medical treatments to control the excessive growth of unwanted cells, such as cancer cells.

There are two main types of growth inhibitors:

1. Endogenous growth inhibitors: These are naturally occurring molecules within the body that help regulate cell growth and division. Examples include retinoids, which are vitamin A derivatives, and interferons, which are signaling proteins released by host cells in response to viruses.

2. Exogenous growth inhibitors: These are synthetic or natural substances from outside the body that can be used to inhibit cell growth. Many chemotherapeutic agents and targeted therapies for cancer treatment fall into this category. They work by interfering with specific pathways involved in cell division, such as DNA replication or mitosis, or by inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells.

It is important to note that growth inhibitors may also affect normal cells, which can lead to side effects during treatment. The challenge for medical researchers is to develop targeted therapies that specifically inhibit the growth of abnormal cells while minimizing harm to healthy cells.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Neurofibromin 2 is not a medical term itself, but Neurofibromin 1 and Neurofibromin 2 are related to a genetic disorder called Neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromin 1 is the correct term, which is a protein encoded by the NF1 gene in humans.

Neurofibromin 1 is a tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. Mutations in the NF1 gene can lead to Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a genetic disorder characterized by the development of benign tumors on the nerves, skin, and other parts of the body.

Neurofibromin 2, on the other hand, is not a recognized term in medical literature. It is possible that there is some confusion with Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), which is a separate genetic disorder caused by mutations in the NF2 gene. The NF2 gene encodes a protein called Merlin, which also functions as a tumor suppressor and helps regulate cell growth and division.

Therefore, it is essential to clarify whether you are asking about Neurofibromin 1 or Neurofibromatosis type 2 when using the term "Neurofibromin 2."

A hypocotyl is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of botany, which is a branch of biology that deals with the study of plants. Therefore, I'd be happy to provide you with a definition of hypocotyl in a botanical context:

The hypocotyl is the portion of the embryo or seedling of a plant that lies between the cotyledons (the embryonic leaves) and the radicle (the embryonic root). In other words, it is the stem-like structure that connects the shoot and the root systems in a developing plant.

When a seed germinates, the hypocotyl elongates and pushes the cotyledons upward through the soil, allowing the young plant to emerge into the light. The hypocotyl can vary in length depending on the species of plant, and its growth is influenced by various environmental factors such as light and temperature.

While the term "hypocotyl" may not be commonly used in medical contexts, understanding basic botanical concepts like this one can still be useful for healthcare professionals who work with patients who have plant-related allergies or other health issues related to plants.

"Lycopersicon esculentum" is the scientific name for the common red tomato. It is a species of fruit from the nightshade family (Solanaceae) that is native to western South America and Central America. Tomatoes are widely grown and consumed in many parts of the world as a vegetable, although they are technically a fruit. They are rich in nutrients such as vitamin C, potassium, and lycopene, which has been studied for its potential health benefits.

In the context of medicine and biology, symbiosis is a type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms. Generally, one organism, called the symbiont, lives inside or on another organism, called the host. This interaction can be mutually beneficial (mutualistic), harmful to the host organism (parasitic), or have no effect on either organism (commensal).

Examples of mutualistic symbiotic relationships in humans include the bacteria that live in our gut and help us digest food, as well as the algae that live inside corals and provide them with nutrients. Parasitic symbioses, on the other hand, involve organisms like viruses or parasitic worms that live inside a host and cause harm to it.

It's worth noting that while the term "symbiosis" is often used in popular culture to refer to any close relationship between two organisms, in scientific contexts it has a more specific meaning related to long-term biological interactions.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipid molecules derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They play crucial roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cellular signaling. Oxylipins can be further categorized based on their precursor PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (LA). These oxylipins are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, and pain perception. They exert their effects through various receptors and downstream signaling pathways, making them important targets for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

Plant transpiration is the process by which water vapor escapes from leaves and other aerial parts of plants to the atmosphere. It is a type of evapotranspiration, which refers to both evaporation from land surfaces and transpiration from plants. Water molecules are absorbed by plant roots from the soil, move up through the xylem tissue to the leaves, and then evaporate from the leaf surface through stomatal pores. This process helps in the transportation of nutrients from the soil to various parts of the plant, regulates the temperature of the plant, and maintains the turgor pressure within the cells. Plant transpiration is influenced by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Brassinosteroids are a class of steroid hormones found in plants that play crucial roles in various aspects of plant growth and development. They were first discovered in the 1970s and are named after Brassica napus, the rape seed plant from which they were initially isolated. These hormones are involved in regulating processes such as cell division, cell elongation, vascular differentiation, stress tolerance, and photomorphogenesis.

Brassinosteroids function by interacting with specific receptor proteins located on the plasma membrane of plant cells. This interaction triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and various cellular responses. Defects in brassinosteroid biosynthesis or signaling can result in dwarfism, reduced fertility, and other developmental abnormalities in plants.

Some well-known brassinosteroids include brassinolide, castasterone, and typhasterol. These hormones are present in trace amounts in plants but have significant effects on plant growth and development. Brassinosteroids also exhibit various stress tolerance-promoting activities, such as enhancing resistance to drought, salinity, extreme temperatures, and pathogen attacks.

In summary, brassinosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that play essential roles in regulating plant growth, development, and stress responses. They interact with specific receptor proteins on the plasma membrane, triggering intracellular signaling events leading to changes in gene expression and various cellular responses.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between fungi and the roots of most plant species. In a mycorrhizal association, fungi colonize the root tissues of plants and extend their mycelial networks into the surrounding soil. This association enhances the nutrient uptake capacity of the host plant, particularly with regards to phosphorus and nitrogen, while the fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant for their own growth and metabolism.

Mycorrhizal fungi can be broadly classified into two types: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae (or arbuscular mycorrhizae). Ectomycorrhizae form a sheath around the root surface, while endomycorrhizae penetrate the root cells and form structures called arbuscules, where nutrient exchange occurs. Mycorrhizal associations play crucial roles in maintaining ecosystem stability, promoting plant growth, and improving soil structure and fertility.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

"Drought" is not a medical term. It is a term used in meteorology and environmental science to refer to a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to water shortage and scarcity in the affected areas. Droughts can have various impacts on human health, including dehydration, heat-related illnesses, reduced air quality, increased transmission of waterborne diseases, and mental health issues related to stress and displacement. However, drought itself is not a medical condition.

Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61), also known as CCN1, is a matricellular protein that belongs to the CCN family. This protein is composed of four distinct domains: an insulin-like growth factor binding domain, a von Willebrand type C repeat domain, a thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain, and a C-terminal cysteine knot domain.

CYR61 plays important roles in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It is involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, wound healing, tissue repair, and tumorigenesis. Dysregulation of CYR61 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

In summary, Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) is a matricellular protein that regulates various cellular processes and is involved in the development of several diseases.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

"Oryza sativa" is the scientific name for Asian rice, which is a species of grass and one of the most important food crops in the world. It is a staple food for more than half of the global population, providing a significant source of calories and carbohydrates. There are several varieties of Oryza sativa, including indica and japonica, which differ in their genetic makeup, growth habits, and grain characteristics.

Oryza sativa is an annual plant that grows to a height of 1-2 meters and produces long slender leaves and clusters of flowers at the top of the stem. The grains are enclosed within a tough husk, which must be removed before consumption. Rice is typically grown in flooded fields or paddies, which provide the necessary moisture for germination and growth.

Rice is an important source of nutrition for people around the world, particularly in developing countries where it may be one of the few reliable sources of food. It is rich in carbohydrates, fiber, and various vitamins and minerals, including thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and magnesium. However, rice can also be a significant source of arsenic, a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in the grain during growth.

