Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Basic functional unit of plants.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
Diseases of plants.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The imide of phthalic acids.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Material prepared from plants.
The absence of light.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by y chromosome deletions. (1/1066)

Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome.  (+info)

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype. (2/1066)

White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for "male dimorphism" (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state.  (+info)

Male gametic cell-specific gene expression in flowering plants. (3/1066)

The role of the male gamete-the sperm cell-in the process of fertilization is to recognize, adhere to, and fuse with the female gamete. These highly specialized functions are expected to be controlled by activation of a unique set of genes. However, male gametic cells traditionally have been regarded as transcriptionally quiescent because of highly condensed chromatin and a very reduced amount of cytoplasm. Here, we provide evidence for male gamete-specific gene expression in flowering plants. We identified and characterized a gene, LGC1, which was shown to be expressed exclusively in the male gametic cells. The gene product of LGC1 was localized at the surface of male gametic cells, suggesting a possible role in sperm-egg interactions. These findings represent an important step toward defining the molecular mechanisms of male gamete development and the cellular processes involved in fertilization of flowering plants.  (+info)

The auxin-insensitive bodenlos mutation affects primary root formation and apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo. (4/1066)

In Arabidopsis embryogenesis, the primary root meristem originates from descendants of both the apical and the basal daughter cell of the zygote. We have isolated a mutant of a new gene named BODENLOS (BDL) in which the primary root meristem is not formed whereas post-embryonic roots develop and bdl seedlings give rise to fertile adult plants. Some bdl seedlings lacked not only the root but also the hypocotyl, thus resembling monopteros (mp) seedlings. In addition, bdl seedlings were insensitive to the auxin analogue 2,4-D, as determined by comparison with auxin resistant1 (axr1) seedlings. bdl embryos deviated from normal development as early as the two-cell stage at which the apical daughter cell of the zygote had divided horizontally instead of vertically. Subsequently, the uppermost derivative of the basal daughter cell, which is normally destined to become the hypophysis, divided abnormally and failed to generate the quiescent centre of the root meristem and the central root cap. We also analysed double mutants. bdl mp embryos closely resembled the two single mutants, bdl and mp, at early stages, while bdl mp seedlings essentially consisted of hypocotyl but did form primary leaves. bdl axr1 embryos approached the mp phenotype at later stages, and bdl axr1 seedlings resembled mp seedlings. Our results suggest that BDL is involved in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the Arabidopsis embryo.  (+info)

The maize rough sheath2 gene and leaf development programs in monocot and dicot plants. (5/1066)

Leaves of higher plants develop in a sequential manner from the shoot apical meristem. Previously it was determined that perturbed leaf development in maize rough sheath2 (rs2) mutant plants results from ectopic expression of knotted1-like (knox) homeobox genes. Here, the rs2 gene sequence was found to be similar to the Antirrhinum PHANTASTICA (PHAN) gene sequence, which encodes a Myb-like transcription factor. RS2 and PHAN are both required to prevent the accumulation of knox gene products in maize and Antirrhinum leaves, respectively. However, rs2 and phan mutant phenotypes differ, highlighting fundamental differences in monocot and dicot leaf development programs.  (+info)

Evidence suggesting protein tyrosine phosphorylation in plants depends on the developmental conditions. (6/1066)

Protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays a central role in a variety of signal transduction pathways regulating animal cell growth and differentiation, but its relevance and role in plants are controversial and still largely unknown. We report here that a large number of proteins from all plant subcellular fractions are recognized by recombinant, highly specific, anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation patterns vary among different adult plant tissues or somatic embryo stages and somatic embryogenesis is blocked in vivo by a cell-permeable tyrosyl-phosphorylation inhibitor, demonstrating the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in control of specific steps in plant development.  (+info)

RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1, a Menkes/Wilson disease-related copper transporter, is required for ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. (7/1066)

Ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth. We identified an Arabidopsis mutant, responsive-to-antagonist1 (ran1), that shows ethylene phenotypes in response to treatment with trans-cyclooctene, a potent receptor antagonist. Genetic epistasis studies revealed an early requirement for RAN1 in the ethylene pathway. RAN1 was cloned and found to encode a protein with similarity to copper-transporting P-type ATPases, including the human Menkes/Wilson proteins and yeast Ccc2p. Expression of RAN1 complemented the defects of a ccc2delta mutant, demonstrating its function as a copper transporter. Transgenic CaMV 35S::RAN1 plants showed constitutive expression of ethylene responses, due to cosuppression of RAN1. These results provide an in planta demonstration that ethylene signaling requires copper and reveal that RAN1 acts by delivering copper to create functional hormone receptors.  (+info)

Characterization of homeodomain-leucine zipper genes in the fern Ceratopteris richardii and the evolution of the homeodomain-leucine zipper gene family in vascular plants. (8/1066)

The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) genes encode transcription factors that are characterized by the presence of both a homeodomain and a leucine zipper motif. They belong to the homeobox gene superfamily and have been reported only from flowering plants. This article is the first report on the ferm HD-Zip genes (named Crhb1-Crhb11) isolated from the homosporous ferm Ceratopteris richardii. Phylogenetic analyses of the II Crhb genes with previously reported angiosperm HD-Zip genes show that the Crhb genes belong to three of the four different angiosperm HD-Zip subfamilies (HD-Zip I, II, and IV), indicating that these subfamilies of HD-Zip genes originated before the diversification of the ferm and seed plant lineages. The Crhb4-Crhb8 and Crhb11 genes belong to the HD-Zip I subfamily but differ from angiosperm HD-Zip I genes by the presence of a seven-amino-acid indel in the leucine zipper motif. By the northern analyses, Crhb1 and Crhb3 were expressed only in gametophyte tissue. Expression of Crhb2 and Crhb11 genes could not be detected in any tissue examined, while all other Crhb genes were expressed in most sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. Although the functions of the Crhb genes in Ceratopteris are unknown, their patterns of expression suggest that they regulate developmental or physiological processes common to both the gametophyte and the sporophyte generations of the fern. Differences in the expression of Crhb1 between male gametophytes and male-hermaphrodite mixed populations of gametophytes suggests that the Crhb1 gene is involved in gametophytic sex determination.  (+info)

1. Innate immunity: This is the body's first line of defense against infection, and it involves the recognition and elimination of pathogens by cells and proteins that are present from birth.
2. Acquired immunity: This type of immunity develops over time as a result of exposure to pathogens, and it involves the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and eliminate specific pathogens.
3. Cell-mediated immunity: This is a type of immunity that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T cells and macrophages, to fight off infection.
4. Genetic resistance: Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to disease resistance, which can be influenced by their ancestry or genetic makeup.
5. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as sunlight, clean water, and good nutrition, can also contribute to disease resistance.

