PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Material prepared from plants.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The absence of light.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.

C-fiber depletion alters response properties of neurons in trigeminal nucleus principalis. (1/9363)

The effects of C-fiber depletion induced by neonatal capsaicin treatment on the functional properties of vibrissa-sensitive low-threshold mechanoreceptive (LTM) neurons in the rat trigeminal nucleus principalis were examined in adult rats. Neonatal rats were injected either with capsaicin or its vehicle within 48 h of birth. The depletion of unmyelinated afferents was confirmed by the significant decrease in plasma extravasation of Evan's blue dye induced in the hindlimb skin of capsaicin-treated rats by cutaneous application of mustard oil and by the significant decrease of unmyelinated fibers in both the sciatic and infraorbital nerves. The mechanoreceptive field (RF) and response properties of 31 vibrissa-sensitive neurons in capsaicin-treated rats were compared with those of 32 vibrissa-sensitive neurons in control (untreated or vehicle-treated) rats. The use of electronically controlled mechanical stimuli allowed quantitative analysis of response properties of vibrissa-sensitive neurons; these included the number of center- and surround-RF vibrissae within the RF (i.e., those vibrissae which when stimulated elicited >/=1 and <1 action potential per stimulus, respectively), the response magnitude and latency, and the selectivity of responses to stimulation of vibrissae in different directions with emphasis on combining both the response magnitude and direction of vibrissal deflection in a vector analysis. Neonatal capsaicin treatment was associated with significant increases in the total number of vibrissae, in the number of center-RF vibrissae per neuronal RF, and in the percentage of vibrissa-sensitive neurons that also responded to stimulation of other types of orofacial tissues. Compared with control rats, capsaicin-treated rats showed significant increases in the response magnitude to stimulation of surround-RF vibrissae as well as in response latency variability to stimulation of both center- and surround-RF vibrissae. C-fiber depletion also significantly altered the directional selectivity of responses to stimulation of vibrissae. For neurons with multiple center-RF vibrissae, the proportion of center-RF vibrissae with net vector responses oriented toward the same quadrant was significantly less in capsaicin-treated compared with control rats. These changes in the functional properties of principalis vibrissa-sensitive neurons associated with marked depletion of C-fiber afferents are consistent with similarly induced alterations in LTM neurons studied at other levels of the rodent somatosensory system, and indeed may contribute to alterations previously described in the somatosensory cortex of adult rodents. Furthermore, these results provide additional support to the view that C fibers may have an important role in shaping the functional properties of LTM neurons in central somatosensory pathways.  (+info)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (2/9363)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

Influence of tangeretin on tamoxifen's therapeutic benefit in mammary cancer. (3/9363)

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen and the citrus flavonoid tangeretin exhibit similar inhibitory effects on the growth and invasive properties of human mammary cancer cells in vitro; furthermore, the two agents have displayed additive effects in vitro. In this study, we examined whether tangeretin would enhance tamoxifen's therapeutic benefit in vivo. METHODS: Female nude mice (n = 80) were inoculated subcutaneously with human MCF-7/6 mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Groups of 20 mice were treated orally by adding the following substances to their drinking water: tamoxifen (3 x 10(-5) M), tangeretin (1 x 10(-4) M), tamoxifen plus tangeretin (3 x 10(-5) M plus 1 x 10(-4) M), or solvent. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Oral treatment of mice with tamoxifen resulted in a statistically significant inhibition of tumor growth compared with solvent treatment (two-sided P = .001). Treatment with tangeretin did not inhibit tumor growth, and addition of this compound to drinking water with tamoxifen completely neutralized tamoxifen's inhibitory effect. The median survival time of tumor-bearing mice treated with tamoxifen plus tangeretin was reduced in comparison with that of mice treated with tamoxifen alone (14 versus 56 weeks; two-sided P = .002). Tangeretin (1 x 10(-6) M or higher) inhibited the cytolytic effect of murine natural killer cells on MCF-7/6 cells in vitro, which may explain why tamoxifen-induced inhibition of tumor growth in mice is abolished when tangeretin is present in drinking water. IMPLICATIONS: We describe an in vivo model to study potential interference of dietary compounds, such as flavonoids, with tamoxifen, which could lead to reduced efficacy of adjuvant therapy. In our study, the tumor growth-inhibiting effect of oral tamoxifen was reversed upon addition of tangeretin to the diet. Our data argue against excessive consumption of tangeretin-added products and supplements by patients with mammary cancer during tamoxifen treatment.  (+info)

Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition. (4/9363)

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

Extraction and analysis of cosmetic active ingredients from an anti-cellulitis transdermal delivery system by high-performance liquid chromatography. (5/9363)

A new transdermal delivery system that controls cellulitis is evaluated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. An extraction procedure and the validation of the analytical method to assay the active excipients from the Centella asiatica plant (asiaticoside, madacessic acid, and asiatic acid) are described. Excellent results ae obtained in terms of linearity, accuracy, and specificity of the analytical method.  (+info)

Antagonistic effects of extract from leaves of ginkgo biloba on glutamate neurotoxicity. (6/9363)

AIM: To determine whether the extract of leaves of Ginkgo biloba L (EGb) and several active constituents of EGb have protective effects against glutamate (Glu)-induced neuronal damage. METHODS: Microscopy and image analysis of nucleus areas in the arcuate nuclei (AN) of mice were made. The neuronal viability in primary cultures from mouse cerebral cortex was assessed using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] staining and the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of single neuron was measured using Fura-2. RESULTS: EGb (2.5 mg.L-1) and its constituent ginkgolide B (Gin B, 2 mg.L-1) protected the neuronal viability against Glu-induced injury, and prevented the Glu-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i. EGb (3-10 attenuated the decrease of nucleus areas in arcuate nuclei induced by Glu (1, s.c.). CONCLUSION: EGb and Gin B prevent neurons from Glu neurotoxicity through reduction of the rise in [Ca2+]i.  (+info)

Tobacco BY-2 cell-free extracts induce the recovery of microtubule nucleating activity of inactivated mammalian centrosomes. (7/9363)

The structure and the molecular composition of the microtubule-organizing centers in acentriolar higher plant cells remain unknown. We developed an in vitro complementation assay where tobacco BY-2 extracts can restore the microtubule-nucleating activity of urea-inactivated mammalian centrosomes. Our results provide first evidence that soluble microtubule-nucleating factors are present in the plant cytosolic fraction. The implication for microtubule nucleation in higher plants is discussed.  (+info)

The hemolytic activity of bracken extracts in guinea pigs. (8/9363)

