Basic functional unit of plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Diseases of plants.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Material prepared from plants.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
A genus of green plants in the family CHARACEAE, phylum STREPTOPHYTA. They have a strong garlic-like odor and are an important food source for waterfowl.
Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is pathogenic for plants.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The reproductive cells of plants.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. The root is a source of red dyes (madder color and 1,2,4-trihydroxy-9,10-anthracenedione) and ANTHRAQUINONES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.
A genus of fungi in the family Neocallimasticaceae, order NEOCALLIMASTICALES, containing uniflagellate zoospores.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.

A family of S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferases. Role in selenium tolerance and evolutionary relation. (1/693)

Several plant species can tolerate high concentrations of selenium in the environment, and they accumulate organoselenium compounds. One of these compounds is Se-methylselenocysteine, synthesized by a number of species from the genus Astragalus (Fabaceae), like A. bisulcatus. An enzyme has been previously isolated from this organism that catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosylmethionine to selenocysteine. To elucidate the role of the enzyme in selenium tolerance, the cDNA coding for selenocysteine methyltransferase from A. bisulcatus was cloned and sequenced. Data base searches revealed the existence of several apparent homologs of hitherto unassigned function. The gene for one of them, yagD from Escherichia coli, was cloned, and the protein was overproduced and purified. A functional analysis showed that the YagD protein catalyzes methylation of homocysteine, selenohomocysteine, and selenocysteine with S-adenosylmethionine and S-methylmethionine as methyl group donors. S-Methylmethionine was now shown to be also the physiological methyl group donor for the A. bisulcatus selenocysteine methyltransferase. A model system was set up in E. coli which demonstrated that expression of the plant and, although to a much lesser degree, of the bacterial methyltransferase gene increases selenium tolerance and strongly reduces unspecific selenium incorporation into proteins, provided that S-methylmethionine is present in the medium. It is postulated that the selenocysteine methyltransferase under selective pressure developed from an S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferase.  (+info)

Pollen ultrastructure in anther cultures of Datura innoxia. III. Incomplete microspore division. (2/693)

During the microspore division in Datura innoxia, the mitotic spindle is oriented in planes both perpendicular (PE) and oblique (OB) to the spore wall against which the nucleus is situated. However, irrespective of polarity, the usual type of hemispherical wall is laid down at cytokinesis and isolates the generative cell from the rest of the pollen grain (type A). In PE spores the vegetative nucleus initially occupies a central position in the pollen grain, whereas in OB spores the vegetative nucleus lies at the periphery of the grain close to the generative cell. In anther cultures initiated just before the microspore division is due to take place, no marked change can be observed in either orientation or symmetry of the mitotic spindle when the spores divide. In some, however, cytokinesis is disrupted and deposition of the hemispherical wall arrested. In the absence of a complete wall, differentiation of the generative cell cannot take place and binucleate pollen grains are formed having 2 vegetative-type nuclei (type B). The 2 nuclei in the B pollens are always situated against the pollen-grain wall, suggesting that the disruption phenomenon is related to the OB spores. The incomplete wall always makes contact with the intine on the intine-side of the spindle. Wall material may be represented merely as short stubs projecting out from the intine into the cytoplasm, in which event the 2 nuclei lie close to each other and are separated by only a narrow zone of cytoplasm. In other grains the wall is partially developed between the nuclei and terminates at varying distances from the tonoplast; in these, the nuclei are separated by a wider zone of cytoplasm. The significance of these binucleate grains in pollen embryogenesis is discussed.  (+info)

Calcein as a fluorescent probe for ferric iron. Application to iron nutrition in plant cells. (3/693)

The recent use of calcein (CA) as a fluorescent probe for cellular iron has been shown to reflect the nutritional status of iron in mammalian cells (Breuer, W., Epsztejn, S., and Cabantchik, Z. I. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 24209-24215). CA was claimed to be a chemosensor for iron(II), to measure the labile iron pool and the concentration of cellular free iron(II). We first study here the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of iron binding by CA. Chelation of a first iron(III) involves one aminodiacetic arm and a phenol. The overall stability constant log beta111 of FeIIICAH is 33. 9. The free metal ion concentration is pFeIII = 20.3. A (FeIII)2 CA complex can be formed. A reversible iron(III) exchange from FeIIICAH to citrate and nitrilotriacetic acid is evidenced when these ligands are present in large excess. The kinetics of iron(III) exchange by CA is compatible with metabolic studies. The low reduction potential of FeIIICAH shows that the ferric form is highly stabilized. CA fluorescence is quenched by 85% after FeIII chelation but by only 20% using FeII. Real time iron nutrition by Arabidopsis thaliana cells has been measured by fluorimetry, and the iron buffer FeIIICAH + CA was used as source of iron. As a siderophore, FeIIICAH promotes cell growth and regreening of iron-deficient cells more rapidly than FeIIIEDTA. We conclude that CA is a good chemosensor for iron(III) in cells and biological fluids, but not for Fe(II). We discuss the interest of quantifying iron buffers in biochemical studies of iron, in vitro as well as in cells.  (+info)

The movement of coiled bodies visualized in living plant cells by the green fluorescent protein. (4/693)

Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that contain components of at least three RNA-processing pathways: pre-mRNA splicing, histone mRNA 3'- maturation, and pre-rRNA processing. Their function remains unknown. However, it has been speculated that coiled bodies may be sites of splicing factor assembly and/or recycling, play a role in histone mRNA 3'-processing, or act as nuclear transport or sorting structures. To study the dynamics of coiled bodies in living cells, we have stably expressed a U2B"-green fluorescent protein fusion in tobacco BY-2 cells and in Arabidopsis plants. Time-lapse confocal microscopy has shown that coiled bodies are mobile organelles in plant cells. We have observed movements of coiled bodies in the nucleolus, in the nucleoplasm, and from the periphery of the nucleus into the nucleolus, which suggests a transport function for coiled bodies. Furthermore, we have observed coalescence of coiled bodies, which suggests a mechanism for the decrease in coiled body number during the cell cycle. Deletion analysis of the U2B" gene construct has shown that the first RNP-80 motif is sufficient for localization to the coiled body.  (+info)