In medical terms, Oryza sativa may be used as a component of nutritional interventions for individuals who are at risk of malnutrition or who have specific dietary needs. It may also be studied in clinical trials to evaluate its potential health benefits or risks.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Physiological stress is a response of the body to a demand or threat that disrupts homeostasis and activates the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This results in the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and noradrenaline, which prepare the body for a "fight or flight" response. Increased heart rate, rapid breathing, heightened sensory perception, and increased alertness are some of the physiological changes that occur during this response. Chronic stress can have negative effects on various bodily functions, including the immune, cardiovascular, and nervous systems.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Regulator genes are a type of gene that regulates the activity of other genes in an organism. They do not code for a specific protein product but instead control the expression of other genes by producing regulatory proteins such as transcription factors, repressors, or enhancers. These regulatory proteins bind to specific DNA sequences near the target genes and either promote or inhibit their transcription into mRNA. This allows regulator genes to play a crucial role in coordinating complex biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism, and response to environmental stimuli.

There are several types of regulator genes, including:

1. Constitutive regulators: These genes are always active and produce regulatory proteins that control the expression of other genes in a consistent manner.
2. Inducible regulators: These genes respond to specific signals or environmental stimuli by producing regulatory proteins that modulate the expression of target genes.
3. Negative regulators: These genes produce repressor proteins that bind to DNA and inhibit the transcription of target genes, thereby reducing their expression.
4. Positive regulators: These genes produce activator proteins that bind to DNA and promote the transcription of target genes, thereby increasing their expression.
5. Master regulators: These genes control the expression of multiple downstream target genes involved in specific biological processes or developmental pathways.

Regulator genes are essential for maintaining proper gene expression patterns and ensuring normal cellular function. Mutations in regulator genes can lead to various diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and metabolic dysfunctions.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "lettuce" is not a medical term. It is a type of vegetable that belongs to the family Asteraceae. It is commonly used in salads and sandwiches due to its crisp leaves and mild flavor. If you have any questions about lettuce or its nutritional value, I would be happy to help with that instead.

Aerial parts of plants refer to the above-ground portions of a plant, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. These parts are often used in medicine, either in their entirety or as isolated extracts, to take advantage of their medicinal properties. The specific components of aerial parts that are used in medicine can vary depending on the plant species and the desired therapeutic effects. For example, the leaves of some plants may contain active compounds that have anti-inflammatory or analgesic properties, while the flowers of others may be rich in antioxidants or compounds with sedative effects. In general, aerial parts of plants are used in herbal medicine to treat a wide range of conditions, including respiratory, digestive, and nervous system disorders, as well as skin conditions and infections.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Botany is the scientific study of plants, encompassing various disciplines such as plant structure, function, evolution, diversity, distribution, ecology, and application. It involves examining different aspects like plant anatomy, physiology, genetics, molecular biology, systematics, and ethnobotany. The field of botany has contributed significantly to our understanding of the natural world, agriculture, medicine, and environmental conservation.

A cotyledon is a seed leaf in plants, which is part of the embryo within the seed. Cotyledons are often referred to as "seed leaves" because they are the first leaves to emerge from the seed during germination and provide nutrients to the developing plant until it can produce its own food through photosynthesis.

In some plants, such as monocotyledons, there is only one cotyledon, while in other plants, such as dicotyledons, there are two cotyledons. The number of cotyledons is a characteristic that is used to classify different types of plants.

Cotyledons serve important functions during the early stages of plant growth, including providing energy and nutrients to the developing plant, protecting the embryo, and helping to anchor the seed in the soil. Once the plant has established its root system and begun to produce true leaves through photosynthesis, the cotyledons may wither or fall off, depending on the species.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Root nodules in plants refer to the specialized structures formed through the symbiotic relationship between certain leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, most commonly belonging to the genus Rhizobia. These nodules typically develop on the roots of the host plant, providing an ideal environment for the bacteria to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, a form that can be directly utilized by the plant for growth and development.

The formation of root nodules begins with the infection of the plant's root hair cells by Rhizobia bacteria. This interaction triggers a series of molecular signals leading to the differentiation of root cortical cells into nodule primordia, which eventually develop into mature nodules. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria reside within these nodules in membrane-bound compartments called symbiosomes, where they reduce atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia through an enzyme called nitrogenase.

The plant, in turn, provides the bacteria with carbon sources and other essential nutrients required for their growth and survival within the nodules. The fixed nitrogen is then transported from the root nodules to other parts of the plant, enhancing its overall nitrogen nutrition and promoting sustainable growth without the need for external nitrogen fertilizers.

In summary, root nodules in plants are essential structures formed through symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, allowing leguminous plants to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form while also benefiting the environment by reducing the reliance on chemical nitrogen fertilizers.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Salinity is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, salinity refers to the level of salt or sodium content in a substance, usually measured in parts per thousand (ppt). In a medical context, salinity might be discussed in relation to things like the body's fluid balance or the composition of certain bodily fluids, such as sweat or tears.

It is worth noting that in some cases, high salinity levels can have negative effects on health. For example, consuming water with very high salt content can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can be dangerous. Similarly, exposure to high-salinity environments (such as seawater) can cause skin irritation and other problems in some people. However, these are not direct medical definitions of salinity.

Salicylic Acid is a type of beta hydroxy acid (BHA) that is commonly used in dermatology due to its keratolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. It works by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed more easily, preventing the pores from becoming blocked and promoting the growth of new skin cells. Salicylic Acid is also a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which makes it useful in the treatment of inflammatory acne and other skin conditions associated with redness and irritation. It can be found in various over-the-counter skincare products, such as cleansers, creams, and peels, as well as in prescription-strength formulations.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

In the context of medical terminology, "light" doesn't have a specific or standardized definition on its own. However, it can be used in various medical terms and phrases. For example, it could refer to:

1. Visible light: The range of electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, typically between wavelengths of 400-700 nanometers. This is relevant in fields such as ophthalmology and optometry.
2. Therapeutic use of light: In some therapies, light is used to treat certain conditions. An example is phototherapy, which uses various wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) or visible light for conditions like newborn jaundice, skin disorders, or seasonal affective disorder.
3. Light anesthesia: A state of reduced consciousness in which the patient remains responsive to verbal commands and physical stimulation. This is different from general anesthesia where the patient is completely unconscious.
4. Pain relief using light: Certain devices like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) units have a 'light' setting, indicating lower intensity or frequency of electrical impulses used for pain management.

Without more context, it's hard to provide a precise medical definition of 'light'.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Heterocyclic steroids refer to a class of steroidal compounds that contain one or more heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur in their ring structure. These molecules are characterized by having at least one carbon atom in the ring replaced by a heteroatom, which can affect the chemical and physical properties of the compound compared to typical steroids.

Steroids are a type of organic compound that contains a characteristic arrangement of four fused rings, three of them six-membered (cyclohexane) and one five-membered (cyclopentane) ring. The heterocyclic steroids can have various biological activities, including hormonal, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. They are used in the pharmaceutical industry to develop drugs for treating several medical conditions, such as hormone replacement therapy, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Examples of heterocyclic steroids include cortisol (a natural glucocorticoid with a heterocyclic side chain), estradiol (a natural estrogen containing a phenolic A-ring), and various synthetic steroids like anabolic-androgenic steroids, which may contain heterocyclic structures to enhance their biological activity or pharmacokinetic properties.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.

In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.

Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.

During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays an essential role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by absorbing light energy, primarily from the blue and red parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and converting it into chemical energy to fuel the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The structure of chlorophyll includes a porphyrin ring, which binds a central magnesium ion, and a long phytol tail. There are several types of chlorophyll, including chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, which have distinct absorption spectra and slightly different structures. Chlorophyll is crucial for the process of photosynthesis, enabling the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy and the release of oxygen as a byproduct.

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a protein that functions as a chloride channel in the membranes of various cells, including those in the lungs and pancreas. Mutations in the gene encoding CFTR can lead to Cystic Fibrosis, a genetic disorder characterized by thick, sticky mucus in the lungs and other organs, leading to severe respiratory and digestive problems.

