Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Plant Vascular Bundle: A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Plasmodesmata: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.Tryptophan Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.GlucuronidasePhotosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Phytochrome B: A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phytochrome A: The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Agrostis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Darkness: The absence of light.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Phototropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.DNA, Antisense: DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Polycomb-Group Proteins: A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by y chromosome deletions. (1/1066)

Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome.  (+info)

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype. (2/1066)

White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for "male dimorphism" (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state.  (+info)

Male gametic cell-specific gene expression in flowering plants. (3/1066)

The role of the male gamete-the sperm cell-in the process of fertilization is to recognize, adhere to, and fuse with the female gamete. These highly specialized functions are expected to be controlled by activation of a unique set of genes. However, male gametic cells traditionally have been regarded as transcriptionally quiescent because of highly condensed chromatin and a very reduced amount of cytoplasm. Here, we provide evidence for male gamete-specific gene expression in flowering plants. We identified and characterized a gene, LGC1, which was shown to be expressed exclusively in the male gametic cells. The gene product of LGC1 was localized at the surface of male gametic cells, suggesting a possible role in sperm-egg interactions. These findings represent an important step toward defining the molecular mechanisms of male gamete development and the cellular processes involved in fertilization of flowering plants.  (+info)

The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (4/1066)

In Arabidopsis embryogenesis, the primary root meristem originates from descendants of both the apical and the basal daughter cell of the zygote. We have isolated a mutant of a new gene named BODENLOS (BDL) in which the primary root meristem is not formed whereas post-embryonic roots develop and bdl seedlings give rise to fertile adult plants. Some bdl seedlings lacked not only the root but also the hypocotyl, thus resembling monopteros (mp) seedlings. In addition, bdl seedlings were insensitive to the auxin analogue 2,4-D, as determined by comparison with auxin resistant1 (axr1) seedlings. bdl embryos deviated from normal development as early as the two-cell stage at which the apical daughter cell of the zygote had divided horizontally instead of vertically. Subsequently, the uppermost derivative of the basal daughter cell, which is normally destined to become the hypophysis, divided abnormally and failed to generate the quiescent centre of the root meristem and the central root cap. We also analysed double mutants. bdl mp embryos closely resembled the two single mutants, bdl and mp, at early stages, while bdl mp seedlings essentially consisted of hypocotyl but did form primary leaves. bdl axr1 embryos approached the mp phenotype at later stages, and bdl axr1 seedlings resembled mp seedlings. Our results suggest that BDL is involved in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo.  (+info)

The maize rough sheath2 gene and leaf development programs in monocot and dicot plants. (5/1066)

Leaves of higher plants develop in a sequential manner from the shoot apical meristem. Previously it was determined that perturbed leaf development in maize rough sheath2 (rs2) mutant plants results from ectopic expression of knotted1-like (knox) homeobox genes. Here, the rs2 gene sequence was found to be similar to the Antirrhinum PHANTASTICA (PHAN) gene sequence, which encodes a Myb-like transcription factor. RS2 and PHAN are both required to prevent the accumulation of knox gene products in maize and Antirrhinum leaves, respectively. However, rs2 and phan mutant phenotypes differ, highlighting fundamental differences in monocot and dicot leaf development programs.  (+info)

Evidence suggesting protein tyrosine phosphorylation in plants depends on the developmental conditions. (6/1066)

Protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays a central role in a variety of signal transduction pathways regulating animal cell growth and differentiation, but its relevance and role in plants are controversial and still largely unknown. We report here that a large number of proteins from all plant subcellular fractions are recognized by recombinant, highly specific, anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation patterns vary among different adult plant tissues or somatic embryo stages and somatic embryogenesis is blocked in vivo by a cell-permeable tyrosyl-phosphorylation inhibitor, demonstrating the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in control of specific steps in plant development.  (+info)

RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1, a Menkes/Wilson disease-related copper transporter, is required for ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. (7/1066)

Ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth. We identified an Arabidopsis mutant, responsive-to-antagonist1 (ran1), that shows ethylene phenotypes in response to treatment with trans-cyclooctene, a potent receptor antagonist. Genetic epistasis studies revealed an early requirement for RAN1 in the ethylene pathway. RAN1 was cloned and found to encode a protein with similarity to copper-transporting P-type ATPases, including the human Menkes/Wilson proteins and yeast Ccc2p. Expression of RAN1 complemented the defects of a ccc2delta mutant, demonstrating its function as a copper transporter. Transgenic CaMV 35S::RAN1 plants showed constitutive expression of ethylene responses, due to cosuppression of RAN1. These results provide an in planta demonstration that ethylene signaling requires copper and reveal that RAN1 acts by delivering copper to create functional hormone receptors.  (+info)

