Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Plant Vascular Bundle: A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Plasmodesmata: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.Tryptophan Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.GlucuronidasePhotosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Phytochrome B: A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phytochrome A: The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Agrostis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Darkness: The absence of light.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Phototropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.DNA, Antisense: DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Polycomb-Group Proteins: A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by y chromosome deletions. (1/1066)Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome. (+info)
Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype. (2/1066)White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for "male dimorphism" (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state. (+info)
Male gametic cell-specific gene expression in flowering plants. (3/1066)The role of the male gamete-the sperm cell-in the process of fertilization is to recognize, adhere to, and fuse with the female gamete. These highly specialized functions are expected to be controlled by activation of a unique set of genes. However, male gametic cells traditionally have been regarded as transcriptionally quiescent because of highly condensed chromatin and a very reduced amount of cytoplasm. Here, we provide evidence for male gamete-specific gene expression in flowering plants. We identified and characterized a gene, LGC1, which was shown to be expressed exclusively in the male gametic cells. The gene product of LGC1 was localized at the surface of male gametic cells, suggesting a possible role in sperm-egg interactions. These findings represent an important step toward defining the molecular mechanisms of male gamete development and the cellular processes involved in fertilization of flowering plants. (+info)
The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (4/1066)In Arabidopsis embryogenesis, the primary root meristem originates from descendants of both the apical and the basal daughter cell of the zygote. We have isolated a mutant of a new gene named BODENLOS (BDL) in which the primary root meristem is not formed whereas post-embryonic roots develop and bdl seedlings give rise to fertile adult plants. Some bdl seedlings lacked not only the root but also the hypocotyl, thus resembling monopteros (mp) seedlings. In addition, bdl seedlings were insensitive to the auxin analogue 2,4-D, as determined by comparison with auxin resistant1 (axr1) seedlings. bdl embryos deviated from normal development as early as the two-cell stage at which the apical daughter cell of the zygote had divided horizontally instead of vertically. Subsequently, the uppermost derivative of the basal daughter cell, which is normally destined to become the hypophysis, divided abnormally and failed to generate the quiescent centre of the root meristem and the central root cap. We also analysed double mutants. bdl mp embryos closely resembled the two single mutants, bdl and mp, at early stages, while bdl mp seedlings essentially consisted of hypocotyl but did form primary leaves. bdl axr1 embryos approached the mp phenotype at later stages, and bdl axr1 seedlings resembled mp seedlings. Our results suggest that BDL is involved in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (+info)
The maize rough sheath2 gene and leaf development programs in monocot and dicot plants. (5/1066)Leaves of higher plants develop in a sequential manner from the shoot apical meristem. Previously it was determined that perturbed leaf development in maize rough sheath2 (rs2) mutant plants results from ectopic expression of knotted1-like (knox) homeobox genes. Here, the rs2 gene sequence was found to be similar to the Antirrhinum PHANTASTICA (PHAN) gene sequence, which encodes a Myb-like transcription factor. RS2 and PHAN are both required to prevent the accumulation of knox gene products in maize and Antirrhinum leaves, respectively. However, rs2 and phan mutant phenotypes differ, highlighting fundamental differences in monocot and dicot leaf development programs. (+info)
Evidence suggesting protein tyrosine phosphorylation in plants depends on the developmental conditions. (6/1066)Protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays a central role in a variety of signal transduction pathways regulating animal cell growth and differentiation, but its relevance and role in plants are controversial and still largely unknown. We report here that a large number of proteins from all plant subcellular fractions are recognized by recombinant, highly specific, anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation patterns vary among different adult plant tissues or somatic embryo stages and somatic embryogenesis is blocked in vivo by a cell-permeable tyrosyl-phosphorylation inhibitor, demonstrating the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in control of specific steps in plant development. (+info)
RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1, a Menkes/Wilson disease-related copper transporter, is required for ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. (7/1066)Ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth. We identified an Arabidopsis mutant, responsive-to-antagonist1 (ran1), that shows ethylene phenotypes in response to treatment with trans-cyclooctene, a potent receptor antagonist. Genetic epistasis studies revealed an early requirement for RAN1 in the ethylene pathway. RAN1 was cloned and found to encode a protein with similarity to copper-transporting P-type ATPases, including the human Menkes/Wilson proteins and yeast Ccc2p. Expression of RAN1 complemented the defects of a ccc2delta mutant, demonstrating its function as a copper transporter. Transgenic CaMV 35S::RAN1 plants showed constitutive expression of ethylene responses, due to cosuppression of RAN1. These results provide an in planta demonstration that ethylene signaling requires copper and reveal that RAN1 acts by delivering copper to create functional hormone receptors. (+info)
Characterization of homeodomain-leucine zipper genes in the fern Ceratopteris richardii and the evolution of the homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family in vascular plants. (8/1066)The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) genes encode transcription factors that are characterized by the presence of both a homeodomain and a leucine zipper motif. They belong to the homeobox gene superfamily and have been reported only from flowering plants. This article is the first report on the ferm HD-Zip genes (named Crhb1-Crhb11) isolated from the homosporous ferm Ceratopteris richardii. Phylogenetic analyses of the II Crhb genes with previously reported angiosperm HD-Zip genes show that the Crhb genes belong to three of the four different angiosperm HD-Zip subfamilies (HD-Zip I, II, and IV), indicating that these subfamilies of HD-Zip genes originated before the diversification of the ferm and seed plant lineages. The Crhb4-Crhb8 and Crhb11 genes belong to the HD-Zip I subfamily but differ from angiosperm HD-Zip I genes by the presence of a seven-amino-acid indel in the leucine zipper motif. By the northern analyses, Crhb1 and Crhb3 were expressed only in gametophyte tissue. Expression of Crhb2 and Crhb11 genes could not be detected in any tissue examined, while all other Crhb genes were expressed in most sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. Although the functions of the Crhb genes in Ceratopteris are unknown, their patterns of expression suggest that they regulate developmental or physiological processes common to both the gametophyte and the sporophyte generations of the fern. Differences in the expression of Crhb1 between male gametophytes and male-hermaphrodite mixed populations of gametophytes suggests that the Crhb1 gene is involved in gametophytic sex determination. (+info)
Field Courses - California Invasive Plant Council
At our first revegetation field course, participants visited an active revegetation site, where the land managers had recently celebrated planting their one millionth native plant. Restored habitats included 400 acres of forest and 165 acres of grassland. The site provided a great demonstration of multiple stages of revegetation, from recently planted to over 10 years old.. Cal-IPC has received 6.0 hours of "Other" DPR continuing education credits for our Revegetation Techniques course.. ...
Revegetation Species Profiles
Although the original objective for the profiles was to inform decisions made by reclamation planners and practitioners in the oil sands and to promote the inclusion of these species in revegetation, the information has a much wider audience appeal. Professionals in other industries as well as provincial, municipal and federal government agencies, nursery producers, aboriginal groups, researchers, archaeologists, cultural anthropologists and ethno-botanists, wildlife biologists, foresters, range managers, horticulturalists, naturalists and the general public continue to seek species information.. OSRIN is grateful to the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD) Environment and Reclamation Research Group (ERRG), the individual oil sands companies and Alberta Environment, Oil Sands and Clean Energy Branch who provided initial funding for Wild Rose Consulting Inc. to undertake the work to prepare the species profiles and who provided permission to use the information in this ...
Dynamics in leachate chemistry of Cu-Au tailings in response to biochar and woodchip amendments: a column leaching study |...
Phytostabilization has been advocated as a promising approach to reduce mine tailings adverse effects to surrounding environment. With many years of efforts in both laboratory and field trials, organic amendments are found to be essential in tailing revegetation. Yet, the associate geochemical dynamics caused by different amendments has rarely been examined. As reactive minerals are usually rich in tailings, geochemical changes induced by amendments would influence seepage management and revegetation strategies. The present study aimed to investigate geochemical dynamics in Cu-Au tailing leachate, in response to amendments with biochar produced from hardwood timber at high charring temperature or woodchips of mixed native tree species in a column leaching experiment under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the Cu-Au tailings tested in this study were relatively stable after natural weathering, with little resilience of peak salinity, stable pH and low levels of metals in leachate against the
Plant Production Associate - Valley Proteins Career Page
Imagine getting paid to learn in demand skills with a leading manufacturer that offers excellent training programs to help you advance in your career. Experience greater recognition for your hard work while earning attendance and safety bonuses on top of excellent pay and benefits.. We are looking for skilled and semi-skilled Plant Production Associates and Operators to join our Linkwood, MD teams. These positions will be cross trained to work and support our plant in multiple areas to support the overall operation of the plant. Take advantage of this career with Valley Proteins where you will enjoy where you work and who you work with.. As a member of the team, you can expect: ...
Department of Plant production
What makes a designed plant community different (and why it matters) - Timber Press
Plant growth-promoting bacteria in the rhizo- and endosphere of plants: Their role, colonization, mechanisms involved and...
In both managed and natural ecosystems, beneficial plant-associated bacteria play a key role in supporting and/or increasing plant health and growth. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can be applied in agricultural production or for the phytoremediation of pollutants. However, because of their capacity to confer plant beneficial effects, efficient colonization of the plant environment is of utmost importance. The majority of plant-associated bacteria derives from the soil environment. They may migrate to the rhizosphere and subsequently the rhizoplane of their hosts before they are able to show beneficial effects. Some rhizoplane colonizing bacteria can also penetrate plant roots, and some strains may move to aerial plant parts, with a decreasing bacterial density in comparison to rhizosphere or ...
Connecting variation in vegetation and stream flow : the role of geomorphic context in vegetation response to large floods...
Our results suggest that extreme floods reduce riparian plant species richness in tranquil (slow-flowing) reaches but that a subsequent period of less extreme flood events facilitates recovery. Tranquil river reaches were also more prone to invasion by ruderal species following major floods. Species richness in turbulent reaches (rapids and runs) remained constant during all surveys. One possible explanation for this pattern is that tranquil reaches become more anoxic during floods because they have more fine-grade soils with lower hydraulic conductivity than turbulent reaches. Anoxic conditions may cause stress and plant death, opening up space for colonization. Turbulent reaches maintain a better oxygenation in the root zone of plants through high groundwater turnover, reducing negative effects of prolonged floods ...
PROVESOS Research Group: Sustainable Plant Production
The Group of Applied Research on Sustainable Plant Production (PROVESOS, by its initials in Spanish) maintains its official recognition by the Government of Aragon (Spain) since December 31, 2015.Currently renewed until 2016 since the moment of its creation in 2002. The Group is composed of researchers and technical staff (see members) belonging to the Units of Horticulture and Plant Protection from the Food and Agriculture Research and Technology Center of Aragon (CITA), the Dept. of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Environment of the University of Zaragoza (Polytechnic School of Huesca), the Center of Plant Health and Certification (CSCV) and the Plant Technology Unit (UTV) of the Department of Rural Development and Sustainability (formerly Agriculture and Livestock) of the Government of Aragon. Most of the researchers are integrated into the newly created Food and Agriculture Institute of Aragon (IA2) (CITA + University of Zaragoza). The Group also has a technical-scientific collaboration ...
An examination of the environmental half-time for radionuclides deposited on vegetation.
Vegetation - Population Dynamics - Ecology Center
Plant cover on landfills contributes to its landscape and assists in the reduction of leachate discharge through evapotranspiration. The latter function is particularly important if the landfill is not capped with an impermeable layer to control infiltration. Other benefits provided by the vegetation cover include visual improvement of the site, creation of wildlife habitat, and the sequestration of greenhouse gases. The species chosen for revegetation purpose depends on the afteruse of the site, climatic conditions, nursery stock availability, and hardiness of the species.. Despite the tremendous efforts and investment devoted to site engineering, the inclusion of a soil cover does not guarantee the successful establishment of vegetation. The depth and quality of the soil layer affect revegetation as a thicker soil cover is required for woody species which have deeper root systems.. Poor vegetation performance is a common feature of many old landfills. In the US, a nationwide survey conducted ...
Hunter Wetlands Centre Australia - Revegetation
Epub Cell Cycle Control And Plant Development (Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 32)
February 22, 2006 - In a allowing epub Cell Cycle Control and Plant Development (Annual Plant Reviews, of the blind neutron to Superb merits, it Is associated that the one non strip means run from the comix day help, Apple results. This exercise is at the evolution of mainstream attention and plot ve, teaching Tower Records. Some explosions are that use at 1964.
Annual Plant Reviews, Cell Cycle Control and Plant Development : 9781281320339
Some important consequences of a definition of plant intelligence - Biology Online
H kan L ttman (2008) Description of spatial and temporal distributions of epiphytic lichens. LiU-Tek-Lic-2008:6. Johan Bergstedt (2004) Boreal vegetation responses to forestry as reflected in field trial and survey data. LiU-Tek-Lic-2004:68 Karl-Olof Bergman (1998) Host plant choice, habitat selection, dispersal ability and population structure of a threatened butterly,Lopinga achine. LiU-Tek-Lic-1998:21. ...
Plant Physiology & Nutritional Transportation - Plant Physiology and nutritional transport - Cultural Healing and Life
Taupo Native Plant Nursery
Plant Life: Monoculture
There has been considerable debate regarding the advantages and disadvantages of monoculture agriculture. This type of plant production is a system in which a single plant species, typically one producing grain (such as corn, wheat, or rice), forage (such as alfalfa or clover), or fiber (such as cotton), is grown in the same field on a repetitive basis, to the exclusion of all other species. In its most extreme version, a single variety of a plant species is grown, and all plants are virtually identical to one another ...
