Plants, Genetically Modified
Biological Control Agents
Pest Control, Biological
Plant Growth Regulators
Amino Acid Sequence
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Molecular Sequence Data
Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Root Nodules, Plant
Volatile Organic Compounds
Medicine, African Traditional
Genetic Complementation Test
Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (1/7133)Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism. (+info)
Characterization of an insertion sequence element associated with genetically diverse plant pathogenic Streptomyces spp. (2/7133)Streptomycetes are common soil inhabitants, yet few described species are plant pathogens. While the pathogenicity mechanisms remain unclear, previous work identified a gene, nec1, which encodes a putative pathogenicity or virulence factor. nec1 and a neighboring transposase pseudogene, ORFtnp, are conserved among unrelated plant pathogens and absent from nonpathogens. The atypical GC content of nec1 suggests that it was acquired through horizontal transfer events. Our investigation of the genetic organization of regions adjacent to the 3' end of nec1 in Streptomyces scabies 84.34 identified a new insertion sequence (IS) element, IS1629, with homology to other IS elements from prokaryotic animal pathogens. IS1629 is 1,462 bp with 26-bp terminal inverted repeats and encodes a putative 431-amino-acid (aa) transposase. Transposition of IS1629 generates a 10-bp target site duplication. A 77-nucleotide (nt) sequence encompassing the start codon and upstream region of the transposase was identified which could function in the posttranscritpional regulation of transposase synthesis. A functional copy of IS1629 from S. turgidiscabies 94.09 (Hi-C-13) was selected in the transposon trap pCZA126, through its insertion into the lambda cI857 repressor. IS1629 is present in multiple copies in some S. scabies strains and is present in all S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies strains examined. A second copy of IS1629 was identified between ORFtnp and nec1 in S. acidiscabies strains. The diversity of IS1629 hybridization profiles was greatest within S. scabies. IS1629 was absent from the 27 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains tested. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of the nec1-IS1629 region was conserved and identical among representatives of S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies. These findings support our current model for the unidirectional transfer of the ORFtnp-nec1-IS1629 locus from IS1629-containing S. scabies (type II) to S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies. (+info)
Natural occurrence of the C series of fumonisins in moldy corn. (3/7133)We analyzed 44 moldy corn samples for the B and C series of fumonisins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the 44 samples, 32 (73%) were contaminated with both the B and C series of fumonisins and 6 were contaminated with only the B series of fumonisins. The incidence of fumonisin C1 in moldy corn was 71%; the incidence was 11% for fumonisin C3 and 43% for fumonisin C4. Their mean levels ranged from 500 to 1,900 ng/g. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of the C series of fumonisins and fumonisin B4 in moldy corn. (+info)
Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci. (4/7133)Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium that causes the serious disease known as bacterial wilt in many plant species. In tomato, several QTL controlling resistance have been found, but in different studies, markers spanning a large region of chromosome 6 showed strong association with the resistance. By using two different approaches to analyze the data from a field test F3 population, we show that at least two separate loci approximately 30 cM apart on this chromosome are most likely involved in the resistance. First, a temporal analysis of the progression of symptoms reveals a distal locus early in the development of the disease. As the disease progresses, the maximum LOD peak observed shifts toward the proximal end of the chromosome, obscuring the distal locus. Second, although classical interval mapping could only detect the presence of one locus, a statistical "two-QTL model" test, specifically adapted for the resolution of linked QTL, strongly supported the hypothesis for the presence of two loci. These results are discussed in the context of current molecular knowledge about disease resistance genes on chromosome 6 and observations made by tomato breeders during the production of bacterial wilt-resistant varieties. (+info)
Enhanced resistance to bacterial diseases of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sarcotoxin IA, a bactericidal peptide of insect. (5/7133)Sarcotoxin IA is a bactericidal peptide of 39 amino acids found in the common flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Many agronomically important bacteria in Japan are killed by this peptide at sub-micro molar levels, and the growth of tobacco and rice suspension cultured cells is not inhibited with less than 25 microM. Transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress the peptide, i.e. over 250 pmol per gram of fresh leaf, under the control of a high expression constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to the pathogens for wild fire disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) and bacterial soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora). (+info)
Expression of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) deficient in the production of its native coat protein supports long-distance movement of a chimeric TMV. (6/7133)Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) coat protein is involved in systemic infection of host plants, and a specific mutation in this gene prevents the virus from moving into the upper uninoculated leaves. The coat protein also is required for different viral functions during early and late infection. To study the role of the coat protein in long-distance movement of AlMV independent of other vital functions during virus infection, we cloned the gene encoding the coat protein of AlMV into a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-based vector Av. This vector is deficient in long-distance movement and is limited to locally inoculated leaves because of the lack of native TMV coat protein. Expression of AlMV coat protein, directed by the subgenomic promoter of TMV coat protein in Av, supported systemic infection with the chimeric virus in Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana tabacum MD609, and Spinacia oleracea. The host range of TMV was extended to include spinach as a permissive host. Here we report the alteration of a host range by incorporating genetic determinants from another virus. (+info)
Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses. (7/7133)A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses. (+info)
Divinyl ether fatty acid synthesis in late blight-diseased potato leaves. (8/7133)We conducted a study of the patterns and dynamics of oxidized fatty acid derivatives (oxylipins) in potato leaves infected with the late-blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Two 18-carbon divinyl ether fatty acids, colneleic acid and colnelenic acid, accumulated during disease development. To date, there are no reports that such compounds have been detected in higher plants. The divinyl ether fatty acids accumulate more rapidly in potato cultivar Matilda (a cultivar with increased resistance to late blight) than in cultivar Bintje, a susceptible cultivar. Colnelenic acid reached levels of up to approximately 24 nmol (7 microgram) per g fresh weight of tissue in infected leaves. By contrast, levels of members of the jasmonic acid family did not change significantly during pathogenesis. The divinyl ethers also accumulated during the incompatible interaction of tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus. Colneleic and colnelenic acids were found to be inhibitory to P. infestans, suggesting a function in plant defense for divinyl ethers, which are unstable compounds rarely encountered in biological systems. (+info)
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Plant extracts refer to the active compounds or bioactive molecules that are extracted from plants and used in the medical field for various therapeutic purposes. These extracts are obtained through various extraction methods, such as solvent extraction, steam distillation, and cold pressing, and can be used in the form of powders, liquids, or capsules. Plant extracts have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and are now widely used in modern medicine as well. They are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and cancer. Some examples of plant extracts used in medicine include aspirin (extracted from willow bark), quinine (extracted from cinchona bark), and morphine (extracted from opium poppy). Plant extracts are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies. Researchers extract compounds from plants and test them for their potential therapeutic effects. If a compound shows promise, it can be further developed into a drug that can be used to treat a specific condition. It is important to note that while plant extracts can be effective in treating certain conditions, they can also have side effects and may interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using plant extracts as a form of treatment.
Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant species that is widely used as a model organism in the field of plant biology. It is a member of the mustard family and is native to Europe and Asia. Arabidopsis is known for its rapid growth and short life cycle, which makes it an ideal model organism for studying plant development, genetics, and molecular biology. In the medical field, Arabidopsis is used to study a variety of biological processes, including plant growth and development, gene expression, and signaling pathways. Researchers use Arabidopsis to study the genetic basis of plant diseases, such as viral infections and bacterial blight, and to develop new strategies for crop improvement. Additionally, Arabidopsis is used to study the effects of environmental factors, such as light and temperature, on plant growth and development. Overall, Arabidopsis is a valuable tool for advancing our understanding of plant biology and has important implications for agriculture and medicine.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that contains the genetic information of living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is found in the nucleus of cells and in organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA is composed of four types of nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These bases pair up in a specific way to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with adenine always pairing with thymine and cytosine always pairing with guanine. The sequence of these bases in DNA determines the genetic information that is passed down from parent plants to offspring. This information includes traits such as plant height, leaf shape, flower color, and resistance to diseases and pests. In the medical field, plant DNA is often studied for its potential to be used in biotechnology applications such as crop improvement, biofuels production, and the development of new medicines. For example, scientists may use genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of plants to make them more resistant to pests or to produce higher yields.
Salicylic acid is a medication that is commonly used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that works by reducing inflammation and pain in the body. Salicylic acid is often used to treat conditions such as headaches, fever, and pain associated with arthritis. It is also used to reduce inflammation and pain in the skin, and is commonly used in the treatment of acne, psoriasis, and other skin conditions. In addition to its anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, salicylic acid has also been shown to have anticoagulant effects, meaning that it can help to prevent blood clots from forming. It is also used in some over-the-counter pain relievers and fever reducers, such as aspirin. It is important to note that salicylic acid can have side effects, including stomach pain, nausea, and an increased risk of bleeding. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking salicylic acid, and to let them know if you experience any side effects.
Biological control agents are organisms or substances that are used to control or manage pests, diseases, or invasive species in a natural or managed ecosystem. In the medical field, biological control agents are often used to treat or prevent infections caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. For example, vaccines are a type of biological control agent that are used to prevent infections caused by viruses. They contain weakened or inactivated forms of the virus or parts of the virus that can stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. This helps to protect the body from future infections by the same virus. Other examples of biological control agents in the medical field include antibiotics, which are used to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria, and antiviral drugs, which are used to treat viral infections. Some biological control agents are also used in the treatment of parasitic infections, such as those caused by worms or protozoa. Overall, biological control agents are an important tool in the medical field for preventing and treating a wide range of infections and diseases.
In the medical field, disease resistance refers to the ability of an organism to resist or tolerate the effects of a disease-causing agent, such as a virus, bacteria, or parasite. This resistance can be innate, meaning that it is present from birth and is not acquired through previous exposure to the disease, or it can be acquired through exposure to the disease or through vaccination. Disease resistance can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, lifestyle, and the presence of other infections or diseases. For example, certain genetic traits may make an individual more resistant to certain diseases, while a healthy diet and regular exercise can help to boost the immune system and increase resistance to infections. In some cases, disease resistance can be enhanced through the use of medications or other treatments. For example, antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of resistance developing, while vaccines can be used to stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, disease resistance is an important factor in maintaining health and preventing the spread of infectious diseases.
In the medical field, "Crops, Agricultural" typically refers to the cultivation and harvesting of crops for food, fiber, or other agricultural products. This can include a wide range of crops, such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and livestock feed. The medical field may be interested in agricultural crops for several reasons. For example, some crops may be used as sources of dietary fiber or other nutrients that can help prevent certain diseases. Others may be used to produce biofuels or other industrial products. Additionally, the use of pesticides and other chemicals in agriculture can have potential health effects on both humans and the environment, so the medical field may study the impact of these practices on human health. Overall, the medical field may be interested in agricultural crops as a way to understand the impact of food production on human health and the environment, and to develop strategies for promoting sustainable and healthy food systems.
Ascomycota is a phylum of fungi that includes a diverse group of species, many of which are important in the medical field. Some species of Ascomycota are pathogenic and can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants. For example, Aspergillus fumigatus is a common cause of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals, and Candida species are responsible for a range of infections, including candidiasis of the skin, mouth, and vagina. Other species of Ascomycota are used in medical applications, such as the production of antibiotics, enzymes, and other bioactive compounds. For example, Penicillium chrysogenum is the source of the antibiotic penicillin, and Aspergillus oryzae is used in the production of enzymes for food and industrial applications. In addition, some species of Ascomycota are used in bioremediation, the process of using living organisms to remove or degrade pollutants from the environment. For example, some species of Aspergillus and Penicillium are able to degrade a wide range of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, pesticides, and other toxic chemicals. Overall, Ascomycota is an important group of fungi with a wide range of medical and industrial applications.
Arabidopsis Proteins refer to proteins that are encoded by genes in the genome of the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant that is widely used as a model organism in plant biology research due to its small size, short life cycle, and ease of genetic manipulation. Arabidopsis proteins have been extensively studied in the medical field due to their potential applications in drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and treatment. For example, some Arabidopsis proteins have been found to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs. In addition, Arabidopsis proteins have been used as tools for studying human diseases. For instance, researchers have used Arabidopsis to study the molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. Overall, Arabidopsis proteins have become an important resource for medical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery and disease research.
Cladosporium is a genus of fungi that commonly grows on a variety of surfaces, including indoor environments such as homes, offices, and hospitals. In the medical field, Cladosporium is often associated with indoor air quality and can be a source of respiratory infections in susceptible individuals. Some species of Cladosporium can produce allergens that can trigger allergic reactions in people, including asthma attacks, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis. In addition, some species of Cladosporium have been associated with invasive infections in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or organ transplantation. Overall, Cladosporium is an important consideration in indoor air quality and infection control in healthcare settings, and efforts to reduce its presence can help improve the health and well-being of patients and staff.
Phloroglucinol is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is a colorless or yellowish liquid that is derived from the hydrolysis of lignin, a complex organic polymer that is found in the cell walls of plants. Phloroglucinol has a wide range of applications in medicine, including as a topical antiseptic for wounds and skin infections, as a mouthwash for oral hygiene, and as a treatment for fungal infections such as athlete's foot and ringworm. It is also used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and ointments. Phloroglucinol is generally considered safe for use in humans, although it can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. It is also toxic to some aquatic organisms, so it should be used with caution in the environment.
In the medical field, "antibiosis" refers to the phenomenon where one microorganism inhibits the growth or reproduction of another microorganism. This can occur naturally between different species of bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms, or it can be artificially induced through the use of antibiotics. Antibiosis is an important concept in the field of medicine, as it has led to the development of antibiotics, which are drugs that can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, strep throat, and urinary tract infections. However, it is important to note that not all microorganisms exhibit antibiosis, and some may even be mutualistic, meaning they benefit from each other's presence. Additionally, the overuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can be difficult to treat and pose a significant public health threat.