Characterization of homeodomain-leucine zipper genes in the fern Ceratopteris richardii and the evolution of the homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family in vascular plants. (8/1066)

The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) genes encode transcription factors that are characterized by the presence of both a homeodomain and a leucine zipper motif. They belong to the homeobox gene superfamily and have been reported only from flowering plants. This article is the first report on the ferm HD-Zip genes (named Crhb1-Crhb11) isolated from the homosporous ferm Ceratopteris richardii. Phylogenetic analyses of the II Crhb genes with previously reported angiosperm HD-Zip genes show that the Crhb genes belong to three of the four different angiosperm HD-Zip subfamilies (HD-Zip I, II, and IV), indicating that these subfamilies of HD-Zip genes originated before the diversification of the ferm and seed plant lineages. The Crhb4-Crhb8 and Crhb11 genes belong to the HD-Zip I subfamily but differ from angiosperm HD-Zip I genes by the presence of a seven-amino-acid indel in the leucine zipper motif. By the northern analyses, Crhb1 and Crhb3 were expressed only in gametophyte tissue. Expression of Crhb2 and Crhb11 genes could not be detected in any tissue examined, while all other Crhb genes were expressed in most sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. Although the functions of the Crhb genes in Ceratopteris are unknown, their patterns of expression suggest that they regulate developmental or physiological processes common to both the gametophyte and the sporophyte generations of the fern. Differences in the expression of Crhb1 between male gametophytes and male-hermaphrodite mixed populations of gametophytes suggests that the Crhb1 gene is involved in gametophytic sex determination.  (+info)