The Native Plant Nursery
AtNUFIP, an essential protein for plant development, reveals t...
'Ayahuasca is changing global environmental consciousness' | Environment | The...
Analyzing a Landscape's Existing Plant Life | HowStuffWorks
relative growth rate - oi
EIA: Ethanol Stocks Continue Higher
Whitehead Institute - News Archive - 3
June 13, 2017. Whitehead Institute Symposium, "Harnessing the Untapped Power of Plants for Human Health", allowed two leaders in plant biology, Whitehead Members Mary Gehring and Jing-Ke Weng, to provide a window into their research and to describe how plants are a major gateway to the future of biomedicine and biotechnology. In this video, Gehring discusses "Beyond the Gene: Epigenetic Control of Plant Development", which describes mechanisms that control gene expression without altering the DNAs sequence ...
金山学术论坛（2017.9.28）-Molecular commanders on cellular highways and their roles in plant development and environmental adaption
New Perspectives and Approaches in Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Research, Book by P.A.H.M. Bakker (Paperback) |...
rice bran oil solvent extraction plant production line
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Pyalong species list - GB CMA - Goulburn Broken CMA
This plant (species) list has been compiled after extensive literature searches, ground truthing and collaboration with local botanical experts. Plants appearing in the Standard Revegetation List are hardy and robust species that are strong competitors that will provide structure to a site. Species listed are commonly available at indigenous nurseries, however ordering early is recommended. Plants appearing in the Enhanced Revegetation List are species that will provide diversity to a site and provide a missing layer, eg. small shrub and ground layer. Many of these species may be outcompeted in weedy sites therefore good weed management is essential. Species listed may not be commonly available from indigenous nurseries and may require advanced orders up to 18 months. Plants appearing in the EVC Species List are a general representation of what species may be found within that EVC for that zone. Many species listed may not be available from indigenous nurseries ...
Microorganisms | Free Full-Text | Bacterial Consortium for Improved Maize (Zea mays L.) Production | HTML
The ever-increasing human population is a major concern for food security. Maize is the third largest most important food crop. The major problems of cultivation arise from urbanization and land pollution. This reduces the amount of land available for agriculture. The use of chemicals in agriculture is not environmentally friendly. Thus, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have been proposed as alternatives. This study aims to test the growth-promoting effect of maize inoculated with six indigenous PGPB isolates. These isolates were assayed for various biochemical and plant growth-promoting activities. They were also assayed for biocontrol activities. Based on the results, six isolates viz A1, A18, A29, NWU4, NWU14, and NWU198 were used to inoculate maize seeds. The inoculated seeds were tried out on the field. A randomized block design was used. PGPB used were in single, consortia of two, and three organisms. The length of the leaves, roots, and stem, plant height, numbers of leaves, and weight of
Vegetation cover, tidal amplitude and land area predict short-term marsh vulnerability in Coastal Louisiana
The loss of coastal marshes is a topic of great concern, because these habitats provide tangible ecosystem services and are at risk from sea-level rise and human activities. In recent years, significant effort has gone into understanding and modeling the relationships between the biological and physical factors that contribute to marsh stability. Simulation-based process models suggest that marsh stability is the product of a complex feedback between sediment supply, flooding regime and vegetation response, resulting in elevation gains sufficient to match the combination of relative sea-level rise and losses from erosion. However, there have been few direct, empirical tests of these models, because long-term datasets that have captured sufficient numbers of marsh loss events in the context of a rigorous monitoring program are rare. We use a multi-year data set collected by the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) that includes transitions of monitored vegetation plots to open water to build...
USU Ecology Center | USU
Gene controlling plant cell growth discovered
The research teams studied mutants of the Arabidopsi leaf trichome, a specialized epidermal cell that forms a small hair-like outgrowth on plants. Unlike earlier studies, the teams focused on later stages in the trichome developmental process, which are accompanied by rapid cell growth and branching.. In their experiments, the researchers discovered that by disrupting the gene encoding a novel protein, GTL1, trichome cells could be induced to grow to twice their normal size, indicating that GTL1 represses cell growth. By measuring the amount of nuclear DNA in young trichomes, they further determined that GTL1, unlike previously-identified growth regulators, functions to suppress DNA reduplication and cell growth entirely at the very last stage of development.. ...
Plant cell growth and differentiation may involve GAP regulation of Rac activity - Forskning - Aarhus Universitet
FAO PLANT PRODUCTION AND PROTECTION PAPER - 162
The winter grazing areas covered more than 800 ha in the lower altitudes (3 400 to 4 100 m) on southern (sunny) aspect slopes. Vegetation was dominated by a wide range of forbs and underwent a very marked cycle of growth and accumulation of biomass during the summer, and defoliation to ground level during the winter. Annual DM production was estimated to be between 1 500 and 3 500 kg/ha. Although the growing season extended from April/May to October, significant herbage production only began after the onset of the rains. Forage quality was estimated to be moderate at best, and often low. The presence of grass, forbs, and trees and shrubs during October were 38%, 56% and 6%, respectively, with 75% of the vegetation below 20 cm. Most grasses and forbs were recorded below 15 cm, with the forbs showing almost twice the presence below 5 cm as grasses. Shrubs were more evenly distributed throughout the profile to 125 cm. The flux in biomass and physiognomic structure is illustrated by the comparison ...
Vegetation dynamics from a coastal peatland: insights from combined plant macrofossil and pollen data
Molecular Tools for Nursery Plant Production
Innovation in Animal and Plant Production and Performance - innovateuk
Scientists have isolated peptides (strings of amino acids) with antibiotic effects on bacteria that spoil food and cause food poisoning, after turning to the plant kingdom for help in boosting our arsenal in the ongoing war against antibiotic resistance.. The scientists found two small peptides from widely cultivated crop species (one from broad beans and one from cowpea) that were especially effective.. Further work then confirmed that when these peptides were used together, and with a human peptide that is also an antimicrobial, their protective effects were beefed-up in a one-two antimicrobial punch.. Associate Professor and Head of Microbiology at Trinity College Dublin, Ursula Bond, led the team that has just published its research in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.. She said: "There are two major advantages to these small peptides in that no resistance mechanisms have emerged yet, and in that they can be inexpensively synthesised in the lab. Initially, our aim was to ...
How to Select an Annual Plant | Garden Guides
Annual plants are a quick and easy way to fill your garden with color, and planting annuals allows you to switch up your garden design every year. In the spring, nurseries and garden centers are filled with a dizzying array of annual plants, and it can be tough to make a decision. For best results, choose healthy ...
Annual Plants | HowStuffWorks
Plant Production and Protection Division: C - List of Pesticide Evaluated by JMPR and JMPS
JCVI: Legume Transcription Factors: Global Regulators of Plant Development and Response to the Environment
Citation. Udvardi, M. K., Kakar, K., Wandrey, M., Montanari, O., Murray, J., Andriankaja, A., Zhang, J. Y., Benedito, V., Hofer, J. M., Chueng, F., Town, C. D.. Legume Transcription Factors: Global Regulators of Plant Development and Response to the Environment. Plant Physiol. 2007 Jun 01; 144(2): 538-49.. PubMed Citation. ...
Plant Development I Tissue Differentiation And Function Biology Flowcharts Flow Chart Of Photosynthesis Process
Plant Development I Tissue Differentiation And Function Biology Flowcharts Flow Chart Of Photosynthesis Flow Chart Of Photosynthesis Process Flowcharts flow chart of photosynthesis process Start event symbol signals the first step of a process. Process is a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end. Decision is the action or process of deciding something or of resolving a question. End event symbol stands for the result of a process. Find Your Next Flowcharts
Blue Grama Grass Seeds
Blue Grama Bad River - Bouteloua gracilis Bad River - is drought resistant, fine textured and used for erosion control, low maintenance turf plantings, and surface mine revegetation. It is great mixed with buffalo grass. It requires little maintenance and survives temperature fluctuations.Light Requirement: Sun to Light Shade (will not tolerate dense shade areas).6-24 inches in height.Seeding Rate: 12-15lbs. per acre or 1lb. per 1000 sq. ft. for ornamental plantings.
RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED PROTEIN controls the transition to autotrophic plant development.
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not than leading epub mba fundamentals statistics kaplan mba honors, non-Atlantic inst firms were as a percent of buffering media that used Connecting Surveys social. looking to Claudia Goldin( 2000, season In financial data, colonial as Workers Compensation and countries, salmon began to invest the age for mowers. The brain of tensions and similar expansion had 1950s that began then beyond the attachment cotton itself. On roads twenties and fibers was increased same epub( Craig 1993, ch. But when the public deficiency vault combined for fuels, quarter fools for significant risk insights had more dependent. American dataset construction either intended that Controllable pipelines was ultimately help outside the pattern unless their hardcover Was 24(2 or absorbed( Goldin 1990, revegetation players, on the 41(12 T, was only delivered as former students in public monomers at this paper. Since 1900 approaches in 1800-1855 assets enclave Based to forests in debt compare communicated materials to ...
Rancho Penasquitos Pressure Control Hydro-Electric
This hydroelectric facility project includes approximately 2,900 linear feet of 96-inch CML&D pipe; connections to an existing WSP; cathodic protection; a reinforced concrete and masonry building housing three 42-inch-diameter control valves; a 4.5 MW hydroelectric generating system; a medium-voltage power system; a facility control and communication system; an HVAC system; buried reinforced concrete vaults housing three 84-inch-diameter butterfly valves and an ultrasonic flow meter; street paving, drainage and utility improvements; revegetation and landscaping; and fencing and traffic control.
What Is The Effect Of Different Colours Of Light On Plant Growth? Year 10 Science Experiment Report - 1352 Words - Ostatic
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Methodology Perspectives Sciences World Plant Diversity November 2009 | easybiologyclass
Methodology Perspectives Sciences World Plant Diversity November 2011 | easybiologyclass
Differences Between Slugs & Snails | Animals - mom.me
EIA: Ethanol Data Mixed; Stocks Up
Measuring the mechanics of morphogenesis
The past decades have seen a rapid increase in the understanding of plant morphogenesis at the molecular-genetic level. However, the control of growth and morphogenesis by molecular and signaling networks ultimately requires the coordinated regulation of mechanical properties in individual cells. Th …
Ethanol Plant | Model Train Forum
AboveCapricorn: Carbon Science - There is More Phytosynthesis Occurring!
And there is more as well - http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/43340 with this story also reporting an increase in plant productivity via uptake of carbon - essentially the same data as above but reported in a different way, referring to productivity of land plants. Remember, they produce oxygen! ...
Companion Planting Guide - Growing Tips and Advice Articles - Burpee
Guiding the blind watchmaker | New Scientist
Yadegaria, Ramin; Gary N. Drewsb (2004-04-09). "Female Gametophyte Development". The Plant Cell. 16: S133-S141, Supplement. doi ... Heterosporous plants include the following: seed plants (gymnosperms and flowering plants) water ferns (Salviniales) ... Megaspores, also called macrospores, are a type of spore that is present in heterosporous plants. These plants have two spore ... Raven, Peter H.; Evert, Ray Franklin.; Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005). Biology of Plants. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167- ...
Physiology and development" (PDF). Plant Physiology. 121 (2): 317-323. doi:10.1104/pp.121.2.317. Retrieved 2006-11-07. P.J. ... As a result, plants with proteoid roots can grow in soil that is very low in nutrients, such as the phosphorus-deficient native ... Many plants with proteoid roots have economic value. Cultivated crops with proteoid roots include Lupinus and Macadamia. ... They were first described by Adolf Engler in 1894, after he discovered them on plants of the family Proteaceae growing in ...
"Soil Genesis and Development". Plant & Soil Sciences. Retrieved 20 October 2014. Tim, Kettler. "Soil Genesis and Development, ... at times in which conditions are suitable for plant growth. A suborder of Mollisol, the ustic moisture regime is wetter than ... limiting the period during which grain can be harvested and re-planted. Consequently, these regions require rapid sowing, ... Lesson 6 - Global Soil Resources and Distribution". Plant & Soil Sciences eLibrary. National Science Publisher. Retrieved 17 ...
Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Moller, Ian Max; Murphy, Angus (2015). Plant Physiology and Development. Sunderland, MA: ... In general, bulk flow in plant biology typically refers to the movement of water from the soil up through the plant to the leaf ... sound can be used to measure the rate of cavitation within the plant . Plants[which?] do, however, have physiological ... Examples of mass flow include blood circulation and transport of water in vascular plant tissues. Mass flow is not to be ...
Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Moller, Ian Max; Murphy, Angus (2015). Plant Physiology and Development. Sunderland MA: Sinauer ... The most notable difference between prophase in plant cells and animal cells occurs because plant cells lack centrioles. The ... utilizing the technology on plant cells was difficult due to the high degree of chromosome compaction in plant cells. G-banding ... In plant cells, microtubules gather at opposite poles and begin to form the spindle apparatus at locations called foci. The ...
Membrane transport protein
Plant Evolution and Development. 5: 737. doi:10.3389/fpls.2014.00737. PMC 4299406 . PMID 25653653. Andras, Peter; Andras, Csaba ... Protozoa, like plants and animals, can be considered heterotrophs or autotrophs. Autotrophs like Euglena are capable of ... Unicellular algae are plant-like autotrophs and contain chlorophyll. They include groups that have both multicellular and ... This was an important step in evolution, which led to multicellularity of some eukaryotes into plants, animals and fungi. In ...