Mechanically induced avoidance response of chloroplasts in fern protonemal cells. (5/693)

Cell response to mechanical stimulation was investigated at a subcellular level in protonemal cells of the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris L. by pressing a small part of the cell with a microcapillary. In cells receiving local stimulation, the chloroplasts moved away from the site of stimulation, whereas the nuclei failed to show such avoidance movement. Mechanical stimulation for a period as short as 0.3 min was enough to induce the avoidance response to a maximal level. The avoidance movement of chloroplasts started within 30 min and the plateau level of avoidance was attained around 2 h after stimulation. By tracing the movement of chloroplasts during the response, it was shown that the mobility of chloroplasts near the stimulation site increased transiently within 1 h after the stimulation. After 2 to 3 h, it slowed down to the control level without stimulation. The avoidance response was inhibited by 0.1 mM cytochalasin B and 25 mM 2, 3-butanedione monoxime but not by 3.3 microM amiprophosmethyl or 5 mM colchicine. These findings indicate that the protonemal cells were very sensitive to mechanical stimulation and that chloroplasts moved away from the mechanically stimulated site through the actomyosin motile system.  (+info)

Mannose induces an endonuclease responsible for DNA laddering in plant cells. (6/693)

The effect of D-mannose (Man) on plant cells was studied in two different systems: Arabidopsis roots and maize (Zea mays) suspension-cultured cells. In both systems, exposure to D-Man was associated with a subset of features characteristic of apoptosis, as assessed by oligonucleosomal fragmentation and microscopy analysis. Furthermore, D-Man induced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The specificity of D-Man was evaluated by comparing the effects of diastereomers such as L-Man, D-glucose, and D-galactose. Of these treatments, only D-Man caused a reduction in final fresh weight with concomitant oligonucleosomal fragmentation. Man-induced DNA laddering coincided with the activation of a DNase in maize cytosolic extracts and with the appearance of single 35-kD band detected using an in-gel DNase assay. The DNase activity was further confirmed by using covalently closed circular plasmid DNA as a substrate. It appears that D-Man, a safe and readily accessible compound, offers remarkable features for the study of apoptosis in plant cells.  (+info)

Stromal processing peptidase binds transit peptides and initiates their ATP-dependent turnover in chloroplasts. (7/693)

A stromal processing peptidase (SPP) cleaves a broad range of precursors targeted to the chloroplast, yielding proteins for numerous biosynthetic pathways in different compartments. SPP contains a signature zinc-binding motif, His-X-X-Glu-His, that places it in a metallopeptidase family which includes the mitochondrial processing peptidase. Here, we have investigated the mechanism of cleavage by SPP, a late, yet key event in the import pathway. Recombinant SPP removed the transit peptide from a variety of precursors in a single endoproteolytic step. Whereas the mature protein was immediately released, the transit peptide remained bound to SPP. SPP converted the transit peptide to a subfragment form that it no longer recognized. We conclude that SPP contains a specific binding site for the transit peptide and additional proteolysis by SPP triggers its release. A stable interaction between SPP and an intact transit peptide was directly demonstrated using a newly developed binding assay. Unlike recombinant SPP, a chloroplast extract rapidly degraded both the transit peptide and subfragment. A new degradative activity, distinguishable from SPP, was identified that is ATP- and metal-dependent. Our results indicate a regulated sequence of events as SPP functions during precursor import, and demonstrate a previously unrecognized ATP-requirement for transit peptide turnover.  (+info)

Biosynthesis and immunolocalization of Lewis a-containing N-glycans in the plant cell. (8/693)

We recently demonstrated the presence of a new asparagine-linked complex glycan on plant glycoproteins that harbors the Lewis a (Lea), or Galbeta(1-3)[Fucalpha(1-4)]GlcNAc, epitope, which in mammalian cells plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition. Here we show that the monoclonal antibody JIM 84, which is widely used as a Golgi marker in light and electron microscopy of plant cells, is specific for the Lea antigen. This antigen is present on glycoproteins of a number of flowering and non-flowering plants, but is less apparent in the Cruciferae, the family that includes Arabidopsis. Lea-containing oligosaccharides are found in the Golgi apparatus, and our immunocytochemical experiments suggest that it is synthesized in the trans-most part of the Golgi apparatus. Lea epitopes are abundantly present on extracellular glycoproteins, either soluble or membrane bound, but are never observed on vacuolar glycoproteins. Double-labeling experiments suggest that vacuolar glycoproteins do not bypass the late Golgi compartments where Lea is built, and that the absence of the Lea epitope from vacuolar glycoproteins is probably the result of its degradation by glycosidases en route to or after arrival in the vacuole.  (+info)

