Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Orthoptera: An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Photorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Xenorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Integumentary System: The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The plant is evergreen or deciduous. The flowers are small and greenish yellow in color. They are pollinated by insects. The ... Forestiera segregata is a species of flowering plant in the olive family known by the common names Florida privet, Florida ... There are two varieties of this species: the more common var. segregata and the less common var. pinetorum, which occurs in ... Center for Plant Conservation. Forestiera segregata. University of Florida IFAS. USDA Plants Profile. ...
... melissophyllum is a species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae. Its common name is bastard balm. It is ... It is attractive to insects. Cultivars include 'Royal Velvet Distinction'. Form Flowers In white 'Royal Velvet Distinction' ... It is a strongly aromatic plant with erect hairy stems. The root of this plant is a perennial short rhizome. This species is ... Plants Media related to Melittis melissophylum at Wikimedia Commons. ...
Australian Insects. Lepidoptera.butterflyhouse.com.au (2008-11-06). Retrieved on 2012-07-01. I. F. B. Common (1990). Moths of ... Pupation occurs in a crevice on the trunk or a branch of the host plant. Australian Faunal Directory. Environment.gov.au (2012- ...
They burrow into the shoots of a common jungle plant. Pupation takes place in a pupa which is suspended by the tail from the ... LepIndex "Life-histories of Indian insects: Microlepidoptera". Archive.org. Retrieved 7 July 2011. ...
Example of flowering plants include leleshwa (Tarchonanthus camphoratus), Euphorbia species and Acacia species. Common grasses ... There are mammals, birds and insects. Mammal species include the tree hyrax, rock hyrax, olive baboon, black-faced vervet ... Over 169 species of flowering plants and 17 species of grasses have been recorded in Menengai Forest. ...
They feed on plants, but sometimes take insects. There are up to 12 young per litter, but 4-5 is more common. The average life ... While most are common and not threatened, L. mittendorfi is restricted to Mount Oku and considered Vulnerable by the IUCN. L. ...
D. Miller (1984) Common insects of New Zealand. ed 8. S.W. Burstal and E.V. Sale (1984) Great trees of New Zealand. F. Keene ( ... Many plants in New Zealand have white or green flowers. The tubular flowers of the puriri look rather like snapdragon flowers ... Ripe fruit can also be found all year round, but is more common over the summer. Puriri is a very important tree for native ... The despatch boxes of the British House of Commons are made of Puriri wood. They were a gift from New Zealand to replace the ...
Common in shady woods. Anemone nemorosa is grown as an ornamental plant for use in gardens and parks. Cultivars Many cultivars ... The flowers are pollinated by insects, especially hoverflies. The seeds are achenes. Grown from seed the plants take around ... Anemone nemorosa is an early-spring flowering plant in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to Europe. Common names ... It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing 5-15 centimetres (2-6 in) tall. The plants start blooming soon after the foliage ...
It is common and often found in gardens, but is readily overlooked because of its small size. The caterpillar larvae feed on ... Collins Complete Guide to British Insects. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. 2005. ISBN 978-0-00-729899-0. Page 270. Photography ... honeysuckle (Lonicera). They are leaf miners, tunnelling inside the leaves of the food plant to avoid predators. Michael ... Media related to Alucita hexadactyla at Wikimedia Commons Twenty-plume Moth at UKmoths. ...
Sow thistles are common roadside plants, and while native to Eurasia and tropical Africa, they are found almost worldwide in ... Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. 10 pt 5a. Royal Entomological Society of London. pp. 134 pp. ISBN ... Sow thistles exude a milky latex when any part of the plant is cut or damaged, and it is from this fact that the plants ... In this regard sow thistles make excellent sacrificial plants. Sonchus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some ...
They provide a haven for rare plants and insects. Parts of the area are owned and managed by the National Trust, including ... Blackheath Common is also part of this area. The northern ridge of these hills, predominantly formed by chalk, is separated by ... Ranmore Common, Leith Hill and Box Hill. Chiddingfold Forest, a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), lies within the ...