CFTR is normally activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and regulates the movement of chloride ions across cell membranes. In Cystic Fibrosis, mutations in CFTR can result in impaired channel function or reduced amounts of functional CFTR at the cell surface, leading to an imbalance in ion transport and fluid homeostasis. This can cause the production of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways and leads to chronic lung infections, as well as other symptoms associated with Cystic Fibrosis.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) is a chemical compound with the formula H-C≡N. It is a colorless, extremely poisonous and flammable liquid that has a bitter almond-like odor in its pure form. However, not everyone can detect its odor, as some people lack the ability to smell it, which makes it even more dangerous. It is soluble in water and alcohol, and its aqueous solution is called hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid.

Hydrogen Cyanide is rapidly absorbed by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact, and it inhibits the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase, which is essential for cellular respiration. This leads to rapid death due to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) at the cellular level. It is used industrially in large quantities as a pesticide, fumigant, and chemical intermediate, but it also has significant potential for use as a chemical weapon.

In the medical field, Hydrogen Cyanide poisoning can be treated with high-concentration oxygen, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate, which help to restore the function of cytochrome c oxidase and enhance the elimination of cyanide from the body.

Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) is a cysteine-rich peptide growth factor that belongs to the CCN family of proteins. It plays an important role in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. CTGF is involved in wound healing, tissue repair, and fibrosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as cancer, diabetic nephropathy, and systemic sclerosis. It is expressed in response to various stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, and mechanical stress. CTGF interacts with a variety of signaling molecules and integrins to regulate cellular responses and tissue homeostasis.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Carbon-carbon lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in a substrate, resulting in the formation of two molecules with a double bond between them. This reaction is typically accompanied by the release or addition of a cofactor such as water or a coenzyme.

These enzymes play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. They are also involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, such as terpenoids and alkaloids.

Carbon-carbon lyases are classified under EC number 4.1.2. in the Enzyme Commission (EC) system. This classification includes a wide range of enzymes with different substrate specificities and reaction mechanisms. Examples of carbon-carbon lyases include decarboxylases, aldolases, and dehydratases.

It's worth noting that the term "lyase" refers to any enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a group of atoms from a molecule, leaving a double bond or a cycle, and it does not necessarily imply the formation of carbon-carbon bonds.

Herbivory is not a medical term, but rather a term used in biology and ecology. It refers to the practice of consuming plants or plant matter for food. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants, and their diet can include leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants.

While herbivory is not a medical term, it is still relevant to the field of medicine in certain contexts. For example, understanding the diets and behaviors of herbivores can help inform public health initiatives related to food safety and disease transmission. Additionally, research on herbivory has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of plant-animal interactions and the development of ecosystems.

'Drosophila proteins' refer to the proteins that are expressed in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. This organism is a widely used model system in genetics, developmental biology, and molecular biology research. The study of Drosophila proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes, including gene regulation, cell signaling, development, and aging.

Some examples of well-studied Drosophila proteins include:

1. HSP70 (Heat Shock Protein 70): A chaperone protein involved in protein folding and protection from stress conditions.
2. TUBULIN: A structural protein that forms microtubules, important for cell division and intracellular transport.
3. ACTIN: A cytoskeletal protein involved in muscle contraction, cell motility, and maintenance of cell shape.
4. BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (LACZ): A reporter protein often used to monitor gene expression patterns in transgenic flies.
5. ENDOGLIN: A protein involved in the development of blood vessels during embryogenesis.
6. P53: A tumor suppressor protein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer by regulating cell growth and division.
7. JUN-KINASE (JNK): A signaling protein involved in stress response, apoptosis, and developmental processes.
8. DECAPENTAPLEGIC (DPP): A member of the TGF-β (Transforming Growth Factor Beta) superfamily, playing essential roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis.

These proteins are often studied using various techniques such as biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology to understand their functions, interactions, and regulation within the cell.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydroponics" is not a medical term. It is an agricultural technique and term. Hydroponics refers to the practice of growing plants in nutrient-rich water solutions, without soil. This method allows plants to obtain their necessary nutrients directly from the water, which is enriched with dissolved minerals. Common hydroponic systems include wick systems, deep water culture, nutrient film technique, ebb and flow system, aeroponics, and drip systems.

"Solanum tuberosum" is the scientific name for a plant species that is commonly known as the potato. According to medical and botanical definitions, Solanum tuberosum refers to the starchy, edible tubers that grow underground from this plant. Potatoes are native to the Andes region of South America and are now grown worldwide. They are an important food source for many people and are used in a variety of culinary applications.

Potatoes contain several essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, fiber, protein, vitamin C, and some B vitamins. However, they can also be high in calories, especially when prepared with added fats like butter or oil. Additionally, potatoes are often consumed in forms that are less healthy, such as French fries and potato chips, which can contribute to weight gain and other health problems if consumed excessively.

In a medical context, potatoes may also be discussed in relation to food allergies or intolerances. While uncommon, some people may have adverse reactions to potatoes, including skin rashes, digestive symptoms, or difficulty breathing. These reactions are typically caused by an immune response to proteins found in the potato plant, rather than the tubers themselves.

'Brassica' is a term used in botanical nomenclature, specifically within the family Brassicaceae. It refers to a genus of plants that includes various vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and mustard greens. These plants are known for their nutritional value and health benefits. They contain glucosinolates, which have been studied for their potential anti-cancer properties. However, it is not a medical term per se, but rather a taxonomic category used in the biological sciences.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard medical term. It falls more within the domain of botany, which is a branch of biology focused on the study of plants.

However, I can provide a general explanation: Plant physiological phenomena refer to the functional processes and activities that occur within plants. This includes various aspects such as photosynthesis (the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth), respiration, plant nutrition (the uptake and assimilation of nutrients from the soil), water relations (how plants absorb, transport, and use water), plant hormone functions, and many other processes.

If you have a term that is used in a medical context which you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with that!

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Physiological adaptation refers to the changes or modifications that occur in an organism's biological functions or structures as a result of environmental pressures or changes. These adaptations enable the organism to survive and reproduce more successfully in its environment. They can be short-term, such as the constriction of blood vessels in response to cold temperatures, or long-term, such as the evolution of longer limbs in animals that live in open environments.

In the context of human physiology, examples of physiological adaptation include:

1. Acclimatization: The process by which the body adjusts to changes in environmental conditions, such as altitude or temperature. For example, when a person moves to a high-altitude location, their body may produce more red blood cells to compensate for the lower oxygen levels, leading to improved oxygen delivery to tissues.

2. Exercise adaptation: Regular physical activity can lead to various physiological adaptations, such as increased muscle strength and endurance, enhanced cardiovascular function, and improved insulin sensitivity.

3. Hormonal adaptation: The body can adjust hormone levels in response to changes in the environment or internal conditions. For instance, during prolonged fasting, the body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline to help maintain energy levels and prevent muscle wasting.

4. Sensory adaptation: Our senses can adapt to different stimuli over time. For example, when we enter a dark room after being in bright sunlight, it takes some time for our eyes to adjust to the new light level. This process is known as dark adaptation.

5. Aging-related adaptations: As we age, various physiological changes occur that help us adapt to the changing environment and maintain homeostasis. These include changes in body composition, immune function, and cognitive abilities.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

'Cucumis sativus' is the scientific name for the vegetable we commonly know as a cucumber. It belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and is believed to have originated in South Asia. Cucumbers are widely consumed raw in salads, pickled, or used in various culinary applications. They have a high water content and contain various nutrients such as vitamin K, vitamin C, and potassium.