This study was conducted to elucidate the hemolytic activity of a new toxic substance in bracken fern. A crude extract (CE) was prepared from the methanol extracts of bracken by the column chromatography. When the CE was injected subcutaneously in guinea pigs, the hemoglobinuria and hemolysis were observed within 6 hr, and 3 days later edema and hemorrhages in the urinary bladder were observed. The CE was then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three (HF, BF and CF) of the fractions showed the toxic activities in guinea pigs. The HF caused the hemolysis, whereas both the BF and the CF caused the hemorrhagic cystitis without any hemolytic activities. The HF was further fractionated by the HPLC, resulting of the 3 fractions (HF-I, II and III). The hemolysis was caused only with the HF-II, and HF-II as well as HF did not cause the hemorrhagic cystitis. HPLC analysis revealed that both BF and CF contains braxin B and braxin C, respectively, and both HF and HF-II do not contain braxin A, B or C. These facts suggest that bracken fern contains a new toxic substance (hemolysin) which induces the acute hemolysis in guinea pigs.  (+info)

The severity of plant poisoning depends on the type of plant consumed, the amount ingested, and individual sensitivity. Some common plants that are toxic to humans include:

1. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds contain ricin, a deadly toxin that can cause severe vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
2. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic, and ingestion can cause cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death.
3. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
4. Taxus (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew (Taxus baccata) and Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.
5. Aconitum (Aconitum spp.): Also known as monkshood or wolf's bane, all parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
6. Belladonna (Atropa belladonna): The leaves, stems, and roots contain atropine, which can cause dilated pupils, flushed skin, and difficulty urinating.
7. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Hemlock (Conium maculatum): The leaves and seeds contain coniine and gamma-coniceine, which can cause muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.
9. Lantana (Lantana camara): The berries are toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
10. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
11. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds are particularly toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
12. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves, stems, and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing.
13. Yew (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.

It is important to note that while these plants are toxic, they can also be safely used in herbal remedies when prepared and administered properly under the guidance of a qualified practitioner. It is always best to consult with a medical professional before using any herbal remedy, especially if you have a medical condition or are pregnant or breastfeeding.

1. Innate immunity: This is the body's first line of defense against infection, and it involves the recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells and proteins that are present from birth.
2. Acquired immunity: This type of immunity develops over time as a result of exposure to pathogens, and it involves the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and eliminate specific pathogens.
3. Cell-mediated immunity: This is a type of immunity that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, to fight off infection.
4. Genetic resistance: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to disease resistance, which can be influenced by their ancestry or genetic makeup.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as sunlight, clean water, and good nutrition, can also contribute to disease resistance.

Disease resistance is an important concept in the medical field, as it helps to protect against infectious diseases and can reduce the risk of illness and death. Understanding how disease resistance works can help healthcare professionals develop effective strategies for preventing and treating infections, and it can also inform public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of infectious diseases on individuals and communities.

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:

* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Infections
* Poor sleep

To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.

Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.

Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:

* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.