Rattan species are also common at the ground level of the forests. Other common varieties noted in the forest are gingers, ... Other species of insects found are centipedes, giant forest ant (Camponotus gigas), lantern bugs and termites. The park is ... Along the river courses, the plants species noted are palms, ferns, mosses and lichens. Fruiting figs and geocarpic figs on ... Fauna include mammals, reptiles, butterflies and insects and birds. The most popular, totally arboreal faunal species, is ...
Among its more common fossils are plant remains that are frequently associated with the state's coal beds. During the early ... related to the net-winged insects), as well as a new protophasmid (an herbivorous insect). At the time, Rhode Island was also ... These plants left behind abundant fossils like leaves, stems, and trunks. Club moss and horsetail fossils are preserved as ... During excavation an abundance of plant fossils were found that were later curated at Brown University. Rhode Island Museum of ...
It is a common spider, often seen on Dianella plants. Like all thomisid spiders, it does not make a web, but lies in wait for ... Their prey is insects, or occasionally other small spiders. Often these spiders are a well camouflaged green, making their ...
It eats insects, snails, fish, carrion, algae, and plants. As a pet K. baurii is easy to care for, readily eating commercial ... It can grow to a straight carapace length of 8-12 cm (3-4¾ inches). K. baurii is a common species found in freshwater habitats ...
The flowers are hermaphrodite and pollinated by insects (entomophily). The most common flower visitors are Syrphidae and ... "Bloody crane's-bill , Plant & fungi species , Wild plants". www.plantlife.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-01-03. Pignatti S. - Flora ... "RHS Plant Selector - Geranium sanguineum 'Ankum's Pride'". Retrieved 15 July 2013. "RHS Plant Selector - Geranium sanguineum ' ... This plant reaches on average 30-50 centimetres (12-20 in) in height. The petiolate leaves have five lobes (or segments), each ...
It eats small insects. Also bees can be found nesting on overhanging trees. The water quality in the eastern part of the river ... Both males and females are pollinators and consume plant nectar for sustenance. The orb-weaver spider is found in abundance ... Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are one of the most common nocturnal mammals inhabiting the area. Their diet is omnivorous, consisting ... The Estero River is a rich habitat for insects. An abundance of mosquito species can be found near the river, which is a ...
It occurs mainly on plants, where it hunts insects. It has a body length of 17-22 mm. P. castaneus is the type species for the ... It is common from Cape Town to Heidelberg, Western Cape, especially in forested areas. In scrub outside forested areas, it is ... Picker, Mike; Griffiths, Charles; Weaving, Alan (2004). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa (Updated ed.). Cape Town, South ...
1888, Twenty-two common insects of Nebraska. Bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station of Nebraska. Ed. Univ. Nebraska. ... 1899, Minnesota plant life. Geological and natural history survey. Report of the survey. Botanical series. xxv, 566 pp. ilus. 4 ... A List of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River. 826 pp. Reimprimió ... 1898, The orientation of the plant egg and its ecological significance. Ed. University of Chicago Press. 23 pp. 1901, Some ...
Aphids are another common insect pest. Christmas trees are also vulnerable to fungal pathogens and their resultant illnesses ... Regardless of the types of plants, from herbaceous weeds to woody plants, weeds are considered a pest to Christmas tree farms ... Insect Pests of Christmas Trees slides Archived August 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Insect Identification Laboratory, ... The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges picae) are small soft-bodied insects which attack the Fraser fir. The insects appear as ...
The cup-shaped nest is composed of plant fibres woven together. The species is fairly common and often occurs in pairs, or may ... This bird feeds on insects and fruit. ...
They attract insects, primarily ants, which defend the nectaries, thus protecting the plant against herbivores. The fruit of ... Allen, Ginger M.; Bond, Michael D.; Main, Martin B. (December 2002). "50 Common Native Plants Important In Florida's ... Bronstein, Judith L.; Alarcón, Ruben; Geber, Monica (2006). "The evolution of plant-insect mutualisms". New Phytologist. 172 (3 ... Some plants have leaves that are usually less than 10 cm (4 in) long while others have leaves that are larger. The shape of the ...