In the medical field, agriculture refers to the practice of cultivating crops and raising livestock for food, fiber, and other products. It encompasses a wide range of activities, including planting, harvesting, and processing crops, as well as breeding and caring for animals. Agricultural practices can have significant impacts on human health, both positive and negative. On the positive side, agriculture provides essential nutrients and calories for human consumption, and can also contribute to the development of new medicines and medical technologies. However, agricultural practices can also have negative impacts on human health, such as the exposure to pesticides and other chemicals, the risk of foodborne illness, and the development of zoonotic diseases (diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans). In the medical field, understanding the relationship between agriculture and human health is important for developing effective strategies to promote healthy diets, prevent foodborne illness, and address the health impacts of agricultural practices. This may involve working with farmers and agricultural organizations to promote sustainable and healthy farming practices, as well as developing new medical technologies and treatments to address the health impacts of agricultural practices.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Basidiomycota is a phylum of fungi that includes mushrooms, toadstools, and other types of fungi that produce a distinctive reproductive structure called a basidium. These fungi are important decomposers in many ecosystems and are also used in the production of food, medicine, and other products. In the medical field, Basidiomycota are of interest because some species can cause infections in humans and animals. These infections, known as mycoses, can range from superficial skin infections to more serious systemic infections that can be life-threatening. Some common examples of Basidiomycota that can cause infections include Cryptococcus neoformans, which can cause meningitis and other central nervous system infections, and Histoplasma capsulatum, which can cause histoplasmosis, a respiratory infection. In addition to causing infections, some species of Basidiomycota have potential medical applications. For example, certain species of mushrooms have been found to have anti-cancer properties, and some species of yeast in the Basidiomycota phylum are used in the production of bread, beer, and other fermented foods.
Actinidia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Actinidiaceae, commonly known as kiwifruit. The genus includes several species of edible fruit, which are native to China and other parts of Asia. In the medical field, Actinidia species have been studied for their potential health benefits. Some studies have suggested that kiwifruit may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties. The fruit is also a good source of vitamins C and K, as well as potassium and fiber. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of Actinidia species, and to determine the appropriate dosage and duration of use for any potential therapeutic applications. As with any dietary supplement or food, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider before using Actinidia or any other supplement.
Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipids that are derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the action of enzymes called lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of fatty acids, leading to the formation of various oxylipins, including hydroxy fatty acids, epoxy fatty acids, and dihydroxy fatty acids. Oxylipins play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, immune response, blood pressure regulation, and cell signaling. They are also involved in the development and progression of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. In the medical field, oxylipins are often studied as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for these diseases. For example, some oxylipins have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, while others have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the metabolism and function of oxylipins is important for developing new treatments and improving patient outcomes.
Botrytis is a genus of fungi that commonly causes a type of mold known as gray mold. In the medical field, Botrytis infections are typically associated with plants and crops, rather than with humans. However, in rare cases, Botrytis infections can occur in humans, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. These infections can affect a variety of organs and tissues, including the lungs, skin, and brain, and can be serious if left untreated. Treatment for Botrytis infections typically involves the use of antifungal medications.
Cyclopentanes are a type of organic compound that contain a five-membered ring of carbon atoms with one hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical reactions, and as starting materials for the synthesis of other compounds. In the medical field, cyclopentanes are not typically used as drugs or therapeutic agents. However, some cyclopentane derivatives have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer and viral infections.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
In the medical field, angiosperms are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed in an ovary, which develops into a fruit after fertilization. Angiosperms are also known as flowering plants or dicots, and they are the most diverse group of plants on Earth, with over 300,000 species. Angiosperms are important in medicine because many of them produce useful compounds, such as medicinal plants, that have been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments. For example, aspirin is derived from the bark of the willow tree, which is an angiosperm, and digitalis, a heart medication, is derived from the foxglove plant, another angiosperm. In addition to their medicinal uses, angiosperms are also important in agriculture, as they provide food, fiber, and other resources for humans and animals. Many crops, such as wheat, rice, and corn, are angiosperms, and they are also used to produce biofuels and other industrial products. Overall, angiosperms play a crucial role in the functioning of ecosystems and have significant economic and medicinal value.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Plant poisoning, also known as phytotoxicity, is a condition that occurs when a person or animal ingests or comes into contact with a toxic substance found in plants. The toxic substances can be present in the plant's leaves, roots, seeds, or fruits, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of the substance ingested. Plant poisoning can be acute or chronic, and the symptoms can range from mild to severe. Acute plant poisoning typically occurs within a few hours to a few days after exposure, and can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, and difficulty breathing. Chronic plant poisoning occurs over a longer period of time and can cause more serious symptoms such as liver or kidney damage, neurological problems, and even death. The treatment for plant poisoning depends on the type and severity of the poisoning. In some cases, the person or animal may need to be hospitalized and treated with medications to remove the toxic substance from their system. In other cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may be sufficient. It is important to note that not all plants are toxic, and some plants can even be beneficial for human health. However, it is always best to exercise caution when handling or ingesting unfamiliar plants, and to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone else may have been poisoned by a plant.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are found in almost every environment on Earth, including soil, water, and the human body. In the medical field, bacteria are often studied and classified based on their characteristics, such as their shape, size, and genetic makeup. Bacteria can be either beneficial or harmful to humans. Some bacteria are essential for human health, such as the bacteria that live in the gut and help digest food. However, other bacteria can cause infections and diseases, such as strep throat, pneumonia, and meningitis. In the medical field, bacteria are often identified and treated using a variety of methods, including culturing and identifying bacteria using specialized laboratory techniques, administering antibiotics to kill harmful bacteria, and using vaccines to prevent bacterial infections.
In the medical field, chromosomes are structures found in the nucleus of cells that contain genetic information in the form of DNA. In plants, chromosomes are typically larger and more complex than those found in animals, and they play a critical role in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant chromosomes are composed of DNA, proteins, and other molecules, and they are organized into distinct regions called arms and centromeres. The number of chromosomes in a plant cell can vary depending on the species, with some plants having as few as two chromosomes and others having hundreds. In plant breeding and genetics, the study of plant chromosomes is important for understanding how traits are inherited and how to manipulate plant genetics to create new varieties with desirable characteristics. Techniques such as chromosome mapping and genetic engineering are used to study and manipulate plant chromosomes in order to improve crop yields, resistance to pests and diseases, and other important traits.
In the medical field, "Plant Preparations" refer to the use of extracts, tinctures, powders, and other forms of plant material for medicinal purposes. These preparations are derived from various parts of plants, such as leaves, roots, flowers, and seeds, and are used to treat a wide range of health conditions. Plant preparations have been used for centuries in traditional medicine systems around the world, and many modern medicines are derived from plant sources. Some examples of plant preparations used in modern medicine include aspirin (from willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and quinine (from cinchona bark). Plant preparations can be used in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, teas, and topical creams. They are often used in combination with other treatments, such as conventional medicine, to provide a holistic approach to healthcare. It is important to note that while plant preparations can be effective in treating certain health conditions, they can also have side effects and interact with other medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant preparation for medicinal purposes.
DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Fungal proteins are proteins that are produced by fungi. They can be found in various forms, including extracellular proteins, secreted proteins, and intracellular proteins. Fungal proteins have a wide range of functions, including roles in metabolism, cell wall synthesis, and virulence. In the medical field, fungal proteins are of interest because some of them have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of fungal infections or as vaccines against fungal diseases. Additionally, some fungal proteins have been shown to have anti-cancer properties, making them potential targets for the development of new cancer treatments.
In the medical field, biomass refers to the total mass of living organisms in a particular area or ecosystem. This can include plants, animals, and microorganisms, and is often used as a measure of the health and productivity of an ecosystem. Biomass can also be used to refer to the energy that can be derived from living organisms, such as through the burning of wood or the fermentation of plant materials to produce biofuels. In this context, biomass is often seen as a renewable energy source, as it can be replenished through natural processes such as photosynthesis.
Plant nectar is a sweet liquid produced by flowers as a means of attracting pollinators such as bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds. It is a source of energy for these pollinators and is often rich in nutrients such as sugars, amino acids, and minerals. In the medical field, plant nectar is not typically used as a treatment or medication. However, some plants that produce nectar, such as honeybees, are used in traditional medicine for their medicinal properties. Honey, which is produced by bees from plant nectar, has been used for centuries to treat a variety of ailments, including sore throats, coughs, and wounds. Additionally, plant nectar is sometimes used in research to study the behavior and physiology of pollinators. For example, scientists may study the chemical composition of nectar to better understand how it affects the behavior of pollinators, or they may use nectar as a reward in experiments to study learning and memory in bees.
Indoleacetic Acids (IAAs) are a type of plant hormone that play a crucial role in plant growth and development. They are synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and are involved in various aspects of plant physiology, including cell division, elongation, and differentiation. In the medical field, IAAs have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, IAAs have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and they may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. IAAs have also been used in agriculture as a growth promoter for plants. They can stimulate root growth, increase plant biomass, and improve crop yields. However, the use of IAAs as a plant growth promoter is controversial, as it may have negative environmental impacts and may contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Overall, IAAs are an important class of plant hormones with potential therapeutic and agricultural applications.
In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.
Plant exudates are natural substances secreted by plants, including roots, stems, leaves, and bark. These substances can be in the form of liquids, gases, or solids and are released into the surrounding environment through various mechanisms such as osmosis, diffusion, and pressure. In the medical field, plant exudates have been used for centuries as traditional remedies for various ailments. Some examples of plant exudates with medicinal properties include: 1. Resin: A sticky, gummy substance secreted by certain trees, such as pine and spruce, that has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. 2. Gum: A sticky substance secreted by certain plants, such as acacia and gum arabic, that has been used as a natural adhesive and has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. 3. Essential oils: Volatile oils extracted from plants that have a strong aroma and are used for their therapeutic properties, such as lavender oil for relaxation and peppermint oil for pain relief. 4. Tannins: A type of polyphenol found in many plants that have astringent properties and can be used to treat diarrhea and other digestive issues. 5. Saponins: A type of glycoside found in many plants that have detergent properties and can be used to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. Overall, plant exudates have a wide range of potential medicinal applications and continue to be studied for their therapeutic properties.
Antifungal agents are medications used to treat fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract. Antifungal agents work by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of fungi, either by disrupting their cell walls or by interfering with their metabolism. There are several types of antifungal agents, including: 1. Azoles: These are the most commonly used antifungal agents and include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a vital component of fungal cell membranes. 2. Polyenes: These include amphotericin B and nystatin and work by disrupting the fungal cell membrane. 3. Echinocandins: These include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin and work by inhibiting the synthesis of β-1,3-glucan, a component of the fungal cell wall. 4. Allylamines: This includes terbinafine and works by inhibiting the synthesis of squalene, a precursor to ergosterol. Antifungal agents are typically prescribed based on the type of fungal infection, the severity of the infection, and the patient's overall health. It is important to follow the prescribed dosage and duration of treatment to ensure effective treatment and prevent the development of drug-resistant fungal strains.
Plant lectins are a class of proteins found in many plants that have a specific affinity for binding to carbohydrates. They are known to have a wide range of biological activities, including antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor properties. In the medical field, plant lectins are being studied for their potential use in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and autoimmune disorders. They are also being investigated as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. Some plant lectins have been approved for use as drugs, such as concanavalin A, which is used to diagnose hepatitis B and C infections.
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs light energy, and use this energy to power the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are also responsible for producing oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis. In the medical field, chloroplasts are not typically studied or treated directly, but understanding the process of photosynthesis and the role of chloroplasts in this process is important for understanding plant biology and the role of plants in the environment.
In the medical field, Brassica is a genus of plants that includes many commonly consumed vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and kale. These vegetables are known for their high nutritional value and are often used in dietary interventions for their potential health benefits. Some Brassica vegetables have been found to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may help to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. They are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, including vitamin C, vitamin K, and folate. In addition to their potential health benefits, Brassica vegetables have also been studied for their potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions. For example, some studies have suggested that broccoli may have anti-cancer properties and may help to reduce the risk of certain types of cancer, such as breast and prostate cancer. Other studies have suggested that Brassica vegetables may have potential benefits for digestive health, immune function, and brain health.
Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.
Asteraceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the aster, daisy, or sunflower family. It is one of the largest families of flowering plants, with over 23,000 species distributed worldwide. In the medical field, Asteraceae plants are known for their medicinal properties and are used to treat a variety of conditions. Some examples of Asteraceae plants used in traditional medicine include chamomile, echinacea, feverfew, and St. John's Wort. These plants are often used to treat conditions such as anxiety, depression, colds and flu, and digestive issues. Some Asteraceae plants are also used in modern medicine. For example, the active ingredient in the chemotherapy drug Taxol, which is used to treat breast and ovarian cancer, is derived from the Pacific yew tree, which belongs to the Taxaceae family, which is closely related to Asteraceae.
Plant oils are oils that are extracted from the seeds, nuts, fruits, or leaves of plants. They are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including as a source of nutrition, as a natural remedy for various health conditions, and as a component in the production of pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, plant oils are often used as a source of essential fatty acids, which are important for maintaining healthy skin, hair, and nails, as well as for supporting the immune system and brain function. Some plant oils, such as fish oil and flaxseed oil, are particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may help to reduce the risk of heart disease. Plant oils are also used in the medical field as natural remedies for a variety of health conditions. For example, coconut oil is often used topically to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis, while olive oil is sometimes used as a natural laxative to help relieve constipation. Some plant oils, such as tea tree oil, are also used as antimicrobial agents to help prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. Finally, plant oils are used in the production of pharmaceuticals. For example, soybean oil is used as a solvent in the production of certain drugs, while castor oil is used as a lubricant in the production of ophthalmic solutions. Some plant oils, such as cannabis oil, are also used as a source of cannabinoids, which have been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits for a variety of conditions, including pain, nausea, and epilepsy.