Disease resistance is an important concept in the medical field, as it helps to protect against infectious diseases and can reduce the risk of illness and death. Understanding how disease resistance works can help healthcare professionals develop effective strategies for preventing and treating infections, and it can also inform public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing the burden of infectious diseases on individuals and communities.

The severity of plant poisoning depends on the type of plant consumed, the amount ingested, and individual sensitivity. Some common plants that are toxic to humans include:

1. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds contain ricin, a deadly toxin that can cause severe vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
2. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic, and ingestion can cause cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death.
3. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
4. Taxus (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew (Taxus baccata) and Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.
5. Aconitum (Aconitum spp.): Also known as monkshood or wolf's bane, all parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
6. Belladonna (Atropa belladonna): The leaves, stems, and roots contain atropine, which can cause dilated pupils, flushed skin, and difficulty urinating.
7. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Hemlock (Conium maculatum): The leaves and seeds contain coniine and gamma-coniceine, which can cause muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.
9. Lantana (Lantana camara): The berries are toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
10. Oleander (Nerium oleander): All parts of the plant are toxic and can cause nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
11. Castor bean (Ricinus communis): The seeds are particularly toxic and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
12. Rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.): The leaves, stems, and flowers contain grayanotoxins, which can cause nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing.
13. Yew (Taxus spp.): The leaves, seeds, and stems of yew contain a toxin called taxine, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac problems.