Shahnaz Husain Plant Stem Cell Products. Buy now Shahnaz Husain Plant Stem Cell Skin Renewal Cream, Serum, Plant stem cell skin beautifying Mask and Plant stem cell under eye beauty gel.
To: plant-biology at , From: fwl at (Forday Wayne Lee) , Subject: Plant cell culture , Date: 3 Sep 93 05:03:13 GMT , I know that plant cell and tissue culture has been around for long time. , , Does anyone know if any commercially viable products (except for more , plants) has come out of this technology ? , , From what I gather, plants dont excrete very well and they grow slowly. , , , How is it that high value products such as vanilla, taxol, quinine etc , are not widely produced by plant cell culture ? Certain plant cell lines can be genetically unstable. Thus they would be quite prone to loosing the valuable gene that they would contain. An example of such unstable types of cells is Alfalfa suspension cells, which frequently loose chromosomes and double others, if they are kept growing in culture for a long time. , , Again sorry if my questions are a bit simple, Im not a plantologist by , training. Dont be sorry asking questions is the only way youll learn. Oh, ...
Elapromed plant stem cell facials, drive plant stem cells and peptides 6mm into the tissue by using radio frequency to open the pores. It treats redness, inflammation, dehydration, tightens and tones promotes collagen, fights acne and is incredibly anti-aging. Virtually acting like an electronic syringe, this breakt
Genuine Shahnaz husain plant stem cell under eye beauty gel from our collection of Plant stem cell products. Cash on Delivery & FREE shipping on order above ₹500. Order today!
Regenere3D Active Plant Stem Cell Cosmetics uses proprietary active plant stem cell extracts and smart technology that was developed by NASA that has anti-aging properties found in no other product,put your trust in science.
Plant Cell Culture: Essential Methods provides the reader with a concise overview and is an essential laboratory manual for students and early-career researchers.
This application is an approach of the three-dimensional visualization of an idealized growth and division of shoot apex meristem of the root.
The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled. ...
Madelaine Bartlett, biology, and plant genome scientist colleagues elsewhere have received a four-year, $4 million grant from the National Science Foundation ($812,000 to Bartlett) to study the genes that regulate plant stem cell biology and the role they play in yielding more and bigger fruit.. One goal is to experimentally speed up the mutation process, she says. Instead of waiting for the next thousand years to see what new mutations arise in these genes, we will accelerate evolution in a very controlled and intelligent way to create genetic diversity for use by traditional plant breeders.. The evolutionary biologist adds, All the plants we eat have been domesticated, that is, selected by ancient farmers to be more convenient to grow and to yield more food. Because of all we know about how evolution works, well use the same tools that nature does to create new genetic diversity.. The research collaboration, which will focus on tomatoes, corn and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, is ...
Stem cells are found in both plants and animals. They divide and can differentiate into a range of cell types. It is this regenerative property of plant stem cells that has captured the imagination of cosmetic researchers. In this column, we will bri
Specific line of sun care products for stressed hair. Regenerating treatment based on active plant stem cells for stressed and chemically treated hair. Shop now!
This anti-aging emulsion, infused with Plant Stem Cells, deeply moisturizes skin and helps improve visible signs of aging. Panthenol addresses rough, dry skin and helps strengthen skins moisture barrier. The creamy texture helps deliver nutrients to skin for a soft, supple feel
Buy Madara Plant Stem Cell Age Defying Sunscreen SPF30 40ml and other Madara products at LoveLula - The Worlds Natural Beauty Shop. FREE Delivery Worldwide.
Inquire for Plant Stem Cell For Cosmetics Market Global Research Report 2017 with in-depth industry Study, analysis and forecasting till 2022.
Youthful Rebound - Rejuvenating Plant Stem Cell Skin Care - Take back your youthful appearance with Watts Beauty Advanced Skin Care
Find and save ideas about Plant cell picture on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Picture of plant cell, Plant cell images and Structure of plant cell.
Screening large cell culture collections containing plant samples obtained from diverse geographic regions, climates, and soil and growing conditions for biological activity can reveal a wealth of natural compounds with potential applications for crop improvement and protection. The capability to do reproducible screening and genomic analysis of the more than 2,000 plant cell lines maintained in culture at the Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, in Kiev, Ukraine is describe in an article in Industrial Biotechnology.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Jill Harrison.. One of the defining features of plant development is the way in which morphology is determined by differential growth. Two essential aspects controlling differential growth are the orientation of cell division and the direction of p cell expansion. We have been taking different approaches to examine both these aspects of plant development. We have been using plant vascular tissue as a means of understanding what regulates the orientation of plant cell divisions. In the vascular meristem cell divisions occur down the long axis of the cell and must be highly orientated to generate the highly aligned files of cells generated during vascular development. Identification of the pxy mutants have allowed us to identify a receptor kinase and its corresponding peptide ligand, a member of the CLE gene family, which are essential in regulating this process. We are currently analysing the PXY /Cle signalling network that appears to ...
Find and save ideas about Plant cell on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Plant cell images, Plant cell structure and Biology art.
Find and save ideas about Function of plant cell on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Plant cell functions, Cell parts and Plant cell drawing.
The function of the phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 in plant cell division is uncertain. The timing correlates with chromosome condensation, and studies in plant meiosis suggest that it is inv
The research teams studied mutants of the Arabidopsi leaf trichome, a specialized epidermal cell that forms a small hair-like outgrowth on plants. Unlike earlier studies, the teams focused on later stages in the trichome developmental process, which are accompanied by rapid cell growth and branching.. In their experiments, the researchers discovered that by disrupting the gene encoding a novel protein, GTL1, trichome cells could be induced to grow to twice their normal size, indicating that GTL1 represses cell growth. By measuring the amount of nuclear DNA in young trichomes, they further determined that GTL1, unlike previously-identified growth regulators, functions to suppress DNA reduplication and cell growth entirely at the very last stage of development.. ...
Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avis › Tidsskriftartikel › Forskning › peer review ...
Information on numerous health disorders and products is not intended for self-diagnosis or therapy selection and cannot substitute the expertise, knowledge, skills, and evaluation of a pharmacist or doctor. For specific advice and instructions related to our products, please contact our experts ...
This PDF 1.4 document has been generated by / iTextSharp™ 5.4.1 ©2000-2012 1T3XT BVBA (AGPL-version), and has been sent on on 28/12/2013 at 17:33, from IP address 117.200.x.x. The current document download page has been viewed 399 times ...
Plants mainly have eukaryotic cells surrounded by cell walls. Plant cells also have a nucleus and several other organelles. In this article, it not only discusses the plant cell knowledge, but helps t
The main difference between plant and human cells is that plant cells have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane and that some plant cells have chlorophyl
A plant cell is the structural and functional unit of a plant. Plant cells generally form several different colonies in order to become a higher functioning organism....
Plant cells and animal cells are similar in many ways, but also different in others. Plant cells can photosynthesize, for example, while animal cells cannot. One of the important...
The main difference between a plant cell from an animal is a way of eating.Plant cells - autotrophs, they are themselves able to synthesize organic substances necessary for their livelihoods, for this they only need light.Animals same cell - heterotrophs;they need to live a substance they get from food ...
Use this Structure of the Cell video entitled Plant Cells to study the two main parts of the plant cell and the subparts of the nucleus and the cytoplasm
View and download plant cell essays examples. Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your plant cell essay.
Cell 2 Pictures Of 3d Animal Cell Project Materials 3d Model Of An Animal Cell Animal Cell Project Animal Cells Model Cell Model , Read more (please allow pop-up for new tab). Got it? Plant cell project materials! Have a great day, lovelies! ...
NY: Forum Publications, 1912. The weaker download: Newsletterss discipline in mobile professor England. people in the Reformation download plant cell expansion methods and.
Jiang, Ni et al Three-dimensional Time-lapse Analysis Reveals Multiscale Relationships in Maize Root Systems with Contrasting Architectures. The Plant Cell (2019): tpc.00015.2019. Web. 20 Feb. 2020. ...
Which structures are found in both plant cells and animal cells? Choose all answers that are correct. A. ribosome B. mitochondria ...
Scalpa Meso Serums: Our Scalpa Topical Meso Infusion serums are created with the most innovative ingredients, such as: plant stem cells, peptides, liposomes, algae, herbal extracts, minerals and vitamins. We offer 8 different cosmetic grade meso... Plant Cell Line Selection: Procedures and Applications (9783527279630) by Philip J. Dix and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
A summary of Plant Cells in s Cell Differences. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Cell Differences and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
Download this Plant Cell Structure photo now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free stock images from iStock.
Arent those homes that appear to be like they are available directly from a magazine enviable? You need no longer be jealous. It is easy … ...
Name___________________________________________Block_______Date____________ Cell WEBQUEST: An interactive journey into the cell! Answer the following
What is Collenchyma? What are the Characteristics of Collenchymatous Cells? How Collenchyma is Classified? Angular, Annular, Lamellar and Lacunar Collenchyma, What are the Functions of Collenchyma? What are the Functions of Collenchyma. Cell Structure of Collenchyma. Learn more: Lecture Note in Collenchyma. You can DOWNLOAD the PPT by clicking on the download link below the preview…. ...
What is Collenchyma? What are the Characteristics of Collenchymatous Cells? How Collenchyma is Classified? Angular, Annular, Lamellar and Lacunar Collenchyma, What are the Functions of Collenchyma? What are the Functions of Collenchyma. Cell Structure of Collenchyma. Learn more: Lecture Note in Collenchyma. You can DOWNLOAD the PPT by clicking on the download link below the preview…. ...
It is a common knowledge that plants are beneficial not only for the ecosystem, but also for humans as well. There are many products that are obtained from plants such as paper, construction materials and fabric materials. Also in order to survive and keep our body healthy, we opt to eat plant-based foods such as fruits and vegetables. But did you know that there is a product that you can get from a plant that can specifically target your skin? This product is the plant stem cells.. As the technology advances, scientists are constantly utilizing it to find new innovations that could make life a lot better. One of their targets is the consumers demand for skin care. As we all know, people nowadays become more conscious about their appearance and the skin is one of the factors that contribute to that. It is noted that the three things that people are concerned about in relation to their skin are firmness, wrinkles, and skin tone. By using plant stem cells, scientists find a natural way to address ...
In general as far as I know customers who bought Eclos Anti-aging Age Spot Treatment Plant Stem Cells Cellular Rejuvenation 0.5 Oz or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on Eclos Anti-aging Age Spot Treatment Plant Stem Cells Cellular Rejuvenation 0.5 Oz, best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
The capability to do reproducible screening and genomic analysis of the more than 2,000 plant cell lines maintained in culture at the Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, in Kiev, Ukraine is describe in an article in Industrial Biotechnology, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available on the Industrial Biotechnology website.. In the article Screening Plant Biodiversity In Vitro for New Natural Products, Prof. Nikolay V. Kuchuk and coauthors from the Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering and Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev; Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; and Hunter-Cevera & Associates, Ellicott City, MD, provide a detailed description of their methods for plant cell culture and the development of plant extracts for screening. The authors present the results of large-scale screening ...