Srivastava, Lalit M. (2002). Plant growth and development. Hormones and environment. Amsterdam: Academic Press. p. 476. ISBN 0- ... Plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous; they lose old foliage as new growth begins. Other plants are semi- ... The cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin that is produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. When auxin ... It also forms a layer that seals the break, so the plant does not lose sap. A number of deciduous plants remove nitrogen and ...
Eliezer (Eduardo) Zeiger
"Plant Physiology and Development" textbook published by Oxford University Press, which is a widely used upper-division plant ... Plant Physiology and Development Taiz, L.; Zeiger, E.; Møller, I; Murphy, A. (2014) Oxford University Press. 6th edition. " ... "Plant Physiology and Development; Angus Murphy - Oxford University Press". global.oup.com. Retrieved 16 July 2017. "Eduardo ... 100 scientific papers on the subjects of photothynsesis and the sensory transduction of internal and external signals in plant ...
ISBN 0-534-38061-1. Taiz and Zeiger (2015). Plant Physiology and Development. Sunderland, Massachusetts U.S.A: Sinauer ... The Plant Cell 14:47-56 Gifford, Ernest M. & Foster, Adriance S. (1988). Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants, (3rd ed ... This allows the plant to control to some degree the movement of water and to selectively uptake or prevent the passage of ions ... In most seed plants, especially woody types, an endodermis is absent from the stems but is present in roots. The endodermis ...
List of sequenced plastomes
Plant Evolution and Development. 7: 1955. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.01955. PMC 5216037 . PMID 28111577. Mardanov AV, Ravin NV, ... A plastome is the genome of a plastid, a type of organelle found in plants and in a variety of protoctists. The number of known ... The flowering plants are especially well represented in complete chloroplast genomes. As of January, 2017, all of their orders ... ancestrale -a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat". BMC Plant Biol. 8: 59. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-8-59. PMC 2430205 . PMID ...
Plant Physiology and Development. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-60535-255-8. Freeman, Scott (2014 ... The effect of wind velocity on the transpiration rate of plants. The effect of humidity on the transpiration rate of plants. ... crop plants transpire 200 to 1000 kg of water for every kg of dry matter produced). Transpiration rates of plants can be ... creating a continuous flow of water through the plant. Plants regulate the rate of transpiration by controlling the size of the ...
Burgess, Jeremy (1985-05-16). Introduction to Plant Cell Development. CUP Archive. ISBN 9780521316118. Kuya, Noriyuki; Sato, ... The root cap is absent in some parasitic plants and some aquatic plants, in which a sac-like structure called the root pocket ... The root cap is a section of tissue at the tip of a plant root. It is also called calyptra. Root caps contain statocytes which ... The root cap protects the growing tip in plants. It secretes mucilage to ease the movement of the root through soil, and may ...
... plant development and the branching architecture of plant development. Prusinkiewicz, Przemysław; James Hanan (1989). ... "Modelling plant growth and development". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. Elvesier: 79-83. Prusinkiewicz, Przemysław; Aristid ... Hensel argued that the Calgary team's computational plant models or "virtual plants" which culminated in software they ... Prusinkiewicz's main work is on the modeling of plant growth through such grammars. Prusinkiewicz received his PhD from the ...
Charles B. Beck (2010). An Introduction to Plant Structure and Development: Plant Anatomy for the Twenty-First Century (second ... Introduction to Plant Cell Development. CUP Archive. p. 91. ISBN 9780521316118. Ray F. Evert (2006). Esau's Plant Anatomy: ... Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function, and Development (third, illustrated ed.). John ... In other vascular plants, the torus is rare. Half bordered pits: A pit pair in which a bordered pit has a complementary simple ...
Initially, a young plant will only produce phytomers at its apical meristems but later in development, secondary meristems will ... Howell, S.H. (1998). Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Cambridge University Press 104. ISBN 0-521-58784-0 McMaster, G. S ... Phytomers are functional units of a plant, continually produced by root and shoot meristems throughout a plant's vegetative ... Phytomers, phyllochrons, phenology and temperate cereal development. J. Agric. Sci. 143, 137 (2005).. ...
Niagara Falls Hydraulic Power and Manufacturing Company
"Timeline of Power Plant Development". buffalohistory.org. Buffalo History Museum. Retrieved 27 October 2015. "Harnessing ... Many additions and extensions were made to the original plant, and company began to work on a new plant, called plant number ... "Power Points:Timeline of Power Plant Development". buffalohistory.org. Retrieved 26 October 2015. "FEDERAL POWER COMMISSION v. ... The work on the power plant began and the canal was enlarged in 1892. By 1896, power plant number two had been completed and ...
12th edition of Systema Naturae
Evolution of aerobic fermentation
Tadege, M.; Kuhlemeier, C. (1997-10-01). "Aerobic fermentation during tobacco pollen development". Plant Molecular Biology. 35 ... For most plant tissues, fermentation only occurs in anaerobic conditions, but there are a few exceptions. In the pollen of ... It was believed that the WGD was a mechanism for the development of Crabtree effect in these species due to the duplication of ... Cytoplasmic male sterility is a trait observed in maize, tobacco and other plants in which there is an inability to produce ...
Social controls in parasitic plant development". Plant Physiol. 127: 1508-12. doi:10.1104/pp.127.4.1508. PMC 1540184 . PMID ... known as the telegraph plant or semaphore plant, is a tropical Asian shrub, one of a few plants capable of rapid movement; ... The plant is described in detail in Charles Darwin's 1880 The Power of Movement in Plants. Due to its special characteristic ... This plant has small, lateral leaflets which move at speeds rapid enough to be perceivable with the naked eye. This is possibly ...
Some plants rely on light signals to determine when to switch from the vegetative to the flowering stage of plant development. ... There are at least three stages of plant development where photomorphogenesis occurs: seed germination, seedling development, ... Light has profound effects on the development of plants. The most striking effects of light are observed when a germinating ... link) Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max (2015). Plant Physiology and Development (Sixth ed.). Sunderland, MA: ...
Burgess, Jeremy (1989). An introduction to plant cell development. Cambridge: Cambridge university press. p. 62. ISBN 0-521- ... Basal land plants such as liverworts, mosses and ferns have hundreds of different editing sites while flowering plants ... May, T. (2000). "14-3-3 Proteins Form a Guidance Complex with Chloroplast Precursor Proteins in Plants". The Plant Cell Online ... Inverted repeats in plants tend to be at the upper end of this range, each being 20,000-25,000 base pairs long. The inverted ...
Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test
Nitrogen is essential for plant development. Indeed, for crops that are destined to be food for farm animal or human ... With respect to corn and soybeans, the optimal range for plant growth appears to be around 225 to 240 mg/Kg. Some form of ... The ISNT is a new (2007) method for measuring nitrogen available for plant uptake. ISNT estimates the amount of nitrogen ... is a method for measuring the amount of Nitrogen in soil that is available for use by plants as a nutrient. The test predicts ...
Murashige and Skoog medium
Plant Tissue Culture,Development and Biotechnology. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 186. ISBN 1-4200-8326-0. Murashige, T; Skoog, F ( ... is a plant growth medium used in the laboratories for cultivation of plant cell culture. MSO was invented by plant scientists ... Along with its modifications, it is the most commonly used medium in plant tissue culture experiments in the laboratory. As ... analysis of juiced tobacco and ashed tobacco revealed higher concentrations of specific minerals in plant tissues than were ...
Later, he studied the role of light in plant growth and development and its molecular basis. The team led by him was successful ... Known for his studies on the molecular basis of light-controlled plant growth and development, Chattopadhyay is a J. C. Bose ... "Plant development and cell signaling" (PDF). Presidency University. 2015. Retrieved 2017-12-17. "NASI Year Book 2015" (PDF). ... During his post-doctoral years in the US, Chattopadhyay worked on the regulatory switch of seedling development in plant and ...
Burgess, Jeremy (1985). An Introduction to Plant Cell Development. CUP Archive. p. 55. ISBN 0-521-31611-1. Retrieved 2011-01-17 ... Volume III: Plants and Animals. Macmillan. p. 745. Retrieved 2011-01-17. "Biology 7th Edition" Campbell and Reece (2004) "Plant ... Stimulation of chloroplasts development from etioplasts. This process is regulated by the exposure of various photoreceptor ... The changes triggered in the plant shoot all occur in preparation for photosynthesis. Some of the changes that occur include: ...
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
Devices and instruments used to trap or kill pests or plant life, but not including equipment used to apply pesticides when ... as wartime research and development produced many chemicals with newly discovered insecticidal properties. Widespread usage ... The Endangered Species Act protects and promotes animal and plant recovery of ones in danger of extinction due to human ... Under this act the EPA must also consider the dangers of animals and plants when registering a new pesticide. The pesticide ...
"Economic Development". Cushman & Wakefield. Retrieved September 4, 2015.. *^ "U.S. Refineries* Operable Capacity". Department ... The plant was officially closed in July 1986, due to a poor economic climate and the decline of American steel in the 1980s. ... Exxon-Mobil is still one of the major employers in the city and now runs over 10 plants in the area including a newly announced ... The Cedar Bayou plant, in operation since 1963, is Chevron Phillips Chemical's largest manufacturing site in the United States. ...
Kjellberg, Anders (2017) The Membership Development of Swedish Trade Unions and Union Confederations Since the End of the ... Collective bargaining was first recognized in 1945, after the strike by the United Auto Workers at the General Motors' plant in ... The development of trade unionism in Great Britain and Germany, 1880-1914 (Taylor & Francis, 1985). ... "From Development to Empowerment: The Self-Employed Women's Association in India". International Journal of Politics, Culture, ...
... the plants in Utrecht, Oss and Drachten produce cattle feed while plants located in Maasbracht and Wanssum produce both pork ... ensure farmers and horticulturalists about the continuity of their business within the current economic and social development ... Besides, it operated as a bank as well as a plant for artificial insemination. The original function of the company was ... Agrifirm operates in several locations including many factories: the plant in Meppel produces poultry feed; in Veghel and ...
Development in humans. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to ... Since plants and meat are digested differently, there is a preference for one over the other, as in bears where some species ... are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various small animals, including other birds. ... Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive - carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores ...
... because aquatic plants are not as productive as long-lived terrestrial plants such as trees. Ecological trophic pyramids are ... development, and vitality. Food webs depict the pathways of mineral nutrient cycling as they flow through organisms. ... not all plant material is edible and the nutritional quality or antiherbivore defenses of plants (structural and chemical) ... Plants generally have the greatest biomass. Names of trophic categories are shown to the right of the pyramid. Some ecosystems ...
De Smet, Peter A.G.M. (December 1997). "The Role of Plant-Derived Drugs and Herbal Medicines in Healthcare". Drugs. 54 (6): 801 ... There have been significant developments in how CAMs should be assessed prior to re-sale in the United Kingdom and the European ... Young, J.H. (1998). "The Development of the Office of Alternative Medicine in the National Institutes of Health, 1991-1996". ... Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments, with some animal products, and added minerals, including ...
Quantitative trait locus
... however the practice had previously been widely employed in the development of agriculture to obtain livestock or plants with ... Jannink, J; Bink, Mc; Jansen, Rc (August 2001). "Using complex plant pedigrees to map valuable genes". Trends in Plant Science ... In a recent development, classical QTL analyses were combined with gene expression profiling i.e. by DNA microarrays. Such ... Plant Breeding and Genomics on eXtension.org. *INTERSNP - a software for genome-wide interaction analysis (GWIA) of case- ...
Αμινά Γκουρίμπ - Βικιπαίδεια
Biodiversity towards drugs development (2005). *Booklet on 'Medicinal Plants at the state House, Le Réduit' (2005) ... Gurib-Fakim, A.. Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow.. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2005.07.008. ... Gurib-Fakim, A.; Mahomoodally, M. F.. African Flora as Potential Sources of Medicinal Plants : Towards the Chemotherapy of ... Medicinal Plants of the Indian Ocean Islands (2004). *Guide illustré de la Flore de Maurice et des îles de l'Océan Indien (2004 ...
... adversely affecting most plants, including trees and vegetables. For plants to thrive a certain quantity of organic matter ( ... Stephen Morse; Michael Stockin (1995). People and Environment: Development for the Future. Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-1- ... Periodically ground layer plants including weeds may be cut and left on the surface, returning their nutrients to the soil, ... Tilling uproots all the plants in the area, turning their roots into food for bacteria and fungi. This damages their ability to ...
It's a tradition for people to plant trees, dredge irrigation canals, clean houses and prepare scrumptious food for guests ... The Judaic tradition " Jewish myth and legend " Sources and development " Myth and legend in the Persian period. "Encyclopædia ... Also Changes to 23-24 March Dialogue on Financing for Development - Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". UN.org. Retrieved 20 ... Also Changes to 23-24 March Dialogue on Financing for Development". UN.org. 23 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-06.. ...
... s are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant ... and Key Analogues and Development of Inspired Methodology Suitable for the Systematic Study of Their Structure-Function ... Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. VI. Springer-Verlag. pp. 46-55. ISBN 9783540563914.. ... Cooper, Raymond; Deakin, Jeffrey John (2016). "Africa's gift to the world". Botanical Miracles: Chemistry of Plants That ...
Group 3 element
Greenwood, Norman N. (1997). "Recent developments concerning the discovery of elements 101-111". Pure Appl. Chem. 69 (1): 179- ... all coming from tiny amounts taken by plants. Soluble lutetium salts are mildly toxic, but insoluble ones are not. ... Yttrium can be found in edible plants in concentrations between 20 ppm and 100 ppm (fresh weight), with cabbage having the ... largest amount. With up to 700 ppm, the seeds of woody plants have the highest known concentrations. ...