S. binotatus is known by various common names, including two-spotted plant bug, timothy plant bug, and slender crop mirid. " ... Eric R. Eaton & Kenn Kaufman (2007). "Plant bugs". Insects of North America. Kaufman field guides. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ... It is common "throughout the northern and central U.S. and southern Canada", and it has been introduced to New Zealand, where ... The insect's sides are roughly parallel, and the colours depend on both the animal's sex and its age, the markings becoming ...
Emerging at night, it feeds on insects and plant material. The Williams' jerboa is a common food source for the long-eared owl ... It is common in parts of Azerbaijan but is rarer and has become locally extinct in parts of Turkey. The major threat it faces ...
The yellow-billed spoonbill (Platalea flavipes) is common in southeast Australia; it is not unusual on the remainder of the ... Yellow-billed spoonbills also probe submerged plants directly for prey, and seize prey such as spiders above ground. They have ... insects, particularly aquatic bugs of the families Notonectidae and Corixidae; fish such as mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and ... Prey items recorded at Lake Cowal include freshwater crustaceans such as the common yabby (Cherax destructor); shrimp of the ...
Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial ' ... Since plants and meat are digested differently, there is a preference for one over the other, as in bears where some species ... For example, most of the Middle Eastern countries, eating while sitting on the floor is most common, and it is believed to be ... The only large insectivorous mammals are those that feed on huge colonies of insects (ants or termites).[33] ...
In the home garden there are many other common insects eating the leaves of plants. ... The plant protection authorities, that is to say Evira and the plant protection inspectors of the TE-centres are responsible ...
... the oil forming a microclimate suitable for increased fungal persistence on the insect integument and on plant surfaces. This ... provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain ... Black rectangular plant pot used for field testing the virulence and persistence of the fungal and neem oil treatments against ... Maintenance of insect colonies. Aedes aegypti larvae were obtained from field-collected mosquito eggs. Eggs were collected ...
International Conference on Plant Science. STUDY MATERIAL [CLICK HERE]. NOTICE FOR INSTRUMENT USE AT COMMON INSTRUMENTATION ... Development of Insect Resistance in Jute by Expressing of cryIAb/Ac gene.. Dr. Karabi Datta. 17.02.2011-continuing.. PhD ... Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. [email protected] 919433065760. Susmita Das [Profile]. Assistant Professor. ... Plant Molecular Cytogenetics and Biotechnology. [email protected] 919830324204. Surekha Kundu [Profile]. Assistant Professor ...
It is important to differentiate between the actual insect pest causing damage to your plants, and the pollinators, predators ... Unfortunately, many other insects, mites and other invertebrates (ie., slugs, sowbugs and millipedes) are also attracted to ... Bedding plants and perennials provide beauty and tranquility to homeowners and landscapers. They also encourage biodiversity by ... Plant Bugs. The tarnished plant bug and the four-lined plant bug are common sucking pests that attack a variety of bedding and ...
What to do if you notice rubber plant insects? Click this article for helpful tips and additional information. ... healthy rubber tree plants tend to be pest resistant. However, they can be infested by several sap-sucking pests. ... Pests on a Rubber Plant. Here are the most common rubber plant insects you may come across:. Aphids are tiny, pear-shaped pests ... Thrips are tiny rubber plant insects with wings. The insects, which may be black or straw-colored, tend to jump or fly when ...
... they can fall prey to various kiwi plant pests. Learn more about kiwi insects and tips for treating kiwi bugs in this article. ... While kiwi plants are tough and relatively easy to grow, ... Tomato Plant Insect Pests: Tips For Treating Pests On Tomatoes ... Common Kiwi Fruit Pests. Below are the most common types of insect pests that affect kiwi plants. ... The best way to control these pests of kiwi is to treat the soil before planting. Healthy plants are more resistant than plants ...
Garden Insect Primer: Getting to Know Common Garden Insect Pest Groups and their Associated Signs of Plant Damage. November 13 ... The insect pests most commonly encountered on perennial and annual garden plants are found in seven insect groups, or insect ... Most garden plant damage done by insects will fall into these insect orders. Good luck with your plant pest diagnosis. ... The site covers all types of pests: insects and insect relatives, invasive plants, and plant disease organisms. ...