It is important to note that while these plants are toxic, they can also be safely used in herbal remedies when prepared and administered properly under the guidance of a qualified practitioner. It is always best to consult with a medical professional before using any herbal remedy, especially if you have a medical condition or are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Plant growth and development are mediated by specific plant hormones and plant growth regulators (PGRs) (Ross et al. 1983). ... Important structures in plant development are buds, shoots, roots, leaves, and flowers; plants produce these tissues and ... There are three physiological developments that must occur in order for this to take place: firstly, the plant must pass from ... In seed plants, the embryo will develop one or more "seed leaves" (cotyledons). By the end of embryogenesis, the young plant ...
... , also plant embryogenesis is a process that occurs after the fertilization of an ovule to produce a ... Unlike the embryonic development in animals, and specifically in humans, plant embryonic development results in an immature ... Somatic embryos are formed from plant cells that are not normally involved in the development of embryos, i.e. ordinary plant ... Meristematic tissues in plant growth and development. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. Singh, Gurcharan. 2004. Plant ...
Long day plants flower with a short night, while short day plants require uninterrupted darkness. Some plants are restricted to ... 2014). Flowering is a pivotal step in plant development. Numerous epigenetic factors contribute to the regulation of flowering ... These components are crucial to general plant growth and are the harbingers of development. Meristematic tissue apparently ... Histone deacetylase genes in Arabidopsis development. Integr Plant Biol. 2008;50:875-85. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00704.x ...
Staveley BE (10 December 2008). "Plant Development". Department of Biology. Memorial University of Newfoundland. Archived from ... Plant stem cells are innately undifferentiated cells located in the meristems of plants. Plant stem cells serve as the origin ... strong vitality and structural characteristics of plant stem cell overcome previous drawbacks to plant cell culture. Thus plant ... While plant stem cell exists in the meristematic tissues of plant, callus is obtained as a temporary response to cure wounds in ...
The structure and development of the rest of the embryo varies by group of plants. Since all land plants create embryos, they ... distinguishes land plants from other types of plants, such as algae, which do not produce embryos. Embryos from numerous plant ... Plant Development". Retrieved 2019-11-09. Hove, Colette A. ten; Lu, Kuan-Ju; Weijers, Dolf (2015-02-01). " ... "Plant development - Nutritional dependence of the embryo". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-11-14. Clark, Mary Ann (5 ...
Yadegaria, Ramin; Gary N. Drewsb (2004-04-09). "Female Gametophyte Development". The Plant Cell. 16 (Suppl): S133-S141, ... Heterosporous plants include seed plants (gymnosperms and flowering plants), water ferns (Salviniales), spikemosses ( ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Plant development, Fertility, Reproduction, ... Megaspores, also called macrospores, are a type of spore that is present in heterosporous plants. These plants have two spore ...
She collected citizens science data, about plant flowering. Schwartz, M.D. (2013). "Plant Development Models". Phenology: An ...
"Physiology of Development". Plant physiology. Berlin: Springer. pp. 288-291. ISBN 978-3-540-58016-4. Unless otherwise indicated ... In other plants, such as hazel, some flowers have only stamens, others only carpels, but the same plant (i.e. sporophyte) has ... Evolutionary history of plants#life cycles - Origin and diversification of plants through geologic time: Evolutionary origin of ... It is dioicous: male plants produce only antheridia in terminal rosettes, female plants produce only archegonia in the form of ...
Yadegari R, Drews GN (2004-06-01). "Female gametophyte development". The Plant Cell. 16 Suppl (suppl 1): S133-41. doi:10.1105/ ... In eudicot plants, the entire process happens inside the ovule of a plant. The details of the process vary by species, but the ... Plants exhibit three main types of megagametogenesis. The number of haploid nuclei in the functional megaspore that is involved ... "Plant Physiology, Sixth Edition". Retrieved 2019-03-28. Willemse MT, van Went JL (1984). "The Female ...
Yadegari, Yadegari; Drews, Gary (2004). "Female Gametophyte Development". The Plant Cell. 16: 133-141. doi:10.1105/tpc.018192. ... Sphaerocarpos is an example of such a plant. In seed plants, the microgametophyte is called pollen. Seed plant ... The seed plant gametophyte life cycle is even more reduced than in basal taxa (ferns and lycophytes). Seed plant gametophytes ... Stomata: the holey grail of plant evolution - NCBI Organs and tissues of Rhynie chert plants - Journals Budke, J.M.; Goffinet, ...
Journal of Plant Development. 16. "History of Roses: Bourbon Roses" (PDF). American Rose Society. Archived (PDF) from the ... The Sainte-Rose plant (22 MW) and the Takamaka plant (17.5 MW) are the two largest. In total, the island's six hydroelectric ... in particular a strong presence of epiphytic plants (growing on other plants), such as orchids, bromeliads[citation needed] and ... Despite the development policy of the local authorities and the recourse to compromise, the economic crisis became evident from ...
Journal of Plant Development. 17: 63-8. ISSN 2065-3158. Pegler DN, Spooner BM, Lewis Smith RI (1980). "Higher fungi of ... "Macromycetes identified on the construction wood of historical monuments from Moldavia and causes of their development" (PDF). ...
Taiz L, Zeiger E, Moller IM, Murphy A (2015). Plant Physiology and Development. Sunderland MA: Sinauer Associates. pp. 35-39. ... Plant cells do not have centrosomes and the chromosomes can nucleate microtubule assembly into the mitotic apparatus. In plant ... The most notable difference between prophase in plant cells and animal cells occurs because plant cells lack centrioles. The ... but utilizing the technology on plant cells was originally difficult due to the high degree of chromosome compaction in plant ...
Meicherczyk, R. (1989). "Forest and timber industry of Paraguay and international co-operation". Plant Research and Development ... Many rattans also have spines which act as hooks to aid climbing over other plants, and to deter herbivores. The spines also ... The skin of the plant or wood is primarily used for weaving.[citation needed] Rattan cane is also used traditionally to make ... The impact of harvesting is much greater in solitary species, since the whole plant dies when harvested. An example of a ...
Physiology and development" (PDF). Plant Physiology. 121 (2): 317-323. doi:10.1104/pp.121.2.317. PMC 1539228. PMID 10517822. ... As a result, plants with proteoid roots can grow in soil that is very low in nutrients, such as the phosphorus-deficient native ... Many plants with proteoid roots have economic value. Cultivated crops with proteoid roots include Lupinus and Macadamia. ... They were first described by Adolf Engler in 1894, after he discovered them on plants of the family Proteaceae growing in ...
Plant Physiology and Development. Sinauer Associates, 2015. ISBN 978-1-60535-255-8. pp. 151. Kent, Michael. Advanced Biology. ... Assmann, Sarah (2015). "Solute Transport". In Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Edward (eds.). Plant Physiology and Development. Sinauer. ...
Taiz, Lincoln; Murphy, Angus (2015). Plant Physiology and Development. Sunderland, Massachusetts (USA): Sinauer Associates. p. ... Gassner was the first to systematically differentiate the specific requirements of winter plants from those of summer plants, ... The term is sometimes used to refer to the need of herbal (non-woody) plants for a period of cold dormancy in order to produce ... After vernalization, plants have acquired the ability to flower, but they may require additional seasonal cues or weeks of ...
"Soil Genesis and Development". Plant & Soil Sciences. Retrieved 20 October 2014. Tim, Kettler. "Soil Genesis and Development, ... at times in which conditions are suitable for plant growth. A suborder of Mollisol, the ustic moisture regime is wetter than ... limiting the period during which grain can be harvested and re-planted. Consequently, these regions require rapid sowing, ... Lesson 6 - Global Soil Resources and Distribution". Plant & Soil Sciences eLibrary. National Science Publisher. Retrieved 17 ...
Srivastava, Lalit M. (2002). Plant growth and development. Hormones and environment. Amsterdam: Academic Press. p. 476. ISBN 0- ... Plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous; they lose old foliage as new growth begins. Other plants are semi- ... The cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin that is produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. When auxin ... Plants with deciduous foliage have advantages and disadvantages compared to plants with evergreen foliage. Since deciduous ...