They were discovered in the 1940s after a long study of the plant growth regulator auxin. Synthetic auxins mimic this plant ... "Plant Growth Regulators - Auxins". CliniSciences. Retrieved 27 October 2022. Fluazifop. Herbiguide.com.au. Retrieved 2013-03-05 ... Modern herbicides are often synthetic mimics of natural plant hormones that interfere with the growth of the target plants. The ... Selective herbicides control or suppress certain plants without affecting the growth of other plant species. Selectivity may be ...
"Kinetin - Plant Growth Regulators , CliniSciences". www.clinisciences.com. Retrieved 28 March 2023. "Carlos Miller". Department ... Kinetin (/'kaɪnɪtɪn/) is a cytokinin-like synthetic plant hormone that promotes cell division in plants. Kinetin was originally ... The 50th Anniversary of a New Plant Hormone". Plant Physiology. 138 (3): 1177-1184. doi:10.1104/pp.104.900160. PMC 1176392. ... Kinetin is also widely used in producing new plants from tissue cultures. In 1939 P. A. C. Nobécourt (Paris) began the first ...
... through manipulation of growth regulators in vitro (7 ed.). Plant Cell Reports. ISBN 978-1-4020-4584-4. "Pampas Grass ... through manipulation of growth regulators in vitro". Plant Cell Reports. 14 (11): 689-93. doi:10.1007/BF00232648. PMID 24186623 ... The plant also competes with other native plants by monopolizing resources like shade, sunlight, and ground nutrients. Because ... Also, planting or seeding desirable, non-invasive plants can provide competition to reduce germination and seedling ...
... is used as a plant growth regulator, primarily used as a branching agent. When it is taken up by a plant, dikegulac sodium is ... Plant Growth Regulation (Proceedings in Life Sciences). International Conference on Plant Growth Substances, 9th. Springer ... "Augeo Plant Growth Regulator" (PDF). OHP, Inc. Retrieved 2017-01-07. "Pinscher , ArborSystems". www.arborsystems.com. Retrieved ... "Atrimmec Plant Growth Regulator". www.gordonsprofessional.com. Retrieved 2017-01-08. Drahl, Carmen (2009-12-14). "Ginkgogate: ...
"Sumagic Plant Growth Regulator" (PDF). Valent. 2010. Retrieved 2017-01-02. "Sunny Plant Growth Regulator" (PDF). Sumitomo ... "Growth Regulators for Containerized Herbaceous Perennial Plants" (PDF). Ball Publishing. 2016. Retrieved 2017-01-02. "Concise ... Uniconazole is a triazole chemical used as a plant growth retardant. It is active on a wide range of plants and acts by ... The following products labeled for application to ornamental plants as plant growth retardants in the United States contain ...
Essential Regulators of Plant Growth and Development". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 49: 427- ... "Effect of brassinolide and other growth regulators on the germination and growth of pollen tubes of "Prunus avium" using a ... It had further positive impacts on increasing plant growth parameters via their integral role in decreasing oxidative stress ... When the developed plants fresh weight was analyzed the treated seeds outperformed plants grown on saline and non-saline medium ...
Essential Regulators of Plant Growth and Development". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. Annual ... and was subsequently discovered in many other plant organs. 24-Epibrassinolide is essential for proper plant development growth ... 24-Epibrassinolide is a type of brassinosteroid, a natural occurring plant hormone. It was first discovered 1979 as a growth ... a plant growth-promoting steroid isolated from Brassica napus pollen". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 281 ( ...
"Researchers Discover Natural Insect Growth Regulators in Plants". Entomology Today. January 28, 2015. "Discovery by UC ...
Latimer, Joyce G. (2022). "Growth Regulators for Containerized Herbaceous Perennial Plants" (PDF). GrowerTalks. Ball Publishing ... Rademacher, W.; Fritsch, H.; Graebe, J.E.; Sauter, H.; Jung, J. (1987). "Tetcyclacis and triazole-type plant growth retardants ... In addition, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, flutriafol [de], and triadimefon are used as plant growth retardants. Brassinazole ... Due to spreading resistance of plant pathogens towards fungicides of the strobilurin class, control of fungi such as Septoria ...
Desta, Bizuayehu; Amare, Getachew (January 7, 2021). "Paclobutrazol as a plant growth regulator". Chemical and Biological ... Latimer, Joyce G. (2022). "Growth Regulators for Containerized Herbaceous Perennial Plants" (PDF). GrowerTalks. Ball Publishing ... As an antagonist of gibberellin biosynthesis, PBZ has a growth retardant effect on most plant species. It is absorbed by plant ... Plant growth regulators, Commons category link is on Wikidata). ... A single application of the growth regulator can give season- ...
... and in vitro-grown plants and plant cells; these manmade compounds are called plant growth regulators (PGRs). Early in the ... Other identified plant growth regulators include: Plant peptide hormones - encompasses all small secreted peptides that are ... 2009-10-01). "Karrikins: A new family of plant growth regulators in smoke". Plant Science. 177 (4): 252-256. doi:10.1016/j. ... Plant hormones frequently regulate the concentrations of other plant hormones. Plants also move hormones around the plant ...
Herbicides and plant growth regulators. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 662-. ISBN 978-0-85404-494-8. Retrieved 25 May 2012. ...
Sitinjak, Rama Riana; Pandiangan, Dingse (2014). "THE EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR TRIACONTANOL TO THE GROWTH OF CACAO ... A potent plant growth regulator in agriculture". Journal of Plant Interactions. 7 (2): 129-142. doi:10.1080/17429145.2011. ... 1-Triacontanol is a natural plant growth regulator. It has been widely used to enhance the yield of various crops around the ... Triacontanol as a plant growth regulator. Horticultural Science, 18: 654-662. Nelson, N. ( 1944 ). A photometric adaptation of ...
... is a plant growth regulator. It has been approved for use on kiwifruit and grapes in the United States, and it ... Plant growth regulators, Chloropyridines, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs, Agriculture stubs, Botany stubs). ...
... is a plant growth regulator. Upon metabolism by the plant, it is converted into ethylene, a potent regulator of plant ... Ethephon often used on wheat, coffee, tobacco, cotton, and rice in order to help the plant's fruit reach ripeness more quickly ... and any ethephon used on the plant is converted very quickly to ethylene. The use of this chemical is allowed in the European ... growth and ripeness. It is also a butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor. ...
... s are a group of plant growth regulators found in the smoke of burning plant material. Karrikins help stimulate seed ... 2009-10-01). "Karrikins: A new family of plant growth regulators in smoke". Plant Science. 177 (4): 252-256. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Potential of Karrikins as Novel Plant Growth Regulators in Agriculture". Plants. 9 (1): 43. doi:10.3390/plants9010043. PMC ... which enhances plant growth and leads to an increase in plant branching. Smoke from wildfires or bushfires has been known for a ...
2,6-DIPN is plant growth regulator. It helps inhibit the sprouting of potatoes during storage, especially in combination with ...
... (TDZ) is a plant growth regulator. The synthesis routes and their use as plant growth regulating agent were ... A potent regulator ofin vitro plant morphogenesis". In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant. 34 (4): 267-275. doi: ... Huetteman, Carl A.; Preece, John E. (1993). "Thidiazuron: A potent cytokinin for woody plant tissue culture". Plant Cell, ... without affecting the growth and maturation of the plant. This facilitates mechanical harvesting. It also accelerates the ...
There is the possibility to add plant growth regulators, e.g. Indole-3butyric acid, to increase the biomass production ... The association with mycorrhiza can increase the growth and yield of the plant. J. gendarussa was proved to contain several ... The plant was proved to have both anti-microbial and anti-fungal action on selected pathogen strains, and therefore this plant ... The plant is already used as traditional contraceptive method in Indonesia. The plant compound Patentiflorin A contained in J. ...
They occur widely in the drugs, herbicides, plant growth regulators, and dyestuffs. Industrially the compound is produced by ... doi:10.1107/S0567740879003575 Buecker, Brad (1997). Power Plant Water Chemistry A Practical Guide. PennWell Publishing Company ...
... plant damage-associated molecular patterns and regulators of growth and development". Frontiers in Plant Science. 4 (49): 49. ... Phytopathogenic fungi expose plant cell walls to cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) like PGs. In response, most plants have ... Pectin is one of the three polysaccharides present in the plant cell wall, and it plays a role in maintaining the barrier ... Pollen Exo-PGs play a role in enabling pollen tube elongation since pectin rearrangement is necessary for the growth of pollen ...