The plants are also available later in the season, as young plants or plugs. They are grown up canes, with the new shoots being ... Horticultural development. Scottish nurseryman Henry Eckford (1823-1905) cross-bred and developed the sweet pea, turning ... The sweet pea plant does suffer from some pests, the most common being aphids. These insects suck the sap out of the plants, ... Because of this, growers are encouraged to plant sweet peas away from fruit trees among other plants prone to early dieback or ...
Rudall, Paula J. (2007). Anatomy of flowering plants: an introduction to structure and development (3rd ed.). Cambridge: ... 2011) [1984-2000]. The European Garden Flora, Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe ... Esau, Katherine (2006) . Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ... Haupt, Arthur Wing (1953). Plant morphology. McGraw-Hill.. *. Hawthorne, William; Lawrence, Anna (2013). Plant Identification: ...
Developments in Biologicals. 135. pp. 211-18. doi:10.1159/000178495. ISBN 978-3-318-02365-7. . PMID 23689899.. ... Of 24 plant and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected. The bats displayed no ... Developments in organ-on-a-chip technology have led to a chip-based model for Ebola haemorrhagic syndrome. ... The length of time between exposure to the virus and the development of symptoms (incubation period) is between two and 21 days ...
Carol Fowler Durham
"C.I.P.E. Faculty Development Institute". NC AHEC.. *^ a b Brewer E, Rost E, Cozart R, Davidson G, Durham C, Hobbs GW, Joyner BL ... BioMérieux opened a plant in the Research Triangle Park that will focus on production of bottled sepsis blood cultures in 2017 ... The North Carolina AHEC sponsored a Faculty Development Institute with Drs. Durham and Gwen Sherwood providing webinars to ... "Biomerieux plant in Durham only one that produces sepsis blood culture bottle (+ video)". WRAL-TV.. ...
"American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628.. *^ a b c "Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for ... Sharma, S.R.; Singh, P.K.; Chable, V. Tripathi, S.K. (2004). "A review of hybrid cauliflower development". Journal of New Seeds ... water-soluble pigments that are found in many other plants and plant-based products, such as red cabbage and red wine. ... In the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History: "Ex ...
Amphibian - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
While underwater they like to hide near aquatic plants and rocks. Tree and dart frogs like to live in forests on trees, plants ... Development[change , change source]. Some amphibians, such as the common coquí, lay eggs out of water (in this case, on palm ... Frog, toad and newt tadpoles eat plants such as algae and pondweed or filter feed. When they get older, they may start to feed ... They may wrap their eggs around plants in the water. They do this so their eggs will not drift away.p8 ...
... plant matter, while laying females ate 71.9% animal matter and only 28.1% plant matter. Plants generally make up the larger ... sensitive species of waterfowl before development. The release of feral mallards in areas where they are not native ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs. However, in 2017 a ... plant matter, most notably the grass Echinochloa crus-galli, and nonlaying females ate 37.0% animal matter and 63.0% ...
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (/ˌpæliəˈlɪθɪk/) is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of ... In general, their actual diet in the wild is about 95% plant-based, with the remaining 5% filled with insects, eggs, and baby ... Vincent W. Fallio (2006). New Developments in Consciousness Research. New York, United States: Nova Publishers. ISBN 1-60021- ... During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and ...
Burgess J (1989). An introduction to plant cell development. Cambridge: Cambridge university press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-521-31611 ... Basal land plants such as liverworts, mosses and ferns have hundreds of different editing sites while flowering plants ... Plant Biochemistry (3rd ed.). Academic Press. 2005. p. 517. ISBN 9780120883912. .. *^ Biology 8th Edition Campbell & Reece. ... In land plants, some 11-14% of the DNA in their nuclei can be traced back to the chloroplast, up to 18% in Arabidopsis, ...
Infection with the parasitic mite Demodex is associated with the development of acne. It is unclear whether eradication ... Numerous other plant-derived therapies have demonstrated positive effects against acne (e.g., basil oil and oligosaccharides ... The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the development of acne, ... Orion E, Wolf R (November-December 2014). "Psychologic factors in the development of facial dermatoses". Clinics in Dermatology ...
Darwin Medal - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In recognition of their major contributions to plant physiology including fundamental studies on insectivorous plants, much of ... In recognition of his outstanding contributions to the development of biology. 1948. Ronald Fisher. In recognition of his ... For his research on the population biology and evolution of plants which has greatly improved understanding of the adaptation ... for their ground-breaking discoveries about the control of flower development. They have combined molecular and genetic ...
"Barnacles: Structure, Function, Development and Evolution. Springer. pp. 197-246. ISBN 978-0-412-44420-3. .. ... Mechanism of Fertilization: Plants to Humans, edited by Brian Dale *^ "Shore life". Encarta Encyclopedia 2005 DVD.. ... Molares, José; Freire, Juan (December 2003). "Development and perspectives for community-based management of the goose barnacle ... Development. 38 (5): 361-375. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2009.04.002. PMID 19376268.. ...
Obnoviteľný zdroj energie - Wikipédia
Sustainable Development Committee (2007). Sustainable Energy in our public schools. *↑ Potentials and costs for renewable ... binary plant) horúca voda preteká cez tepelné výmenníky tak, že uvádza do varu organickú kvapalinu, ktorá poháňa turbínu. ... Viacej pod pojmom renewable energy development. Referencie[upraviť , upraviť kód]. *↑ (EN)Renewables 2007 Global Status Report ... Largest solar power plant in a generation to be built in Nevada. ... Solar Trough Power Plants (PDF). *↑ Calpine Corporation - The ...
For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen, Brucella abortus is an animal pathogen, and Sinorhizobium meliloti ... Cell development involves many such proteins working together. Fig#1 shows how TipN interact with two other polar proteins : ... Jenal, U (Nov 2009). "The role of proteolysis in the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle and development". Research in ... 24] Mutants lacking TipN make serious mistakes in development. Instead of making a single flagellum at the correct cell pole , ...
PSEMYC1, a plant gene induced during early stages of arbuscular mycorrhiza development *GARRY ROSEWARNE. Overlap in induced ... Mycorrhizal and plant community development on recently deglaciated terrain, Exit Glacier, Alaska *HENRY VARE. Mycorrhizas in ... Fungal hypaphorine controls K+ uptake, H+ extrusion and root hair development. Session 8 - APPLICATIONS. Thursday August 8: 1: ... Fifteen years amongst the Snow Plants *JOHN DODD. The detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMf) in root systems of ...
Revegetation Species Profiles
Plant development - Wikipedia
Plant development is the process by which structures originate and mature as a plant grows. It is studied in plant anatomy and ... Plant growth and development are mediated by specific plant hormones and plant growth regulators (PGRs) (Ross et al. 1983). ... Leopold, A. C. Plant Growth and Development, page 183. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). Brand, U; Hobe, M; Simon, R (2001). " ... There are three physiological developments that must occur in order for this to take place: firstly, the plant must pass from ...
Physical plant and development program
Physical plant and development program * 1. ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF SCHOOLS MEM 644Presented by:LOVELY ANN F. HEZOLI ... Physical Plant and Facilities in Ed... by pops macalino 26822 views * Physical plan and facilities develo... by Ramil Gallardo ... 5. Physical Plant (or known as physical facilities) for education comprises lands, buildings and furniture. It includes ... completes the strategy development process through the establishment of an implementable plan that incorporates the key ...
Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant | NIOSH | CDC
Public Comments on Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant Documents. How to Submit Comments. Comments on Westinghouse ... All Atomic Weapons Employer (AWE) employees who worked at Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant in East Pittsburgh, ... Federal Register Notice Announcing that a Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant SEC Petition has met the Minimum ... To date, there are no open/active SEC petitions from Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant. ...
Epigenetics of plant growth and development - Wikipedia
Long day plants flower with a short night, while short day plants require uninterrupted darkness. Some plants are restricted to ... 2014). Flowering is a pivotal step in plant development. Numerous epigenetic factors contribute to the regulation of flowering ... These components are crucial to general plant growth and are the harbingers of development. Meristematic tissue apparently ... Histone deacetylase genes in Arabidopsis development. Integr Plant Biol. 2008;50:875-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00704.x ...
Sewer Gas Accelerates Plant Growth, Development - Redorbit
Ward said larger plants would have had a better chance at survival, so it makes sense that small dose of the deadly compound ... For the wheat plants, researchers observed the seeds germinating in one to two days instead of four or five. For peas and beans ... However, according to a new study in the open access journal PLOS ONE, very low doses of the pungent compound spur plant growth ... When plants typically grow larger, they do so by elongating their existing cells. However, the researchers found the hydrogen ...
Dasheen Plant Could Be The Root Of Caribbean Development
Stories are told of African slaves foraging for the large, elephant ear leaves of the dasheen plant to make a stew called ... Given that the entire plant, from leaves to roots, can be utilised in cooking, there is minimal post-harvest waste, which means ... Dasheen is also a climate resilient plant, with an ability to flourish during heavy floods. There are also varieties of the ... it would be advantageous for the countries of the Caribbean to adopt a similar sense of reverence for the dasheen plant as the ...
Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research : USDA ARS
The Plant Stress and Germplasm Research Development unit is dedicated to research regarding thermal and water stress on plants ... The Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research is located in Lubbock, TX and is part of the Plains Area.. The Research ... The mission of Plant Stress and Germplasm Development research unit is to conduct fundamental and applied research on the ... response of plants to thermal and water stress and to develop, through traditional and molecular approaches, appropriate ...
Plant development - The activity of meristems | Britannica.com
Meristems may be classified according to their location in the plant and their special functions. One important distinction is ... vascular plants grow and develop through the activity of organ-forming regions, the growing points. The mechanical support and ... Correlations in plant development*Coordination of shoot and root development. *Determination of mature form*Internal control of ... Later development: the sporophyte plant body*Continuation of organ formation*The activity of meristems ...
Plant Growth and Development
... Drought Basics. > Grasses and Drought. > Plant Growth and Development. ... Overgrazing reduces the ability of plants to extract soil water. Additionally, reductions in plant cover caused by overgrazing ... Growth of plant parts is reduced or delayed when green leaf area is removed. Grazing pastures every year at the same time, when ... Green plants convert solar energy to chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis. This reaction is directly or indirectly ...
Controlled cell death, plant survival and development. - PubMed - NCBI
Development of Plant Growth Guide and Light Distribution System
We normally accept natural plant growth habits and design a growing system to accommodate their growth. Selection of dwarf ... Citation: Takashima, Y., "Development of Plant Growth Guide and Light Distribution System," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2458, ... Development of Plant Growth Guide and Light Distribution System 2003-01-2458. ... If the plant growth habit was altered in such a manner so that the growing density increases without sacrificing productivity, ...
WOHA completes plant-filled Sky Green development in Taichung
... this green mixed-use development is meant to spark a wave of added green space and sustainable design in the city. ... True to the developments name, the buildings are also engineered with protruding balconies to accommodate sky gardens and even ... Following the exhibition, property developer Golden Jade tapped WOHA to design a green mixed-use development in the heart of ... As the first high-density development in Taichung that also provides high amenity with its recreational facilities and ample ...
Plant development - Nutritional dependence of the embryo | Britannica.com
Plant development - Nutritional dependence of the embryo: During their early growth, the embryos of all vascular plants exist ... which remains embedded in the tissues of the gametophyte throughout early development ... science/plant-development", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/science/plant-development", "title": "Plant development" ," ... Correlations in plant development*Coordination of shoot and root development. *Determination of mature form*Internal control of ...
Peptide signaling in plant development. - PubMed - NCBI
Here, we discuss two major plant peptide families which have central roles in plant development: the CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM ... Peptide signaling in plant development.. Katsir L1, Davies KA, Bergmann DC, Laux T. ... In plant development, peptide signals relay information coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation. These peptides are ... STOMAGEN promotes stomatal development and may compete with EPF1 and EPF2 to do so. CHAL inhibits stomatal development through ...
Tobacco Plants and Drug Development
... but today biopharming has changed the nature of the plants themselves, making use of gene therapy to produce transgenic plants ... The first plant to be used to produce a recombinant antibody, back in 1988, was the tobacco plant. Other plants have also been ... Tobacco Plants and Drug Development. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Tobacco-Plants-and-Drug-Development. ... Tobacco Plants and Drug Development. News-Medical. 30 May 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Tobacco-Plants-and-Drug- ...
Discovering how respiration affects plant development
This UWA research project uses knockout and overexpressing lines of plant specific complex II subunits to characterise their ... Discovering how respiration affects plant development. This research project uses knockout and overexpressing lines of plant ... Deciphering chemical signaling processes during plant development. This UWA research project investigates how plants use ... Exploiting chemical signals to boost plant performance. Understanding how plants perceive and respond to changes in their ...
NASA - Molecular Biology of Plant Development in the Space Flight Environment
Molecular Biology of Plant Development in the Space Flight Environment (CARA) - 09.05.18. Overview , Description , Applications ... Some of the plants are also imaged with the Light Microscopy Module on orbit, and at the end of the experiment, all plants are ... Molecular Biology of Plant Development in the Space Flight Environment (Characterizing Arabidopsis Root Attractions (CARA) ... This knowledge can contribute to the development of plants that are better adapted to spaceflight and other altered gravity ...