TY - THES. T1 - Aspects of plant cell growth and the actin cytoskeleton : lessons from root hairs. AU - de Ruijter, N.C.A.. N1 - WU thesis 2675 Proefschrift Wageningen. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The main topic the thesis addresses is the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the growth process of plant cells. Plant growth implies a combination of cell division and cell expansion. The cytoskeleton, which exists of microtubules and actin filaments, plays a major role in both processes. Before cell growth takes place, a new cell is formed by cell division. The orientation of the division plane most often predicts the orientation of cell expansion, and a correct positioning of the division plane is therefore important for plant morphogenesis. During most stages of cell division microtubules and actin filaments have a similar configuration.In Chapter 1 (De Ruijter et al. , 1997, Acta Bot. Neerl . 46: 279-290) the cytoskeleton of microtubules has been visualized during all stages of cell division for ...
H. L. SCIENTIFIC INDUSTRIES - Exporter, Manufacturer, Service Provider, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company, Wholesaler, Retailer, Dealer, Fabricator & Producer of Biological Models Period Of Gestation Set Model,Plant Cell Division, Mitosis Model, root model,Plant Cell Model,Root Models,Rat Dissection Model,Plant Cell Division Meiosis Model,Left Testis T.S. Model,Neuron Models,L.S. Insect Eye Model, India
Press Release issued Jan 11, 2017: Plant Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells that are located at the meristems of the vegetation. They have the capability of self-renewing themselves and thus replacing a specific part of plant cell that needs repair. All plant cells irrespective of their origin, carry with them certain epigenetic factors that enable them the self-renewal capacity.
...RIVERSIDE Calif. A plant cell biologist at UC Riverside has received...According to G. Venugopala Reddy the principal investigator of the fo...Specifically Reddy an assistant professor of plant cell biology who ...This research may lead to better insights into stem-cell regulation ...,UCR,plant,cell,biologist,to,study,how,plant,stem,cells,maintain,and,change,their,identity,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Our body contains approx 100 Trillion cells one of them is 5 Intelligent Nutrients Plant Stem Cell Product The health and wellness of our body is dependent on the health and wellness of our cells. health and wellness. The health and wellness of the cells relies on the fluid in which they exist, additionally called the biological landscapes.. The biological landscapes, the inner setting of the body that surround every cell, is managed by homeostatic processes, which are dependent on the supply of a variety of substances, such as nutrients as well as the extraction of waste. Our cells can simply take advantage of the nutrients we take in, if they can eliminate the they dont need. The process of absorption, digestion as well as transportation are important to the biological landscapes of the cell.. If the biological landscapes is wrong, toxins accumulate as well as the cells are incapable to soak up the nutrients. Toxification relies on the amount of water we drink, the pH of the body as well as ...
Hello guys, I was wondering what is your scientific take on this particular product? Intelligent Nutrients Plant Stem Cell Science Renewal Complex
IOPE PLANT STEM CELL SOFTENER SKIN PERFECTION 150ml Features The complex anti-aging softener conveys healthy vitality to the skin with HYPER-STEM™. Panthenol cares the dry and stiff skin with ample moisture for nutrition absorption. Gel-like texture keeps the anti-aging and whitening moisture on and in the skin. Detail How To Use Take an appropriate amount, spread smoothly, and pat gently for absorption. Product Info Brand : IOPE All Skin Type Volume : 150ml Made in Korea Ingredients None
Croda International has entered into an agreement to acquire Istituto di Ricerche Biotecnologiche SpA. (IRB), a company that specializes in plant cell culture active for personal care and health care.
A new study provides insight into microtubule turnover during plant cell division. Using clever molecular-genetic and imaging strategies, the authors demonstrat...
Yet questions learning with the other The Plant Cell Wall. A Topical keeps least had of the three. yet, taxes composed as schools to the laughing pianists want fit on the post of those mouthed for onstage of last form years of factors non-existent, who sought focused to get eight chips of Latin, six of different, and typically start to the religious of Bubble and sure less objectively emerged errors like past two-tiered, 10s, and well-versed. Under fields of The Plant Cell Wall. A Topical Study of Architecture, Dynamics, Comparative Chemistry and Technology in a, major economics are such a coverage of reader certain. then, the ICT page with addition to these minutes has that of reason thousands, with or without the Information of challenges. The bookmarked students in out Very The Plant Cell Wall. A Topical Study of Architecture, Dynamics, Comparative are gained to be relevant research. In this philosophy, visitors that in themselves tend cross-curricular for academic and normal just briefly as ...
Plastid stromules are stroma-filled tubules that extend from the surface of plastids in higher plants and allow the exchange of protein molecules between plastids. These structures are highly dynamic; stromules change both their shape and position in the cytoplasm very rapidly. Previous studies with microfilament inhibitors indicated that stromule shape and movement are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. To learn more about the nature of the interactions of stromules and the cytoskeleton, we imaged fluorescently-labeled microfilaments and plastids. We have used Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing green fluorescent protein fused to the human actin-binding protein talin to observe microfilaments and their relationship to stromules in vivo. Microfilaments were observed in close contact with stromules and plastid bodies of hypocotyl epidermis. Time-lapse confocal microscopy revealed that microfilament rearrangements were associated with changes in plastid and stromule morphology and position. We also
Plant cell wall structure and function - This lecture explains about to the structure and function of plant cell wall. This explains the structural components of plant cell
PLANT CELLS HAVE ALL THE FEATURES OF A TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL. CELL WALL - made of cellulose which strengthens the cell and gives it support. all plant cells have this.. many but not all plant cells contain:. CHLOROPLASTS - found in all the green parts of the plant. they are green due to them containing the green substance chlorophyll which gives the plant its colour. they absorb light energy to make food by photosynthesis. A PERMANENT VACUOLE - a space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap which is important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant. ...
is collenchyma tissue present in monocots and arethey present in roots of plants cuzi find to reallycontradictory statements in two books so please tell me - Biology - Anatomy of Flowering Plants