... plant growth regulator and/or biostimulator during stress?". Trends in Plant Science. Elsevier. 19 (12): 789-97. doi:10.1016/j. ... Rather, melatonin performs important roles in plants as a growth regulator, as well as environmental stress protector. It is ... Although a role for melatonin as a plant hormone has not been clearly established, its involvement in processes such as growth ... Arnao MB, Hernández-Ruiz J (May 2006). "The physiological function of melatonin in plants". Plant Signaling & Behavior. 1 (3): ...
Hepler, Peter (2005). "Calcium: An essential regulator of plant growth and development". The Plant Cell. 17 (8): 2142-2155. doi ... a central regulator of plant growth and development". Plant Cell. 17 (8): 2142-55. doi:10.1105/tpc.105.032508. PMC 1182479. ... Hepler has shown that calcium ions are a central regulator of plant growth and development specifically demonstrating that ... He has been on the editorial boards of the Annual Review Plant Physiology, Plant and Cell Physiology, the Journal of ...
... plant growth regulator and/or biostimulator during stress?". Trends in Plant Science. Elsevier. 19 (12): 789-797. doi:10.1016/j ... Bullis, Kevin (December 2015). "Speeding Plant Growth to Feed the World , MIT Technology Review". MIT Technology Review. ... The Chinese scientists put recombinant HSA protein promoters into 25 rice plants using Agrobacterium. Out of the 25 plants, ... As of 2021, salt-tolerant "seawater" rice in China had been planted on 400,000 ha (990,000 acres) in soils with up to 4 grams ...
Analytical Methods for Pesticides and Plant Growth Regulators. Academic Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4832-2090-1. Archived from ... 1-3 weeks on the surface of plants, over 20 days indoors, and 19-27 hours in the water column. Permethrin-contaminated indoor ...
Yanagawa, H; Kato, T; Kitahara, Y (1973). "Asparagusic acid-S-oxides, new plant growth regulators in etiolated young asparagus ... A variety of acyclic and cyclic thiosulfinates are found in plants, or formed when the plants are cut or crushed. A well-known ... For this reason the mixtures of thiosulfinates from Allium plants can best be separated by HPLC at room temperature rather than ... "The mechanism of radical-trapping antioxidant activity of plant-derived thiosulfinates". Org. Biomol. Chem. 9 (9): 3320-3330. ...
"Involvement of plant hormones and plant growth regulators on in vitro somatic embryogenesis". Plant Growth Regulation. 47 (2-3 ... ornamental plant, and sewage-control plant, and it was widely planted in the south as an animal feed. Beginning in the 1980s, ... The symptoms include steady wilting of the plants and a yellow discoloration of the plant leaves that eventually leads to plant ... The plant invaded Florida in 1890, and an estimated 50 kg/m2 of the plant mass choked Florida's waterways. The clogging of the ...
The application of plant growth regulators further improve the chance of successful propagation. While many cultivated plants ... although this depends on the substrate that the plant is being planted in. Cuttings planted peat perform best in Autumn, while ... There are, however, also plants in Worcester. Plants are found on sandstone slopes or sandy or shale flats. It is common in ... Plants described in 1837, Medicinal plants, Boraginaceae, Endemic flora of the Cape Provinces). ...
... chlormequat is classified as a low risk plant growth regulator and it is registered for use on ornamental plants grown in ... Chlormequat is an organic compound with the formula ClCH 2CH 2N(CH 3)+ 3 that is used as a plant growth regulator. It is ... Sørensen, MT; Danielsen, V (February 2006). "Effects of the plant growth regulator, chlormequat, on mammalian fertility". ... Chlormequat chloride (ChemSpider) Wilhelm Rademacher, Lutz Brahm "Plant Growth Regulators" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
The mechanism of apical dominance is based on auxins, types of plant growth regulators. These are produced in the apical ... Primary growth gives rise to the apical part of many plants. The growth of nitrogen-fixing root nodules on legume plants such ... This is the primary growth. Primary growth leads to lengthening of the plant body and organ formation. All plant organs arise ... Such plants are called arboraceous. This does not occur in plants that do not go through secondary growth (known as herbaceous ...
Increase the rooting percentage of Rosa centifolia cuttings with plant growth regulators. Discover the optimal concentrations ... Potential of Plant Growth Regulators on Modulating Rooting of Rosa centifolia. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 659-665. ... Potential of Plant Growth Regulators on Modulating Rooting of Rosa centifolia () Gulzar Akhtar1, Ahsan Akram1, Yasar Sajjad2*, ... Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Survival Rooting and Growth Characters in Long Pepper (Piper longum L.). Progressive ...
Plant growth regulators are essentially a human attempt at "bio-hacking" a plants biological system. With that in mind we have ... To begin defining exactly what plant growth regulators are we need to understand plant hormones, also known as phytohormones. ... Plant hormones are natural to the plant kingdom and similarly to animal hormones, play major roles in a plants growth and ... What are Plant Growth Regulators?. Discovered in the late 1920s and 1930s, PGRs have been used in agriculture for decades to ...
Rooting Powder SF-Rooting powder is one kind of plant rooting regulator, can promote cuttage, transplant, grow seedlings, take ... Product Description Agri-sc no-deep tillage regulator is produced by Chengdu New Sun Biochemistry Co., Ltd.It is one kind of ...
Plant growth regulators > Ethylene releasers. Plant growth regulators > Defoliants. Glyoxime. 乙二肟. 557-30-2. Plant growth ... Plant growth regulators > Ethylene releasers. Plant growth regulators > Defoliants. Glyoxime. 乙二肟. 557-30-2. Plant growth ... Plant growth regulators > Ethylene releasers. Product Name. CAS No.. Category. Ethephon. 乙烯利. 16672-87-0. ... regulators > Ethylene releasers. Etacelasil. 乙烯硅. 37894-46-5. ...
plant growth regulator-related posts for landscape business owners on emerging trends, best practices, operational ... Try these weed-smothering, attractive, spreading (but not invasive!) plants. Who doesnt want a garden that requires less ... Turf Magazine advances the growth, environmental outreach and profitability of the turf and landscape industry by providing ...
Environmental Protection Agency has granted registration approval for PoMaxaTM Plant Growth Regulator (PGR). PoMaxa is a potent ... Pienaar says PoMaxa was developed specifically for use in a program with VBC plant growth regulators MaxCel® and ReTain®, both ... Valent products include a well-known line of quality herbicide, insecticide, fungicide and plant growth regulator products for ... Environmental Protection Agency has granted registration approval for PoMaxaTM Plant Growth Regulator (PGR). PoMaxa is a potent ...
Research in the past has shown that a class of plant growth regulators known collectively as substituted tertiary amines have ... affects plant growth and productivity. To link the effect of BMVE with plant phenotype, precise temporal changes in wheat ... A classical phenotyping approach was also followed to evaluate the effect of BMVE on early growth stages of wheat. Additionally ... However, earlier efficacy studies that involved spraying plants were sometimes inconsistent or showed only minimal benefits. A ...
... Asian Journal of ... Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Regeneration of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) table, th, td { border: 0px ... The effect of different media and various combinations of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) on callus formation and shoot ... The different plant growth regulators, NAA (0, 0.1, 1, 2 mg L-1), 2,4-D (0, 0.1, 1, 2 mg L-1) only or together with Kin (0, 0.5 ...
Plant growth regulator Suppliers, Plant growth regulator Manufacturers, and Plant growth regulator Exporters provided by ... Plant growth regulator Catalog with China Plant growth regulator Products, ...
Plantlet Regeneration and Growth of Plantlets of Doritaenopsis Orchid ... Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Proliferation, ... Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Proliferation, ... Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Proliferation, Plantlet Regeneration and Growth of Plantlets of Doritaenopsis ... For in vitro growth of plantlets, 0.5 mg l-1 of BAP was the best for leaf and shoot growth compared to that of for BAP and NAA ...
The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) to increase flower formation in apples has been extensively used, however, the ... 1342_50 Early flower bud development and plant growth regulators to improve return bloom of pears ... Early flower bud development and plant growth regulators to improve return bloom of pears. ... Pyrus communis, flower induction, flower initiation, doming of apex, plant growth regulators ...
Wheat expert Peter Johnson explains when does it make sense to use a plant growth regulator (PGR) on your wheat crop. ... Plant growth regulators for wheat Wheat expert Peter Johnson explains when does it make sense to use a plant growth regulator ( ... the fungicide and the growth regulator. But that is a trade-off scenario. To accurately time the growth regulator to remove ... "Growth regulators thicken the cell walls in the stem so the plant has better standability. Sometimes you dont get any ...