In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Tannins, Plant dyes, Astringent flavors, Ayurvedic medicaments, Traditional Chinese medicine). ... The leaves are then pressed mechanically to squeeze and extract liquid. This liquid is then dried into a semi-solid paste and ... Gambier extracts further contain chalcane-flavan dimers (gambiriins A1, A2, B1 and B2) in addition to (+)-catechin, (+)- ... Gambier or gambir is an extract derived from the leaves of Uncaria gambir, a climbing shrub native to tropical Southeast Asia. ...
"Fructus Serenoae Repentis". WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. World Health Organization. Archived from the original ... Saw palmetto extract is an extract of the fruit of the saw palmetto. It is marketed as a treatment for benign prostatic ... Saw palmetto extract should not be used during pregnancy. The effects of saw palmetto extract on androgen and estrogen ... One 2016 review of clinical studies with a standardized extract of saw palmetto (called Permixon) found that the extract was ...
By 1875, 500 tonnes of the extract were being produced at the Fray Bentos plant each year. It was recommended for soldiers ... Liebig's Extract of Meat Company, established in the United Kingdom, was the producer of LEMCO brand Liebig's Extract of Meat ... The British tonic wine Wincarnis originally contained Liebig's meat extract and was initially called Liebig's Extract of Meat ... The ratio of meat to meat extract is generally reported to be about 30 to 1: it takes 30 kg of meat to make 1 kg of extract. ...
... and plant extracts."[citation needed] Nevertheless, Phytosome - along with Meriva - is a registered trademark of Indena S.p.A. ... Complexation with phospholipids has been applied to a number of popular herbal extracts and active molecules including Ginkgo ... It is claimed that phytosome increases absorption of "conventional herbal extracts" or isolated active principles both ... and green tea extract (Camellia sinensis). An attempt to trademark the term in the USA failed on appeal. Legal analysis in the ...
The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 16 November 2016 Dirr, Michael. 1997. Dirr's Hardy trees and ... 1. Extracts (1789). Clark, T. and K.C. Lund. "Presence of the Indole Alkaloid Reserpine in Bignonia Capreolata L." ... see page 1009). USDA plant profile Ask Melinda: Crossvine USDA NRCS. Plant Guide. Crossvine: Bignonia capreolata L. Alwyn H. ... Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Plants described in 1753, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus, Flora of the ...
"Quillaja Extracts". Quillaja Extract products and more info. Retrieved 2011-01-04. "Quillaja saponaria pictures". Chilebosque. ... Saponaria means 'soap-like'. Chevallier, A., The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants, 1996 Chevallier, A., The Encyclopedia of ... It is the source of quillaia, the extract of which is used as a food additive and as an ingredient in pharmaceuticals, personal ... QS21 adjuvant is a saponin obtainable from Quillaja saponaria extract. The Novavax vaccine for COVID-19 uses this adjuvant, the ...
"Story: Plant extracts - Stinkwood". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 24 February 2013. v t e v t e v t e ( ... Stinkwood is a dioecious plant, having both male and female plants. It flowers between August and October. The plant was named ...
... products derived from plant feedstock are by definition vegan and kosher-pareve, although some consumers prefer ... switched from beef extract to yeast extract for 2005 and most of 2006, but later switched back. Yeast extract is used as a ... Meat extract Malt extract "Handcrafted chicken soup doesn't happen in 30 minutes, but it can take less work than you might ... Doing so may allow specific compounds to be extracted or to produce an extract without the hydrolysis of cell contents (as in ...
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "'Salvia divinorum'". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data ... Overall extract potency will depend on the (naturally varying) strength of the untreated leaf used in preparing the extract, as ... The plant has a nondescript appearance; unlike many other drug plants, the leaves are non-descript, and without a detectable ... The plant grows to well over 1 metre (3 ft) in height, on hollow square stems which tend to break or trail on the ground, with ...
Xylosyl transfer by asparagus extracts. Sugar nucleotides in the interconversion of sugars of higher plants. The 4- ... Sugar nucleotides in the interconversion of sugars of higher plants. Hassid, W. Z., Neufeld, E. F. and Feingold, D. S. Proc. ... 78:401-406, 1958 Xylosyl transfer by asparagus extracts. Feingold, D. S., Neufeld, E. F. and Hassid, W. Z. J. Biol. Chem. 234: ... The structure and properties of levan, a polymer of d-fructose produced by cultures and cell-free extracts of Aerobacter ...
See cannabis edibles and extracts.] cannabis (word) The history of the plant name cannabis. canvas A heavy-duty fabric ... hashish An extracted cannabis product made from resin. [See cannabis edibles and extracts.] hash oil A resin extracted from ... extract 1. Product made from cannabis resin. [See cannabis edibles and extracts.] 2. Process of making edible products or ... taffy An extracted cannabis concentrate product that is doughy or flexible. [See cannabis edibles and extracts.] tax and ...
In addition, the plant contains various antioxidants (in stem, leaf, and root tissues) that have potential long-term benefits ... Extracts from C. coronarium var. spatiosum have been shown to inhibit growth of Lactobacillus casei, a beneficial human ... ex Spach". Plant of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2022. Retrieved 13 November 2022. Altervista Flora Italiana, ... A leafy herb, the garland chrysanthemum is an annual plant. It has yellow ray florets grouped in small flower heads and ...
Extract Jaarb. Mijnw. VIII-2; pp. 3-54 International Plant Names Index. Geyl. v t e (CS1 French-language sources (fr), Articles ... Geyler is notably the author of Über fossile Pflanzen aus Borneo (1875), one of the first works of scholarship on plant fossils ... During this period, Geyler greatly expanded their collection of plants to include more than 4,000 varieties. ...
Apple extract. Colour: plain caramel. Natural plant extracts (including natural caffeine and kola nut extract). citric, ... "Sparkling Cola Drink with Natural Plant Extracts". Pepsi Raw contained naturally sourced ingredients that were free from ...
The younger plants are generally deep green or light green; aging plants could become whitish, brownish, or paler green. Stems ... Extract (Bryophyta)". Phytotherapy Research. 12 (S1): S146-S148. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(1998)12:1+. 3.0.CO;2-4 - via Wiley ... Ethanolic extract of Rhynchostegium vagans showed similar effect on some Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, with performance ... Methanol extract of R.pallidifolium represses the seedling of cress, alfalfa, lettuce, ryegrass, timothy,and Digitaria ...
The Main Street has a glass roof and is lined on either side by plants. These plants were featured on the BBC Television ... "Extracts from the Records: 1521". British History Online. Retrieved 4 March 2015. "An Innovative School Revisited: Leith ... "Creates Healthy Working Environments - Testimonials". In-Plants. Retrieved 3 March 2012. "The Big Questions". BBC. Retrieved 20 ...
Medicinal plants, Abortifacients, Plants described in 1753, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus, Mutagens, Subshrubs, National symbols ... The chloroform extracts of the root, stem and leaf shows the isolation of the furanocoumarin chalepensin. The essential oil of ... Rue is also grown as an ornamental plant, both as a low hedge and so the leaves can be used in nosegays. Most cats dislike the ... This is due to a variety of toxic compounds in the plant's sap. It is recommended to only use small amounts in food, and to not ...
"Antibacterial activity of some lichen extracts". Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 60 (3): 281-6. Vartia, K.O. (1973). " ... The water extract of X. parietina has good antiviral activity in vitro, inhibiting the replication of human parainfluenza virus ... Plant, Cell and Environment. 27 (2): 167-176. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2003.01129.x. Ivanova V, Schlegel R, Gräfe U (October ... Plant and Fungal Systematics. 65 (2): 620-623. doi:10.35535/pfsyst-2020-0033. "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin ...
"Making Cements with Plant Extracts" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-13. Dunning, Brian (3 February 2015). "Skeptoid #452: The Stone ... Limestone, for example, can be dissolved by acidic solutions obtained from plants. Research led by Joseph Davidovits of the ... Gazetteer of Costa Rican Plant-Collecting Locales: Diquís (or Dikís) from the website of the Missouri Botanical Garden "The ...