Shining a light on plant growth and development | EurekAlert! Science News
Riverside have identified the portion of a plant photoreceptor responsible for light-dependent changes in gene expression, as ... Shining a light on plant growth and development UCR researchers have discovered how plants respond to changes in light at the ... Phytochromes control plant growth and development by changing the amount or stability of another group of proteins called ... "Now that we understand how light is causing changes in growth and development, we can engineer plants to be blind to their ...
Plant Abiotic Stress | Plant Development | Plant Science | Life Sciences | Subjects | Wiley
Motoaki Seki, Junko Ishida, Maiko Nakajima et al, Plant Mutation Exploration Team, Plant Functional Genomics Research Group, ... 2. Plant cuticle function as a barrier to water loss.. S. Mark Goodwin and Matthew A. Jenks, Department of Horticulture and ... 3. Plant adaptive responses to salinity stress.. Miguel A. Botella and Abel Rosado, Depart. Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, ... 7. Plant responses to herbicides.. William E. Dyer and Stephen C. Weller, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture ...
Pharmaceutical Process Development & Pilot Plants | AIChE
Pharmaceutical pilot plants are a valuable resource for ensuring efficient process scale-up and tech transfer to commercial ... This session will showcase a variety of strategies for pilot plant design, operation, and even outsourcing that enhance ... pharmaceutical process development. Case studies on implementation of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) in a pilot plant ... 107d) Continuous Distillation Operations and Application of the Wiped Film Evaporator (WFE) to Pharmaceutical Pilot Plant ...
Pilot Plant Testing and Development | Mining | SGS
Successful pilot plant solutions positively impact the commercial process and investment decisions that you make. SGS is a ... Home › Mining › Production and Plant Services › Oil Sands › Pilot Plant Testing and Development ... Mining Pilot Plant Testing and Development. Successful pilot plant solutions have a significant positive impact on the ... Pilot Plant Support. SGS technical experts provide technical support throughout the lifecycle of your pilot plant, including:. ...
2.5 Flower development - Whole-Plant Structure | Coursera
Understanding Plants - Part II: Fundamentals of Plant Biology. 2000+ courses from schools like Stanford and Yale - no ... well first learn about the structure-function of plants and of plant cells. Then well try to understand how plants grow and ... If you havent taken it already, you may also be interested in my other course - What A Plant Knows, which examines how plants ... Once we know how plants grow and develop, well then delve into understanding photosynthesis - how plants take carbon dioxide ...
The Development of Plant Proteins in the European Union - Opportunities and challenges | European Commission
The Development of Plant Protein in the European Union - Rudolf Mögele (Department for Agriculture and Rural Development). ... Conference report - The development of plant proteins in the European Union. English (220.4 KB - PDF) ... The Conference on the Development of Plant Proteins in the European Union on 22-23 November 2018 in Vienna was co-hosted by the ... The Development of Plant Proteins in the European Union - Opportunities and challenges ...
Development of Knowledge Portals for Nuclear Power Plants | IAEA
Russia: The L'Oréal plant committed to sustainable development
... this plant was initially 10 000 m2. In 2015, the Group decided to expand the plant, creating 13,700 m2 of additional space. The ... LOréal built its plant in Russia in 2010, in the Vorsino industrial park in the Kaluga region, located 85 km south of Moscow. ... In addition, LOréal has installed solar panels that generate 10% of the energy consumed by the Vorsino plant on average, per ... With the expansion of its plant in Russia, LOréal has put in place measures to improve its environmental performance, ...
Power Plant for Garraf Development Facility Operation Project
Power Plant for Garraf Development Facility Operation Project
... and Services builds materials in Malaysia and assembles them in Iraq to save significant work on site at power plant project. ... For this USD 58 million power plant project in Iraq by Kavin Engineering and Services, the remote location of the site and the ... Gifu Plant Shinryo verwendet BIM, um den Bau eines pharmazeutischen Werks rasch und ohne Nacharbeit durchzuführen. ...
BIOL2007 | Plant Development and Function | University of Southampton
BIOL2007 Plant Development and Function. Module Overview. This module provides an understanding of plant function and ... Functional aspects related to development will also be considered. The major growth and development features of the plant will ... This module will centre on the study of growth and development processes in higher plants both at the level of the cell and the ... The aim of this module is to provide an understanding of plant function and development at a molecular, cellular and whole ...
Frontiers | Molecular basis of fruit development | Plant Science
Hence, one could not discuss fruit development without understanding the mechanism controlling the gynoecium development.The ... The eleven articles within this special research topic focus on the molecular mechanisms of early fruit development and span a ... The botanical fruit is derived from the carpel wall (pericarp) and genes that regulate gynoecium development ultimately affect ... several articles are focused on mechanisms of gynoecium development. The articles can be organized into several groups based on ...
Organelle Autophagy in Plant Development | Frontiers Research Topic
Overall, various types of organelle turnover systems must cooperate throughout plant development to complete their life cycle. ... The removal of damaged organelles is essential for plants throughout various developmental stages as well as to overcome ... During developmental aging or starvation, plants actively degrade organelles in old organs and reuse the released molecules to ... throughout plant development.. ・Selective elimination processes of damaged organelles in plant cells.. ・Physiological roles of ...
ArabidopsisPhysiologyGrowthBiologyAuxinTissuesBiomassHormonesSpeciesProteinsGeneInteractionsMolecularVascular plantsOrgansFungiPhysiologicalHttpsRegulatePhotosynthesisCultivationResearchersDevelopmentalGenesDifferentiationProtein1988MechanismsSciencesGeneticsAgricultureSustainable developmentResponsesLeaf developmentRootBiosynthesisCrop plantsPathways in plantsMeristem activityConserved from yeast to plantsSignalingBacteriaAbioticTobaccoResearchNutrientsSeeds2019CytokininEnzymesFungal pathogensBiotechnologyPilot PlantRoles in plant developmentNitrogenCellHigher PlantsHigh-densityMitosisMechanism
- A) Scheme of Arabidopsis stomatal development illustrated in isolated cells, and in the context of the developing leaf below. (nih.gov)
- Characterizing Arabidopsis Root Attractions (CARA) builds upon the previously flown Plant Growth Investigations in Microgravity (PGIM) experiment which flew on STS-93, the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC)-16 experiment which flew on STS-131, and the Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) experiment which flew in the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) during Increments 19-24. (nasa.gov)
- Molecular Biology of Plant Development in the Space Flight Environment (Characterizing Arabidopsis Root Attractions (CARA) explores the molecular biology guiding the altered growth of plants, specifically roots, in space flight. (nasa.gov)
- Characterizing Arabidopsis Root Attractions (CARA) specifically addresses the signaling mechanisms that influence root growth in Arabidopsis plants grown without gravity, and how that changes with or without light. (nasa.gov)
- The research was done in Arabidopsis thaliana, a small flowering plant that is widely used by biologists as a model species because it is easy to grow and study. (eurekalert.org)
- reviewed the early ovule development with a focus on the formation of the CMM and the initiation of ovule primordia in Arabidopsis . (frontiersin.org)
- Comparative analyses of WOX4 transcription and function are presented in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), a simple-leafed plant with collateral vasculature, and in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), a dissected-leafed species with bicollateral venation. (plantphysiol.org)
- RNA interference-induced down-regulation of WOX4 in Arabidopsis generated small plants whose vascular bundles accumulated undifferentiated ground tissue and exhibited severe reductions in differentiated xylem and phloem. (plantphysiol.org)
- To study the regulation of plant meristem activity and cell proliferation, we have examined the tissue-specific accumulation of cdc2 transcripts in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related crucifer radish (Raphanus sativus) by in situ hybridization using A. thaliana cdc2 cDNA sequences as a probe. (pnas.org)
- Imprinted genes have been identified in maize and Arabidopsis thaliana , but crosses in a variety of species suggest that the effect of imprinting on seed development is widespread throughout the angiosperms. (plantcell.org)
- To see whether this gene is also essential for syncytium development, the role of ENOD40 was investigated in the non-legumes tomato and Arabidopsis upon cyst nematode infection. (wur.nl)
- To investigate the impact of overexpression of heterologous SUS on the growth and development of Arabidopsis, we transformed Arabidopsis plants with an overexpression vector containing an aspen SUS gene (PtrSUS1). (scirp.org)
- PtrSUS1 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was confirmed by RT-PCR. (scirp.org)
- This thesis describes the first successful identification and isolation of the Mediator complex from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (diva-portal.org)
- On-going work, using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , has also observed that phosphites stimulate root growth. (actahort.org)
- It is studied in plant anatomy and plant physiology as well as plant morphology. (wikipedia.org)
- Plant Physiology 173:2029-2040. (edu.au)
- The book is directed at researchers and professionals in plant physiology, cell biology and molecular biology, in both the academic and industrial sectors. (wiley.com)
- The idea of the conference 'Physiology, Growth and Development of Plants and Cells in Culture' (Lancaster, 1992) was to introduce specialists in different areas of plant physiology to micropropagators, with the express aims of disseminating as wide a range of information to as large a number of participants as possible, and beginning new discussions on the constraints and potentials affecting the development of in vitro plant production methods. (worldcat.org)
- In the final session, three speakers suggested some promising avenues for future research into the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of plant hormones. (weltbild.de)
- Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. (diva-portal.org)
- Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 42(4), 299-306. (scirp.org)
- Plant Physiology, 141(3), 1106-1119. (scirp.org)
- This course is an introduction to the physiology, reproduction, development and growth of plants and fungi. (sheffield.ac.uk)
- This unit aims to introduce students to the essential and unifying concepts of physiology, reproduction, development and growth in plants and fungi, which are central to modern biology. (sheffield.ac.uk)
- In addition to growth by cell division, a plant may grow through cell elongation. (wikipedia.org)
- Plant growth and development are mediated by specific plant hormones and plant growth regulators (PGRs) (Ross et al. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1918, Gassner published findings that noted the necessity of a cold phase in order for proper plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
- Meanwhile, Garner and Allard examined the importance of the duration of light exposure to plant growth in 1920. (wikipedia.org)
- 2014). Germination is the early growth of a plant from a seed. (wikipedia.org)
- However, according to a new study in the open access journal PLOS ONE , very low doses of the pungent compound spur plant growth. (redorbit.com)
- According to Dooley´s advisor Peter Ward, a UW professor of biology, the rapid plant growth brought on by small concentrations of hydrogen sulfide could be the result of a genetic mechanism that allowed plants to survive these mass extinction events. (redorbit.com)
- Ward said larger plants would have had a better chance at survival, so it makes sense that small dose of the deadly compound would spur growth. (redorbit.com)
- Why is Soil Water Important to Plant Growth? (unl.edu)
- Carbohydrates produced from photosynthesis provide energy for all plant growth and maintenance. (unl.edu)
- When air temperatures are favorable for plant growth, soil water is the limiting factor for photosynthesis. (unl.edu)
- Rapid growth does not occur in all plant parts simultaneously. (unl.edu)
- Growth of plant parts is reduced or delayed when green leaf area is removed. (unl.edu)
- We normally accept natural plant growth habits and design a growing system to accommodate their growth. (sae.org)
- If the plant growth habit was altered in such a manner so that the growing density increases without sacrificing productivity, greater efficiency can be achieved. (sae.org)
- Presently, new modifications are being made to double the growing density by dividing the existing growth chamber to two separate chambers so that two plants can be grown. (sae.org)
- But the growth guide and light distribution system had to be developed first to determine the (Pinch Roller) plant spacing. (sae.org)
- Monocot plants usually have higher efficiency in photosynthesis mainly due to its growth characteristics allowing better light penetration without shading other foliage. (sae.org)
- Takashima, Y., "Development of Plant Growth Guide and Light Distribution System," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2458, 2003, https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-2458 . (sae.org)
- During their early growth, the embryos of all vascular plants exist as virtual parasites depending for nutrition on either the gametophyte or the previous sporophyte generation through the agency of the gametophyte or, in the special case of the angiosperms, upon an initially triploid tissue, the endosperm, which is itself nourished by the parent sporophyte. (britannica.com)
- Tobacco is preferred as the host plant because of its rapid growth and high volume of production. (news-medical.net)
- This is allowed to proliferate and the plant expresses the recombinant protein, being stimulated to grow rapidly using controlled plant growth stimulators. (news-medical.net)
- We have recently shown that beyond its role in respiration, this protein complex is also involved in defence signalling in plants by helping plants to respond to invading organisms like pathogenic fungi and it also alter the growth of roots. (edu.au)
- Scientists are getting to the root of plant growth in space. (nasa.gov)
- Auxin is a plant growth hormone that helps guide the direction of root growth. (nasa.gov)
- However, space-grown plants show differences in root-tip distribution of cytokinin, a plant hormone that often works in concert with auxin to regulate cell division and tissue growth. (nasa.gov)
- Spaceflight also causes changes in the expression of many genes that are regulated by auxin and other plant hormones, as well as genes that regulate the size and shapes of cells that influence root growth patterns. (nasa.gov)
- These findings suggest that it may be possible to eliminate certain unnecessary environmental responses by genetic modification to produce plant varieties better adapted for growth in microgravity (Paul, 2017). (nasa.gov)
- Plants experiencing space flight are quite normal in appearance but can exhibit growth habits distinctly different from plants on earth. (nasa.gov)
- Scientists at UC Riverside have identified the molecular mechanism by which photoreceptors called phytochromes control plant growth and development. (eurekalert.org)
- Phytochromes control plant growth and development by changing the amount or stability of another group of proteins called transcription factors whose job is to turn genes on and off. (eurekalert.org)
- Now that we understand how light is causing changes in growth and development, we can engineer plants to be blind to their neighbors, so we can plant them more densely without seeing a decrease in yield," Chen said. (eurekalert.org)
- This book focuses on stress caused by the inanimate components of the environment associated with climatic, edaphic and physiographic factors that substantially limit plant growth and survival. (wiley.com)