Boiss as affected by plant growth regulator, sucrose concentration, harvesting season and cold treatments ... Boiss as affected by plant growth regulator, sucrose concentration, harvesting season and cold treatments ... Boiss as affected by plant growth regulator, sucrose concentration, harvesting season and cold treatments ... Boiss as affected by plant growth regulator, sucrose concentration, harvesting season and cold treatments ...
Posted in Agricharts,No DTN, Grain, TexasTagged wheat, wheat production, Plant Growth Regulators, wheat news, Texas Share ... Texas Wheat: Plant Growth Regulators May Have Economical Benefits. December 5, 2014. By Kay Ledbetter, Texas AgriLife Extension ... Plant growth regulators are nothing new for cotton farmers, but they are of recent interest to some wheat producers who are ... Plant growth regulators are natural and synthetic hormones, and it is critical that application timing takes place to enhance ...
Field Evaluation of Nitrophenolate Plant Growth Regulator (Chaperone) for the Effect on Cotton Lint Yield. Authors: Josh B. ...
... were applied to the plants both in the field and the greenhouse. Quality ratings were recorded weekly in both the field and ... PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND HERBICIDES FOR MANAGEMENT OF POA ANNUA: IMPACT OF BIOTYPES AND BEHAVIOR OF FLURPRIMIDOL IN ... Williams, Alexandra Perseveranda, "PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND HERBICIDES FOR MANAGEMENT OF POA ANNUA: IMPACT OF BIOTYPES AND ... UKnowledge , College of Agriculture, Food and Environment , Plant and Soil Sciences , Theses & Dissertations , 45 ...
Plant Growth Regulator, Mixture, Intermediates, Agrochemicals, Bio Stimulate, Growth Activator, Organic Pesticides ... Plant Regulator, Plant Growth Regulator, Mixture, Intermediates, Agrochemicals, Bio Stimulate, Growth Activator, Organic ... Plant Regulator, Plant Growth Regulator, Mixture, Intermediates, Agrochemicals, Bio Stimulate, Growth Activator, Organic ... Plant capacity: 6240000 Pkts. /Annum. Plant & machinery: Rs. 27 Lakhs. Working capital: -. T.C.I: Cost of Project : Rs. 175 ...
... growth in plants? Watch Video Solution. ... Step by step video & image solution for Write a short note on plant growth regulators that promote and inhibit growth in plants ... Plant hormones are: 1. Growth regulators 2. Growth promoters 3. Growth inhibitors 4. All of these ... Choose the correct alternative : Plant hormones are: a)Growth regulators b)Growth promoters c)Growth inhibitors d)All of these ...
Brazil Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) Market - Global Industry Size, Share, Trends, Opportunity and Forecast 2027 By Type, By ... Brazil Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) Market is expected to grow at an impressive rate during the forecast period. ... in Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market.. *To conduct pricing analysis in the Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) ... To estimate and forecast the market size of Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market from 2021 to 2027 and growth rate ...
All Rights Reserved. Copyright © Protected 2023. SLN Biotech. Powered by Dotdev Technology, India.. ...
Certain substances affect the growth quite miraculously. These were referred to Hormones. Hormone means to urge or to stimulate ... Root Growth: Inhibits root growth(Plant Growth Regulators) *Leaf Expansion: Leaves become broader and enlarged (Cabbage, Sweet ... They are synthetic growth regulators, acts in variety of ways on the natural regulation of mechanisms of plants.(Plant Growth ... Growth of seedlings - inhibits growth of both root and shoot this property is similar to cytokinin(Plant Growth Regulators) ...
Our Crop Protection Plant Growth Regulator Promoter Products includes - Triacontanol Read More ... ...
"Plant Growth Regulators" by people in this website by year, and whether "Plant Growth Regulators" was a major or minor topic of ... "Plant Growth Regulators" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Plant Growth Regulators" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Plant Growth Regulators". ...
Plant Growth Regulator for Potato 19 June 2021. Plant Growth Regulator for Tomato 19 June 2021. Plant Growth Regulator for ... Approved Plant Growth Regulator. Crop. Time of application / purpose. a.i. (ppm/gm/%) (Dosage per ha). Formulation (ml/gm/L tr/ ... Home » Plant Growth Regulator - Grape. Plant Growth Regulator - Grape. *Post published:19 June 2021 ...
Plant Growth regulator. Plant Growth regulator. product name CAS No. Pineapple Hormone Cloprop (3-CPA) 98%. 101-10-0. Indole-3- ... 6-Benzylaminopurine 6-BA 99% plant growth regulator. 1214-39-7. 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) 98%. 122-88-3. Q- ... Trans-Zeatin 99% Plant Hormones. 1637-39-4. 3-Indoleacetic acid IAA 98% plant hormone auxins. 87-51-4. Alpha-naphthalene ... Mepiquat chloride (PIX) 98% plant hormones. 24307-26-4. Potassium 3-Indoleacetate 99% K-IAA Plant Hormones. 2338-19-4. ...
Plant Growth Regulators, Duranto Photosynthesis 5 Kg offered by MaxEEma Biotech Private Limited, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. ... Manufacturer of a wide range of products which include plant growth regulators and duranto photosynthesis 5 kg. ...
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MODDUS 250EC contains trinexapac-ethyl for use as a growth regulator in wheat, barley, oats, rye, triticale, durum wheat and ... MODDUS 250EC contains trinexapac-ethyl for use as a growth regulator in wheat, barley, oats, rye, triticale, durum wheat and ...
  • This study was designed to increase the rooting percentage of cuttings by applying plant growth regulators (PGRs) with different levels. (scirp.org)
  • Healthy similar sized cutting of R. centifolia was treated in solution of PGRs by quick dip method and planted in polythene bags. (scirp.org)
  • Plant Growth Regulator (PGRs): Weed on Steroids? (hightimes.com)
  • These are usually telltale signs that the cannabis may have been grown using plant growth regulators (PGRs) . (hightimes.com)
  • With cannabis rapidly becoming a big business , increased yields per harvest and shorter growth cycles, have sparked an interest in PGRs from commercial perspectives. (hightimes.com)
  • So how do PGRs actually manipulate a plants growth cycle and increase it's yields? (hightimes.com)
  • In response to the signal transduction pathway (initiated by the presence of plant hormones or PGRs), repressor proteins for example are then broken down and the "stop breaks" are removed. (hightimes.com)
  • The effect of different media and various combinations of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) on callus formation and shoot regeneration were investigated. (scialert.net)
  • The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) to increase flower formation in apples has been extensively used, however, the results are not always satisfactory, probably because of varietal differences and excessive crop load during flower induction and differentiation. (ishs.org)
  • Two PGRs, paclobutrazol and flurprimidol, and two herbicides, bispyribac-sodium and amicarbazone, were applied to the plants both in the field and the greenhouse. (uky.edu)
  • Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market is expected to grow at an impressive rate during the forecast period. (techsciresearch.com)
  • The Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market is driven by the increasing demand for cotton by the flourishing textile industry in the country. (techsciresearch.com)
  • The Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market is segmented based on type, crop type, function, formulation, company and region. (techsciresearch.com)
  • The major players operating in the Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market are Rotam Brazil, Sumitomo Chemical Latin America, FMC Corporation, Bayer Brasil, Nufarm Brasil, BASF S.A., Syngenta Protecao de Cultivos Ltda. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To analyze and estimate the market size of Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market from 2017 to 2020. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To estimate and forecast the market size of Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market from 2021 to 2027 and growth rate until 2027. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To classify and forecast Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market based on type, crop type, function, formulation, company and regional distribution. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To identify dominant region or segment in the Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To identify drivers and challenges for Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To examine competitive developments such as expansions, new product launches, mergers & acquisitions, etc., in Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To conduct pricing analysis in the Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To identify and analyze the profile of leading players operating in Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To identify key sustainable strategies adopted by market players in Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market. (techsciresearch.com)