Botany is the scientific study of plants, including their structure, growth, reproduction, distribution, and classification. In the medical field, botany is used to understand the medicinal properties of plants and their potential uses in treating various diseases and conditions. The study of botany in medicine is known as phytomedicine or phytotherapy. It involves the use of plant extracts, compounds, and other natural products to treat or prevent diseases. Phytomedicine is a complementary and alternative medicine approach that has gained popularity in recent years due to its potential benefits and fewer side effects compared to conventional medicine. Botanists and phytomedical researchers work together to identify and isolate active compounds from plants that have medicinal properties. These compounds are then tested in the laboratory and clinical trials to determine their efficacy and safety for use in treating various diseases and conditions. Some examples of plant-based medicines include aspirin (from willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and quinine (from cinchona bark). Botanical medicine is also used in traditional medicine systems such as Ayurveda, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Native American medicine.
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. It is produced in response to various environmental stresses, such as drought, extreme temperatures, and exposure to UV radiation. In the medical field, ABA has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, ABA has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and it may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. However, it is important to note that ABA is not currently used as a medication in humans, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and potential side effects.
Phytosterols are a type of plant-based compound that are structurally similar to cholesterol. They are commonly found in a variety of plant-based foods, including nuts, seeds, fruits, and vegetables. Phytosterols have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including reducing cholesterol levels in the blood and reducing the risk of heart disease. They may also have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. In the medical field, phytosterols are sometimes used as a dietary supplement to help manage cholesterol levels.
In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.
I'm sorry, but "Bryopsida" is not a term commonly used in the medical field. In the field of botany, Bryopsida is a division of non-vascular plants known as mosses. Mosses are small, non-vascular plants that typically grow in damp environments and are often found in forests, on rocks, and on the ground. They are important components of many ecosystems and play a role in nutrient cycling and soil formation. If you have any other questions or if there is something else I can help you with, please let me know.
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth and metabolism. In the medical field, chlorophyll has been studied for its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that chlorophyll may have antioxidant properties, which could help protect against damage from free radicals and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Chlorophyll has also been studied for its potential to support liver health, improve digestion, and boost energy levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of chlorophyll, and it is not currently used as a medical treatment. It is typically consumed as a dietary supplement or found in foods that are rich in chlorophyll, such as leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and parsley.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a type of soil bacterium that is known for its ability to transfer genetic material to plant cells. This bacterium is commonly used in genetic engineering to introduce foreign DNA into plant cells, which can then be used to create genetically modified plants with desired traits. In the medical field, Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been studied for its potential use in gene therapy. Researchers have used this bacterium to deliver therapeutic genes directly to cells in the body, with the goal of treating a variety of diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and viral infections. However, it is important to note that Agrobacterium tumefaciens is not currently used in medical treatments and more research is needed to determine its safety and effectiveness in humans.
Aphids are small, soft-bodied insects that are commonly found on plants. They are known to feed on the sap of plants, which can cause damage to the plant's leaves, stems, and flowers. In the medical field, aphids are not typically considered a significant health concern for humans. However, they can be a vector for transmitting plant viruses, which can cause disease in crops and ornamental plants. In some cases, people may experience an allergic reaction to the saliva of aphids, which can cause symptoms such as itching, redness, and swelling.
In the medical field, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at room temperature, which means they can easily evaporate and become airborne. VOCs are commonly found in various indoor environments, including homes, offices, and hospitals, and can have negative health effects on humans. Some common VOCs found in indoor environments include formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and xylene. These chemicals can be emitted from various sources, such as building materials, cleaning products, and personal care products. Exposure to high levels of VOCs can cause a range of health problems, including headaches, dizziness, nausea, and respiratory issues. In some cases, long-term exposure to VOCs has been linked to more serious health problems, such as cancer. Therefore, it is important to monitor and control the levels of VOCs in indoor environments to protect human health. This can be done through proper ventilation, the use of low-VOC products, and regular air quality testing.
Cucumis sativus, commonly known as cucumber, is a plant species in the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae). It is widely cultivated for its edible fruit, which is used in various culinary applications. In the medical field, cucumber is not typically used as a medicinal plant. However, some studies have suggested that cucumber may have potential health benefits. For example, cucumbers are a good source of hydration and may help to reduce inflammation and improve digestion. They also contain antioxidants and other nutrients that may have potential anti-cancer effects. In addition, cucumber is sometimes used in traditional medicine practices, such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine, for a variety of purposes, including reducing inflammation, improving digestion, and promoting overall health and well-being. However, the scientific evidence for these uses is limited, and more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of cucumber.
Cytokinins are a class of plant hormones that play a crucial role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. They are primarily responsible for promoting cell division and differentiation, shoot and root growth, leaf expansion, and the delay of senescence (aging) in plants. Cytokinins are synthesized in various parts of the plant, including roots, leaves, and seeds, and are transported throughout the plant via the xylem and phloem tissues. They act by binding to specific receptors on the surface of plant cells, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression and cellular behavior. In addition to their role in plant growth and development, cytokinins have also been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in medicine. For example, they have been studied for their potential to promote wound healing, reduce inflammation, and improve bone density in humans.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
In the medical field, biodiversity refers to the variety of living organisms, including microorganisms, plants, and animals, that exist in a particular ecosystem or region. This diversity of life is important for maintaining the health and resilience of ecosystems, as different species play different roles in maintaining ecological balance and providing resources for human use. Biodiversity is also important in the development of new medicines and medical treatments. Many drugs are derived from natural sources, such as plants and animals, and the loss of biodiversity can reduce the availability of these resources. Additionally, biodiversity can help to protect against the spread of infectious diseases, as diverse ecosystems tend to be more resilient to disease outbreaks. Overall, biodiversity is a critical component of the health and well-being of both human and natural systems, and efforts to conserve and protect biodiversity are essential for maintaining the health of our planet.
In the medical field, "Adaptation, Physiological" refers to the ability of an organism to adjust to changes in its environment or to changes in its internal state in order to maintain homeostasis. This can involve a wide range of physiological processes, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and hormone levels. For example, when a person is exposed to high temperatures, their body may undergo physiological adaptations to help them stay cool. This might include sweating to release heat from the skin, or dilating blood vessels to increase blood flow to the skin and help dissipate heat. Physiological adaptations can also occur in response to changes in an individual's internal state, such as during exercise or when the body is under stress. For example, during exercise, the body may increase its production of oxygen and glucose to meet the increased energy demands of the muscles. Overall, physiological adaptations are a fundamental aspect of how organisms are able to survive and thrive in a changing environment.
Bryophyta is a division of non-vascular plants that includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. These plants are characterized by their small size, simple structure, and lack of true roots, stems, and leaves. In the medical field, bryophytes have been used for various purposes, including as traditional medicines, food sources, and ornamental plants. Some species of mosses and liverworts have been found to have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, and are being studied for their potential use in treating various diseases. Additionally, bryophytes are important indicators of environmental health, as they are sensitive to changes in air and water quality.
In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.
Gibberellins are a group of plant hormones that play important roles in plant growth and development. They are synthesized in the shoot apical meristem and other parts of the plant, and are transported to other parts of the plant where they regulate various aspects of growth and development. In the medical field, gibberellins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that gibberellins may have anti-cancer properties, as they have been shown to inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells in vitro. Additionally, gibberellins have been studied for their potential to promote wound healing, as they have been shown to stimulate the production of growth factors and other molecules that are important for tissue repair. However, it is important to note that the use of gibberellins in medicine is still in the experimental stage, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and to determine the safety and efficacy of their use in humans.