Two steel plants operate in an area of nearly 3,000 acres. AHMSA extracts coal and iron ore. The company has its own coal mines ... Once extracted, the washed coal is shipped by railroad to AHMSA's coke plants. The main source of iron ore is located in ... Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A.B. de C.V. (AHMSA) is the largest integrated steel plant in Mexico. It has corporate offices in ... was arrested by the Interpol in connection with the 2014 sale of a fertilizer plant to PEMEX, the Mexican-state oil company, on ...
Pierpoint, W. S. (1969). "o-Quinones formed in plant extracts. Their reactions with amino acids and peptides". Biochem. J. 112 ... It is found in all plants because it is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of lignin, one of the principal components of woody ... Caffeic acid and related o-diphenols are rapidly oxidized by o-diphenol oxidases in tissue extracts. Caffeate 3,4-dioxygenase ... Pirjo, Mittila; Kumpulainen, Jorma (19 June 2002). "Determination of free and total phenolic acids in plant-derived foods by ...
Butterfly food plants, Drought-tolerant plants, Endemic flora of South Africa, Entheogens, Garden plants of Southern Africa, ... Lamiaceae] leaf aqueous extract in mice and rats". Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. 27 (4): 257- ... Leonotis leonurus, also known as lion's tail and wild dagga, is a plant species in the mint family, Lamiaceae. The plant is a ... Lamiaceae, Medicinal plants, Plants used in traditional African medicine). ...
These plants are food plants for caterpillars of the Red Pierrot butterfly. The butterfly lays its eggs on phylloclades, and ... Kalanchoe extracts also have immunosuppressive effects. Kalanchoe pinnata has been recorded in Trinidad and Tobago as being ... These plants are cultivated as ornamental houseplants and rock or succulent garden plants. They are popular because of their ... These young plants eventually drop off and take root. No males have been found of one species of this genus which does flower ...
Plants used in Ayurveda, Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus). ... extracts and essential oil". Natural Product Research. 25 (19): 1849-1856. doi:10.1080/14786419.2010.485573. PMID 21500092. ... A weed, this plant is a ruderal species that often grows on disturbed land, and in grasslands. It has been described physically ... Besides its medicinal uses, it may also be used as a decorative dry plant. The Bodos, of Assam, India, use it as a flavourful ...
The Djoungo quarry extracts pozzolana. Cameroon has small oil and gas reserves, extracted near Victoria on the north coast, as ... Local cement plants exploit limestone deposits at Figuil and there is some marble close to Bidzar in the north. ...
Extracts from the journal have been published. In 1845, George Bentham (1800 - 1884), named a plant species from Guyana, ... Plants of the World Online , Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 19 September 2021. Add MS 82922, f. 55. Add MS ... Goodall was to sketch the people, landscape, plants and animal life. The botanical watercolours that Goodall had made were ...
The company extracts cells from live animals. It cultures those cells in stainless steel fermenters, where they reproduce and ... In October 2019, it raised $14 million to build its pilot plant, and estimated that it could bring its products to the market ... In June 2021, the construction of Future Meat's pilot plant in Rehovot was completed, and it entered into service. As of ... Purdy, Chase (22 January 2020). "A startup says it's building a US pilot plant for cell-based meat". Quartz. Retrieved 27 May ...
Extracts from the plant are anti-microbial. Heartsease contains flavonoids (such as quercetin, luteolin and rutin), colorless ... plant), Flora of Europe, Flora of the United Kingdom, Flora of Finland, Flora of Russia, Medicinal plants, Garden plants of ... The plant has no leaf rosette at the base, unlike some other violets, such as Viola hirta. Leaves are, on the contrary, ... The plant, especially the flowers, contains antioxidants and is edible. Various carotenoids have been isolated from the drug: ...
Such extracts are also used for bathing. Plant species listed for treatment are 85, which are used to make 35 mixtures for ... The alternative treatment locally practiced in southern Benin is based on several plant species that are extracted and ... This garden, which is spread over an area of 12 ha, is a species-rich savanna area where an inventory of hundred woody plants ... In south Benin, where malaria is a common disease as in the rest of Africa, medicinal plants are used for treatment as an ...
... , commonly known as Scotch mist or wood bedstraw, is a plant species of the genus Rubiaceae. Its genus name, ... Hooker, Sir J.D. (1881). Britten, James (ed.). "Extracts and Notices of Books and Memoirs". Trimen's Journal of Botany: British ... Altervista Flora Italiana "Galium sylvaticum". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota ... Media related to Galium sylvaticum at Wikimedia Commons USDA Plants profile, Scotch mist, Galium sylvaticum Tela Botanica, ...
Basil extract - Bay leaves - Beeswax - glazing agent Beet red - color (red) Beetroot red - color (red) Ben oil - extracted from ... Mustard plant - Mustard seed - Natamycin - preservative Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone - artificial sweetener Niacin (vitamin B3 ... Cachou extract - Cactus root extract - Cadinene - Caffeine - stimulant Cajeput oil - Calamus - Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides - ... Cassia - Catechu extract - Celery salt - Celery seed - Wheat germ oil - used as a food supplement, and for its "grainy" flavor ...
Though he planted trees and flowers, kept dogs and tame cranes, and received guests such as Leo Tolstoy and Maxim Gorky, ... extracting the businessman's poisons."Wood 2000, p. 79 The Huntsman.. Retrieved 16 February 2007. Malcolm 2004, pp. 32-33. ... and planted many trees, which, according to Mikhail, he "looked after ... as though they were his children. Like Colonel ...
1974 Extracts from the Fruits of the Piper guineense. Schum and Thonn. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Transactions I, 1974, 2195-2198. 2 ... Alkaloids found in plants, Benzodioxoles, Carboxamides, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoid reuptake ...
In China, an ethanol extract of the American cockroach, kang fu xin ye, is used as a prescribed drug for wound healing and ... plant materials, soiled clothing, and glossy paper with starch sizing. They are particularly fond of fermenting foods. They ...
... and its derivatives occur in many plant extracts and are the active ingredient in coconut milk, which causes plant ... and trans-zeatin differentially modulate plant immunity". Plant Signaling & Behavior. 8 (7): e24798. doi:10.4161/psb.24798. PMC ... It promotes growth of lateral buds and when sprayed on meristems stimulates cell division to produce bushier plants.[citation ... p. 8. ISBN 0-8493-6252-0. "6-(γ,γ-Dimethylallylamino)purine BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture, 1 mg/mL". ...
"1760-1840 Planting the Imperial Postal System in British North America", A Chronology of Canadian Postal History, National ... This instruction in all arts and sciences consisted of weekly extracts from Chambers's Universal Dictionary. Franklin quickly ... and he extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. On June 15, 1752, Franklin may possibly have conducted his well-known kite ... experiment in Philadelphia, successfully extracting sparks from a cloud. He described the experiment in his newspaper, The ...
Two local power plants failed, forcing El Paso Electric to institute rolling blackouts over several days, and electric wires ... The El Paso and Northeastern Railway was chartered in 1897, to help extract the natural resources of surrounding areas, ... Several new rose varieties are planted each year, and after two years the highest-rated are named and receive the AARS symbol. ... The botanical garden features a variety of native plants, and includes a pavilion and a replica of an Archaic period brush hut ...
For example, Germany is burning large amounts of lignite (subbituminous coal), as it can be easily extracted from German soil. ... sunlight for plants) hence life could afford being selected by biotic factors (i.e. competition) rather than abiotic factors. A ... Role of Soil Fertility and Plant Litter". Ecology. 83 (3): 743. doi:10.2307/3071878. ISSN 0012-9658. JSTOR 3071878. ...
The seeds and rhizomes are sold whole, as powder, or as oil extracts. In general, this plant is common in the wild. It is in ... Medicinal plants, Garden plants, National symbols of Rhodesia, National symbols of Zimbabwe, Plants described in 1753, Taxa ... The plant can be dangerous for cats, dogs, horses, and livestock, as well. The alkaloid-rich plant has long been used as a ... Every part of the plant is poisonous, especially the tuberous rhizomes. As with other members of the Colchicaceae, this plant ...