  • TechSci Research calculated the market size of Brazil plant growth regulators (PGRs) market using a bottom-up approach, wherein data for various end-user segments was recorded and forecast for the future years. (techsciresearch.com)
  • To begin defining exactly what plant growth regulators are we need to understand plant hormones, also known as phytohormones. (hightimes.com)
  • Plant hormones are natural to the plant kingdom and similarly to animal hormones, play major roles in a plants growth and development. (hightimes.com)
  • It is traditionally accepted that there are 5 major classes of natural plant hormones (endogenous) that play key roles in a plants life cycle. (hightimes.com)
  • Plant growth regulators are natural and synthetic hormones, and it is critical that application timing takes place to enhance those interactions and not interfere. (agfax.com)
  • The thought is the plant growth regulators would control the height and the strength of the stalk, which can be regulated by the hormones. (agfax.com)
  • Hormones of plants are referred as phytoHormones. (agrilearner.com)
  • Phyto Hormones are organic substances which are naturally produced in plants, control the growth or other physiological functions, at a sight remote from its place of production and active in extreme minute quantities. (agrilearner.com)
  • Growth Hormones can also be defined as substances synthesized in particular cells and are transferred to other cells where in extremely small quantities influence development process. (agrilearner.com)
  • Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. (childrensmercy.org)
  • So, their importance has been boon and advantageous for farmers and horticulturists due to whom they took advantage to earn by the practical implication of these hormones and growth regulators. (thepharmajournal.com)
  • Modern herbicides are often synthetic mimics of natural plant hormones that interfere with the growth of the target plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quastel was able to quantify the influence of various plant hormones, inhibitors, and other chemicals on the activity of microorganisms in the soil and assess their direct impact on plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research in the past has shown that a class of plant growth regulators known collectively as substituted tertiary amines have the potential to increase crop productivity, photosynthetic efficiency, and overall plant vigor. (unl.edu)
  • Wheat expert Peter Johnson explains when does it make sense to use a plant growth regulator (PGR) on your wheat crop. (topcropmanager.com)
  • People think growth regulators really shorten the crop, but that only happens if something went wrong at application, like the weather got too cold. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Sometimes you don't get any shortening whatsoever, but you can still feel the stiffness in the treated crop when you push the wheat plants with your arm. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Leading Manufacturers, Exporters, Wholesaler and Retailer of Asar Crop Yield Enhancer, Dhanshri Gold Plant Growth Promoter, Dhanshri Gold Plant Growth Regulator and Kalaheera Humic Acid 95 % from Muzaffarpur. (mahabirbajrangagro.co.in)
  • Plant growth regulators either synthetic or natural have been found great and wide application in increasing the crop production or when applied in small amount, they bring rapid changes in the phenotypes of the plant and also influences the plant growth, right from seed germination to senescence either by enhancing or by stimulating the natural growth regulatory system. (thepharmajournal.com)
  • Selective herbicides control specific weed species while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed, while non-selective herbicides (sometimes called total weed killers in commercial products) can be used to clear waste ground, industrial and construction sites, railways and railway embankments as they kill all plant material with which they come into contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valent products include a well-known line of quality herbicide, insecticide, fungicide and plant growth regulator products for agricultural, seed protection and professional use. (valentbiosciences.com)
  • Plant growth regulators are synthetic compounds that influence plant growth and development and can increase growth, yield, and nutritive value of food crops. (unl.edu)
  • A PGR application can cause various responses in wheat crops such as shorter plants (internodes), thicker stems, thicker stem cell walls, less lodging and/or higher yields. (topcropmanager.com)
  • In the end, Bell said, plant growth regulators in this region might have more application in other crops such as triticale and barley, both of which are more prone to lodging. (agfax.com)
  • MODDUS 250EC contains trinexapac-ethyl for use as a growth regulator in wheat, barley, oats, rye, triticale, durum wheat and grassland (seed crops). (syngenta.ie)
  • AuStar® Plant Growth Regulator assists your mango crops to achieve full blossom potential by making a balance between foliar and fruit growth. (au-star.com)
  • Sumagic Plant Growth Regulator is an effective growth retardant on a wide variety of ornamental crops. (seedworldusa.com)
  • In 1940, he showed that "Growth substances applied appropriately would kill certain broad-leaved weeds in cereals without harming the crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • It allowed for greatly enhanced weed control in wheat, maize (corn), rice, and similar cereal grass crops, because it kills dicots (broadleaf plants), but not most monocots (grasses). (wikipedia.org)
  • Analytical methods for pesticides and plant growth regulators. (upol.cz)
  • High concentration of auxins inhibit the growth and exert toxic effect on plants. (agrilearner.com)
  • In normal case, self produced auxins inhibit the growth and development of lateral buds, and as a result apical buds, remains dormant. (agrilearner.com)
  • Thus, growth regulators improve seed germination power, resistant power against disease and unfavorable growth conditions, increase and produces yield earlier and therefore, the yield become more qualitative and quantitative. (thepharmajournal.com)
  • 1.brassinolide solubility mix with foliar fertilizer,better for plants absorb nutrients, quickly play effect,reduce fertilizer damage at the same time, regulate nutritional balance , improve marketability fertilizer and fruit. (agrochemicalpesticides.com)
  • I am interested in 72962-43-7 Vegetable 24-Epibrassinolide 0.01% SL Synthetic Plant Growth Regulators could you send me more details such as type, size, quantity, material, etc. (agrochemicalpesticides.com)
  • Bell said research in other regions has shown putting on the plant growth regulators at the wrong time during the grain-filling period can actually limit yield. (agfax.com)
  • While gibberellin segment is also expected to witness significant growth in the market since it helps in increasing sugarcane yield, malting of barley, fruit & seed production, among others. (techsciresearch.com)
  • Paclobutrazol has a wide range of activities on gramineous plants, which can make the internodes of plant stems short and strong, reduce lodging and increase yield. (agrochina-pesticide.com)
  • Its function includes: Promote the growth of plant to increase yield. (agrochemicalpesticides.com)
  • A unique combination of two plant growth regulators, Fascination prevents leaves from yellowing, increases flower size, improves flower number, enhances the life of a flower and advances overall plant vigor and growth. (seedbarn.com)
  • Manufacturer of a wide range of products which include plant growth regulators and duranto photosynthesis 5 kg. (maxeemabiotech.in)
  • To link the effect of BMVE with plant phenotype, precise temporal changes in wheat growth were measured by using high-throughput phenotyping in a controlled environment. (unl.edu)
  • A classical phenotyping approach was also followed to evaluate the effect of BMVE on early growth stages of wheat. (unl.edu)
  • We've worked with all the growth regulators [for wheat] that I'm aware of," says Johnson. (topcropmanager.com)
  • That may be because with spring wheat we are more likely to be able to hit growth stage 30-31, when we can get maximum impact. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Plant growth regulators are nothing new for cotton farmers, but they are of recent interest to some wheat producers who are questioning their efficiency and economics, said Dr. Jourdan Bell, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service agronomist in Amarillo. (agfax.com)
  • Bell, speaking at the recent Focus on Wheat meeting during the Amarillo Farm and Ranch Show, said plant growth regulators have been used on wheat in Europe for some time. (agfax.com)
  • There was some interest in the High Plains on plant growth regulators in wheat production in the early 80's, but due to production limitations, producer interest quickly faded, she said. (agfax.com)
  • Producers question whether plant growth regulators have a place on the High Plains for wheat. (agfax.com)
  • We, Sahyog Agro Agency is leading Wholesaler of plant growth regulators liquid at , Rajkot, Gujarat. (agroinfomart.com)