"Plant Physiology and Development" textbook published by Oxford University Press, which is a widely used upper-division plant ... Plant Physiology and Development Taiz, L.; Zeiger, E.; Møller, I; Murphy, A. (2014) Oxford University Press. 6th edition. " ... "Plant Physiology and Development; Angus Murphy - Oxford University Press". Retrieved 16 July 2017. "Eduardo ... 100 scientific papers on the subjects of photothynsesis and the sensory transduction of internal and external signals in plant ...
ISBN 978-0-534-38061-8. Taiz and Zeiger (2015). Plant Physiology and Development. Sunderland, Massachusetts U.S.A: Sinauer ... The Plant Cell 14:47-56 Gifford, Ernest M. & Foster, Adriance S. (1988). Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants, (3rd ed ... This allows the plant to control to some degree the movement of water and to selectively uptake or prevent the passage of ions ... In most seed plants, especially woody types, an endodermis is absent from the stems but is present in roots. The endodermis ...
Plant Physiology and Development. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 66. ISBN 978-1605353531. Pockman, W.T., Sperry, J ... In general, bulk flow in plant biology typically refers to the movement of water from the soil up through the plant to the leaf ... sound can be used to measure the rate of cavitation within the plant . Plants[which?] do, however, have physiological ... Examples of mass flow include blood circulation and transport of water in vascular plant tissues. Mass flow is not to be ...
Australia, Urban Development Institute of; Plant, Tanya (2007). An Industry Report Into Affordable Home Ownership in Australia ... The Urban Development Institute of Australia (UDIA) is an education and non-profit organisation with offices in Queensland, New ... Urban Development Institute of Australia. Staff, National Health Service Estates; Estates, N. H. S. (1996). Accommodation for ... Its mission is to promote affordability, sustainability and certainty in the urban development and construction industry. ...
The Búðarháls power station is very important to the development of Iceland´s hydropower plants, since it connects all power ... "Budarhals Hydroelectric Plant Design & Development , Projects". "The Búðarháls Power Station - Landsvirkjun Annual Report 2013 ... This power plant is the newest of six hydroelectric plants (the others being Búrfell, Sultartangi, Hrauneyjafoss, Vatnsfell and ... Together the installed generating capacity measures 95 MW and the plant is able to produce 585 GWh p.a. with a flow rate of 280 ...
Molecular Genetics of Plant Development. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-0-521-58784-6. See e ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants. Originally it included plant ... Plant morphology Plant physiology Anatomy Raven, P. H.; Evert, R. F. and Eichhorn, S. E. (2005) Biology of Plants (7th edition ... Enquiry into Plants (Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία), and On the Causes of Plants (Περὶ φυτῶν αἰτιῶν). He developed concepts of plant ...
Burgess, Jeremy (1985-05-16). Introduction to Plant Cell Development. CUP Archive. ISBN 9780521316118. Kuya, Noriyuki; Sato, ... The root cap is absent in some parasitic plants: 138 and some aquatic plants, in which a sac-like structure called the root ... The root cap is a type of tissue at the tip of a plant root. It is also called calyptra. Root caps contain statocytes which are ... The root cap protects the growing tip in plants. It secretes mucilage to ease the movement of the root through soil, and may ...
"Green Water Treatment Plant Redevelopment , Economic Development , - The Official Website of the City of Austin ... The Northshore is part of the redevelopment of the former Green Water Treatment Plant site in downtown Austin. The tower was ...
Friedman, William E.; Moore, Richard C.; Purugganan, Michael D. (2004). "The evolution of plant development". American Journal ... The plant, which grows wild in southern Japan, was once much cultivated in Japanese gardens as an ornamental plant. Slightly ... Plants described in 1753, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus, Garden plants, Epiphytes). ... Psilotum nudum, the whisk fern, is a fernlike plant. Like the other species in the order Psilotales, it lacks roots. Its name, ...
Insights from the development of non-seed plants Hornwort Stomata: Architecture and Fate Shared with 400-Million-Year-Old ... Most plants are monoecious, with both sex organs on the same plant, but some plants (even within the same species) are ... Among land plants, hornworts are one of the earliest-diverging lineages of the early land plant ancestors; cladistic analysis ... 2019). "One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants". Nature. 574 (7780): 679-685. doi:10.1038/ ...
... by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several ears per plant ... When maize is planted in rows, it also allows for planting of other crops between these rows to make more efficient use of land ... As a plant that uses C4 carbon fixation, maize is a considerably more water-efficient crop than plants that use C3 carbon ... "Did man follow plants or did plants follow man? Tracks of prehistoric man and ways of contact in the Americas according to ...
The plant replaced the old 22 MW power station at the original Melones Dam; on average it generates about four times as much ... Development-related interests such as PG&E, the California Chamber of Commerce and the contractors working on the dam spent ... The dam's hydroelectric power plant is located at its base on the north side of the river, and has a rated hydraulic head of ... The modern development of the Stanislaus River began with the Oakdale and South San Joaquin Irrigation Districts, which were ...
The largest generation plant is located at Point Lisas. The generation plants individual capacities are: Point Lisas : 838 Mega ... which is a small private independent power an infrastructure company with expertise in the development, acquisition and long ... The 720-megawatt (MW) TGU facility is the largest combined-cycle power generation plant in the Caribbean and currently supplies ... Trinidad Generation Unlimited Home Page Power Engineering: 2 May 2006: GE Energy signs O&M agreement for Trinidad power plant ...
Despite the development of the team and the car, Reynolds mostly ran around the middle to the back of the field for the ... In his characteristic irreverent style, he threw pot plants off the podium to his team, and as the podium presentation was ...
Though he planted trees and flowers, kept dogs and tame cranes, and received guests such as Leo Tolstoy and Maxim Gorky, ... Mikhail Chekhov considered Ivanov a key moment in his brother's intellectual development and literary career. From this period ... and planted many trees, which, according to Mikhail, he "looked after ... as though they were his children. Like Colonel ...
The art historian Antonio Romera highlights the four most prominent and important painters in the development of Chilean art in ... to scientific and bibliographic representation of plants, animals and cities by Claudio Gay, Charles Thorold Wood and the ...
"Humanity Is Breaking All Boundaries - This New Netflix Film Will Shock You". Plant Based News. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 27 June ... and implemented a long-term development plan for the company. In 13 years under Zeitz, Puma's share price increased around 4000 ... then a Director of Kering and Chairman of the Board's sustainable development committee.[citation needed] In 2011, Zeitz formed ...
A drop similar to that in the rear follows the natural slope of the terrain at the east (front), heavily worked and planted ... Its completion in 1934 opened up the neighborhood around it, an area known as Uniontown, to subdivision and development. ... To the south, facing High Street, more thick planting and mature trees further shelter the house and buffer it from its ... The surrounding neighborhood is exclusively residential, with some minimal commercial development a block to the north at the ...
Church planting and evangelism, raising of lay and pastoral leadership and discipleship remain the core of his ministry. He ... worked with communities and leaders of Gombe state to establish peaceful coexistence and community development. In order to ...
Alkaloids found in plants, Benzodioxoles, Carboxamides, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoid reuptake ... Potential Leads for Drug Discovery and Development". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015: 238482. doi: ...
... the SAARC Development Fund, transport, information and communications technology development, science and technology, tourism, ... The SAARC nations also pledged to plant 10 million trees over the next 5 years. India proposed setting up of climate innovation ... from bridging the gaps created by uneven economic development and income distribution, the gaps in recognizing and respecting ... on high-carbon technologies for economic growth and hoped promotion of climate resilience will promote both development and ...
"Children Plant a Thousand Farms; Go to Nature's School in Thomas Jefferson Park All Decked Out in Gay Colors" (PDF). The New ... The development of the park was intended to help Italian Harlem, which the Brooklyn Daily Eagle described as "for many years ... "Get Back to the Soil: One Thousand Children Plant Vegetables in Park". New-York Tribune. May 21, 1911. p. 6. Archived from the ...