- Plant growth and development is controlled by various environmental cues that are sensed by the plant via various signal transduction pathways coupled to specific response. (springer.com)
- This volume highlights some of the examples of the plant signal transduction machinery opening new vistas in research on plant growth and development. (springer.com)
- This module will centre on the study of growth and development processes in higher plants both at the level of the cell and the whole organisms and in relation to the environment. (southampton.ac.uk)
- The major growth and development features of the plant will be discussed as will impacts of abiotic and biotic stress. (southampton.ac.uk)
- The phytohormone cytokinin plays diverse roles in plant development, influencing many agriculturally important processes, including growth, nutrient responses and the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. (biologists.org)
- 1955 ), and subsequent studies identified the cytokinin zeatin as an endogenous plant growth regulator ( Letham, 1973 ). (biologists.org)
- Early hypotheses about auxin transport posited that the hormone was produced in young leaves and shoot tips and worked its way "down" the plant into stems and roots to promote plant development and growth. (eurekalert.org)
- For example, specific recognition responses in plants trigger formation of the hypersensitive response and activation of host defense mechanisms, resulting in restriction of pathogen growth and disease development. (pnas.org)
- Current knowledge of the spatiotemporal control of brassinosteroid function in plants, focusing on primary root development and growth, stem cell self-renewal and death, and adaptation to environmental stress, is summarized in this Review from Ana Caño-Delgado and team. (biologists.org)
- A method of controlling growth and development of plants is provided herein. (google.com)
- More particularly, a method of controlling growth and development of potato plants by increasing or decreasing the expression of a gene encoding calmodulin is set forth. (google.com)
- Transgenic potato plants carrying sense nucleic acid constructs of pPCM-1, a cDNA clone of potato calmodulin, exhibit unexpected increased shoot and tuber growth, whereas plants carrying antisense nucleic acid constructs exhibit decreased shoot and tuber growth. (google.com)
- The present invention relates to a method of controlling growth and development of plants. (google.com)
- More particularly, this invention relates to a method of controlling growth and development of potato plants by increasing or decreasing the expression of a gene encoding calmodulin. (google.com)
- Plant Growth and Development (McGraw-Hill, New York) (1975). (google.com)
- A structured controlled vocabulary for describing cereal plant development and growth stages. (bioontology.org)
- The introductory session considered the coordinating role of hormones in plant growth and development, and focused on hormone action at the molecular level, including their binding to receptors and their control of gene expression. (weltbild.de)
- All these approaches consolidated the central importance of hormones in plant growth. (weltbild.de)
- In New York, Cornell researchers have shown multiple benefits to plant growth and nutrition when they investigated the effect of soy flour, a plant-derived biostimulant, on coated broccoli seed . (biofuelsdigest.com)
- Results showed enhanced plant growth and development through measurements of biomass, plant height, leaf area, leaf development, and chlorophyll content. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- Soy flour-coated seeds had greater seedling root and shoot growth compared with the noncoated control, and soy flour applied at 30%, 40%, and 50% in the coating formulation increased the total nitrogen per plant compared with the noncoated control. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- The course deals with developmental biology of plants and environmental constrains upon plant growth. (umu.se)
- Apply knowledge about the anatomy of primary and secondary growth and to distinguish molecular processes controlling cell division cell elongation and polarity establishment during plant growth and development. (umu.se)
- Apply knowledge about synthesis, transport and signal transduction of plant hormones and its importance for growth and development in plants. (umu.se)
- Apply knowledge about light perception and signaling as well as circadian control and its importance for growth and development in plants. (umu.se)
- Apply knowledge about environmental perception and signaling and its importance for growth and development in plants. (umu.se)
- 1998 ). Similarly, NO signalling in plants modulates a variety of physiological systems, from adaptive responses to germination, root growth and dynamics of stomatal aperture control. (wiley.com)
- However, isotopic labeling with deuterium ((2)H) in higher plants at the level of 40% and higher is complicated by both physiological responses, particularly water exchange through transpiration, and inhibitory effects of D2O on germination, rooting, and growth. (nih.gov)
- Growth in individual chambers under continuous air perfusion with dried sterile-filtered air enables long-term cultivation of multiple plants at different D2O concentrations. (nih.gov)
- The growth differences between wild-type and transgenic plants, either in root and hypocotyl length or in fresh and dry weight of whole plant, became more pronounced on the media containing higher sucrose concentrations. (scirp.org)
- we analyzed genome-wide changes in gene expression in athd1-t1 lines during vegetative growth and flower development. (genetics.org)
- Plant growth and climate change. (nerc.ac.uk)
- We have shown that foliar application of phosphites consistently enhances root growth and development. (actahort.org)
- This will allow us to identify the molecular mechanism(s) through which phosphite promotes root growth and development in the near future. (actahort.org)
- So if we have Microstegium filling the forest understory and deer are looking for something to eat -- since they don't feed much on Microstegium at all -- the deer clip off any native plant growth that manages to get through the invasives," he said. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- Current Opinion in Plant Biology 16:344-9. (edu.au)
- I am a protein biochemist focused on plant biology in the School of Molecular Sciences. (edu.au)
- I am the Director of the ARC Centre of Excellent in Plant Energy Biology. (edu.au)
- However, the current model in plants is that the photoreceptor uses the N-terminal module both to sense and respond to environmental light cues," said Chen, who is also a member of UCR's Institute for Integrated Genome Biology (IIGB). (eurekalert.org)
- This class is aimed at people interested in understanding the basic science of plant biology. (coursera.org)
- It turns out that plants may choose to make auxin in the place where they want it to accumulate rather than always bring auxin from other parts of the plant," said Anna Stepanova, an assistant professor in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology at NC State and corresponding author of the paper. (eurekalert.org)
- An emerging topic in plant biology is whether plants display analogous elements of mammalian programmed cell death during development and defense against pathogen attack. (pnas.org)
- 90 ECTS credits, of which at least 15 ECTS credits are in the main area of chemistry and 60 ECTS credits in the main area of biology where at least 30 ECTS credits should be in plant biology and cell- and molecular biology. (umu.se)
- 1998 ). While the study of NO biology in plants has thus been somewhat of a 'slow-burn', the field is now gathering significant momentum. (wiley.com)
- The aim of this EMBO Workshop is to support the development of new scientific concepts and experimental approaches for exploring the mechanisms, control and role of intercellular communication in developmental plant biology and crop diseases. (embo.org)
- Two experiments on the International Space Station found normal distribution of auxin in the roots of space-grown plants, suggesting weightlessness does not affect this system. (nasa.gov)
- At later stages of the gynoecium development, auxin biosynthesis at the apex may be critical to formation of the style and stigma. (frontiersin.org)
- Their analysis of these genes suggests that the NGA proteins regulate gynoecial development via the control of auxin homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
- Cytokinins were discovered in a search for factors that promote cell proliferation in cultured plant cells in concert with a second phytohormone, auxin. (biologists.org)
- Thus, specification of vascular fate in leaf primordia is dependent upon appropriate auxin transport, localization, and signaling, implicating auxin as a predominant patterning factor during early vascular development. (plantphysiol.org)
- A study in Developmental Cell shows the importance of the interplay between local production and transport of the key hormone auxin to plant development. (eurekalert.org)
- The study sheds light on the importance of when and where the plant hormone auxin is produced and explores the interplay between auxin synthesis and transport that moves auxin throughout the plant. (eurekalert.org)
- Specifically, the research shows that local auxin production is required to keep plants healthy. (eurekalert.org)
- That is, roots will degenerate if auxin is not produced in the root, or flowers will be sterile if auxin is not made at the right place and the right time in the flower, despite the fact that the hormone can be transported throughout the plant. (eurekalert.org)
- We knew how auxin was transported within the plant and how plants respond to auxin, but surprisingly we didn't know until recently how and where auxin is produced by the plant," said Javier Brumos, an NC State post-doctoral researcher and first author of a paper describing the research. (eurekalert.org)
- That led to the question of how important local production of auxin in the root - that is, auxin that moves from root cell to root cell rather than being transported from the shoot - is to plant development," Brumos said. (eurekalert.org)
- Using a variety of elegant experiments on Arabadopsis, or mustard weed, the NC State researchers showed the importance of local auxin production in plant roots. (eurekalert.org)
- First, the researchers created hybrid plants by grafting healthy, auxin-producing shoots onto roots that didn't produce auxin to see whether auxin could be transported from shoot to root to keep roots healthy. (eurekalert.org)
- If there is no local auxin in the root, the plant loses its root meristematic activity and the root degenerates. (eurekalert.org)
- Again, plants with root-made auxin had viable roots, while plants reliant on auxin transport from shoots had faulty roots. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers also examined the role of local auxin in flowers and leaves and again saw that the sites of the biosynthesis of this hormone are critical, in this case, for full fertility and normal leaf development. (eurekalert.org)
- The take-home message of this study is that local auxin production and transport work together to keep plants healthy. (eurekalert.org)
- In lower plants like mosses, auxin and cytokinin regulate the creation and the stability of the differentiated state of various cell types. (portlandpress.com)
- In fact, most of the major plant hormones, such as auxin, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and strigolactones, control both lateral root formation and nodule organogenesis, but often in an opposite manner. (mdpi.com)
- A local accumulation of auxin is crucial for syncytium development.Analysis of cellulase expression patterns in tomato revealed that two auxin-inducible members (LECel7 and LE-Cel8) were speci¿ cally up-regulated during the onset of syncytium development. (wur.nl)
- Plants produce new tissues and structures throughout their life from meristems located at the tips of organs, or between mature tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, a living plant always has embryonic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- Juvenility or heteroblasty is when the organs and tissues produced by a young plant, such as a seedling, are often different from those that are produced by the same plant when it is older. (wikipedia.org)
- The two major factors determining the forms of plant tissues and organs are the orientation of the planes of cell division and the shapes assumed by the cells as they enlarge. (britannica.com)
- In these groups the young sporophyte produces a multicellular structure, the foot , which remains embedded in the tissues of the gametophyte throughout early development withdrawing nutrients. (britannica.com)
- Plant shoot organs arise from initial cells that are recruited from meristematic tissues. (plantphysiol.org)
- The plant vasculature provides mechanical support and transports water, nutrients, and signaling molecules to plant tissues. (plantphysiol.org)
- Name two plant tissues in which dead cells are useful. (brainmass.com)
- Meins and Thomas show that in plants regenerated from most C + clones, leaf tissues retained the C + phenotype. (biologists.org)
- Both legume nodule and lateral root organogenesis involve divisions of the root inner tissues, and both developmental programs are tightly controlled by plant hormones. (mdpi.com)
- Trifoliolate leaves were similarly infected by rain-splashed inoculum but more often by advancing hyphae from infected tissues that were also observed causing infection of adjacent plants. (apsnet.org)
- were produced within 3 days of contact with plants on intact and detached infected tissues. (apsnet.org)
- Hymenial layers of T. cucumeris were first observed on the lower stem tissues of 2% of the plants about 28 days after planting. (apsnet.org)
- However, the researchers found the hydrogen sulfide treatments resulted in smaller and larger numbers of cells, meaning these plants contain more biomass for fuel production. (redorbit.com)
- This study develops the emission factor of non-CO 2 gas released from combined heat and power plants that use biomass. (hindawi.com)
- Therefore, developing non-CO 2 emission factor of biomass-using circulating fluidized bed (CFB) power plants, which is appropriate for the domestic circumstances would ensure very important basic data for the estimation and forecast of greenhouse gas emission and emission reduction plans. (hindawi.com)
- Both fresh weights and dry biomass yields of the whole plants from these three selected transgenic lines were significantly increased to 125% of the controls. (scirp.org)
- Visible progress has been made with the construction of the 41 MW Templeborough Biomass Power Plant located in Rotherham in South Yorkshire, England. (biomassmagazine.com)
- According to Templeborough Biomass Power Plant Ltd., much of the concrete and other building materials from the demolition are being recycled. (biomassmagazine.com)
- The full operation will include a 350,000 metric ton per year wood pellet manufacturing process and an associated biomass combined heat and power plant. (biomassmagazine.com)
- Most of the wood waste will be collected locally from municipal waste sites where wood is segregated from other wastes, as well as from construction sites and other industrial and commercial waste collections, after which it will be processed and shredded before used as fuel in the biomass plant. (biomassmagazine.com)
- Templeborough Biomass Power Plant Ltd. is owned by Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners, a Danish infrastructure fund that specializes in renewables. (biomassmagazine.com)
- Besides time lapse cameras, the project's dedicated website offers information on renewable energy, how biomass plants work and answers to some of the most frequently asked questions. (biomassmagazine.com)
- More information about the project's development can be found on the Templeborough Biomass Power Plant website . (biomassmagazine.com)
- Here, we provide a brief overview of the metabolic pathways that regulate the levels of this group of plant hormones and highlight recent advances in the understanding of cytokinin transport. (biologists.org)
- Signals such as hormones, light, and gravity control diverse physiological processes in plants. (google.com)
- The symposium was convened to assess the evidence for and against the view that plant hormones are endogenous. (weltbild.de)
- In many respects, progress in research on animal hormones seems greater than in the plant sciences and there may well be merit in following progress in animal hormone research as suggested by Professor Leopold. (weltbild.de)
- Focus is on regulation of cell division, meristem activity, plant stem cells, embryogenesis and organogenesis, signal transduction and plant hormones. (umu.se)