  • However, the researchers found the hydrogen sulfide treatments resulted in smaller and larger numbers of cells, meaning these plants contain more biomass for fuel production. (
  • This study develops the emission factor of non-CO 2 gas released from combined heat and power plants that use biomass. (
  • Therefore, developing non-CO 2 emission factor of biomass-using circulating fluidized bed (CFB) power plants, which is appropriate for the domestic circumstances would ensure very important basic data for the estimation and forecast of greenhouse gas emission and emission reduction plans. (
  • Both fresh weights and dry biomass yields of the whole plants from these three selected transgenic lines were significantly increased to 125% of the controls. (
  • Visible progress has been made with the construction of the 41 MW Templeborough Biomass Power Plant located in Rotherham in South Yorkshire, England. (
  • According to Templeborough Biomass Power Plant Ltd., much of the concrete and other building materials from the demolition are being recycled. (
  • The full operation will include a 350,000 metric ton per year wood pellet manufacturing process and an associated biomass combined heat and power plant. (
  • Most of the wood waste will be collected locally from municipal waste sites where wood is segregated from other wastes, as well as from construction sites and other industrial and commercial waste collections, after which it will be processed and shredded before used as fuel in the biomass plant. (
  • Templeborough Biomass Power Plant Ltd. is owned by Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners, a Danish infrastructure fund that specializes in renewables. (
  • Besides time lapse cameras, the project's dedicated website offers information on renewable energy, how biomass plants work and answers to some of the most frequently asked questions. (
  • More information about the project's development can be found on the Templeborough Biomass Power Plant website . (
  • Plant-derived medicines are common, but today biopharming has changed the nature of the plants themselves, making use of gene therapy to produce transgenic plants which yield non-native proteins targeting deadly viruses like Ebola or HIV, and some cancers. (
  • This is different from bioengineering in which plant biological drugs are produced in bioreactors that ferment cultures of animal cells: this method is costly, and biopharming hopes to cut down the cost of producing recombinant antibodies, vaccines, enzymes, and other regulatory proteins to a tenth. (
  • The objective of this project is to use knockout and overexpressing lines of plant specific complex II subunits to characterise their functions at the physiological, proteomic and metabolomic levels and therefore to uncover the hidden role of these proteins and this respiratory pathway in plants. (
  • The Conference on the Development of Plant Proteins in the European Union on 22-23 November 2018 in Vienna was co-hosted by the Austrian Minister for Sustainability and Tourism, Ms Elisabeth Köstinger and the European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development, Mr Phil Hogan. (
  • Around 200 invited experts from the agricultural supply chains for feed and food production, research and advisory networks, and national and regional administrations discussed the main findings of the European Commission's report on the Development of Plant Proteins in the European Union on current plant protein production in the EU and its potential for further development. (
  • Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. (
  • Ultimately, these pathways are integrated to control expression of specific target genes, which encode proteins that regulate development and differentiation. (
  • New plant breeding technologies have made it possible to further exploit the possibilities of the tobacco plant, using CRISPR gene editing, advanced forms of grafting, and temporary expression of certain genes by infiltration. (
  • Once the gene is expressed, the tobacco plant leaves produce plenty of antibody against the antigen introduced via the bacteria. (
  • Because plants have no experience in adapting to microgravity, they may respond with improper changes in gene expression. (
  • This study showed an altered pattern of gene expression in the root tip cells of plants in microgravity relative to ground controls, suggesting that these genes are important to the physiological adaptation of plants to space. (
  • Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have identified the portion of a plant photoreceptor responsible for light-dependent changes in gene expression, as illustrated in a paper published today in Nature Communications . (
  • Most scientists did not believe the C-terminal module played a role in signaling changes in gene expression in plants, but Chen disagreed. (
  • The module also considers the relevance of developmental processes in a changing environment, with particular emphasis on the role of model organisms in determining gene function and the manipulation of plant characteristics using biotechnology. (
  • Previous studies have shown that members of the WUSCHEL -related HOMEOBOX ( WOX ) gene family function to organize various initial cell populations during plant development. (
  • Cultured plant cells show phenotypic variation, some of which results from epigenetic changes - mitotically heritable but reversible alterations in gene expression that do not result from permanent genetic modifications. (
  • Apply and analyze gene mapping in plants as well as both forward and reverse genetic methodology in plant model organisms. (
  • The EMBO workshop will bring together scientists working on plasmodesmata structure and regulation, plant development, defense signaling, gene silencing, and virus movement. (