San Miguel Brewery and Magnolia also have a plant in the city. Santa Rosa is also home to the largest plant of The Coca-Cola ... Its water supply is provided by the Laguna Water Inc., except for Vista Land Developments (including Sta. Elena City), which is ... Santa Rosa was initially known for the Coca-Cola and Toyota manufacturing plants in its industrial estates. Recently, it has ... In addition, due to continuous development of the city, English is used in education, business and information technology. Most ...
... a control programme has actively removed these pest plants and supplementary plantings have encouraged native flora development ... He modeled his development of his estate on that of Trentham in England, where he had been a supervisor of the estate. This ... There is also a broad range of native undercanopy trees and other undergrowth plants. While it has been subject to some human ... Based on the remaining stumps, over 100 tōtara had been felled, while the bush was also infested with the exotic pest plants ...
After negotiations, the plant was repaired by CMEC and brought back online. A day later it failed once more and was shut down ... Hydropower generation facilities has been constantly under development since the introduction of the national grid, but is ... The power plant was officially commenced on 16 September 2014. CEB lunch Sri Lanka largest wind farm Thambapavani added to ... The CEB also reported that the outage caused Lakvijaya Coal Power Plant to fail, resulting in a loss of 900 Mega Watts to the ...
A 1500 MW natural gas power plant is also in construction in the area. A 20 MGD water treatment plant has also been set up in ... "Delhi State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation LTD. (DSIIDC)". Archived from the original on 14 January 2009 ... development , India, South Asia". India Environment Portal. 29 September 2002. Retrieved 1 December 2016. "Welcome to IMD". ...
Under company president Jiro Shirasu, dedicates himself to the development of electric power plants in the Tohoku district, ... The Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant (Miyagi Prefecture), designed and built under his watch, was the sole plant in the region that ... The site of the plant even ended up providing a refuge for three months to more than 300 neighboring people who had lost their ... "Tsutomu Ogata (尾形努), "Onagawa-genpatsu wo sukutta kigyō bunka" (Corporate culture that saved the Onagawa nuclear power plant,「女 ...
The mission's primary payload was Spacelab-J - a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan ... Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi ... plant seeds, frogs and frog eggs, and oriental hornets. On the middeck, a variety of experiments were conducted, including the ... a collaborative laboratory inside the shuttle's payload bay sponsored by NASA and the National Space Development Agency of ...
A medical center, aircraft rescue and firefighting stations, hotels, convention centers, power plants, and wastewater treatment ... Below is the passenger data and development for Istanbul Airport for the years 2018-2021: ^1 : 2018 statistics correspond to ...
The development of equating Ashur with Enlil, or at least transferring Enlil's role to Ashur, was paralleled in Babylon, where ... Motifs included plant-based patterns (rosettes and palmettes), trees and bird-headed genies. The colors used to paint the walls ... This development might have originated with the kings no longer viewing the divination performed by their diviners as enough ... This development peaked under Tukulti-Ninurta I, who assumed, among other titles, the styles "king of Assyria and Karduniash ...
Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant development. (PhD thesis). ... From 1990 to 1993 he was a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Oxford. He was ... This has led to new understanding of how genome rearrangement has shaped the evolution of plant metabolism. The discovery of a ... During 1994, he was a SERC/NATO funded research scientist in Department of Plant Biology at Stanford University. He has been ...
One notable project was his study of the Mendocino pygmy forest, a remarkable community of ericaceous and coniferous plant ... Parent material and relief define the initial state for soil development, regional climate, and potential biota determine the ...
The high-performance research and development within the group provides a basis for the development of customer-oriented and ... feed and food analyses as well as plant protection. In the 2017 financial year, it generated sales revenues of over 325 million ... Research and development have been part of Biomin's key cornerstones ever since. The next step on his path to success took ... Erber took additional steps to ensure the group's development by opening the first Biomin Center of Applied Animal Nutrition. ...
Origins and development of the English language. 4th edition. (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich). Barber, Charles, Joan C ... such as the Durham Plant-Name Glossary and the Laud Herbal Glossary. Old English lexicography was revived in the early modern ... In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but Alfred chiefly inspired the growth of ... Ringe, Donald R and Taylor, Ann (2014). The Development of Old English: A Linguistic History of English, vol. II, ISBN 978- ...
Recent developments are related to scattering by ellipsoid. The contemporary studies go to well known research of Rayleigh. ... "Biological Kerker Effect Boosts Light Collection Efficiency in Plants". Nano Letters 19, no. 10 (9 October 2019): 7062-71. ... and also found in plants. There is also a short Video on YouTube with an explanation of the effect. Green's function is a ...
500M in the two years after its takeover of the Crewe plant. It also revived development on the Rolls-Royce V8 which it owned ... In 2000, BMW's new Rolls-Royce Motor Cars division announced that they would build a manufacturing plant on the historic ... Motor vehicle assembly plants in the United Kingdom, Buildings and structures in Crewe, British shadow factories, Volkswagen ... Group factories, Manufacturing plants in England, Pages using the Kartographer extension). ...
Meanwhile, Abby determines that the hat was planted at the scene recently. With Gibbs busy on the Bin Atwa case, DiNozzo and ... it was announced that a JAG spin-off centering on the Naval Criminal Investigative Service was in development. It was also ...
"New power plant in South Derbyshire given the green light". Derby Telegraph. 10 July 2019. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 5 January ... The hall was demolished in 1934 and its site then earmarked for development in the early 1940s. The remains of the Elizabethan ... They had planned for construction to begin in 2008, with the goal of having the plant operational by early 2011. Work on these ... The sale of the land was agreed for a three stage development of electricity generation on the site. Planning permission for ...
The storm flooded a power plant in Pointe-à-Pitre and downed many power lines, causing power outages. The Associated Press ... The United States Agency for International Development flew 20,000 pounds of blankets and clothing to the island. Due to the ... Lewis J. Allison (May 1972). The Development of Hurricane Inez, 1966, as Shown by Satellite Nighttime Radiometric and Daytime ...
"1760-1840 Planting the Imperial Postal System in British North America", A Chronology of Canadian Postal History, National ... Franklin donated £200 towards the development of Franklin College (now called Franklin & Marshall College). As the only person ... he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive ...
The plant was officially closed in July 1986, due to a poor economic climate and the decline of American steel in the 1980s. ... "Economic Development". Cushman & Wakefield. Retrieved September 4, 2015. "U.S. Refineries* Operable Capacity". Department of ... Exxon-Mobil is still one of the major employers in the city and now runs over 10 plants in the area including a newly announced ... The Cedar Bayou plant, in operation since 1963, is Chevron Phillips Chemical's largest manufacturing site in the United States ...
Public Comments on Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant Documents. How to Submit Comments. Comments on Westinghouse ... All Atomic Weapons Employer (AWE) employees who worked at Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant in East Pittsburgh, ... Federal Register Notice Announcing that a Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant SEC Petition has met the Minimum ... To date, there are no open/active SEC petitions from Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant. ...
Plants that have a single apical cell in the shoot also have a single apical cell in the root. The cell is again tetrahedral, ... plant development The root system and its derivatives. The root tip. Plants that have a single apical cell in the shoot also ... All this development occurs before the tip of the new root emerges from the tissues of the parent root. The growth of the new ... In many other plants, including gymnosperms and angiosperms, the lateral roots develop from the pericycle. Cells in this layer ...