Extract: "Three-quarters of Northern Ireland's Protestants regard themselves as British, but only 12 percent of Northern ... "Woodland Area, Planting and Publicly Funded Restocking - 2018 Edition" Archived 30 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine. ...
These plants are typically called LNG Peak Shaving Plants as the purpose is to shave off part of the peak demand from what is ... The gas extracted from underground hydrocarbon deposits contains a varying mix of hydrocarbon components, which usually ... They claimed that, while natural gas power plants emit approximately half the carbon dioxide of an equivalent coal power plant ... These plants were not only used for peak-shaving, as in Cleveland, but also for base-load supplies for places that never had ...
3-dihydroxybenzoic acid isolated from the fruit extracts of Flacourtia inermis Roxb" Medicinal Plants - International Journal ... Flacourtia inermis, known commonly as lovi-lovi, or batoko plum, is a species of flowering plant native to the Philippines and ... The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants. United States Department of the Army. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. 2009. p. 27. ...
The plant's solar panels generate enough energy to run the plant for two to three months. The plant can process two million ... The facility systematically extracts metal from ash that is already found in the landfill, in addition to all newly delivered ... 13 medium Btu plants that provide LFG to industrial users, 6 high Btu plants that produce pipeline quality gas, and 3 leachate ... Eventually, the plant will be able to recycle three million pounds of paper per day. Optical sorters use 2D and 3D technologies ...
Cette raison a engagé M. Mosander à donner au nouveau métal le nom de Lantane." (The oxide of cerium, extracted from cerite by ... Nd3+ has been reported to promote plant growth. Rare-earth element compounds are frequently used in China as fertilizer. ... J Microsc 229:17-20 He X, Liu B (2017) Oolong tea extract as a substitute for uranyl acetate in staining of ultrathin sections ... J Electron Microsc (Tokyo) 59:113-118 Sato S, Adachi A, Sasaki Y, Ghazizadeh M (2008) Oolong tea extract as a substitute for ...
... to extract a number of the amount of population that attended. Integrates the municipality of Comodoro. In 2001 it did not ... this material was used for the town's power plant, some staff houses, the homes of hierarchical employees, the police station, ...
"The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved May 16, 2014. "Miasma Analysis" (PDF). Archived from the ... Gambier extract is used or has been used as a catechu for chewing with areca and betel, for tanning and dyeing, and as herbal ... Gambier extract was also used by native people as a medical treatment or prevention of diseases that were believed to be spread ... Uncaria gambir, the gambier or gambir, is a species of plant in the genus Uncaria found in Southeast Asia, mainly Malaysia and ...
... was used by the Huilliche as a fish poison as late as the early years of the twentieth century: the juice of the plant ( ... Toro gives the following extract or sample: Latué - latué - la - tué La - la - la - tué Tué La - tué La - a - a - a (slowly) La ... Grisebach described the plant (under the name Lycioplesium pubiflorum) from a specimen collected by Lechler near the city of ... "Medicinal plants of various peoples and times. Their application, active principles and history"), pub. Verlag von Ferdinand ...
However in 1986, drilling resulted in higher populations (97 plants m-2) than broadcasting (64 plants m-2), likely because of ... Aqueous extract of Velvetbean reduced the gall index of Meloidogyne incognita in the roots of tomato, but suppressed tomato ... Plants should form a mantle or thick mulch that protect soil from detachment. Living mulches intercept raindrops and reduce ... Soil can be easily eroded with no vegetative ground cover or plant residue. Ideally soil erosion should be less than 4 to 5 ...
As the Latin name of the plant indicates, the vine has a foul smell. The seeds of the Buffalo gourd are rich in oil and protein ... Buffalo gourd oil is a seed oil, extracted from the seeds of the Cucurbita foetidissima, which is native to southwest North ...
The initial service, which started on 11 January 1915, can be seen on the attached Working Time table (WTT) extract. Service ... coke ovens and bi-products plant on the hilltop at Lowca. The halt was at the foot of steep tracks up to these workplaces. The ...
Boeing, which delivered the U.S. Air Force's last C-17 in September 2013, plans to close the Long Beach plant by the end of ... after which the aircraft successfully extract them. A U.S. unmanned aerial vehicle-launched air-to-ground missile strike in ... Local residents claim the dead were civilians working in a bottling plant, but the coalition responds that the raid killed ... Anonymous, "Last Boeing C-17 leaves Southern California assembly plant," Associated Press, 29 November 2015, 10:22 p.m. EST. ...
"He has planted the seed of fear in the minds of all minorities," said Vell Paari. The former MIC secretary-general said PAS ... Md Nor announced that the Kedah state government had awarded a Kuala Lumpur-based company a permit to prospect and extract RM ...
... only company in India that produces gold by mining and extracting it from the ore is Hutti Gold Mines Limited that has plants ... The first hydroelectric plant in the state was built at Shivanasamudra Falls on the Kaveri River in 1902. Karnataka has an ... Vishwesharaiya steel plant at Bhadravati is run by SAIL. Lithium has been discovered in Karnataka's Mandya district which is ... Hindalco) has an aluminum plant near Belgaum. Mysore Minerals Limited is in the mining and production of chromite industry in ...
Opened in 1982, the salt mine and plant is located in Grosse-Île and extracts salt from an underground mine 30 metres (98 ft) ...
However commercial mining was only started in 1859, and over the next 140 years vast quantities of ore have been extracted from ... In the Port Elizabeth region, national NGO Living Lands had in cooperation with an agricultural insurance company, planted 3.7 ... However, about 115 km further inland, in Bushmanland (see above), a large new mine is extracting copper, lead, zinc, and silver ... "Insurance firm turns to planting trees in South Africa to combat drought risk", The Guardian, London, 23 December 2015. ...
There were "2 spare parts stores, 2 water tanks, 1 gasoline tank, 1 searchlight with electrical power plant truck, 4 kitchen ... and the crawler and the engineers would be readily at hand to extract it. The engineers were responsible for inspecting each ...
Man possesses a soul in common with plants and beasts. Epiphanius also indicates that the Phibionites honored 365 archons, with ... The Borborites were also said to extract fetuses from pregnant women and consume them, particularly if the women accidentally ...
... not all plant material is edible and the nutritional quality or antiherbivore defenses of plants (structural and chemical) ... "Organisms usually extract energy in the form of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as ... In a simple predator-prey example, a deer is one step removed from the plants it eats (chain length = 1) and a wolf that eats ... For example, certain plant species in the Castilleja and Plantago genera have been found to produce defensive compounds called ...
The whole plant has a disagreeable odour, and its juice, subjected to the action of the fire, emits a vapour so powerful as to ... Acton is acknowledged with "The following observations are extracted from a valuable work on Bread-making,† and will be found ... The edition includes advertisements for products such as "Lemco" beef extract and "Cadbury's Cocoa". The preface sets out the ... and an ornamental flowerpot containing a strawberry plant. Another full-page colour plate (pictured) showed a variety of fruits ...
As he matured, Still "studied the healing powers of herbs and plants, and developed medical practices based on his own ... Holly, and from Jones learned the process of extracting oils from roots and herbs, particularly sassafras and peppermint. He ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Non-Standardized Plant Allergenic Extract [Drug Class] (386 results) ... Allergenic Extract. NDC Code(s): 36987-1285-1, 36987-1285-2, 36987-1285-3, 36987-1285-4, view more 36987-1289-1, 36987-1289-2, ... Allergenic Extract. NDC Code(s): 36987-1284-1, 36987-1284-2, 36987-1284-3, 36987-1284-4, view more 36987-1288-1, 36987-1288-2, ... Allergenic Extract. NDC Code(s): 36987-1283-1, 36987-1283-2, 36987-1283-3, 36987-1283-4, view more 36987-1287-1, 36987-1287-2, ...
... classic plant extracts such as green tea extract or grape seed extract or remedies from Chinese and Ayurvedic health philosophy ... Plant extracts. Foods from plant sources have been an integral part of our diet for thousands of years. Whether in juices, ... Buy Auricularia extract highly-dosed with 500mg extract per capsule standardised to 30% polysaccharides extract derived from ... you will find over 100 different vital substance preparations of plant origin in the plant extracts category: ...
Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill ... Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a ... Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a ... Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation M Busquet 1 , S Calsamiglia, A Ferret, C Kamel ...
These findings suggest strong gastroprotective effect of combined extract. In addition, these plants showed significant ... The present study evaluated the gastroprotective effects of these plants either single or in combination against HCl/EtOH- ... Effects of Plants Extract on HCl/EtOH-Induced Gastritis. The effects of plants extract and combined extracts on HCl/EtOH- ... Pretreatment with combined plant extracts (RF+UL+GJ at a dose of 150 mg/kg and a ratio of 50:50:50) prevented HCl/EtOH-induced ...
Study Design: Use of fluorescence of ChL a (Chlorophyll a) to detect inhibitors of photosynthesis in plant extracts. Place and ... The extracts inhibited the photosynthesis, and their inhibition sites were located in the range of electron flow from OEC ... Twelve crude extracts were prepared from different parts of Pluchea sagittalis, Cecropia palmata and Brachiaria brizantha, and ... Plants of Brachiaria genus have presented inhibition effects on the growth of some plants species [30] . Moreover, the extracts ...
Mazza produces the plant extracts using its patented PhytoClean™ technology. This unique, water-based extraction method ... The Canadian botanical extractions company will provide BASF with specific plant extracts to develop new solutions for cosmetic ... Mazza produces the plant extracts using its patented PhytoClean™ technology. This unique, water-based extraction method ... Mazza produces the plant extracts using its patented PhytoClean™ technology. This unique, water-based extraction method ...
... who permanently used products of grist of a virtuous plant, Guarana and occasionally used a parenteral non-steroid painkiller. ... Acute renal failure caused by plant extract] [Article in Hungarian] Katalin Vágási 1 , Péter Degrell, István Késoi, Tibor ... who permanently used products of grist of a virtuous plant, Guarana and occasionally used a parenteral non-steroid painkiller. ...
One strategy for this is the use of herbal and essential oils of different species of medicinal plants because they have ... In addition, plant extracts act on the neurochemical or motor profile in isolation [38]. It is known, however, that this ... Extracts and Essential Oils from Medicinal Plants and Their Neuroprotective Effect. Written By ... Other studies have shown plants with neuroprotective properties capable of protecting from PD damage. These include plants such ...
B2B Marketplace for nutritional plant extracts suppliers, manufacturers,exporters, factories and global nutritional plant ... nutritional plant extracts products directory and nutritional plant extracts products Catalog. ... Plant Extracts Powder Natural Plant Extracts Salidroside Plant Extracts Diosmin Plant Extracts Nutritional pure natural plant ... Product Description FERROVITEC Food Supplement with Grape Seed Extract Alfalfa Extract, Fenugreek Extract, Rosehip Extract Mix ...
Cannabis plant extracts can effectively fight drug-resistant bacteria. By NORA SCHULTZ ... But research into using cannabis as an antibiotic has been limited by poor knowledge of the plants active ingredients and by ... But when Appendino, Gibbons, and their colleagues applied extracts from five major cannabinoids to bacterial cultures of six ... Substances harvested from cannabis plants could soon outshine conventional antibiotics in the escalating battle against drug- ...
During the process of plant growth, they carry out a number of metabolic and biochemical processes, forming and accumulating ... According to the formulations of plant extracts, it can be divided into: water-soluble plant extracts (including water and ... some separated and purified plant extract has begun to be taken seriously. Some companies of plant extracts manufacturing are ... If the plant parts used for the plant extract are different, the active ingredients are also different, including: roots, stems ...
skin care products made from fruit, herb and plant extracts. ... are made specifically with extracts and oils from plants and ... Fruit Extracts. Another type of plant extract that can do wonders for the skin is the general category of fruit extracts. Of ... It is impossible to talk about plant extracts that are good for skin care without mentioning Aloe Vera.. This plant has been ... What Plant Extracts Are Good For Skin Care?. Today they are seemingly endless quantities of various skin care products on the ...
A chemical found in plants could reduce the symptoms of a rare muscle disease that leaves children with little or no control of ... Quercetin, a plant extract, reduces motor neurone loss in Spinal Muscular Atrophy A chemical found in plants could reduce the ... Scientists from the Universities of Edinburgh and Aberdeen found that a plant pigment called quercetin - found in some fruits, ...
A recent study modelling inflammation in both human and rodent macrophage cells in-vitro observed that extract of Garcinia ... Plant power: study suggests mechanism of action behind anti-inflammatory effect of yellow mangosteen extract By Olivia Brown 25 ... Of such plants, the tropical plant Garcinia has been used in traditional medicine throughout India and southeast Asia.​ ... Related tags Inflammation Immune system Anti-inflammatory Plant Nutrition A recent study modelling inflammation in both human ...
Improved Methods to Extract Signaling Proteins from Crop Plants Number: UCSD Case #: 2014-094. Year: 2014. Patent Status: ...
The plant originated in North Africa, and has since been ... how big are the plants, how is is extracted ? ... Is aloe vera grown commercially to harvest, how big are the plants, how is is extracted ?. ... Is aloe vera grown commercially to harvest, how big are the plants, how is is extracted? ... Is aloe vera grown commercially to harvest, how big are the plants, how is is extracted? ...
Methanol pits extract was highly effective against most of the tested fungi followed by methanol leaves extract, acetone ... Methanol pits extract was highly effective against most of the tested fungi followed by methanol leaves extract, acetone ... Barring the water extracts, acetone and methanol extracts showed varying degree of growth inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum ... Barring the water extracts, acetone and methanol extracts showed varying degree of growth inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum ...
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - ... Fossil plants : for students of botany and geology . Paleobotany. . ... Fossil plants : for students of botany and geology . Paleobotany. . Please note that these images are extracted from scanned ... Fossil plants : for students of botany and geology . Paleobotany. . Please note that these images are extracted from scanned ...
Efficacy of Selected Plant Extracts in the Management of Tomato Early Blight Disease Caused by Alternaria solani ... The use of plant extracts is a safe and eco-friendly alternative of managing many plant pathogens. The present study examined ... The use of plant extracts minimizes the risks and hazards associated with toxic fungicides, especially, on crop plants produced ... Efficacy of Selected Plant Extracts in the Management of Tomato Early Blight Disease Caused by Alternaria solani. Asian Journal ...
Scientists have used plant proteins to create a membrane that can spilt water into hydrogen fuel and oxygen using energy from ... INNOVATION: Plant membrane adapted to extract hydrogen fuel from water. Scientists have used plant proteins to create a ... central to plant biology, to form the backbone of the process to extract into hydrogen fuel from water.. They combined two ... Scientists have used plant proteins to create a membrane that can spilt water into hydrogen fuel and oxygen using energy from ...
In vitro evaluation of fungicides and plant extracts against pathogenic fungi of two rice varieties Authors. * Pranami ... All the plant extracts completely inhibited the radial growth of the test fungi at 20% concentration except Asparagus racemosus ... In vitro evaluation, Pathogenic fungi, Fungicides, Plant extracts, Rice varieties Abstract. Five pathogenic fungi viz., ... Chowdhury, P., Bashar, M., & Shamsi, S. (2018). In vitro evaluation of fungicides and plant extracts against pathogenic fungi ...
EVALUATION OF NEMATICIDAL POTENTIAL IN SOME PLANT EXTRACTS EITHER SINGLY OR INTEGRATED WITH Hirsutella rhossiliensis AGAINST ... The application of the fungus + S. irio together revealed the highest value of percentage increase of the whole plant fresh ... Results indicated that most treatments tested obviously caused remarkable increase in tomato plant growth with various degrees ... The following aqueous leaf extracts; Sinopis arvensis, Sisymbrium irio, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album and Portulace ...