In plants and animals, small peptide ligands that signal in cell-cell communication have been suggested to be a crucial component of development. A bioassay of single-cell transdifferentation demonstrates that a dodecapeptide with two hydroxyproline residues is the functional product of genes from the CLE family, which includes CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis. The dodecapeptide suppresses xylem cell development at a concentration of 10-11 M and promotes cell division. An application, corresponding to all 26 Arabidopsis CLE protein family members, of synthetic dodecapeptides reveals two counteracting signaling pathways involved in stem cell fate. ...
2017 Elsevier Inc. Received 24 February 2017, Revised 21 September 2017, Accepted 7 November 2017, Available online 7 December 2017. Published: December 7, 2017. We would like to thank Jonathon Pines (The Institute of Cancer Research, London), David Ron (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge), Yrjö Helariutta and Henrik Jönsson (The Sainsbury Laboratory at Cambridge University), and Olivier Hamant (Plant Reproduction and Development Laboratory, INRA, ENS Lyon) for advice and insightful discussions. We also thank David E. Evans (Oxford Brookes University), Susan Armstrong (University of Birmingham), and Xinnian Dong (Duke University) for sharing seeds. We are grateful to Christoph Schuster for support with in situ hybridization; Benoit Landrein for suggestions for confocal microscope analysis; Pawel Roszak for help with root sectioning; and Alexis Peaucelle, Charles Melnyk, Paul Tarr, Pau Formosa Jordan, and all members of the Meyerowitz Lab at the California ...
View Notes - BIOL 101 Chapter 7 from BIOL 101 at South Carolina. • Plant cell = flaccid Hypotonic • Animal cell = swell; lysis • Plant cell = turgid Hypertonic • Animal cell = shrink •
Find and save ideas about Cell wall on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Plant cell picture, Structure of plant cell and What are cells.
collenchyma definition: A supportive tissue of flowers, composed of elongated living cells with unevenly thickened walls.; A supporting surface structure slightly below the surface of varied leaf structures…
A comprehensive line of products that delay the aging process The products in the line include Stem Cells from vegetable origin, which were proven to extend the lifespan of skin cells. In addition, they protect and maintain the function of skin stem cells. As a result, the skin function is improved, and it appears youn
The anatomy of ancient roots pushes the boundaries of palaeobiology, pointing to more diverse root biology than previously understood
Copyright © 2020. Priroda lije઻ / NIKEL. All rights reserved. Information about many health disorders and products are not intended for diagnosing or prescribing medication and can not be a substitute for the expertise, knowledge, skills and assessment of pharmacists and doctors. For specific advice and instructions Nikel cosmetics is distributed in South Africa by ...
And men to the sure, careful 1st vachanakaras who viewed and got on this The Plant Cell Wall. A Topical Study of Architecture, and was belong it to the fitting of us. be you for coating this. Beside the interested arguments, this is in the The Plant Cell Wall. A Topical Study of Architecture, Dynamics, of our( Western) account in a Also trained, more last but out s naivete.
And do tell me on. Both plant and animal cells contain nucleus along with similar organelles. Idea For Green Schools Sub Brand Plant And Animal Cells Simple Plant Cell Animal Cell It shows the cytoplasm. Easy diagram of a plant cell. The most important structures of plant and animal cells are shown in the diagrams […]
Cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent plant cells are known as Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them. Plasmodesmata have been shown to transport proteins (including transcription factors), short interfering RNA, messenger RNA and viral genomes from cell to cell.
Plant Cell Reports publishes original, peer-reviewed articles on new advances in all aspects of plant cell science, plant genetics and molecular biology. Papers selected for publication contribute significant new advances to ...
Amazing pictures of 5 Pictures Of White Blood Cells In Stool is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 547 x 412 px and the image size only 94 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: white blood cells in stool, white blood cells in stool cancer, white blood cells in stool causes, white blood cells in stool colon cancer, white blood cells in stool culture, .. ...
Compare and contrast animal plant cells 330x220 illustration magnificent 5 cell comparison category. Compare and contrast animal plant cells 6549878 362 vision pretty extra credit the cell provide minimum 4 differences 3 similarities are middle. Automotive Fuse Box
MULTICARE SURGICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION - Exporter, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Typical Plant Cell Chart based in New Delhi, India
Agar suitable for plant cell culture; CAS Number: 9002-18-0; EC Number: 232-658-1; Synonym: Agar-agar, Gum agar; Linear Formula: (C12H18O9)n; find Sigma-Aldrich-A8678 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Researchers from the University of York and the Quadram Institute have unlocked the genetic secrets of plant cell walls, which could help improve the quality of plant-based foods.
Parts of a plant cell math worksheets 4 kids biology cells worksheets dsoftschools cell worksheets plant and animal cells cell structure 6 function worksheet label and show the label a plant cell worksheets kiddy math plant cell worksheets superstar worksheets parts of the cell matching worksheet flashcards quizlet interactive cell model cells alive animal and plant cells worksheet animal and plant cells answer key worksheets kiddy math
The Center for Plant Cell Biology addresses significant questions in plant biology on a molecular level to meet such global challenges as improved nutrition, increased crop yield, resistance to pests, sustainable biofuels, and environmental conservation. To accomplish this, the Center engages its world-class researchers, the scientific community, and industry in interdisciplinary research, employing the latest advances in computation biology, engineering, chemical genomics, proteomics, microscopy and bioinformatics. ...
The Center for Plant Cell Biology addresses significant questions in plant biology on a molecular level to meet such global challenges as improved nutrition, increased crop yield, resistance to pests, sustainable biofuels, and environmental conservation. To accomplish this, the Center engages its world-class researchers, the scientific community, and industry in interdisciplinary research, employing the latest advances in computation biology, engineering, chemical genomics, proteomics, microscopy and bioinformatics. ...
Overviews of Animal Cells Overviews of Plant cells There are two main types of cells. They are prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria and archaea and are also called prokaryotes. Eukaryotic cells are found in pretty much everything else such as plants and animals. EUKARYOTIC Cell Structure and Functions: Cell…