... pathogens and insects are common environmental stresses which plants are exposed to. Over time, plants have evolved unique ... pathogens and insects are common environmental stresses which plants are exposed to. Over time, plants have evolved unique ... This seems to prevent the pathogen from spreading and infecting the rest of the plant and allowing the plant to repair without ... By limiting the crystal sizes, the amount of damage to the plants structure is limited. In conclusion, plants have to endure ...
Scale insects are common on ornamental plants. Email0Facebook0Twitter0Reddit0. X Linkedin0 Stumbleupon0 ... Scale insects are a diverse group of piercing-sucking pests (Hemiptera) commonly found on ornamental plants in landscapes and ... Of course always follow label instructions to avoid damaging plant tissue.. While the deceased scale insects residue will last ... There are over 180 species of scale insects in Florida, but only a small percentage are important pests of ornamental plants. ...
Insect Pollination, Mesocarp, Multiple Fruit, Nectar Guide, Pericarp, Plant Fertilization, Plant Reproduction, Plant Sexual ... Pollination by Insects Bees are perhaps the most important pollinator of many garden plants and most commercial fruit trees ( ... Thus, both the insect and flower benefit from each other in this symbiotic relationship. The corn earworm moth and Gaura plant ... Many plants, such as cucumber, have male and female flowers located on different parts of the plant, thus making self- ...
Some Common Insect Pests. Concrete Structures in War. Their Resistance To Shell ... Reducing Drug Plant Cultivation to a Science. By R. P. Crawford. Luster of Stones. ...
Collect a sample of any insects you see, and a clipping from the damaged plant. Try to catch any live insects in a bag or ... Observe your plant (or turf) in the morning and evening. Sometimes insects are only active at certain times of day and you ... Summer is here and now that youve got your gardens planted, tis the season for animal pests, insects, and disease to become ... Make a note of where the plant is growing, how long its been planted, and any other details (like if youve been away on ...
Cancer and Homeopathy Cancer Facts Cancer Common Lifestyle Habits that Cause Diseases Health Benefits of Dandelion Plant ... Common Lifestyle Habits that Cause Diseases. Cigarette, smoking and diets are some of the most common lifestyle habits that ... Nervous Systems of Insects may Offer Clues on Neurodegenerative Diseases. By studying the addition of sugars to proteins a ... Health Benefits of Dandelion Plant. What is dandelion? Dandelion greens are nutrition powerhouses with a wide range of health ...
Discover the top ten insect pests found in the United States and how to deal with them organically. ... Would you know a common garden insect pest from a beneficial insect? ... Common Garden Insect Pest: Tarnished Plant Bug. Tarnished plant bugs are fast-moving, mottled green or brown bus with front ... Common Garden Insect Pest: Aphids. Aphids will suck the plant sap of most fruits , vegetables, flowers, ornamentals, and shade ...
Common Houseplant Insects & Related Pests. Aug 8, 2018 , Flowering, Foliage, Indoor Plants, Problems ... Air plants (Tillandsia spp.) are epiphytes (plants that grow harmlessly upon other plants) belonging to the bromeliad family. ... Armored Scale Insects & Control. Aug 2, 2018 , Flowers, Indoor Plants, Landscape, Problems, Shrubs, Trees ... African Violet Diseases & Insect Pests. Aug 8, 2018 , Flowering, Indoor Plants, Problems ...
The result is a dissolved slug! For onions and carrots, just sprinkle some along the base of the plant as soon as veggies begin ... Use Garlic-Oil Spray for Pesticide-Free Insect Control. This summer, nearly half of my gardens Fava bean crop would have been ... After about seven to 10 days, unwrap the seeds, and the ones that are sprouted can be planted in the garden. Its important, ... To ensure that fertile seed is planted in your garden, soak them overnight in water, then wrap them in damp newspaper (making ...
Find information on how to identify and control common insect, disease, and weed problems in your home, yard, garden, fields, ... Learn a process for diagnosing plant health problems, including signs and symptoms of diseases, pests and insects, and ... Common Urban Pests: Identification, Prevention, and Control. This article provides brief descriptions of common urban pests, ... Plant Health Diagnosis: Assessing Plant Diseases, Pests and Problems. ...