In the medical field, the cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane of certain types of cells, such as plant cells and some bacteria. The cell wall provides structural support and protection to the cell, and helps to maintain its shape and integrity. It is composed of various polysaccharides, proteins, and other molecules, and is essential for the survival and function of these types of cells. In some cases, the cell wall may also play a role in cell division and communication with other cells.
Asparagus Plant, also known as Asparagus officinalis, is a perennial herbaceous plant that belongs to the Liliaceae family. It is commonly grown as a vegetable for its edible shoots, which are rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. In the medical field, Asparagus Plant has been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes. Some of the health benefits associated with Asparagus Plant include: 1. Diuretic: Asparagus Plant is a natural diuretic that helps to increase urine production and flush out excess fluids and toxins from the body. 2. Antioxidant: Asparagus Plant is rich in antioxidants that help to protect the body against oxidative stress and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. 3. Anti-inflammatory: Asparagus Plant has anti-inflammatory properties that help to reduce inflammation and swelling in the body. 4. Immune booster: Asparagus Plant contains vitamins and minerals that help to boost the immune system and protect the body against infections and diseases. 5. Digestive aid: Asparagus Plant is a natural digestive aid that helps to improve digestion and relieve digestive problems such as constipation and bloating. Overall, Asparagus Plant is a nutritious and healthy vegetable that can provide a range of health benefits when consumed as part of a balanced diet.
In the medical field, cotyledon refers to the seed leaf of a plant embryo. It is the first leaf to develop in the embryo and is responsible for storing nutrients that will be used by the developing plant. In some plants, such as legumes, the cotyledon is also the primary source of food for the developing embryo. The number and type of cotyledons can vary among different plant species and can provide important clues for plant identification and classification.
In the medical field, "Cucurbita" refers to a genus of plants in the family Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as pumpkins, squash, and gourds. These plants are native to the Americas and are widely cultivated for their edible fruit, which is used in a variety of culinary applications. The fruit of Cucurbita plants is a type of winter squash, which is characterized by a hard, thick shell and a sweet, starchy flesh. The fruit is typically orange in color, although some varieties may be yellow, green, or white. In addition to their culinary uses, Cucurbita plants are also used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including digestive disorders, respiratory infections, and skin conditions. Some species of Cucurbita are also used as a source of food for humans and animals, and the plants themselves are sometimes grown as ornamentals. However, in the medical field, the focus is typically on the fruit of the plant, which is rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.
Lists of plant diseases
List of foliage plant diseases
List of pocketbook plant diseases
List of foliage plant diseases (Gesneriaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Vitaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Commelinaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Cactaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Agavaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Arecaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Asclepiadaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Acanthaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Polypodiaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Araliaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Araucariaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Bromeliaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Maranthaceae)
List of foliage plant diseases (Araceae)
Plant disease forecasting
Blackheart (plant disease)
Plant disease resistance
Plant Disease (journal)
Plant disease epidemiology
List of maize diseases
Sugarcane grassy shoot disease
List of cassava diseases
List of apple diseases
Black dot (disease)
Citrus greening disease
High plains disease
List of sweetgum diseases
Plant diseases: black spot, rust and rot | Metro
Agriculture | Special Issue : Exploring the Mechanism of Nematodes Causing Plant Diseases
Tackling severe chronic diseases through plant-based inventions | FICPI
Handbook of Plant Virus Diseases
Plant Disease Epidemiology: Temporal Aspects
Experts: Disease-resistant plants enhance profits, client satisfaction - ScienceBlog.com
Plant-Based Foods Improve Gut Microbiota Linked to Lower Disease Risk
Upcoming Plant diseases Events | OSU Extension Service
Plant Care/Pest & Disease Control
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Blueberry - Colletotrichum - Cooperative Extension: Insect Pests, Ticks and Plant Diseases - University of Maine Cooperative...
Some Plant-Based Diets May Increase Heart Disease Risk - American College of Cardiology
Plant Diseases Caused by Dickeya and Pectobacterium Species from Summerfield Books
Table 1 - Two Community Clusters of Legionnaires' Disease Directly Linked to a Biologic Wastewater Treatment Plant, the...
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bacterial diseases of plants | NAL Agricultural Thesaurus
Flower and ornamental diseases | Plant diseases | Biosecurity | Agriculture Victoria
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Plant disease fungi in sewage polluted water
Item 85 Plant Pest and Disease Control. HB1500 - Chapter 890
These foods will lower your risk of heart disease
Palm Diseases & Nutritional Problems | Home & Garden Information Center
Cat disease associated with flame retardants
Plant diseases & pests - Bonsanto®
- Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are serious pests in the horticultural and agricultural industry and have been known to cause billions of dollars worth of damages, accounting for great economic loss worldwide. (mdpi.com)
- The professionals also indicated that they believe that 60% or more of the plants in a specific landscape would have to be resistant to insect pests or plant diseases to result in decreased company profits. (scienceblog.com)
- Over time experienced gardeners and crop growers can identify problems in their produce, whether this is a lack of water, scorching from the sun, or diseases and pests. (essex.ac.uk)
- When you grow indoors in a growbox, for example a Bonsanto Growbox , you have the advantage that the risk of diseases and pests is much lower than when growing outdoors. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- This reduces the risk of the development and transmission of diseases and pests. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- Pests can damage your grow and cause disease. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- There are several pests that can affect plants. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
- The term endemic is sometimes used (erroneously) to mean the opposite of 'epidemic', that is, to denote constant disease, because in areas where the pathogen and its host have coevolved over long periods of time, they often have reached an equilibrium where there is little change in the amount of disease with time. (apsnet.org)
- It will enhance and develop three innovative prototype sprayers (for carrots, apple orchards and vineyards) actuating different nozzle types and adopting variable rate control based on canopy characteristics, the pathogen dispersal and disease development. (europa.eu)
- Patients with psoriasis more commonly develop cardiovascular disease and diabetes, which may be attributable to system-wide inflammation. (medicinenet.com)
- The evidence shows that both low and high fat diets can reduce your risks of cardiovascular disease - if they are plant-based. (theconversation.com)
- When the scientific community has examined the link between saturated fat (in butter, meat fat, chicken skin and high-fat dairy products) and risk for cardiovascular disease, conflicting findings have emerged. (theconversation.com)
- Olive oil, on the other hand, when consumed as part of the high-fat "predimed diet pattern" (PDP) referenced below, has been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease. (theconversation.com)
- There is substantial evidence that a Mediterranean diet pattern (MDP) reduces cardiovascular disease. (theconversation.com)
- The drug industry's development, urbanization, cultural and social changes have contributed to the loss of popular knowledge about medicinal plants. (bvsalud.org)