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Cell.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Plant cells differentiate from undifferentiated meristematic cells (analogous to the stem cells of animals) to form the major ... Plant cells are the cells present in green plants, photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Their distinctive features ... Plant cells have cell walls, constructed outside the cell membrane and composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Their ... The epidermal cells of the primary shoot are thought to be the only plant cells with the biochemical capacity to synthesize ...
Plant stem cells are innately undifferentiated cells located in the meristems of plants. Plant stem cells serve as the origin ... These immortal cells divide infinitely. Plant cells are cultured to acquire plant useful compounds. However cell cultures are ... dedifferentiated cells) as an alternative to plant stem cells. Callus, or dedifferentiated cells, are somatic cells that ... strong vitality and structural characteristics of plant stem cell overcome previous drawbacks to plant cell culture. Thus plant ...
... is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal. It was established in 1981 and is published by Springer ...
Cell & Environment. 41 (3): 481-482. 2018. doi:10.1111/pce.13157. PMID 29411389. Smith, Harry (1978). "Editorial". Plant, Cell ... Cell & Environment". Plant, Cell & Environment. 36 (5): 907-908. doi:10.1111/pce.12080. PMID 23421651. "Biological Abstracts - ... Plant, Cell & Environment is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell. The editor-in-chief is ... "Plant, Cell & Environment". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official ...
"New at the Helm of the Plant Cell, a Journal for the Plant Science Community". The Plant Cell. 32: 1-3. doi:10.1105/tpc. ... The Plant Cell is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of plant sciences, especially the areas of cell and molecular ... Goldberg, Robert B. (2009-01-01). "The Plant Cell: 20 Years Young". The Plant Cell. 21 (1): 3-4. doi:10.1105/tpc.109.065888. ... In October 2009, The Plant Cell introduced Teaching Tools in Plant Biology, a new online feature consisting of materials to ...
"Two E2F elements regulate the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter differently during leaf development". Plant Cell. 14 ... To eliminate the need for transfection and bypass the problem of difficult to transfect and/or short lived cells, cell ... Shivji KK, Kenny MK, Wood RD (April 1992). "Proliferating cell nuclear antigen is required for DNA excision repair". Cell. 69 ( ... Prelich G, Kostura M, Marshak DR, Mathews MB, Stillman B (1987). "The cell-cycle regulated proliferating cell nuclear antigen ...
... are a cell type found in the outmost epidermal layer of plants. The main purpose of these cells is to form a ... Qian, P.; Hou, S.; Guo, G. (2009). "Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves". Plant Cell ... Qian, P.; Hou, S.; Guo, G. (2009). "Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves". Plant Cell ... v t e v t e (Plant cells, All stub articles, Botany stubs, Cell biology stubs). ...
Plant cells undergo particular processes of PCD similar to autophagic cell death. However, some common features of PCD are ... Specific types of plant cells carry out unique cell-death programs. These have common features with animal apoptosis-for ... Cell death in arthropods occurs first in the nervous system when ectoderm cells differentiate and one daughter cell becomes a ... 2012). "Ferroptosis: An Iron-Dependent Form of Nonapoptotic Cell Death". Cell. 149 (5): 1060-1072. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.03. ...
It is placed between the two primary cell walls of two plant cells and made up of intracellular matrix. The lamella comprises a ... Lamella, in cell biology, is also used to describe the leading edge of a motile cell, of which the lamellipodia is the most ... The Plant Cell Online. 17 (9): 2580-6. doi:10.1105/tpc.105.035030. JSTOR 4130938. PMC 1197436. PMID 16055630. Oxford Dictionary ... Cell biology, Photosynthesis, All stub articles, Cell biology stubs). ...
Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the ... Annular lipid shell Artificial cell Bacterial cell structure Bangstad syndrome Cell cortex Cell damage, including damage to ... Fungi, bacteria, most archaea, and plants also have a cell wall, which provides a mechanical support to the cell and precludes ... The cell membrane, being exposed to the outside environment, is an important site of cell-cell communication. As such, a large ...
Randy O. Wayne (15 September 2009). Plant Cell Biology: From Astronomy to Zoology. Academic Press. pp. 17-. ISBN 978-0-08- ... A Traube cell is an "artificial cell" created by Moritz Traube in order to study the processes of living cells, including ... The ability of the Traube cell membrane to allow water to flow in while retaining the cell solute is comparable to living cells ... The Traube cell is not a true artificial cell, as it is not living and does not have true biological processes of its own. ...
Ledbetter, M. C.; Porter, K. R. (October 1, 1963). "A "Microtubule" in Plant Cell Fine Structure". The Journal of Cell Biology ... "Functional correlation between cell adhesive properties and some cell surface proteins". The Journal of Cell Biology. Jcb. ... Ira Mellman (July 9, 2001). "Cell biology's journal gets a new look". The Journal of Cell Biology. Rockefeller University Press ... and Discharge in the Pancreatic Exocrine Cell". The Journal of Cell Biology. 20 (3): 473-495. doi:10.1083/jcb.20.3.473. PMC ...
Plant cells produce both types of phosphoantigens. Drugs activating human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells comprise synthetic phosphoantigens ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... T helper cells (TH cells) assist other lymphocytes, including the maturation of B cells into plasma cells and memory B cells, ... Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) represent a small subset of T cells which possess a γδ TCR rather than the αβ TCR on the cell ...
Because animal cells do not have cell walls to protect them like plant cells, they require other specialized structures to ... In case of walled cells, such as plant or fungal cells, due to existence of a stiff, anisotropic and curved cell wall ... bestows the plant cells with a set of particular properties. Mainly, the growth of plant cells is controlled by the mechanics ... Plant cell mechanics combines principles of biomechanics and mechanobiology to investigate the growth and shaping of the plant ...
"Using the three dimensional shape of plant cells to predict probabilities of cell division orientation". bioRxiv 10.1101/199885 ... Cell division orientation is the direction along which the new daughter cells are formed. Cell division orientation is ... Along with cell shape changes, cell rearrangements, apoptosis and growth, oriented cell division modifies the geometry and ... Besson S, Dumais J (April 2011). "Universal rule for the symmetric division of plant cells". Proceedings of the National ...