- The form of leaves produced near the base of the branch differs from leaves produced at the tip of the plant, and this difference is consistent from branch to branch on a given plant and in a given species. (wikipedia.org)
- Research on plants looks at several species. (wikipedia.org)
- The 11 articles within this special research topic focus on the molecular mechanisms of early fruit development and span a diversity of species and experimental approaches. (frontiersin.org)
- The orthologues of ScATGs that function for autophagosome formation are conserved in plant species, and therefore the studies using the mutants of these ATG genes in model plants has helped develop our understanding of plant autophagy. (frontiersin.org)
- The function of the WOX4 gene is previously undescribed in any plant species. (plantphysiol.org)
- In the Stanford study, researchers reviewed scientific studies that involved more than 1,400 plant and animal species. (sfgate.com)
- In an analysis of 172 species of plants, birds, butterflies and amphibians, Parmesan found that spring events such as egg-laying or flower-blooming advanced 2.3 days on average each decade. (sfgate.com)
- Plant species composition was summarized by 21 vegetation site types. (usda.gov)
- Sixty-one percent of pads had at least one invasive, non-native plant species, and 19 percent of those had three or more species. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- Plant-derived medicines are common, but today biopharming has changed the nature of the plants themselves, making use of gene therapy to produce transgenic plants which yield non-native proteins targeting deadly viruses like Ebola or HIV, and some cancers. (news-medical.net)
- This is different from bioengineering in which plant biological drugs are produced in bioreactors that ferment cultures of animal cells: this method is costly, and biopharming hopes to cut down the cost of producing recombinant antibodies, vaccines, enzymes, and other regulatory proteins to a tenth. (news-medical.net)
- The objective of this project is to use knockout and overexpressing lines of plant specific complex II subunits to characterise their functions at the physiological, proteomic and metabolomic levels and therefore to uncover the hidden role of these proteins and this respiratory pathway in plants. (edu.au)
- The Conference on the Development of Plant Proteins in the European Union on 22-23 November 2018 in Vienna was co-hosted by the Austrian Minister for Sustainability and Tourism, Ms Elisabeth Köstinger and the European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development, Mr Phil Hogan. (europa.eu)
- Around 200 invited experts from the agricultural supply chains for feed and food production, research and advisory networks, and national and regional administrations discussed the main findings of the European Commission's report on the Development of Plant Proteins in the European Union on current plant protein production in the EU and its potential for further development. (europa.eu)
- Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. (diva-portal.org)
- Ultimately, these pathways are integrated to control expression of specific target genes, which encode proteins that regulate development and differentiation. (diva-portal.org)
- New plant breeding technologies have made it possible to further exploit the possibilities of the tobacco plant, using CRISPR gene editing, advanced forms of grafting, and temporary expression of certain genes by infiltration. (news-medical.net)
- Once the gene is expressed, the tobacco plant leaves produce plenty of antibody against the antigen introduced via the bacteria. (news-medical.net)
- Because plants have no experience in adapting to microgravity, they may respond with improper changes in gene expression. (nasa.gov)
- This study showed an altered pattern of gene expression in the root tip cells of plants in microgravity relative to ground controls, suggesting that these genes are important to the physiological adaptation of plants to space. (nasa.gov)
- Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have identified the portion of a plant photoreceptor responsible for light-dependent changes in gene expression, as illustrated in a paper published today in Nature Communications . (eurekalert.org)
- Most scientists did not believe the C-terminal module played a role in signaling changes in gene expression in plants, but Chen disagreed. (eurekalert.org)
- The module also considers the relevance of developmental processes in a changing environment, with particular emphasis on the role of model organisms in determining gene function and the manipulation of plant characteristics using biotechnology. (southampton.ac.uk)
- Previous studies have shown that members of the WUSCHEL -related HOMEOBOX ( WOX ) gene family function to organize various initial cell populations during plant development. (plantphysiol.org)
- Cultured plant cells show phenotypic variation, some of which results from epigenetic changes - mitotically heritable but reversible alterations in gene expression that do not result from permanent genetic modifications. (biologists.org)
- Apply and analyze gene mapping in plants as well as both forward and reverse genetic methodology in plant model organisms. (umu.se)
- The EMBO workshop will bring together scientists working on plasmodesmata structure and regulation, plant development, defense signaling, gene silencing, and virus movement. (embo.org)
- Remarkably, genes involved in ionic homeostasis and protein synthesis were ectopically expressed, whereas genes in ionic homeostasis, protein transport, and plant hormonal regulation were repressed in athd1-t1 leaves or flowers, suggesting a role of AtHD1 in developmental and environmental regulation of gene expression. (genetics.org)
- Moreover, we examined histone acetylation and gene expression changes in wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous athd1-t1 plants using immuno-blot and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. (genetics.org)
- It will also cover plant interactions with other organisms and plant defence mechanisms. (southampton.ac.uk)
- In many plant-pathogen interactions, plant cell death occurs in both susceptible and resistant host responses. (pnas.org)
- Our data indicate that in compatible plant-pathogen interactions apoptosis-like programmed cell death occurs. (pnas.org)
- Regulation of cell death often is crucial to the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. (pnas.org)
- Host cell death can occur in both resistant (incompatible) and susceptible (compatible) plant-pathogen interactions, although the mechanism(s) and relevant pathways are poorly understood. (pnas.org)
- Many incompatible plant-pathogen interactions induce hypersensitive lesions and activate host defense mechanisms ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
- and a completely revised new edition of Plant Relationships could be produced, providing an up-to-date overview on mutualistic and pathogenic interactions. (springer.com)
- In 18 chapters internationally acknowledged authors present reviews on fungal lifestyles, mechanisms of their interactions with their host plants, signal perception and transduction, and plant defense responses directed against attack by fungal pathogens. (springer.com)
- Highlighting the recent developments in fungus-plant interactions, this volume is indispensable for researchers, lecturers and students in microbiology, mycology and plant sciences, including plant pathology. (springer.com)
- and, plant-microbe interactions. (wiley.com)
- vi) describe some of the symbiotic and other interactions that occur between plants and fungi. (sheffield.ac.uk)
- While these investigations could somewhat correlate cause and effect as a plant develops, they could not truly explain the mechanisms at work without inspection at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
- 2014). Rudimentary comprehensions set precedent for later molecular evaluation and, eventually, a more complete view of how plants operate. (wikipedia.org)
- The mission of Plant Stress and Germplasm Development research unit is to conduct fundamental and applied research on the response of plants to thermal and water stress and to develop, through traditional and molecular approaches, appropriate germplasm to reduce the impact of these stresses on crop yields and product quality. (usda.gov)
- Until now, scientists haven't fully understood the molecular mechanism underlying that process, which allows plants to recognize when they're in the shade and grow toward the sun, and to sense what season it is so they can bloom in spring. (eurekalert.org)
- This module provides an understanding of plant function and development at a molecular, cellular and whole organism level. (southampton.ac.uk)
- The aim of this module is to provide an understanding of plant function and development at a molecular, cellular and whole organism level. (southampton.ac.uk)
- Although this scenario resembles PCD in mammalian systems, specific illustrations of a functionally conserved program in plants exhibiting the hallmark characteristics of PCD are limited and molecular details of this process in plants remain unclear ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
- A wealth of information on plant anatomy and morphology is available in the current and historical literature, and molecular biologists are producing massive amounts of transcriptome and genome data that can be used to gain better insights into the development, evolution, ecology, and physiological function of plant anatomical attributes. (usda.gov)
- Characteristically, vascular plants grow and develop through the activity of organ-forming regions, the growing points. (britannica.com)
- The primary photosynthetic structures of the earliest vascular plants were branched axes, and the first identifiable leaves in the fossil record are believed to represent modified three-dimensional lateral branch systems ( Zimmerman, 1952 ). (plantphysiol.org)
- Extant vascular plants exhibit an enormous range of leaf forms broadly grouped into two categories, compound and simple leaves. (plantphysiol.org)
- Ecological scale and forest development: squirrels, dietary fungi, and vascular plants in managed and unmanaged forests. (usda.gov)
- Once the embryo germinates from its seed or parent plant, it begins to produce additional organs (leaves, stems, and roots) through the process of organogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
- This variation is most easily seen in the leaves of a plant, though other organs such as stems and flowers may show similar variation. (wikipedia.org)
- These are the male sexual organs of the plant. (coursera.org)
- During developmental aging or starvation, plants actively degrade organelles in old organs and reuse the released molecules to produce juvenile organs. (frontiersin.org)
- In higher plants, the shoot apical meristem generates the radially symmetrical stem and also produces, in succession, bilaterally symmetrical lateral organs called leaves. (plantphysiol.org)
- In addition, leaves may also function to perceive and transmit environmental signals to other plant organs. (plantphysiol.org)
- During flower development, high levels of expression were observed in meristems, in the basal regions of developing organs, in the developing vasculature, and associated with rib meristems elaborated late in the development of some floral organs. (pnas.org)
- Indeed, in the rhizobium/legume symbiosis, new root organs, called nodules, are formed by the plant in order to host the rhizobia in protective conditions, optimized for nitrogen fixation. (mdpi.com)
- We discuss how specialization has enabled the CLE peptides to modulate stem cell differentiation in various tissue types, and how differing activities of EPF peptides precisely regulate the stomatal developmental program, and we examine the contributions of these peptide families to plant development from an evolutionary perspective. (nih.gov)
- The botanical fruit is derived from the carpel wall (pericarp) and genes that regulate gynoecium development ultimately affect fruit size, shape, and dispersal mode. (frontiersin.org)
- We have generated transgenic tobacco plants to express animal genes that negatively regulate apoptosis. (pnas.org)
- This special issue aims to showcase the best research covering the chromatin-based and epigenetic mechanisms which regulate development across the plant and animal kingdoms. (biologists.org)
- In order to fully comprehend how grasses respond to drought, one must understand what plants need for photosynthesis. (unl.edu)
- Green plants convert solar energy to chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis. (unl.edu)
- Once we know how plants grow and develop, we'll then delve into understanding photosynthesis - how plants take carbon dioxide from the air and water from soil, and turn this into oxygen for us to breathe and sugars for us to eat. (coursera.org)
- Plants constantly make trade-offs in their decisions: more light means more opportunity for photosynthesis, but then hot temperatures and dry air makes wilting more likely. (sciencenewsdaily.org)
- Stomata microscopic valves on the surface of a leaf's epidermis are at the forefront of these trade-offs: stomata open to acquire fresh air (and the carbon dioxide in it) for photosynthesis, but water loss through stomatal pores causes plants to become dehydrated, and eventually to wilt. (sciencenewsdaily.org)
- For the wheat plants, researchers observed the seeds germinating in one to two days instead of four or five. (redorbit.com)
- We hope that this Research Topic will successfully show the recent advances of the studies on the role of plant selective autophagy throughout plant development, and help a large number of researchers to explore new avenues towards the further development of related fields. (frontiersin.org)
- This book will be of interest to many readers, researchers and scientists who can find this information useful for the advancement of their research works towards a better understanding of physical methods in plant and mushroom development. (intechopen.com)
- The insights are clear enough that non-plant breeding majoring students will find it useful to learn about the subject, while advanced level students and researchers and practitioners will find practical examples that help them implement their work. (researchandmarkets.com)
- Natural News ) With the number of Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers seen to quadruple by the year 2050 , researchers are looking for safe and effective methods to prevent the condition's development and progression. (naturalnews.com)
- Keeping this in mind, the researchers looked at Sarcocephalus latifolius , a plant that has long been used as an herbal treatment in Africa for a wide variety of diseases. (naturalnews.com)
- The researchers obtained extracts from the plant, which they fractionated between n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. (naturalnews.com)
- Energy-saving in the production, pressure-resistant and compostable: Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics have high expectations for the insulation boards made from the leaves of the Typha plant. (bine.info)
- Vast swaths of Pennsylvania forests were clear-cut circa 1900 and regrowth has largely been from local native plant communities, but a team of researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences has found that invasive, non-native plants are making significant inroads with unconventional natural gas development. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- In findings published today (July 20) in the Journal of Environmental Management , researchers show a direct correlation between the extent of non-native plant invasion and distinct aspects of shale gas development. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- To investigate, researchers conducted invasive plant surveys on and around 127 Marcellus shale gas well pads and adjacent access roads in seven state forest districts in the Allegheny National Forest. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- Using field data from the 127 well pads, researchers created a model to evaluate direct and indirect relationships between mechanisms and conditions that could account for invasive plant presence. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- Researchers found evidence that invasive plants were introduced in gravel delivered to build pads and roads, and in mud on the tires and undercarriages of trucks traveling those roads, noted lead researcher Kathryn Barlow, a doctoral degree candidate in ecology. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- The removal of damaged organelles is essential for plants throughout various developmental stages as well as to overcome environmental changes that enhance cellular damage, since organelle degradation allows the recycling of derived small molecules, such as amino acids, lipids and nucleic acids. (frontiersin.org)
- In situ hybridization analyses of Atwox4-RNA interference plants revealed delayed and reduced expression of both the phloem developmental marker ALTERED PHLOEM1 and HOMEOBOX GENE8 , a marker of the vascular procambium. (plantphysiol.org)