  • Remarkably, genes involved in ionic homeostasis and protein synthesis were ectopically expressed, whereas genes in ionic homeostasis, protein transport, and plant hormonal regulation were repressed in athd1-t1 leaves or flowers, suggesting a role of AtHD1 in developmental and environmental regulation of gene expression. (
  • Moreover, we examined histone acetylation and gene expression changes in wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous athd1-t1 plants using immuno-blot and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. (
  • While these investigations could somewhat correlate cause and effect as a plant develops, they could not truly explain the mechanisms at work without inspection at the molecular level. (
  • 2014). Rudimentary comprehensions set precedent for later molecular evaluation and, eventually, a more complete view of how plants operate. (
  • The mission of Plant Stress and Germplasm Development research unit is to conduct fundamental and applied research on the response of plants to thermal and water stress and to develop, through traditional and molecular approaches, appropriate germplasm to reduce the impact of these stresses on crop yields and product quality. (
  • Until now, scientists haven't fully understood the molecular mechanism underlying that process, which allows plants to recognize when they're in the shade and grow toward the sun, and to sense what season it is so they can bloom in spring. (
  • This module provides an understanding of plant function and development at a molecular, cellular and whole organism level. (
  • The aim of this module is to provide an understanding of plant function and development at a molecular, cellular and whole organism level. (
  • Although this scenario resembles PCD in mammalian systems, specific illustrations of a functionally conserved program in plants exhibiting the hallmark characteristics of PCD are limited and molecular details of this process in plants remain unclear ( 9 ). (
  • A wealth of information on plant anatomy and morphology is available in the current and historical literature, and molecular biologists are producing massive amounts of transcriptome and genome data that can be used to gain better insights into the development, evolution, ecology, and physiological function of plant anatomical attributes. (
  • Characteristically, vascular plants grow and develop through the activity of organ-forming regions, the growing points. (
  • The primary photosynthetic structures of the earliest vascular plants were branched axes, and the first identifiable leaves in the fossil record are believed to represent modified three-dimensional lateral branch systems ( Zimmerman, 1952 ). (
  • Extant vascular plants exhibit an enormous range of leaf forms broadly grouped into two categories, compound and simple leaves. (
  • Ecological scale and forest development: squirrels, dietary fungi, and vascular plants in managed and unmanaged forests. (
  • Chen and his colleagues have been studying a group of photoreceptors called phytochromes that are sensitive to red and far-red light, and are conserved in plants, fungi, and bacteria. (
  • For example, in plants that are sensitive to toxin-producing fungi, e.g. (
  • If you haven't taken it already, you may also be interested in my other course - What A Plant Knows, which examines how plants see, smell, hear and feel their environment: (
  • The use of cattail (Typha) as a raw material for producing building material combines advantages in the plant cultivation, manufacturing process and board properties. (
  • For the wheat plants, researchers observed the seeds germinating in one to two days instead of four or five. (
  • We hope that this Research Topic will successfully show the recent advances of the studies on the role of plant selective autophagy throughout plant development, and help a large number of researchers to explore new avenues towards the further development of related fields. (
  • This book will be of interest to many readers, researchers and scientists who can find this information useful for the advancement of their research works towards a better understanding of physical methods in plant and mushroom development. (
  • The insights are clear enough that non-plant breeding majoring students will find it useful to learn about the subject, while advanced level students and researchers and practitioners will find practical examples that help them implement their work. (
  • Natural News ) With the number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers seen to quadruple by the year 2050 , researchers are looking for safe and effective methods to prevent the condition's development and progression. (
  • Keeping this in mind, the researchers looked at Sarcocephalus latifolius , a plant that has long been used as an herbal treatment in Africa for a wide variety of diseases. (
  • The researchers obtained extracts from the plant, which they fractionated between n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. (
  • Energy-saving in the production, pressure-resistant and compostable: Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics have high expectations for the insulation boards made from the leaves of the Typha plant. (
  • Vast swaths of Pennsylvania forests were clear-cut circa 1900 and regrowth has largely been from local native plant communities, but a team of researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences has found that invasive, non-native plants are making significant inroads with unconventional natural gas development. (
  • In findings published today (July 20) in the Journal of Environmental Management , researchers show a direct correlation between the extent of non-native plant invasion and distinct aspects of shale gas development. (
  • To investigate, researchers conducted invasive plant surveys on and around 127 Marcellus shale gas well pads and adjacent access roads in seven state forest districts in the Allegheny National Forest. (
  • Using field data from the 127 well pads, researchers created a model to evaluate direct and indirect relationships between mechanisms and conditions that could account for invasive plant presence. (