- The present study aimed to identify the main medicinal plants and knowledge about ways to use and toxicity referred to by herbalists for oral diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- There is little appreciation of information about appropriate ways in the preparation of the parties, the hygiene material and toxicity of the medicinal plants suitable for oral diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- This handbook organizes cultivated plants into groups according to their final destinations and uses after harvest-a useful grouping system that indicates that some diseases, their resultant epidemiology, and control measures are characteristic within different groups. (chipsbooks.com)
- Arneson, P.A. 2001 Plant Disease Epidemiology: Temporal Aspects. (apsnet.org)
- Plant Disease Epidemiology? (apsnet.org)
- So if we accept 'epidemic' to apply to plant populations, then 'epidemiology' refers to the study of the development of disease in those populations. (apsnet.org)
- A higher intake of a more healthful plant-based diet - one rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, etc. - was associated with a substantially lower risk of heart disease. (acc.org)
- Not all plant-based foods are equally healthy, but plant-based diets with whole grains, unsaturated fats and an abundance of fruits and vegetables "deserve more emphasis in dietary recommendations. (acc.org)
- Diseases caused by soft rot Pectobacteriaceae (SRP) are a major cause of loss to crop, vegetables and ornamental plants worldwide, and have been found on all continents except Antarctica. (summerfieldbooks.com)
- This involves eating plant foods - vegetables, fruit, whole grains, legumes and olive oil - plus fish and a moderate amount of wine. (theconversation.com)
- Most of the interviewees mentioned informing of the plants buyers about your hygiene, especially with running water, toxicity and contraindications. (bvsalud.org)
- The indication and adequate guidance on the preparation, cleaning, toxicity and risk of use of plants constitutes itself a guarantee of their correct use and effectiveness while minimizing the likelihood of adverse effects or other harms to health. (bvsalud.org)
- A data fusion platform will be developed that will be fed with the collected data, and will compare it to information on known problems in order to detect the signs and symptoms of different plant diseases. (essex.ac.uk)
- Heavy rainstorms have been observed to wash away the ooze so that it is not visible on blighted branches, but the presence of kermes scale insects as well as disease symptoms such as fallen branches and blighted leaves are still present (R. Sitz, personal communication ). (apsnet.org)
- To find what the experts think, William E. Klingeman from the University of Tennessee and colleagues at the University of Georgia surveyed lawn care and landscape maintenance professionals regarding the increased use of insect- and disease-resistant ornamental plants on grounds management, client satisfaction, and profitability. (scienceblog.com)
- Even if insect- and disease-resistant ornamental plants were used more widely in client landscapes, respondents expected that the required number of site visits to client landscapes would remain unchanged and that moderate reductions in insecticide and fungicide use would result. (scienceblog.com)
- In short, the study proved that landscape management professionals accept and are willing to promote insect- and disease-resistant ornamental plants - good news for business and the environment. (scienceblog.com)
- Benefits to the survey findings, noted Klingeman, include "strong academic and commercial incentives to identify, grow, and promote insect- and disease-resistant ornamental plants for increased use within sustainable urban landscapes. (scienceblog.com)
- The 25 most commonly involved plant species and categories account for 41.6% of all reported plant exposures. (medscape.com)
- Just as Xa blocked canker formation when coinfiltrated with Xc in sweet orange leaves, two polymorphic XaFliC peptides designated flgIII-20 and flgIII-27, not related to flg22 or flgII-28 but found in many Xanthomonas species, were sufficient to protect sweet orange plants from Xc infection . (bvsalud.org)
- The resultant 4 specific toxidromes of plant poisonings identified in the scientific literature are stratified as cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, cytotoxic, and gastrointestinal/hepatotoxic poisonings, all of which have caused fatalities worldwide after both intentional and unintentional ingestions. (medscape.com)
- Epidemic' also is commonly used to denote a sudden and rapid or a widespread development of disease, implying that if development is slow or it is spatially limited there is no epidemic. (apsnet.org)
- After a period of time, a disease that started with a single infected plant will commonly appear as a 'focus', with the density of lesions or of infected plants highest in the center and diminishing radially outward. (apsnet.org)
- Poinsettia plants, commonly used during the holidays, are not poisonous. (medlineplus.gov)
- OPTIMA will develop an environmentally friendly IPM framework for vineyards, apple orchards and carrots by providing a holistic integrated approach which includes all critical aspects related to integrated disease management, such as i) novel bio-PPPs use, ii) disease prediction models, iii) spectral early disease detection systems and iv) precision spraying techniques. (europa.eu)
- OPTIMA will optimize disease prediction models for downy mildew in vineyards, apple scab in apple orchards and alternaria leaf blight in carrots to envisage faster the possibility of disease outspread and developing advanced early detection methods based on spectral imaging and deep learning techniques to precisely localise and quantify the infection. (europa.eu)
- This article will give you an overview of common plant diseases, their detection and treatment, and how to deal with pest infestations. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- The Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks, which are defined as the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food. (cdc.gov)
- Citrus cancer , caused by strains of Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii (Xa), is one of the most economically important citrus diseases . (bvsalud.org)
- Suppression of citrus canker disease mediated by flagellin perception. (bvsalud.org)
- Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying citrus canker development has advanced remarkably in recent years, exactly how citrus plants fight against these pathogens remains largely unclear. (bvsalud.org)
- We also know that 80 per cent of chronic disease could be alleviated by following a healthy diet, avoiding tobacco, maintaining a healthy weight and getting regular exercise. (theconversation.com)
- Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a common and persistent disease of plants that is transmitted through infected plants, contaminated objects or aphids. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- Dr Rachel Alkalay is an Israeli inventor whose inventions are based on compounds from plants that are designed to treat severe chronic diseases affecting millions of people such as diabetes, obesity, dementia, cancer, and long-Covid. (ficpi.org)
- A diet rich in plant-based foods improves gut microbiota associated with lower risk for heart disease and other chronic conditions, according to a study published in Nature Medicine . (pcrm.org)
- It doesn't work so well as a strategy for avoiding chronic disease. (theconversation.com)
- Foodborne disease outbreaks provide information about the pathogens and foods responsible for illness. (cdc.gov)
- Norovirus remains the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks, highlighting the continued need for food safety improvements targeting worker health and hygiene in food service settings. (cdc.gov)
- Approximately 800 foodborne disease outbreaks are reported in the United States each year, accounting for approximately 15,000 illnesses, 800 hospitalizations, and 20 deaths ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- This report summarizes foodborne disease outbreaks reported in the United States in which the first illness occurred between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. (cdc.gov)
- Photo by Cornell University Poisonous Plants Informational Database. (medscape.com)
- A rapid toxidromic classification of plant poisonings has been developed for use by first responders and other urgent-healthcare providers to assist in rapid identification of poisonous plant-induced toxidromes and to reduce confusion among highly toxic, less toxic, and nontoxic plants. (medscape.com)
- Poisonous plants and aquatic animals. (medlineplus.gov)
- Less than 4% of respondents expressed concerns that their business would suffer if pest-resistant plants were made more available or used in greater numbers in clients' landscapes. (scienceblog.com)
- However, it can suffer from astilbe plant diseases that can kill the plant if left untreated and several that are untreatable from the get-go. (gardeningknowhow.com)
- There are other commercial reference laboratories who may have some of these tests available, but the vast majority of people who suffer from diseases are underserved and vulnerable. (medscape.com)