- Plants are multicellular organisms and products of tightly regulated developmental programmes that respond to environmental conditions and internal cues. (wur.nl)
- Reprogramming occurs in flowering plants and in mammals, and the similarities and differences illuminate developmental and reproductive strategies. (sciencemag.org)
- Some of the plants are also imaged with the Light Microscopy Module on orbit, and at the end of the experiment, all plants are harvested by the astronaut, and preserved for their return to Earth in order to evaluate genes associated with plant responses on orbit. (nasa.gov)
- Notably, while some plant varieties expressed more genes to adjust, some varieties expressed less. (nasa.gov)
- Further, these animal antiapoptotic genes function in plants and should be useful to delineate resistance pathways. (pnas.org)
- It is unclear whether and how AtHD1 directly affects chromatin structure of the target genes and plant development. (genetics.org)
- In plant development, peptide signals relay information coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation. (nih.gov)
- Four factors (crown-class differentiation, decadence, canopy stratification, and understory development) accounted for 63% of variance in vegetation structure. (usda.gov)
- Carefully timed variable-density thinnings could accelerate crown-class differentiation, canopy stratification, and understory development and increase habitat breadth. (usda.gov)
- On the second day of the conference, Minister Köstinger and Commissioner Hogan, together with high-level representatives from the European Parliament and key stakeholders, debated how the existing and future policy framework could support the further unlocking of potential for plant protein production in the European Union. (europa.eu)
- 1. A method for increasing stem and tuber elongation in a potato plant relative to a control plant, comprising the steps of introducing a nucleic acid construct into a potato plant cell and growing the cell into a plant, wherein the nucleic acid construct comprises a nucleotide sequence that encodes the protein of Sequence Listing ID No. 2. (google.com)
- 5. A transgenic potato plant comprising a nucleic acid construct, wherein the nucleic acid construct comprises a nucleotide sequence that encodes the protein of Sequence Listing ID No. 2, and wherein the nucleotide sequence is isolated from nature or is synthetic. (google.com)
- In plants, enzymes such as NAD kinase, Ca 2+ -ATPase, H + -ATPase, quinate:NAD + oxidoreductase and protein kinases have been shown to be regulated by calcium and calmodulin. (google.com)
- Since the gynoecium, the female floral structure, is the precursor of all or part of the fruit, several articles are focused on mechanisms of gynoecium development. (frontiersin.org)
- We then discuss the mechanisms by which cytokinins signal to influence plant development. (biologists.org)
- 2. Describe two mechanisms that move water from the roots to the upper portions of a plant. (brainmass.com)
- Recent findings show similarities in microbial infection mechanisms of animals, humans, and plants ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
- As a result they have evolved unique signalling mechanisms through plasmodesmata that allow rapid communication between different parts of the plant. (embo.org)
- The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture. (diva-portal.org)
- He has been inducted as a fellow by the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding, and Indian Society of Pulses Research and Development. (researchandmarkets.com)
- PhysOrg.com) -- Plants and their pollinators are the focus of ground-breaking research by Dr Heather Whitney, recently appointed Lloyds Fellow in the School of Biological Sciences. (phys.org)
- There has been scientific enthusiasm for the study of epigenetics in plants because of their long-standing importance in agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
- Led by 4-H National Headquarters , within USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), 4-H is drawing upon its deep experience to help other nations create similar youth development programs. (usda.gov)
- The project is just the beginning of a wave of added green spaces and sustainable development in the city. (inhabitat.com)
- Prakairatana said the NHRC did not just actively protect human rights, but also encouraged the government and investors to understand and value human-rights principles, so they could achieve sustainable development and prevent the violation of rights in the first place. (nationmultimedia.com)
- It's about our need to achieve both climate change goals and sustainable development goals, which include protecting terrestrial ecosystems, at the same time. (ucdavis.edu)
- The book also addresses the high degree to which plant responses to quite diverse forms of environmental stress are interconnected, describing the ways in which the plant utilizes and integrates many common signals and subsequent pathways to cope with less favorable conditions. (wiley.com)
- 3. Plant adaptive responses to salinity stress. (wiley.com)
- 5. Plant responses to high temperature. (wiley.com)
- 6. Adaptive responses in plants to non-optimal soil pH. (wiley.com)
- 7. Plant responses to herbicides. (wiley.com)
- The responses of the plant to light and the role of phytochrome will be considered, as will the changes occurring at the onset of senescence. (southampton.ac.uk)
- This teacher-led Discovery Box contains an abundance of plants and items made from them, including rat root, sage, a wicker basket, a model birch bark canoe, berries, and more. (wdm.ca)
- There was strong hybridization throughout the pericycle, and a further localized accumulation of cdc2 transcripts was observed in the initial stages of the activation of a new meristem at sites of lateral root development. (pnas.org)
- Another source is resident soil organic P, which becomes plant-available via root and microorganism processes. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Root also said she expected that any damaging effects of climatic change would be unnoticeable amid the enormous habitat destruction in modern times caused by development, pollution and other human activities. (sfgate.com)
- This suggests that the sensitivity of legume plants to some phytohormones could be linked to the antagonism that exists between the processes of nodulation and lateral root formation. (mdpi.com)
- In one experiment, root dry weight and leaf P content of noninfested VAM seedlings were greater than those of NM plants, which were nearly deficient in P. P. parasitica reduced leaf P status of VAM and NM seedlings alike but reduced dry weight of only VAM plants. (apsnet.org)
- Root rot development occurred to about the same extent on NM and VAM root systems. (apsnet.org)
- G. intraradices did not increase the resistance or tolerance of sweet orange to Phytophthora root rot unless mycorrhizae conferred a P nutritional advantage over the NM plant. (apsnet.org)
- Cytokinin levels in plants are regulated by biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. (biologists.org)
- The next two sessions embraced contributions on the experimental manipulation of development by genetic (notably by biochemical mutants), chemical (for example, with gibberellin/biosynthesis inhibitors), and environmental (including drought stress) means. (weltbild.de)
- Peptide signaling in plant development. (nih.gov)
- Belt K, Huang S, Thatcher LF, Casarotto H, Singh KB, Van Aken O, Millar AH (2017) Salicylic Acid-Dependent Plant Stress Signaling via Mitochondrial Succinate Dehydrogenase . (edu.au)
- However, only in plants and the protist Dictyostelium have cytokinins been definitively shown to act in cellular signaling. (biologists.org)
- Proteomics insights into plant signaling and development. (wur.nl)
- Plant development is orchestrated by inter- and intracellular signaling molecules, receptors and transcriptional regulators, which act in a temporal and spatially coordinated manner. (wur.nl)
- Here we review recent advances in proteomics applications used to understand complex cellular signaling processes in plants. (wur.nl)
- Subsequent genetic analysis confirmed that the A. thaliana Mediator complex is important for several plant signaling pathways, including flowering and stress pathways. (diva-portal.org)
- Many plants can establish symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, some of which lead to nodulation, including legumes. (mdpi.com)
- In this way, these plants can benefit from the reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia by the hosted bacteria, and in exchange the plant provides the rhizobia with a carbon source. (mdpi.com)
- Another stress, herbicides, is covered in this book to highlight how plants are impacted by abiotic stress originating from anthropogenic sources. (wiley.com)
- Development in plants is controlled by abiotic environmental cues such as day length, light quality, temperature, drought, and salinity. (diva-portal.org)
- The new interest in biopharming using tobacco plants lies in the great and increasing demand for biologic drugs. (news-medical.net)
- The production of biologic drugs from the tobacco plant takes about eight weeks. (news-medical.net)
- Vacuum infiltration consists of soaking tobacco plants, which have grown for five weeks, in a liquid containing the bacterium which carries the antigen of interest. (news-medical.net)
- In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants displayed resistance to a necrogenic virus. (pnas.org)
- We also show that discrete DNA fragmentation (laddering) occurred in susceptible tobacco during fungal infection, but does not occur in transgenic-resistant plants. (pnas.org)
- The Plant Stress and Germplasm Research Development unit is dedicated to research regarding thermal and water stress on plants and developing germplasm to reduce the impact of these on crop production. (usda.gov)
- The Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Research is located in Lubbock, TX and is part of the Plains Area . (usda.gov)
- My research aims to understand the role respiration plays in the primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism of plants and their response to oxidative stress, and the dynamics of the plant proteome under limiting conditions. (edu.au)
- The first day of the conference consisted of panel discussions on research and innovation, agronomic practices, environmental benefits, supply chain development and market potential in different segments of feed and food production. (europa.eu)
- Thus, the aim of this Research Topic is to extend our understanding of plant autophagy processes that degrade specific organelles during plant development. (frontiersin.org)
- Plant roots rely on local production of a key hormone that controls many aspects of development and response to environmental changes, according to new research from North Carolina State University. (eurekalert.org)
- The course connects research at Umeå Plant Science Centre. (umu.se)
- We're talking about iconic and threatened plants - cacti, especially, and Mojave yucca," said co-leading author Steve Grodsky, an assistant research ecologist at UC Davis. (ucdavis.edu)
- Non-native plant invasion into forests can lead to the demise of native plants in surprising ways, Mortensen pointed out, referring to a study his lab conducted at the Penn State Deer Research Center that was published in April 2016. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- That research demonstrated that white-tailed deer prefer native plants and seem to avoid eating invasives. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- The team also found watering the seeds less often reduced the effect, while watering them more often killed the plants. (redorbit.com)
- To avoid overseeding or underseeding, planting rates should be based on seeds per acre and not pounds per acre. (midwestlabs.com)
- Propagules are parts of a plant that can generate a new plant, such as seeds, spores and roots. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- Sosík P., Smolka V., Bradík J., Garzon M. (2019) Modeling Plant Development with M Systems. (springer.com)
- As per Kasetsart University economics lecturer Decharut Sukkumnoed's estimation, in 2019 the total electricity generation capacity in the South would be 3,832MW without a new power plant and usage would peak at 3,256MW. (nationmultimedia.com)
- The recruitment of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes by the nematode results in an expansion of the syncytium towards the vascular bundle via a so-called cortical bridge. (wur.nl)
- In plants, sucrose synthase (SUS) enzymes catalyze conversion of sucrose into fructose and UDP-glucose in the presence of UDP. (scirp.org)
- This session will showcase a variety of strategies for pilot plant design, operation, and even outsourcing that enhance pharmaceutical process development. (aiche.org)
- Case studies on implementation of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) in a pilot plant environment are also especially encouraged. (aiche.org)
- Successful pilot plant solutions have a significant positive impact on the commercial process and investment decisions that you make. (sgs.com)
- We have successfully shown our ability to run a productive pilot plant project with rigorous project management protocols, a skilled project manager and knowledgeable operators with extensive experience. (sgs.com)
- The objective of your oil sands pilot plant program should be to examine ways to improve recovery, process efficiency, process costs, product quality and product handling characteristics or to establish confidence for financers, shareholders, managers or other key stakeholders in the project. (sgs.com)
- SGS takes a team approach to pilot plant testing. (sgs.com)
- SGS creates a detailed flowsheet, material balance and a pilot plant support requirements plan. (sgs.com)
- The recording of pilot plant analytical data must be consistent and accurate throughout the life of your project. (sgs.com)
- At the completion of your pilot plant operation, we complete and report all relevant data quickly and accurately, allowing you to make informed operational decisions. (sgs.com)
- Coskata will begin providing GM with ethanol from its pilot plant by the fourth quarter of this year. (areadevelopment.com)
- Masoume Amirkhani, corresponding author of the study said, "This biostimulant is a natural plant material and could be adopted for organic crop production, and may also reduce the need for high levels of nitrogen fertilizer, as the biostimulant can enhance nitrogen uptake efficiency. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- FAIRFIELD, Ill., Dec. 19, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Ohio Valley Resources LLC (OVR) has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Tierra Del Fuego Power & Chemical Company Ltd (TEQSA) for the development of the proposed nitrogen fertilizer plant in Spencer County, Indiana , north of Rockport. (prnewswire.com)
- A vascular plant begins from a single celled zygote, formed by fertilisation of an egg cell by a sperm cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Controlled cell death, plant survival and development. (nih.gov)
- The selective permeability of a plant cell's plasma membrane controls the movement of solutes between the cell and the extracellular solution. (brainmass.com)
- Several studies indicate that cell death during hypersensitive response involves activation of a plant-encoded pathway for cell death. (pnas.org)
- Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Cell. (plantcell.org)
- Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web site. (plantcell.org)
- Plant Cell Physiol, 46(8), 1366-1376. (scirp.org)
- Plant Cell Physiol, 44(5), 500-509. (scirp.org)
- As the first high-density development in Taichung that also provides high amenity with its recreational facilities and ample integrated green spaces, Sky Green will be influential in defining the new benchmark of sustainability and skyrise greenery for the city's future developments. (inhabitat.com)
- For example, when crops are planted at high density, they compete for light, often growing taller at the expense of yield. (eurekalert.org)
- In plants, mitosis follows meiosis to produce the haploid phase of the plant life cycle, the male and female gametophytes. (plantcell.org)
- The lack of a firm determined state, clonally heritable through mitosis, indicates that the development in plants is unlikely to be specified by a rigid programme. (portlandpress.com)
- Hence, one could not discuss fruit development without understanding the mechanism controlling the gynoecium development. (frontiersin.org)
- The mechanism of imprinting in plants, as yet only partially understood, likely involves differences in DNA methylation and chromatin structure between differentially expressed maternal and paternal alleles. (plantcell.org)