... today announced plans for a new assembly plant in Rogers, Minnesota. The project is expected to create 100 jobs in the ... Huber Engineered Woods Plans Shuqualak, Mississippi, Manufacturing Plant 06/09/2023 Gaffney Bakery Plans Gaffney, South ... Devele Establishes Butte, Montana, Manufacturing Plant 06/09/2023 Manner Polymers Plans Mount Vernon, Illinois, Manufacturing ... Bobcat Company, a global leader in the compact equipment industry, today announced plans for a new assembly plant in Rogers, ...
... a microalgae-based protein company and a vegan foods manufacturer are collaborating to develop protein-enriched plant-based ... Plant-based cheese made with microalgae protein in development for global market. By Flora Southey 26-Oct-2022. - Last updated ... Together, Brevel and Vgarden will tackle one of the biggest challenges of the plant-based cheese market: plant-based ... Together, Brevel and Vgarden will tackle one of the biggest challenges of the plant-based cheese market: plant-based ...
As plant scientists we want to understand the developmental processes responsible for the varied shapes of plant cells, tissues ... The software has facilitated the development of new theories in plant development for example to explain why epidermal cells ... As plant scientists we want to understand the developmental processes responsible for the varied shapes of plant cells, tissues ... We want to understand why plants take on the variety of shapes that they do. To do this requires a complete understanding of ...
Using 3D simulation to accelerate Kusile power plant development. To help address South Africas severe power shortages, state ... Although the plant construction has already started, portions of the plant are still in detail design phase, with the result ... Being able to walk the plant like you would do in real-life has increased our ability to look at plant design from an ... In order to fast-track the $14bn plant, Eskom used 3D plant simulator technology developed by US-based Bentley. Prototype 3D ...
Plant Growth and Development ,XI/XII Medical / Non-medical ...
E.ON will develop a 20 MW project in Kern Country, California, after having completed a 2.1 MW plant near Neubrandenburg, in ... E.ON grows PV power plant development business. Germany s E.ON has announced that it is continuing to expand its U.S. and ... The PV power plant will have a capacity of 20 MW and employ 89,0000 modules. It is scheduled to be completed before the end of ... The Alamo power plant was sold to U.S. utility Dominion.. In Germany, where E.ON has its headquarters, the company completed a ...
Joseph, Missouri, for technology, equipment and curriculum development for the emPower Plant program $400,000 ... Joseph, Missouri, for technology, equipment and curriculum development for the emPower Plant program ... Joseph, Missouri, for technology, equipment and curriculum development for the emPower Plant program ... Acting Assistant Secretary for Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development. Contact Information:. http://WWW.ED.GOV 202-401- ...
... ... Current: SCI Young Researchers in AgriFood 2017 Improving Nutrition by Design new developments from plants t ... This meeting will also focus on career development with 1) a keynote presentation from guest speaker Caroline Withers of ... Identifying the potential impact of recent developments in personalised nutrition. Developing molecular biology techniques to ...
A plants impact on air quality is not its only ecological impact. A new plant may:. * Destroy local habitats, as a result of ... Securing water rights from a lake or reservoir is a critical step in the timing of power plant development because it may take ... Securing water rights from a lake or reservoir is a critical step in the timing of power plant development because it may take ... Typically, plants in the Midwest use water from lakes or rivers. Coastal plants can use untreated seawater for cooling by ...
Copyright © Malaysian Investment Development Authority (MIDA) 2021. This site is best viewed using Google Chrome at screen ... Founder and executive chairman Datuk Seri Stanley Thai said the manufacturing plant would be equipped with world-class ... Supermax to invest US$350m in phase 1 of US manufacturing plant. ... Supermax to invest US$350m in phase 1 of US manufacturing plant ... Supermax to invest US$350m in phase 1 of US manufacturing plant ... a research and development centre, trading centre and a full- ...
PreviousPrevious post:Refugee School Gives Hope, Free Education in West UgandaNextNext post:Planting for food and jobs policy ... It has also been agreed for the Metropolitan Chief Executive and his technical team to visit a waste-to-energy plant in ... Jose Poch Riba for the construction of a plant for waste-to-energy in the Ashanti Region capital, Kumasi. ...
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... Im April 2010 hat Stephan Rinke edumorph gestartet,. um die Verbreitung kooperativer ... and as topics for system community developments. We not do the DOWNLOAD DAWN OF THE ELECTRONIC AGE. ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN ... helping female complimentary segmentation products of an genetic familial science publication at Santiaguito development. In ...
Posts about Development written by Femke de Jong ... The science of plants and more Category Archives: Development. ... Posted inDevelopment, Paper highlight, Science. Tags:Engels, Flowers, Paper review, Plant biology, Pollen. Leave a comment on ... Posted inDevelopment, Paper highlight, Science. Tags:auxin, Engels, Nematodes, Paper review, Plant biology, Roots. Leave a ... Posted inDevelopment, Paper highlight, Science. Tags:Engels, Flowers, gene regulation, Paper review, Plant biology. Leave a ...
Subscribe to Talking Plant Protein to receive weekly news or create an account to curate your content. ... Roquette Partnerships Going Strong After Four Decades Due to Collaborative Product Development. *Application Scientist ...
... This position has been filled. You can browse other jobs by ... Were looking for someone with a minimum of 3 years experience in the savoury development arena, with an expert knowledge in ...
... the plant-based pioneers, invite you to try the digital product developer. Find out how you can simplify innovation, save time ... The Plantbaser: A new era in product development "Plant-based was clearly the dominant topic at this years IFFA. About 80 ... "Plant-based food has become one of the most important food trends of our time. In addition to existing plant-based products, ... lively interest in this uncomplicated approach to the development of new plant-based products. "Customers were very excited, ...
... CAPTURE OF CO2 FROM FLUE GASES USING MICROALGAE - CO2ALGAEFIX PROJECT M. Segura1, ... Methods The pre-industrial plant covers an area of 10,000 m2 and is being built in Arcos de la Frontera (south of Spain), due ... is intended to build and operate a preindustrial Plant, biofixing flue gases (CO2) directly emitted by a Combined Cycle Power ... Plant (Iberdrola), by using microalgae cultures, transforming this harmful gas into products of commercial interest. ...
Louis Economic Development Partnership, including articles, blog posts, projects, events, video and more. *39 North ... We are the economic development team which serves St. Louis City and County. *Our Teams *39 North ... Vice President & General Manager Christopher Plant talks about all of the amenities at River … ...
ARS Home » Plains Area » Lubbock, Texas » Cropping Systems Research Laboratory » Plant Stress and Germplasm Development ... Submitted to: Plant Physiology Plant Gene Register Electronic Submission Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Publication ... This particular clone has important possible utility in the study of plant stress responses since the gene for which the cDNA ... The clone, for CDPK, has motifs and structure similar to higher plant homologs. This demonstrates the usefulness of using ...
Plant Health Care and Wilbur-Ellis Agribusiness Enter Development Agreement. November 2020 ...
East Bridge Plant Equipment-Fujian Huixing Coating Technology Development Co., Ltd. ...
Funds provide assistance for established congregations and newer church plants; for leadership development through conferences ... the opportunities for new church development have never been greater. The Church of God in Egypt have a vision to make a ... "Egypt Church Planting - 42.30170" in the memo line.. For more information, contact Global Strategy Projects at 800.848.2464 or ...
We currently run R&D activities to improve products, processes & plants. ... Gibob is a company specializing in biotech engineering and formulation development. ... Laboratories and Pilot Plants: Insubrias Biopark - Via Lepetit 34 - 21040 - Gerenzano (VA) - Italy. Registered office: Gibob ... Gibob is a company specializing in Engineering, Plants and Biotechnology products for agriculture, food, beverages and feeds. ...
These methods differ in their degree of DNA invasiveness: the extent to which CRISPR genes are introduced into the plants ... are assembled outside the plant cell and then introduced into plant cells. This way there is no CRISPR DNA entering the plant ... Development of four conceptually different New Plant Breeding Techniques (NPBTs). The objective of CHICs in this area is to ... Researchers make chicory plants without bitter compounds using CRISPR/Cas method. Researchers make chicory plants without ...