Herbal Extracts, Essential Oil, Natural Antioxidants, Organic Acid], Synthetic/ Chemical Preservatives [Parabens, Formaldehyde ... 4.2.7 Plant/herbal extracts. Global plant/herbal extracts market, 2016 - 2027. Global plant/herbal extracts ... TABLE 31 Global plant/herbal extracts market volume, by region, 2016 - 2027, (Kilo tons). TABLE 32 Global plant/herbal extracts ... Cosmetic Preservatives Market Size By Product (Natural/ Organic Preservatives [Plants & Herbal Extracts, Essential Oil, Natural ...
Plant Extracts, Kratom, CBD, Ethnobotanicals, Accessories, Empty Capsules, Coffee, Kava Kava, Kombucha, Teas, Essential Oils, ... FST - Full Spectrum Liquid Kratom Extract Shot - Citrus. $23.95 $14.95. Save: 38% off ...
Health Care Plant Based Powder with Certificate form Quality Black Garlic - Shandong Agricultural Products Trade Co., Ltd. from ... Check details of Black Garlic Extract Powder Food Grade / ... Home > Plant Extracts > Black Garlic Extract Powder Food Grade ... Black Garlic Extract Powder Food Grade / Health Care Plant Based Powder Product Details. ... We have our own green vegetable planting base to plant organic garlic, and have set up a large garlic processing factory and we ...
... apple and bean seedlings when applied to soil of potted plants. Different levels of amygdalin were found in plant parts of ... Disposal of plant parts is suggested as a practical sanitation practice to possibly reduce peach tree decline on old soil. ... Water Soluble Extracts from Peach Plant Parts and Their Affect on Growth of Seedlings of Peach, Apple and Bean1 ...
The regional coverage by these reports make it feasible to explore new business opportunities in the Plant Extracts Industry. ... Insights from the Top Global Plant Extracts market Reports gives valuable data related to Plant Extracts Market. ... The Global Stevia Extract Market Report is equipped with market data from 2016 to 2026. The report gives a market overview ... Global Aloe Vera Extracts Market Research Report - Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast Till 2026 ...
The MO aqueous extract safety profile after topical application was investigated on SKH-1 mice, and an enhanced skin hydration ... The aqueous extract of MO leaves can be considered a promising candidate for skin disorders with impaired physiological skin ... In this context, the present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo safety profile of an MO aqueous extract by ... In addition, the antioxidant activity and the antiangiogenic potential of the extract were verified. A selective cytotoxic ...
  • Mazza Innovation Ltd. specializes in extracting bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides and specialty carbohydrates - ideal ingredients for use in functional foods, dietary supplements, natural food colourings and flavourings, and beauty products. (
  • One strategy for this is the use of herbal and essential oils of different species of medicinal plants because they have several bioactive compounds and phytochemicals with neuroprotective capacity. (
  • The traditional medicine involves the use of various different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. (
  • They were randomly treated with either 40 mg/kg aqueous extract powder in 10 mL distilled water or 10 mL distilled water in which coffee simulated the extract. (
  • The aqueous extract effectively reduced blood glucose in normal subjects safely. (
  • Aims: Twelve crude extracts were prepared from different parts of Pluchea sagittalis , Cecropia palmata and Brachiaria brizantha , and their effect on the light reaction of photosynthesis. (
  • Therefore, exploring plant's potential is a limited deal to experimental general manner of purification from crude extracts by time-consuming fractionation process, which also requires extensive chromatography. (
  • Crude extracts of all solvents used varied in zones of inhibition. (
  • Scientists have used plant proteins to create a membrane that can spilt water into hydrogen fuel and oxygen using energy from the sun. (
  • The present study examined the severity of early blight on tomato and evaluated the efficacy of some leaf extracts in the management of the disease. (
  • A recent study modelling inflammation in both human and rodent macrophage cells in-vitro observed that extract of Garcinia dulcis, aka yellow mangosteen, was able to reduce secretion of pro-inflammatory factors. (
  • The use of plant extracts is a safe and eco-friendly alternative of managing many plant pathogens. (
  • We investigated the potency of Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit), against pathogens, in the different forms in which this fruit plant is used locally (juice of the fruit, burnt rind of the fruit commonly known as "epa-ijebu" in the Yoruba dialect) and the oil obtained from steam distillation of the fruit. (
  • The use of plant extracts minimizes the risks and hazards associated with toxic fungicides, especially, on crop plants produced for fresh consumption. (
  • Product Description High Quality Chinese Herbs Lily Bulbs Plant Extract Bai He Powder for Healthy What is Lily Flower Bulbs, White Lily, Lily Roots? (
  • Natural Nutritional Powder Pine Pollen Extract 20:1 Pine pollen extract is derived from the pollen of pinus massoniana. (
  • Compared with raw pine pollen powder, the extract is water soluble and it is mo. (
  • BRRI 29 (Boro) and Pajam (Aman) by Blotter and Tissue planting methods. (
  • For more than 50 years, our scientific experts have been working at the forefront of plant extraction technologies, constantly assessing new developments in this field, with the aim of improving both the sustainability of the process and the precision of the extraction, targeting key molecules at the heart of plant materials," says David Hérault, Director of Research & Development at BASF Beauty Creations. (
  • We will discuss below of some plant extracts which have been applied in cosmetics, having clearly defined composition and structure as well as having undergone separation and purification. (
  • There are many kinds of plant extracts with their major functions contained in skin medicines, efficacy cosmetics and cosmetic including: anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, anti-infective, sterilization, wetting, protecting the skin and so on. (
  • No matter whether it is a single plant extract or compound extract, it often has multiple effects, especially that the clinical efficacy of the compound extract is reflected in the combined and overall effect of compound compatibility, its efficacy is sometimes more excellent than mixed material of the isolated purified ingredients. (
  • The safety and efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum extract was investigated using 20 male volunteers aged 20-30 years. (
  • With rich resources and technological advantages, China has become one of the world's most important suppliers of plant extracts. (
  • Shandong Agricultural Products Trade Co., Ltd. We have our own green vegetable planting base to plant organic garlic, and have set up a large garlic processing factory and we also have our own cold storage to Black Garlic store the garlic which its capacity is over 2000mts. (
  • The black garlic extract can be used in traditional nutraceutical supplements, such as tablets and capsules, but also in liquid applications with a heart health positioning, instead of or in combination with standard garlic. (
  • Study Design: Use of fluorescence of ChL a (Chlorophyll a ) to detect inhibitors of photosynthesis in plant extracts. (
  • The many healthy ingredients in acerola The acerola cherry is one of the plants in the world richest in vitamin C. Scientists have found that 100g of ripe acerola cherries contain 1700mg of vitamin C. It is probably the best-known antioxidant that promotes a healthy immune system and can protect cells and tissues. (
  • In addition, these plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH scavenging assay and antilipid peroxidation activity. (
  • We also report antioxidant activities of the extracts using DPPH radical scavenging and antilipid peroxidation activities of the combined plant extract. (
  • Previous studies ​observing the extract of garcinol have demonstrated a variety of benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. (
  • Physicochemical, Antioxidant, Microstructural Properties and Bioaccessibility of Dark Chocolate with Plant Extracts. (
  • The PhytoClean Method is an environmentally sound way to produce standardized bio-active ingredients from plant biomass. (
  • With this collaboration, BASF will further strengthen its innovative range of plant-derived active ingredients. (
  • BASF and Mazza Innovation jointly explore new possibilities of plant-derived active ingredients for the cosmetics industry, extracted with the eco-friendly, water-based PhytoClean™ technology. (