Find information on how to identify and control common insect, disease, and weed problems in your home, yard, garden, fields, ... Common Problems:. Workshops Managing Invasive Plants. Workshops Grape Disease & Insect Management Workshop. ... Landscaping and Gardening Around Walnuts and Other Juglone Producing Plants. By. Jim Sellmer, Ph.D. ... Preventing, Diagnosing, and Correcting Common Houseplant Problems. By. Kathy Kelley, Ph.D. ...
Because this name reflects the restricted distribution of these insects and is nontechnical, the common name "Hawaiian ... native plant species; ultimately, native-dominated plant communities are converted to nonnative plant communities (Cuddihy and ... 2003, p. 91). Historically, Megalagrion damselflies were among the most common and conspicuous native Hawaiian insects. Some ... Habitat Destruction and Modification by Nonnative Plants. The invasion of nonnative plants, including Clidemia hirta (Kosters ...
Is the biological species definition likely to work well for classifying insects in amber? Plants that reproduc.... Biology ( ... Design an Experiment You know that adding NaOH to HCl results in the formation of common table salt, NaCl. You .... Biology: ... Most of the carbon that land plants use for photosynthesis comes from ________. a. sugars c. water b. the atmos.... BIOLOGY: ... Hypoglycemia as a disease is relatively common. T F. Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course ...
... according to articles in the current issue of The Journal of the Florida Medical Association.The most-common allergic hazard is ... Sun, Insects And Plants Are Common Culprits. June 29, 1996,Glenn Singer ... The most dangerous insect bite in Florida is that of the fire ant. A survey of 29,000 doctors identified 32 deaths from fire ... The most-common allergic hazard is skin allergy, according to Dr. Roger W. Fox, associate professor of medicine and public ...
Repel insects and bugs around your home using common plants. June 25, 2019 - Posted by Zoey Sky ... Thankfully, you can keep your home garden mosquito-free by planting natural insect-repellent plants. (h/t to ... You can use insect repellents, but commercially available ones are filled with chemicals that are harmful for your overall well ... GMO mosquito experiment goes horribly wrong: Insects adapt and overcome, transforming into super "mutant" mosquitoes that could ...
Instead, encouraging the presence of predatory warriors that will defend and protect your garden plants from common pests is ... The Best Plants to Attract Beneficial Insects and Bees. Pesticides - even organic varieties - are not the safest, healthiest or ... Beneficial Insects Move from Flowering Plants to Nearby Crops, a peer-reviewed research article by Rachael Freeman Long, Andrew ... An important key is to plant so that there are blooms year-round - the beneficial insects will not stay or survive through a ...
HGIC 2252 Common Houseplant Insects & Related Pests : Extension : Clemson University : South Carolina. Common Houseplant ... Plants. 9 Stylish Projects You Wont Believe are DIYs. (Image credit: Old Brand New Blog),p,Making something on your own, as ... because its especially common among women in the months after they give birth. … ... Insects & Related Pests,p,Pesticides updated by Joey Williamson, HGIC Horticulture Agent, Clemson University, 11/17. Revised by ...
... causing damage to plants, flowers, home-grown vegetables and lawns. ... Aphids are common sap-sucking insects, which can cause distorted growth in plants. They also often leave honeydew on foliage, ... Aphids are common sap-sucking insects, which can cause distorted growth in plants. ... Snails are familiar common insects that can cause damage in gardens by eating holes in leaves, stems and flowers. ...