  • Researchers found evidence that invasive plants were introduced in gravel delivered to build pads and roads, and in mud on the tires and undercarriages of trucks traveling those roads, noted lead researcher Kathryn Barlow, a doctoral degree candidate in ecology. (
  • The removal of damaged organelles is essential for plants throughout various developmental stages as well as to overcome environmental changes that enhance cellular damage, since organelle degradation allows the recycling of derived small molecules, such as amino acids, lipids and nucleic acids. (
  • In situ hybridization analyses of Atwox4-RNA interference plants revealed delayed and reduced expression of both the phloem developmental marker ALTERED PHLOEM1 and HOMEOBOX GENE8 , a marker of the vascular procambium. (
  • Plants are multicellular organisms and products of tightly regulated developmental programmes that respond to environmental conditions and internal cues. (
  • Reprogramming occurs in flowering plants and in mammals, and the similarities and differences illuminate developmental and reproductive strategies. (
  • Some of the plants are also imaged with the Light Microscopy Module on orbit, and at the end of the experiment, all plants are harvested by the astronaut, and preserved for their return to Earth in order to evaluate genes associated with plant responses on orbit. (
  • Notably, while some plant varieties expressed more genes to adjust, some varieties expressed less. (
  • Further, these animal antiapoptotic genes function in plants and should be useful to delineate resistance pathways. (
  • It is unclear whether and how AtHD1 directly affects chromatin structure of the target genes and plant development. (
  • In plant development, peptide signals relay information coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation. (
  • Four factors (crown-class differentiation, decadence, canopy stratification, and understory development) accounted for 63% of variance in vegetation structure. (
  • Carefully timed variable-density thinnings could accelerate crown-class differentiation, canopy stratification, and understory development and increase habitat breadth. (
  • On the second day of the conference, Minister Köstinger and Commissioner Hogan, together with high-level representatives from the European Parliament and key stakeholders, debated how the existing and future policy framework could support the further unlocking of potential for plant protein production in the European Union. (
  • 1. A method for increasing stem and tuber elongation in a potato plant relative to a control plant, comprising the steps of introducing a nucleic acid construct into a potato plant cell and growing the cell into a plant, wherein the nucleic acid construct comprises a nucleotide sequence that encodes the protein of Sequence Listing ID No. 2. (
  • 5. A transgenic potato plant comprising a nucleic acid construct, wherein the nucleic acid construct comprises a nucleotide sequence that encodes the protein of Sequence Listing ID No. 2, and wherein the nucleotide sequence is isolated from nature or is synthetic. (
  • In plants, enzymes such as NAD kinase, Ca 2+ -ATPase, H + -ATPase, quinate:NAD + oxidoreductase and protein kinases have been shown to be regulated by calcium and calmodulin. (
  • The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture. (
  • He has been inducted as a fellow by the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding, and Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development. (
  • -- Plants and their pollinators are the focus of ground-breaking research by Dr Heather Whitney, recently appointed Lloyds Fellow in the School of Biological Sciences. (
  • Genetics in Relation to Plant Breeding 4. (
  • The HER2-targeting vaccine subunits were expressed using an efficient plant-based manufacturing process 'magnifection' and were available through collaboration (ICON Genetics, Germany). (
  • There has been scientific enthusiasm for the study of epigenetics in plants because of their long-standing importance in agriculture. (
  • Led by 4-H National Headquarters , within USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), 4-H is drawing upon its deep experience to help other nations create similar youth development programs. (
  • The project is just the beginning of a wave of added green spaces and sustainable development in the city. (
  • Prakairatana said the NHRC did not just actively protect human rights, but also encouraged the government and investors to understand and value human-rights principles, so they could achieve sustainable development and prevent the violation of rights in the first place. (
  • It's about our need to achieve both climate change goals and sustainable development goals, which include protecting terrestrial ecosystems, at the same time. (
  • This teacher-led Discovery Box contains an abundance of plants and items made from them, including rat root, sage, a wicker basket, a model birch bark canoe, berries, and more. (
  • There was strong hybridization throughout the pericycle, and a further localized accumulation of cdc2 transcripts was observed in the initial stages of the activation of a new meristem at sites of lateral root development. (
  • Another source is resident soil organic P, which becomes plant-available via root and microorganism processes. (
  • Root also said she expected that any damaging effects of climatic change would be unnoticeable amid the enormous habitat destruction in modern times caused by development, pollution and other human activities. (
  • This suggests that the sensitivity of legume plants to some phytohormones could be linked to the antagonism that exists between the processes of nodulation and lateral root formation. (
  • In one experiment, root dry weight and leaf P content of noninfested VAM seedlings were greater than those of NM plants, which were nearly deficient in P. P. parasitica reduced leaf P status of VAM and NM seedlings alike but reduced dry weight of only VAM plants. (