  • Antifungal properties of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. (
  • The shadow dried bark materials were grained and extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and ethanol: water (50: 50). (
  • This study is part of an ongoing project to search for novel drugs from a vast array of medicinal plants from the southwest part of Nigeria. (
  • The recent surge in demand for naturally-sourced ingredients in cosmetics has renewed the interest of cosmetics manufacturers towards using plant derivatives as preservatives, particularly essential oils. (
  • Other natural substances contained in grapefruit are formed by the plant to protect itself from unwanted microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. (
  • The crucial step in the discovery of new chemical entities is the fast identification of substances in the real biological screening libraries: natural products, for instance, plants. (
  • As the product of 'natural medicine' and 'homeopathy' usage, plant extracts have a very stable market in the international market. (
  • Because of this, many companies are beginning to look into the natural plant extracts that have been used for centuries by traditional medicine for skin care. (
  • Botanical skin care products are made specifically with extracts and oils from plants and flowers. (
  • We gain access to such phytochemicals as phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and glycosides - all of which contribute to the biological activity of the plant extract," says Benjamin Lightburn, CEO of Mazza Innovation. (
  • The study such as ethno medicine keenly r presents the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. (
  • Ethno pharmacological use of plants prevails among Nigerian native people. (
  • With the development of various pieces of studies including extraction, isolation, determination techniques of composition and structure and the pharmacological effects, some separated and purified plant extract has begun to be taken seriously. (
  • During the process of plant growth, they carry out a number of metabolic and biochemical processes, forming and accumulating various kinds of chemical substances that form the chemical composition of plants. (
  • According to Chinese customs statistics, China's plant extracts of exports had amounted to $815 million in 2010, accounting for 41.9% of China's total export of Chinese medicine, the extract of Chinese products have become the major driving force in the increasing of the China's export growth. (
  • Results indicated that most treatments tested obviously caused remarkable increase in tomato plant growth with various degrees. (
  • One of such plants is Citrus aurantifolia (Lime fruit). (
  • The treatments consisted of plots sprayed with dried extracts of Chromolaena odorata , Euphorbia heterophylla , Tithonia diversifolia , Azadiractha indica , Carica papaya and the control. (
  • Lyon, France/Delta, British Columbia, Canada - July 5, 2018 - BASF and Mazza Innovation today announced the signing of an exclusive, long-term supply agreement: The Canadian botanical extractions company will provide BASF with specific plant extracts to develop new solutions for cosmetic applications. (
  • Botanical skin care products made from fruit, herb & plant extracts! (
  • Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. (
  • Substances harvested from cannabis plants could soon outshine conventional antibiotics in the escalating battle against drug-resistant bacteria. (
  • There are highly effective ingredients contained in such plant extracts, containing no or less other irrelevant substances but containing one or more pure components. (
  • These findings suggest strong gastroprotective effect of combined extract. (
  • In this study, we analyzed HPLC chromatogram for standardization of RF (ellagic acid), UL (catechin), and GJ (geniposide), in order to compare gastroprotective and acid neutralizing effect of the selected plant extracts and their mixture using male Sprague-Dawley rats. (
  • 20. [Effect of a Rhodiola extract on the tumor process in an experiment]. (
  • Scientists from the Universities of Edinburgh and Aberdeen found that a plant pigment called quercetin - found in some fruits, vegetables, herbs and grains - could help to prevent the damage to nerves associated with the childhood form of motor neuron disease. (
  • Efforts of scientists in establishing plants with promising antimicrobial activity are yielding fruitful results (Ndukwe et al. (
  • The anaerobes and the Gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to all the extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 32mg/ml-128g/ml. (
  • Nutritional Supplements Tribulus Terrestris Extract Product Description Tribulus terrestris is an annual plant in the caltrop family ( Zygophyllaceae ) widely distributed around the world, that is ad. (
  • Product Description FERROVITEC Food Supplement with Grape Seed Extract Alfalfa Extract, Fenugreek Extract, Rosehip Extract Mix Capsule FerroVitec Vitamin Mineral Mix FERROVITEC Dietary Supplement Con. (
  • Product Function When it comes to ancient plants, nothing on our planet is older than the ginkgo biloba tree. (
  • The application of such plant extracts is more effective and practical, easy for the anti-corrosion and the quality control of the product, but usually having higher cost compared general extract. (
  • Information such as the strength (i.e. 60 mg extract) of the product and other qualifiers that help distinguish a product from a similar product (i.e. mega, super, high potency, time release, chewable, extract) are also listed if they are on the front of the product label. (
  • This classification method is more meaningful in the preparation, application, storage and transportation, and is used frequently by the manufacturer of some plant extracts. (
  • 8. [Antitumor properties of preparation No. 4 obtained from plants of the family Labiatae]. (
  • Many plants containing anti-inflammatory phytonutrients have the potential to limit excessive production. (
  • As a result, the present study sought to investigate the potential of extracted garcinol from Garcinia dulcis ​ (GD) to exhibit anti-inflammatory mechanisms through its influence over the NF-κB signalling pathway. (
  • The results suggest clear anti-inflammatory action resulting from the addition of the extract to the LPS-activated macrophage cells. (
  • Researchers from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory adapted a chemical reaction pathway, central to plant biology, to form the backbone of the process to extract into hydrogen fuel from water. (
  • An estimated 350,000 different plant species inhabit our planet. (
  • At present, there are around 2000 enterprises engaging in plant extracts production and trade business with thousands of products being exported to foreign countries every year. (
  • Because this extract is both astringent and antiseptic, it is able to sooth the skin while balancing the production of sebum as well. (
  • Since stomach has many core values of disease like gastritis, gastric ulcer, or GERD, we try to use combined plant extracts which cure many problems in the stomach. (
  • The Brazilians have found many plants grown locally that are wonderful for skin care products. (
  • Bioaccessibility studies indicated that during the simulated digestion the AC of all chocolates reduced significantly, whereas insignificant differences in TPC results were observed between chemical and physiological extracts. (
  • Plant extracts are very complicated and also contain many types of chemical composition with the composition in different parts also being different. (
  • A chemical found in plants could reduce the symptoms of a rare muscle disease that leaves children with little or no control of their movements. (
  • The present study evaluated the gastroprotective effects of these plants either single or in combination against HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rat model. (
  • In this study, dark chocolates (DCh) containing zinc lactate (ZnL) were enriched with extracts from elderberries (EFrE), elderflowers (EFlE), and chokeberries (ChFrE) to improve their functional properties. (
  • The result of the study could be useful for description and phytochemical analysis of the plant. (
  • In the Fairvital online shop, you will find over 100 different vital substance preparations of plant origin in the plant extracts category: classic plant extracts such as green tea extract or grape seed extract or remedies from Chinese and Ayurvedic health philosophy such as Boswellia serrata, Shatavari or Fo-Ti extract. (
  • The plant extracts industry in our country, because of the influence of traditional Chinese medicine culture, has unique advantages for development. (
  • Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation. (
  • 1986). The plants are easily available and cheaper than the conventional drugs. (