  • The Department maintains a Botanical garden since inception, a treasure of plant wealth, conservatory of rare, endangered species, trees and shrubs which are witness of glorious era of the Botany Department, catering to the needs of young botanists of today, attended by skilled gardeners. (caluniv.ac.in)
  • These beetles defoliate potato, tomato, eggplant, and petunias throughout North America, reducing harvest and even killing young plants. (hubpages.com)
  • Rove beetles resemble earwigs without pincers, and feed on many insect pests and like similar conditions to ground beetles. (google.com)
  • Popular Science , "An unprecedented locust swarm is creating unlikely allies," 7 June 2020 Gameplay revolves around trapping the opposing queen by using bugs such as the far-ranging grasshopper , beetles that crawl over the top of other insects, or the power-sucking mosquito. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Marigolds are as good as gold when grown with just about any garden plant, repelling beetles, nematodes, and sometimes even animal pests, like deer . (almanac.com)
  • However, methionine was higher, and leucine , isoleucine , lysine , phenylalanine , threonine and valine were lower in sorghum seedlings than in C. partellus larvae , suggesting compensation of these amino acids by the insect through voracious feeding , as is being expected from artificial diet . (bvsalud.org)
  • All insect larvae should be preserved in alcohol. (uky.edu)
  • Monsanto has developed three cotton lines resistant to the larvae of the lepidopteran insect pests which are specific to cotton. (gc.ca)
  • Symptoms: Scale are sucking insects that attach to and feed on the underside of leaves, in leaf axils, on pseudobulbs and on rhizomes. (scribd.com)
  • Symptoms: Mealybugs are sucking insects that attack any part of the plant but tend to stay tucked away at the junction of leaf and stem. (scribd.com)
  • IgE antibodies against plant/insect CCD determinants were shown to have both strict specificity and high affinity, so in principle they might be expected to lead to clinical symptoms just as habitual for anti-peptide IgE. (wikipedia.org)
  • These insects do their damage early in the spring but the symptoms persist through the season. (uky.edu)
  • In addition to symptoms on the foliage, the insects may fall from the trees onto people below. (uky.edu)
  • In addition to the characteristics already mentioned, insects also are distinguished by having one pair of antennae, and most have wings and three body regions as adults. (ct.gov)
  • Additional nectaries - separate from the floral nectaries for attracting pollinator insects - are a special food source for these ants. (theconversation.com)
  • Writing in the journal Functional Ecology , Renee Borges of the Indian Institute of Science suggests that resident ants can contribute to the nutrition of acacia by providing the nitrogen that they excrete for the plant to absorb. (theconversation.com)
  • As scale populations build up, leaves start to yellow, new growth is stunted or nonexistent and/or plants develop a black film over leaves called sooty mold. (jacksonville.com)
  • To improve the potential of biological control insects being effective, provide habitat for these natural enemies, and increase the amount and diversity of plants in the landscape. (ufl.edu)
  • The doctors' suggestions: People known to be allergic to insect venoms should watch for - and avoid - fire ant mounds, and they should wear thick stockings or gloves near them. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • When in 1981 Rob Aalberse from the University of Amsterdam noticed the enormous cross-reactivity of some patients´ sera against virtually any plant and even insects, notably, insect venoms, it took ten years to arrive at a possible structural explanation of this phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although not every garden will have problems with all of these insects, nor is this a comprehensive list of insect pest that we here in the United States or Canada might have to face, this article provides a starting point to help gardeners realize that relying entirely on organic pest control does not mean that you have to settle for damaged fruits and vegetables. (hubpages.com)
  • Which vegetables should you plant next to each other? (almanac.com)
  • This fact sheet will attempt to help you identify the common "generalists" and will suggest methods of keeping them under control. (osu.edu)
  • Insecticidal soap sprays are usually effective against rubber plant bugs, but you may need to re-spray every couple of weeks until the pests are under control. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • These insects can secrete a waxy covering that protects them from the environment and most chemical control measures. (ufl.edu)
  • Preventing the transmission of viruses can be the chief reason to control certain insects. (ct.gov)
  • Although it is used mostly in agriculture, small quantities are used on home and garden plants, and for mosquito control in swamps. (cdc.gov)
  • Effective control depends on differentiating between abiotic or biotic (living) causes of plant problems. (missouri.edu)
  • Ecofective Bug Control, RHS Bug and Mildew Control, SB Plant Invigorator and Westland Resolva Natural Power Bug & Mildew). (rhs.org.uk)
  • 1. The Commission hereby delegates to the Director the authority to determine and implement appropriate measures to eradicate, control, or slow the spread of plant pests in South Carolina. (clemson.edu)
  • This authority extends to a decision that a plant pest has become so widespread that the initiation or continuation of control measures would be ineffective. (clemson.edu)
  • There are but two methods by which these insect friends of the farmer can be effectually utilized and encouraged, as, for the most part, they perform their work unseen and unheeded by him, and are practically beyond his control. (wikisource.org)