  • Root rot development occurred to about the same extent on NM and VAM root systems. (
  • G. intraradices did not increase the resistance or tolerance of sweet orange to Phytophthora root rot unless mycorrhizae conferred a P nutritional advantage over the NM plant. (
  • Cytokinin levels in plants are regulated by biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. (
  • The next two sessions embraced contributions on the experimental manipulation of development by genetic (notably by biochemical mutants), chemical (for example, with gibberellin/biosynthesis inhibitors), and environmental (including drought stress) means. (
  • An emerging question concerns whether common features exist between programmed cell death pathways in plants and those in other eukaryotes. (
  • Spatial pattern of cdc2 expression in relation to meristem activity and cell proliferation during plant development. (
  • Some of these pathways are conserved from yeast to plants being regulated by various kinases and phosphatases. (
  • Mediator is a large complex of over twenty subunits, most of which are conserved from yeast to plants to mammals. (
  • Many plants can establish symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, some of which lead to nodulation, including legumes. (
  • In this way, these plants can benefit from the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia by the hosted bacteria, and in exchange the plant provides the rhizobia with a carbon source. (
  • The new interest in biopharming using tobacco plants lies in the great and increasing demand for biologic drugs. (
  • The production of biologic drugs from the tobacco plant takes about eight weeks. (
  • Vacuum infiltration consists of soaking tobacco plants, which have grown for five weeks, in a liquid containing the bacterium which carries the antigen of interest. (
  • In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants displayed resistance to a necrogenic virus. (
  • We also show that discrete DNA fragmentation (laddering) occurred in susceptible tobacco during fungal infection, but does not occur in transgenic-resistant plants. (
  • The Plant Stress and Germplasm Research Development unit is dedicated to research regarding thermal and water stress on plants and developing germplasm to reduce the impact of these on crop production. (
  • The Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research is located in Lubbock, TX and is part of the Plains Area . (
  • My research aims to understand the role respiration plays in the primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism of plants and their response to oxidative stress, and the dynamics of the plant proteome under limiting conditions. (
  • The first day of the conference consisted of panel discussions on research and innovation, agronomic practices, environmental benefits, supply chain development and market potential in different segments of feed and food production. (
  • Thus, the aim of this Research Topic is to extend our understanding of plant autophagy processes that degrade specific organelles during plant development. (
  • Plant roots rely on local production of a key hormone that controls many aspects of development and response to environmental changes, according to new research from North Carolina State University. (
  • The course connects research at Umeå Plant Science Centre. (
  • We're talking about iconic and threatened plants - cacti, especially, and Mojave yucca," said co-leading author Steve Grodsky, an assistant research ecologist at UC Davis. (
  • Non-native plant invasion into forests can lead to the demise of native plants in surprising ways, Mortensen pointed out, referring to a study his lab conducted at the Penn State Deer Research Center that was published in April 2016. (
  • That research demonstrated that white-tailed deer prefer native plants and seem to avoid eating invasives. (
  • The endosperm, a seed tissue that mediates the transfer of nutrients from the maternal parent to the embryo, is an important site of imprinting in flowering plants. (
  • Nutrients play an important role in plant development. (
  • Sosík P., Smolka V., Bradík J., Garzon M. (2019) Modeling Plant Development with M Systems. (
  • As per Kasetsart University economics lecturer Decharut Sukkumnoed's estimation, in 2019 the total electricity generation capacity in the South would be 3,832MW without a new power plant and usage would peak at 3,256MW. (
  • The recruitment of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes by the nematode results in an expansion of the syncytium towards the vascular bundle via a so-called cortical bridge. (
  • In plants, sucrose synthase (SUS) enzymes catalyze conversion of sucrose into fructose and UDP-glucose in the presence of UDP. (
  • This session will showcase a variety of strategies for pilot plant design, operation, and even outsourcing that enhance pharmaceutical process development. (
  • Case studies on implementation of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) in a pilot plant environment are also especially encouraged. (
  • Successful pilot plant solutions have a significant positive impact on the commercial process and investment decisions that you make. (
  • We have successfully shown our ability to run a productive pilot plant project with rigorous project management protocols, a skilled project manager and knowledgeable operators with extensive experience. (
  • The objective of your oil sands pilot plant program should be to examine ways to improve recovery, process efficiency, process costs, product quality and product handling characteristics or to establish confidence for financers, shareholders, managers or other key stakeholders in the project. (
  • SGS takes a team approach to pilot plant testing. (
  • SGS creates a detailed flowsheet, material balance and a pilot plant support requirements plan. (