- The focus of investigation in this study was to consider the potential of arthropods in the dissemination of the bacterium involved in drippy blight disease, Lonsdalea quercina . (apsnet.org)
- In the emergent disease drippy blight, a kermes scale insect, Allokermes galliformis (Riley), produces feeding wounds that are regularly colonized by the bacterium Lonsdalea quercina (syn. (apsnet.org)
- Their common denominator is that they are diseases of poverty, primarily in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, so they garner little attention from "first world" countries. (medscape.com)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
- The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
- The causes of foodborne illness should continue to be tracked and analyzed to inform disease prevention policies and initiatives. (cdc.gov)
- ATLANTA, GA - The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) need more participants in a study designed to better understand the extent of exposure to per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in drinking water near the Pease International Tradeport in Portsmouth, New Hampshire (the Pease Study). (cdc.gov)
- The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will hold a community information session to discuss the upcoming Pease Study. (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has long been the premier reference lab for the United States and, for some diseases, internationally . (medscape.com)
- In an accompanying editorial , Kim Allan Williams, Sr., MD, MACC , past president of the ACC, said the study adds to the substantial evidence that a predominately plant-based diet reduces heart disease risk. (acc.org)
- Although it poses no risk to human health, it affects the growth of your plant and reduces harvest. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- KNOXVILLE, TN - New varieties of plants marketed as "disease-resistant" or "insect-resistant" are becoming more accessible to consumers. (scienceblog.com)
- Separating infected plants from healthy ones, regular cleaning of growing equipment and using resistant plant varieties will help against TMV. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- Through the evolution of our crop production technologies over the last ten thousand years, the principles of plant disease management have been woven into the fabric of our civilization. (apsnet.org)
- The editors, internationally known plant pathologists, provide authoritative descriptive symptomatic signatures of virus diseases, to aid in the diagnosis and possible control of viruses. (chipsbooks.com)
- This Web site is provided by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ONLY as an historical reference for the public health community. (cdc.gov)
- The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) released a new report for public comment for the Former Collins & Aikman Plant (C&A) site. (cdc.gov)
- For more information about ATSDR or the Former Collins & Aikman Plant site, visit http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov or call 1-800-CDC-INFO (232-4636). (cdc.gov)
- ATLANTA, GA - The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has released a health consultation report, "Evaluation of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Private Wells near the Saint-Gobain Site in Southern New Hampshire, Merrimack, New Hampshire", for public comment. (cdc.gov)
- The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has released its final health consultation report, "Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in the Pease Tradeport Public Water System," in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. (cdc.gov)
- The 2021 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS) documented 53,951 plant exposures. (medscape.com)
- Cercospora leaf spot is another of the diseases of astilbe that can prove fatal to the plant if you don't treat it. (gardeningknowhow.com)
- Leaf septoria is a resistant fungus that causes yellow or brown spots on your favorite plants that spread and cause leaf drop. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- To prevent leaf septoria, good air circulation, clean growing equipment, balanced irrigation and careful plant care are important. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- For the successful implementation of nematode control and management practices, it is vital to understand nematode plant diseases. (mdpi.com)
- This issue will include interdisciplinary studies focusing on plant-parasitic nematodes, with topics such as nematode identification, nematode biology, nematode life cycle and plant-nematode interactions (molecular plant nematology). (mdpi.com)
- This Special Issue focuses on exploring the mechanisms of nematodes causing plant diseases. (mdpi.com)
- Without a doubt, the successful farming methods depended upon being able to suppress the development of plant pathogens, even if the farmer had no particular awareness of the underlying biological mechanisms that led to her or his success. (apsnet.org)
- It will evaluate and screen biological and synthetic PPPs for their combined ability to control the selected diseases and weigh the optimum dosage and application timing and identifying and characterize induced host resistance mechanisms to achieve higher and durable resistance. (europa.eu)
- Our medical predecessors may not have known the exact mechanisms involved, but they did recognize various plants as instrumental for medical treatment and as instruments of murder. (medscape.com)
- Plants are a very interesting target for researchers to look for new medicines and new ways of treating people. (ficpi.org)
- Mol Plant Pathol;24(4): 331-345, 2023 04. (bvsalud.org)
- Whether you eat mostly saturated fats or sugar and refined starches (such as white rice, white bread and processed cereal) doesn't appear to matter when it comes to heart disease. (theconversation.com)
- Item 85 Plant Pest and Disease Control. (virginia.gov)
- They are released and activated when structural damage to the plant occurs. (medscape.com)
- But how does this trend toward the increased use of disease- and insect-resistant plants impact the profits of landscape and lawn care professionals, whose incomes often rely on maintenance visits and pesticide applications in clients' gardens? (scienceblog.com)
- Data analyses revealed that respondents largely believe that insect- and disease-resistant plants will benefit their businesses and should result in increased client satisfaction. (scienceblog.com)
- Rachel explains, "Around a third of the drugs in the world are made from plants. (ficpi.org)
- Plants, mushrooms, and herbal medications. (medlineplus.gov)
- He adds that the long-term follow up allowed authors to examine dietary patterns and analyze the effect of gradual adherence to a plant-based diet through reduced animal food intake and increased plant food intake on heart disease risk. (acc.org)
- Especially the Premium Grow Soil and the Organic Boost Fertilizer support healthy plant growth and protect against disease. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- While different aspects of the SRP have appeared in other books on plant disease, no book, until now, has been dedicated solely to them. (summerfieldbooks.com)
- The decisions of when, where, and what to plant and the development of specific cultural practices have been based on countless generations of trial and error. (apsnet.org)
- demos , people) Well, strictly speaking, we should call it an epiphytotic , but the term 'epidemic' has become so widely used in reference to plant disease and so entrenched in the phytopathological literature that we are forced to give in and leave 'epiphytotic' to the etymological purists. (apsnet.org)
- Results showed favorable links between consumption of healthy plant-based foods with "good" microbes associated with lower risk for heart disease, diabetes, and obesity and improved metabolism, glucose tolerance, and microbiome diversity. (pcrm.org)
- The authors recommend clinicians assess the gut microbiome as a biomarker for disease risk and personalize dietary interventions to improve overall health. (pcrm.org)
- Overall, adherence to a plant-based diet was associated with a lower risk of heart disease. (acc.org)
- The role of the major plant-derived n-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), on the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (ASCVD) remains unclear, but most studies have reported no association. (aau.dk)
- The impact of coconut oil on heart disease risk remains unknown. (theconversation.com)
- However, they did not attributed any toxic effects or risk of use of plants recommended. (bvsalud.org)
- and an unhealthful plant-based diet which emphasized consumption of less healthy plant foods such as refined grains. (acc.org)
- Root rot, a specific root disease, is often caused by lack of oxygen and excessive watering. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)
- A plant with wilt has brown sunken areas on the lower section of stem. (gardeningknowhow.com)
- During follow-up, 8,631 participants developed coronary heart disease. (acc.org)
- Scale and aphids are insects that feed on the sap of your plants. (bonsanto-mini-grow-box.com)