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... news on patents of plant varieties obtained through essentially biological processes. Protection of plants and breeders ... Recent developments on the patentability of plant and animal varieties through essentially biological processes. ... Recent developments on the patentability of plant and animal varieties through essentially biological processes. ... The notice stated, among others, that products (plants/animals and plant/animal parts) created through essential biological ...
  • The youth will learn about local environmental issues and how tree planting help to mitigate issues, such as climate change and insecurity across our border areas. (
  • From an environmental standpoint, the odds are now better than even that national legislation will be enacted to require future power plants to reduce or mitigate their emissions of CO 2 , most likely by using carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) techniques (see sidebar, end of story). (
  • It has also been agreed for the Metropolitan Chief Executive and his technical team to visit a waste-to-energy plant in Barcelona, Spain in May 2018 following which a detail work programme will be jointly adopted by KMA and the company. (
  • The Committee supported the development of tools and guidelines on priority interventions of the Regional Strategy. (
  • The National Academies Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop series in June 2022 exploring the role of plant agricultural practices in AMR development and implications for human health, with a focus on plant crop production. (
  • About 35% of the global food supply comes from plants that require animal pollinators. (
  • Pollen discrimination When visiting flowers pollinators bring a wide variety of pollen, coming from a range of plants. (
  • Volunteers explained the various components of a bean seed-its protective coat, two cotyledons which store energy for the growing plant, and a small embryo with two visible embryonic leaves ( epicotyls ). (
  • C. elegans is an excellent model organism in which to study embryonic development due to its well-defined stereotypic cell lineage and powerful genetic tools. (
  • This meeting will also focus on career development with 1) a keynote presentation from guest speaker Caroline Withers of research agency MMR Research Worldwide will talk about the influence of the marketplace on innovation in industry - "The challenges of meeting customer demands" - and 2) a workshop on communication - "Social Media for the Food Industry" - run by Rhiannon Garth-Jones the Content & Communications Officer at the SCI. (
  • For PC and CFB plants, a coal's heating value and moisture and sulfur content will be needed to determine the size of the boiler, pollution control equipment, and the plant's coal pile. (
  • Subscribe to Talking Plant Protein to receive weekly news or create an account to curate your content . (
  • We have successfully closed the gap between the sensory experience of plant-based protein foods and traditional animal proteins, as demonstrated by a food. (
  • Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) in root cortical cells are important for plants to take up water and are believed to be directly involved in cell growth . (
  • During his Ph.D., he studied the impact of one of these YTH-protein in plant development and in response to stress, initiating pioneer works in the role of m6A-binding proteins in the plant kingdom. (
  • As plant scientists we want to understand the developmental processes responsible for the varied shapes of plant cells, tissues and organs that we see in the natural world. (
  • Identification of development of chemical analysis methods for plants and animal tissues. (
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in most physiological processes in animals and plants, including development, differentiation and behavior. (
  • Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another. (
  • In the roots of gymnosperms, angiosperms, and some lower plants, there is no single apical cell. (
  • The quiescent centre probably plays a role comparable with that of the apical cell in some lower plant roots, maintaining the geometry of the system. (
  • These parasites infect the plants through their roots. (
  • Plants are growing more roots around the infection site, as a way of compensating. (
  • In Israel, a microalgae-based protein company and a vegan foods manufacturer are collaborating to develop protein-enriched plant-based cheese. (
  • The company believes microalgae is poised to become 'ubiquitous throughout the whole food system', and today (26 October) is announcing a new collaboration within the plant-based cheese category to bring its microalgae protein to the masses. (
  • According to the collaboration, Brevel will supply its microalgae-based protein to vegan food manufacturer Vgarden, who in turn will develop plant-based cheese incorporating the protein. (
  • ABSTRACT Introduction CO2ALGAEFIX Project (LIFE10 ENV/ES/000496), which is co-financed by the European Commission (LIFE+ Programme), is intended to build and operate a preindustrial Plant, biofixing flue gases (CO2) directly emitted by a Combined Cycle Power Plant (Iberdrola), by using microalgae cultures, transforming this harmful gas into products of commercial interest. (
  • We're looking for someone with a minimum of 3 years experience in the savoury development arena, with an expert knowledge in meat alternatives. (
  • This year's IFFA likewise showed that plant-based alternatives, as well as hybrid products, are increasingly a matter of course for the meat products industry. (
  • About 80 percent of our conversations with visitors were about plant-based alternatives. (
  • Whether cheese and yogurt alternatives, burger patties, cold cuts, or plant-based mayonnaise, within 15 to 20 minutes users can put together the plant-based product they want in a variety of categories. (
  • Alongside plant-based alternatives to feta, these include processed cheese preparations, in spreadable or triangular versions. (
  • Aberdeen, MD: U.S. Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory, 20-22. (
  • At the same time , the expression levels of flowering-related genes (CRY1, CRY2 and FCA) and hub genes in the regulatory networks underlying floral timing (FT and SOC1) were significantly upregulated in OE plants , while the floral repressor FLC gene was significantly downregulated. (
  • Vgarden already boasts plant-based cheeses, meat and fish products in its portfolio, and the latter two are high in protein. (
  • "Brevel's protein solves the immediate challenges in plant-based products that need neutral flavoured protein sources alongside a valuable nutritional profile," ​noted the start-up. (
  • it lies at the centre of the meristem, in much the same position, in fact, as the tetrahedral apical cell in certain lower plants. (
  • The method has enabled the quantification of growth and gene expression in systems where it was not previously possible and after already having an impact on researchers worldwide is under active further development in the Smith lab here at the John Innes Centre. (
  • According to Supermax, phase one facility would consist of the group's North America manufacturing headquarters, a research and development centre, trading centre and a full-fledged employee facility centre. (
  • Extra root growth through infection Nematodes that infect plants can cause lots of damage. (
  • The rapid growth in registrations reflects manufacturers' lively interest in this uncomplicated approach to the development of new plant-based products. (
  • Poplar aquaporin PIP1;1 promotes Arabidopsis growth and development. (
  • Angiosperms release specialized cells known as pollen to carry half of their genetic information to other plants for reproduction (though many angiosperms also pollinate themselves). (
  • This Saturday's Market Science session at Midtown Farmer's Market focused on pollen and plant development. (
  • Even though the farmer's market was unexpectedly rained out before 11am, many visitors were able to participate in one or more activities designed to trace plant development from a flower to pollen to seed. (
  • Founder and executive chairman Datuk Seri Stanley Thai said the manufacturing plant would be equipped with world-class capabilities, such as automatic, robotic engineering manufacturing with Artificial Intelligence and Industry Revolution 4.0. (
  • Keeping design and manufacturing in-house gives Key Plant a lot of flexibility to meet our customer's needs. (
  • Young people in the border communities of Ilela and Jibia in Sokoto and Katsina States, under the Sahel Youth Ecobrigade Greening for Peace Project, have embarked on a tree-planting campaign to increase youth participation in climate resilience efforts and improve livelihoods while addressing issues of environmental conservation. (
  • Farida Garba, a Youth Ambassador from Ilela LGA shared, "This planting project will assist people, both women, and men who are jobless and have no means of livelihood. (
  • The project aims to mobilize and engage over 200,000 youth to participate in the tree planting exercise and other greening activities including championing youth ambassadors for peace through volunteerism across the Sahel Countries. (
  • E.ON will develop a 20 MW project in Kern Country, California, after having completed a 2.1 MW plant near Neubrandenburg, in Germany s northeast, earlier this year. (