  • Cycocel is being used for things like shortening plants in the flower industry, and it is priced for the horticultural market, at around $40 an acre, so it is priced out of the cereal market. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Altercel (Formerly Cycocel) Plant Growth Regulator Altercel is among the most reliable and widely used. (seedworldusa.com)
  • However, widespread use of agrochemicals can hamper the market growth during the forecast period. (techsciresearch.com)
  • Certain substances affect the growth quite miraculously. (agrilearner.com)
  • Herbicides (US: /ˈɜːrbɪsaɪdz/, UK: /ˈhɜːr-/), also commonly known as weed killers, are substances used to control undesired plants, also known as weeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results showed that exogenous growth -regulating substances significantly improved the rooting rate of A. mono. (bvsalud.org)
  • They all have regulatory functions and can either inhibit or increase cellular growth and activity. (hightimes.com)
  • Step by step video & image solution for Write a short note on plant growth regulators that promote and inhibit growth in plants? (doubtnut.com)
  • To obtain plant material in reported methods for Cumin regeneration, seeds have to be germinated in vitro and then hypocotyls and cotyledon leaflets of seedlings used as explant. (scialert.net)
  • Plant regeneration from explants in a short period of time bypassing a long intermediate callus phase could reduce somaclonal variation (Skirvin et al . (scialert.net)
  • secondly, to optimize growth regulators for increasing regeneration efficiency and reducing the time. (scialert.net)
  • In a really lodging-prone situation with a variety that doesn't stand very well, that you planted early and too thick, and that you whacked with nitrogen, then one application of a growth regulator is not enough. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Cultivar selection, planting dates, excessive nitrogen and excessive irrigation are all factors that come into play with lodging. (agfax.com)
  • Insights into how the simultaneous presence of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) forms influences root absorption will help elucidate the relative importance of these N forms for plant nutrition in the field as well as for nursery cultivation of seedlings. (who.int)
  • Chemicals Direct produce AuStar, the world's most chemically advanced plant growth regulator delivered to you at the best possible price. (au-star.com)
  • Plant/container size and cultivar or variety can also affect height. (seedworldusa.com)
  • AuStar inhibits the synthesis of these compounds and tricks the plant into producing flowers and fruit as well as minimising unwanted vegetative growth. (au-star.com)
  • Garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) produce antimicrobial compounds, such as diallyl thiosulfinate (allicin) and diallyl polysulfanes. (cdc.gov)
  • University of status of the virulence gene regulator PrfA. (cdc.gov)
  • Although more and animals and plants and regulate gene/protein expression more progressions have been made about the through direct complementarity between their 5' region pathogenesis of asthma in recent years, the increasing and the 3' untranslated region of target mRNAs. (cdc.gov)
  • Whitcomb, C.E. (1978) Propagating Woody Plants from Cuttings. (scirp.org)
  • 8. Improves establishment and growth of young plants produced from cuttings, seed or plugs. (plant-growthregulators.com)
  • The callus growth was faster on B5 medium containing 2 mg L -1 NAA and 2 mg L -1 Kin. (scialert.net)
  • Supplement of 2,4-D and BAP into New Phalaenopsis (NP) medium was not effective for the growth of callus in Doritaenopsis orchid. (scialert.net)
  • By adding auxin and sugar continued growth of callus may be obtained and new shoots and even new plant can be produced. (agrilearner.com)
  • Quali-Pro T-Nex is a micro emulsion concentrate which helps reduce the growth of cool and warm season grasses while helping improve their quality and stress tolerance. (intermountainturf.com)
  • In vegetable growing, growth regulator also become more popular for seed soaking, inflorescence spraying, producing hybrid seeds and making seeds resistant to pest and diseases. (thepharmajournal.com)
  • Plant Breeding, 171, 59-89. (scirp.org)
  • The application of in vitro propagation techniques may offer the possibility of producing large number of uniform plants for breeding programs and further field culture. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Gibberellins are a class of plant growth hormone that play a major role in controlling elongation of plant cells i.e. (au-star.com)
  • Sumagic reduces plant height by reducing internode elongation through inhibition of gibberellin biosynthesis. (seedworldusa.com)
  • For in vitro growth of plantlets, 0.5 mg l -1 of BAP was the best for leaf and shoot growth compared to that of for BAP and NAA. (scialert.net)
  • The cytokinin segment is expected to dominate the market during the forecast period sine it delays the aging process in plants and prevents leaf senescence. (techsciresearch.com)
  • Leaf and shoot growth. (au-star.com)
  • Brown scorching and curling of leaf tips as well chlorosis reduce in plant growth, root development and fruits formation. (statnano.com)
  • Growth phenotype analysis revealed that the low molecular weight thiol bacillithiol, as well as the OhrR, Spx, and HypR regulons, confer protection against allicin and DAS4 stress. (cdc.gov)
  • These proteins work as activators or repressors of growth-stimulating genes. (hightimes.com)
  • When a repressor is present, it stops the formation of growth-stimulating genes, in parallel activators start the transcription of growth-stimulating genes. (hightimes.com)
  • This allows the "car" to drive ahead and create growth-stimulating genes. (hightimes.com)
  • When growth stimulating genes are activated, cells begin to grow and increase in size. (hightimes.com)
  • This research was carried out at the Floriculture Farm of the College of Horticulture, Dapoli, during the Rabi season of 2020-21, to assess the effect of plant growth regulator and pinching practice on flowering in gaillardia. (floraldaily.com)
  • Primo MAXX Plant Growth Regulator for turf growth management reduces the frequency of mowing and the amount of grass clippings by reducing the vertical growth of warm- and cool-season turfgrasses. (seedranch.com)
  • Mode of Action: Paclobutrazol is an inhibitory triazole plant growth regulator, which can be absorbed by plants through roots, stems and leaves. (agrochina-pesticide.com)
  • 4. To increase cell growth in roots, and used to produce thicker foliage, trichomes, and flowers. (plant-growthregulators.com)
  • Seven treatments were tried with three growth regulators (Main factor) T1-Control, T2-Ethephon @500ppm, T3-Ethephon @ 1000 ppm, T4-GA3 @ 100 ppm, T5-GA3 @ 200 ppm, T6-CCC @ 1000 ppm, and T7-CCC @ 2000 ppm with pinching each consisting of two levels (Subfactor) as P1-Pincning at 30 days after transplanting and P2-No pinching. (floraldaily.com)
  • Production of this plant is limited due to several biotic stresses of which wilt diseases are the most serious. (scialert.net)
  • 1989). Genetic transformation may enable the development of transgenic plants with enhanced resistance to wilt diseases. (scialert.net)
  • 12] However, unlike the kidney, the 1α-hydroxylase in the macrophages in granulomatous diseases is not controlled by the usual physiologic regulators. (medscape.com)
  • Molecule produced in plant leaves that acts like a hormone by inducing flowering in the shoot apical meristem of buds and growing tips. (bvsalud.org)
  • Other benefits, such as increased turf density, increased color, and increased turf quality, are frequently observed after Primo MAXX Plant Growth Regulator applications. (seedranch.com)
  • Fascination Plant Growth Regulator is an effective tool for more presentable, more marketable Easter and LA hybrid lilies and ornamentals. (seedbarn.com)
  • The result is more desirable compact and marketable plants. (seedworldusa.com)
  • The Plant growth regulatorss (PBRs) have various economic importance in agricultural field. (thepharmajournal.com)
  • We, Vinayak Chemical Industries is leading Exporter and Manufacturer of nagarjuna plant growth regulators at , Valsad, Gujarat. (agroinfomart.com)
  • The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design comprising seven treatments of plant growth regulators coupled with pinching practices and replicated three times. (floraldaily.com)
  • A PGR application can cause shorter plants with thicker stems that are better able to resist lodging. (topcropmanager.com)
  • Extensive research has proven that implementing a program which includes an application of Primo MAXX Plant Growth Regulator prior to the onset of stresses like heat, drought, disease and traffic can strengthen the turf, and therefore allow it to withstand ongoing stresses throughout the season. (seedranch.com)
  • Effect of Exogenous Plant Growth Regulators and Rejuvenation Measures on the Endogenous Hormone and Enzyme Activity Responses of Acer mono Maxim in Cuttage Rooting. (bvsalud.org)
  • Baydar, G.N., Baydar, H. and Debener, T. (2004) Analysis of Genetic Relationships among Rosa damascene Plants Grown in Turkey by Using AFLP and Microsatellite Markers. (scirp.org)