  • The recording of pilot plant analytical data must be consistent and accurate throughout the life of your project. (
  • At the completion of your pilot plant operation, we complete and report all relevant data quickly and accurately, allowing you to make informed operational decisions. (
  • Coskata will begin providing GM with ethanol from its pilot plant by the fourth quarter of this year. (
  • Here, we discuss two major plant peptide families which have central roles in plant development: the CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide family and the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) family. (
  • Masoume Amirkhani, corresponding author of the study said, "This biostimulant is a natural plant material and could be adopted for organic crop production, and may also reduce the need for high levels of nitrogen fertilizer, as the biostimulant can enhance nitrogen uptake efficiency. (
  • FAIRFIELD, Ill., Dec. 19, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Ohio Valley Resources LLC (OVR) has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Tierra Del Fuego Power & Chemical Company Ltd (TEQSA) for the development of the proposed nitrogen fertilizer plant in Spencer County, Indiana , north of Rockport. (
  • As the first high-density development in Taichung that also provides high amenity with its recreational facilities and ample integrated green spaces, Sky Green will be influential in defining the new benchmark of sustainability and skyrise greenery for the city's future developments. (
  • For example, when crops are planted at high density, they compete for light, often growing taller at the expense of yield. (
Arabidopsis COMPASS-Like Complexes Mediate Histone H3 Lysine-4 Trimethylation to Control Floral Transition and Plant Development
Arabidopsis COMPASS-Like Complexes Mediate Histone H3 Lysine-4 Trimethylation to Control Floral Transition and Plant Development (
SALICYLIC ACID | SpringerLink (
Is plant evolutionary history impacting recruitment of diazotrophs and nifH expression in the rhizosphere? | Scientific Reports
Is plant evolutionary history impacting recruitment of diazotrophs and nifH expression in the rhizosphere? | Scientific Reports (
Nuclear Power Plant Development: Contract Issues, Claims and Disputes
Nuclear Power Plant Development: Contract Issues, Claims and Disputes (
BOT2ILP  plants, Your course, La Trobe University
BOT2ILP plants, Your course, La Trobe University (
The Effect of Black Light on Plant Growth | Garden Guides
The Effect of Black Light on Plant Growth | Garden Guides (
Seed Brain [image] | EurekAlert! Science News
Seed Brain [image] | EurekAlert! Science News (
Search UQ News - UQ News - The University of Queensland, Australia
Search UQ News - UQ News - The University of Queensland, Australia (
Solstice! Why Northern Hemisphere gets first official day of winter. -
Solstice! Why Northern Hemisphere gets first official day of winter. - (
Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research : USDA ARS
Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research : USDA ARS (
Shining a light on plant growth and development | EurekAlert! Science News
Shining a light on plant growth and development | EurekAlert! Science News (
A review on crop losses, epidemiology and disease management of rice brown spot to identify research priorities and knowledge...
A review on crop losses, epidemiology and disease management of rice brown spot to identify research priorities and knowledge... (
Modeling Plant Development with M Systems | SpringerLink
Modeling Plant Development with M Systems | SpringerLink (
National Science Resources Center Books New, Rare & Used Books - Alibris
National Science Resources Center Books New, Rare & Used Books - Alibris (
Frontiers | RPS9M, a Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein, Is Essential for Central Cell Maturation and Endosperm Development in...
Frontiers | RPS9M, a Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein, Is Essential for Central Cell Maturation and Endosperm Development in... (
Frontiers | Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH) Negatively Regulates Expression of the Ambient Temperature-Responsive MicroRNA...
Frontiers | Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH) Negatively Regulates Expression of the Ambient Temperature-Responsive MicroRNA... (
Frontiers | Plant Deubiquitinases and Their Role in the Control of Gene Expression Through Modification of Histones | Plant...
Frontiers | Plant Deubiquitinases and Their Role in the Control of Gene Expression Through Modification of Histones | Plant... (
Organic Acidurias - G M Addison, R A Chalmers, P Divry, R Angus Harkness, R J Pollitt - Häftad (9789401089753) | Bokus
Organic Acidurias - G M Addison, R A Chalmers, P Divry, R Angus Harkness, R J Pollitt - Häftad (9789401089753) | Bokus (
Frontiers | A Comprehensive Analysis of RALF Proteins in Green Plants Suggests There Are Two Distinct Functional Groups | Plant...
Frontiers | A Comprehensive Analysis of RALF Proteins in Green Plants Suggests There Are Two Distinct Functional Groups | Plant... (
Frontiers | The Response of Picea abies Somatic Embryos to UV-B Radiation Depends on the Phase of Maturation | Plant Science
Frontiers | The Response of Picea abies Somatic Embryos to UV-B Radiation Depends on the Phase of Maturation | Plant Science (
Frontiers | Unique and Conserved Features of the Barley Root Meristem | Plant Science
Frontiers | Unique and Conserved Features of the Barley Root Meristem | Plant Science (
Frontiers | Progress in Somatic Embryogenesis of Japanese Pines | Plant Science
Frontiers | Progress in Somatic Embryogenesis of Japanese Pines | Plant Science (
Frontiers | Profiles of Endogenous Phytohormones Over the Course of Norway Spruce Somatic Embryogenesis | Plant Science
Frontiers | Profiles of Endogenous Phytohormones Over the Course of Norway Spruce Somatic Embryogenesis | Plant Science (
Publications Advanced Search | IAEA
Publications Advanced Search | IAEA (