  • The U.S. Maricopa West project is a part of what E.ON is describing as its flexible business model, in which it draws on its global development experience to execute on renewable energy projects whether they are to be owned by E.ON or a third party on completion. (
  • More specifically, what type of plant has been their favorite pick to install in any landscape development project in Denver. (
  • Consumers increasingly choose plant-based sources of protein, but still crave the satisfying taste of meat. (
  • What aspects of plant protein are you most interested in? (
  • Washington, DC: U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. (
  • U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick. (
  • Dover, NJ: U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Center. (
  • This mechanism supports the full range of research and development from basic to clinical and intervention studies, as well as health services, policy, and surveillance research. (
  • For O&M purposes, one has to have a 3D virtual model that mimics the actual 'as built' plant, so it becomes mission-critical to keep up-to-date with design updates and changes. (
  • Although the plant construction has already started, portions of the plant are still in detail design phase, with the result that there are regular changes to the design 3D model. (
  • For O&M purposes, one has to have a 3D virtual model that mimics the actual 'as built' plant, so it becomes mission-critical to keep up-to-date with design updates and changes and to ensure that 3D model submissions accurately reflect updates or changes to the design. (
  • Changes to 3D model submission methodology (by the EPCs) and comparative file analysis capability was implemented to more easily identify changes to 3D model files submitted, allowing the CADD [computer-aided dynamic design] office team to hone in and focus on only those plant areas where changes have taken place. (
  • This pacy and flexible approach, allows Key Plant to move through the design, engineering, product development and production phases quickly and easily. (
  • I&IT facilities and physical plant design and management will be agile and flexible, to accommodate changes in scientific and administrative I&IT requirements. (
  • 11. Molecular identification of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases in lower plant Marchantia polymorpha. (
  • Innovation development itself is also greatly simplified. (
  • Together, Brevel and Vgarden will tackle 'one of the biggest challenges' of the plant-based cheese market: plant-based protein's impact on taste. (
  • From plants of the same species, but also from those that are not related at all. (
  • The use of azole fungicides provides selective pressure for the development of azole resistance among species in soils. (
  • This pilot phase of the tree-planting campaign will target cross-border communities between Nigeria, Niger,and Burkina Faso. (
  • With the financial support of the Canadian International Development Agency, WHO facilitated implementation of the Regional Strategy on promoting the role of Traditional Medicine in Health Systems with major emphasis on traditional medicines for the treatment of malaria and other priority diseases. (
  • However, safe medicines based on cannabinoid chemicals derived from the marijuana plant have been available for decades and more are being developed. (
  • While the impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a significant global health concern, knowledge gaps exist surrounding antifungal resistance, the connection to plant agriculture, and its implications for human health. (
  • Sessions explored the magnitude of environmentally induced/selected antifungal resistance connected to plant agriculture, agricultural practices that may contribute to AMR in human pathogens, and strategies for surveillance and mitigation.This Proceedings document summarizes workshop discussions. (
  • Bobcat Company, a global leader in the compact equipment industry, today announced plans for a new assembly plant in Rogers, Minnesota . (
  • Digital product development saves users a huge amount of time. (
  • This makes product development possible around the world and around the clock, as customers in over 100 countries can attest. (
  • Plant-based food has become one of the most important food trends of our time. (
  • The Center Director should have demonstrated ability to oversee and conduct planning activities, provide administrative and scientific direction to the Center, ensure an interdisciplinary research emphasis, and build a career development program. (
  • In addition to support for interdisciplinary research projects, support may be provided for career development research activities, a limited number of pilot research projects, and specialized core resources and shared facilities aimed at supporting the range of proposed research. (
  • Extracting data from microscopy images helps us to understand the mechanisms at work within the plant. (
  • In Germany, where E.ON has its headquarters, the company completed a 2.1 MW power plant near the city of Neubrandenburg, in May. (
  • All Atomic Weapons Employer (AWE) employees who worked at Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from August 13, 1942 through December 31, 1944, for a number of work days aggregating at least 250 work days, occurring either solely under this employment or in combination with work days within the parameters established for one or more other classes of employees in the SEC. (
  • Heidi Vella: Tell us about your work on the Kusile Power Plant. (
  • Other work includes the development of methodologies to migrate ontologies from the informal to formal and use reasoning to increase structural validity. (
  • The Center is expected to attract established and promising investigators into natural products and botanicals research and to provide opportunities for research experience, career development, and mentoring. (
  • The numerous technical, environmental, economic, and regulatory issues that bear on power plant siting generally apply to both brownfield and greenfield sites. (
  • At the plant, the throughput of coal and reagents, such as limestone and activated carbon, will affect the quantity of combustion by-products that will require recycling or transportation to a landfill. (
  • Fair visitors weren't surprised just by the new production possibilities, but also by the quality of the plant-based products, be it the finely layered structure of the salmon alternative or the flavour and texture of the plant-based parmesan and feta. (
  • Plants are picky, to prevent spending their energy on the production of unviable offspring. (
  • With our comprehensive range of in-house capabilities and total control of production, Key Plant can meet the expectations and demands of our customers easier. (
  • That said, the remainder of this article examines the current known constraints to finding the best site for a new coal plant. (
  • When coal is delivered by rail, the plant site should have enough space to accommodate a unit train of up to 130 cars in a rail loop or ladder track formation. (
  • To date, there are no open/active SEC petitions from Westinghouse Atomic Power Development Plant. (
  • Therefore, UNDP is engaging young people in these border communities not only in terms of giving them a voice in the development discourse but also as active participants in fostering social cohesion and maintaining long-term peace. (
  • Prototype 3D visualisation and simulation technologies were used to create a virtual 3D plant for use in operations and maintenance, as well as staff safety training. (
  • The intent was to create a 3D visualisation platform that enabled better engineering, construction, operating and maintenance of the plant asset. (
  • So we started asking: 'What if we can take the plant 3D model to the operator/maintainer/engineer at his/her computing device, and create a virtual plant world for them to interact with anytime, anywhere? (
  • I&IT facilities and physical plant modifications will be planned and communicated to all stakeholders, to create an engineered and sustainable I&IT ecosystem that is aligned with the institute's strategic plan goals. (
  • 2A) from chloroform extract of the plant for being advocated to achieve this, which its antiplasmodial activity against rodent includes: exploring evidences of immunity, plasmodia ( Plasmodium berghei berghei ) in social science input, revisiting the abandoned vivo in mice for possible chemosuppressive vector control methods and investigation into effect against the parasite. (
  • Facilities, physical plant, and space for I&IT operations are critical for the maintenance of NIEHS I&IT systems and the availability and preservation of data. (
  • Strategic and operational planning, provisioning, auditing and monitoring of facilities, physical plant, and space allocations are essential to ensure effective operations. (
  • Plant-based was clearly the dominant topic at this year's IFFA. (
  • At least 1000 tree seedlings were planted at selected locations provided by the Local Government Authorities (LGA) of Ilela and Jiba which includes shcools and border areas with the Niger republic. (
  • When considering a mine-mouth plant, the availability and adequacy of the local coal must be fully evaluated and the quantity of the accessible coal must be sufficient for the planned life of the power plant. (