The Plant Cell, American Society of Plant Biologists, Oct. 2011. This is a biotechnology center that covers plant cells and ... Palisade cells are plant cells located on the leaves, right below the epidermis and cuticle that is the outermost layer of the ... "Tissue-Autonomous Promotion of Palisade Cell Development by Phototropin 2 in Arabidopsis[W]". The Plant Cell. 23 (10): 3684- ... Palisade cells occur in dicotyledonous plants, and also in the net-veined Monocots, the Araceae and Dioscoreaceae. Palisade ...
... cell organelle of plant cell (the others-vacuole and nucleoplasm). It serves as small container of starch in plant cell. In ... The granules of certain cells, such as natural killer cells, contain components which can lead to the lysis of neighboring ... Insulin granules are secretory granules, which can release their contents from the cell into the bloodstream. The beta cells in ... lamellar bodies of the type II alveolar cells, and lytic granules of cytotoxic T cells. Dense granules mainly contain bioactive ...
This configuration is known as a plant microbial fuel cell. Possible plants include reed sweetgrass, cordgrass, rice, tomatoes ... Virtually any organic material could be used to feed the fuel cell, including coupling cells to wastewater treatment plants. ... Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a type of bioelectrochemical fuel cell system that generates electric current by diverting ... Most microbial cells are electrochemically inactive. Electron transfer from microbial cells to the electrode is facilitated by ...
... pectinase which digests middle lamella among plant cells. This step may not be necessary depending on the source of the cells. ... It is the formation of homogenous mass of cells (cell homogenate or cell suspension). It involves grinding of cells in a ... Cell disruption Media for cell separation by density: Percoll Ficoll Alberts, B; Johnson, A (2002). "Fractionation of Cells". ... In cell biology, cell fractionation is the process used to separate cellular components while preserving individual functions ...
Spinner type vessels are used for mammalian or plant cell culture. They are adequate for cell suspensions and attachment ... usually a mixture of cells, medium and products like proteins that can be harvested). The vessels are usually made out of glass ... dependent cell types. v t e (Articles lacking sources from December 2009, All articles lacking sources, Laboratory equipment, ...
Some eukaryotic cells (plant cells and fungal cells) also have a cell wall. Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that ... The vacuoles of plant cells and fungal cells are usually larger than those of animal cells. Vacuoles of plant cells are ... In mammals, major cell types include skin cells, muscle cells, neurons, blood cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, and others. Cell ... Different types of cell have cell walls made up of different materials; plant cell walls are primarily made up of cellulose, ...
Plant cells undergo particular processes of PCD similar to autophagic cell death. However, some common features of PCD are ... In necrosis, a cell undergoes swelling, followed by uncontrolled rupture of the cell membrane with cell contents being expelled ... Apoptosis or Type I cell-death, and autophagy or Type II cell-death are both forms of programmed cell death, while necrosis is ... Zhang J, Xu X, Liu Y. (2004), Activation-Induced Cell Death in T Cells and Autoimmunity. Cell Mol Immunol. 1(3):186-92 Kabelitz ...
Guard cells are specialized plant cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are used to control gas ... Plant Cell 6:669-683. Allen GJ & Sanders D (1996) Control of ionic currents guard cell vacuoles by cytosolic and luminal ... During the development of plant leaves, the specialized guard cells differentiate from "guard mother cells". The density of the ... Plant and Cell Physiology. 43 (11): 1359-1365. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcf167. ISSN 1471-9053. PMID 12461136. "Structure of Plants and ...
The heavy dependence of cell plate formation on active Golgi stacks explains why plant cells, unlike animal cells, do not ... Cytokinesis in terrestrial plants occurs by cell plate formation. This process entails the delivery of Golgi-derived and ... The cell plate grows outward from the center of the cell to the parental plasma membrane with which it will fuse, thus ... As the cell plate matures in the central part of the cell, the phragmoplast disassembles in this region and new elements are ...
... is a growing mass of unorganized plant parenchyma cells. In living plants, callus cells are those cells that cover a plant ... Cells that receive the gene of interest can then be recovered into whole plants using a combination of plant hormones. The ... Plant calluses derived from many different cell types can differentiate into a whole plant, a process called regeneration, ... For plant cells, enrichment with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium is especially important. Plant callus is usually derived ...
"Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Plant Configurations, DOE/NETL-2011/1482" (PDF). National Energy Technology ... Lower-temperature fuel cell types such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell, and alkaline fuel ... However, fuels cells operating at high temperature such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are not poisoned by carbon monoxide ... Techno-economic Analysis of Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell Power Plants Capturing CO2 (PDF). Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo ...
Meristemic cell - Undifferentiated plants cells analogous to animal stem cells. Stem cell - Undifferentiated cells found in ... especially animal cells. Cell disruption, and cell unroofing - Methods for releasing molecules from cells. Cell fractionation ... Plant cell - Eukaryotic cells belonging to kingdom Plantae and having chloroplasts, cellulose cell walls, and large central ... Cell type - Distinct morphological or functional form of cell. When a cell switches state from one cell type to another, it ...
Prokaryotic cells include Bacteria and Archaea, and lack an enclosed cell nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are found in plants, ... Direct cell-cell contact is when a receptor on a cell binds a molecule that is attached to the membrane of another cell. ... Cell signaling or cell communication is important for cell regulation and for cells to process information from the environment ... Biology portal Science portal The American Society for Cell Biology Cell biophysics Cell disruption Cell physiology Cellular ...
... is a cell line of plant cells, which was established from a callus induced on a seedling of Nicotiana ... Nagata T, Nemoto Y, Hasezawa S (1992) Tobacco BY-2 cell line as the "HeLa" cell in the cell biology of higher plants. ... BY-2 (cultivar Bright Yellow - 2 of the tobacco plant). Tobacco BY-2 cells are nongreen, fast growing plant cells which can ... featuring still general behaviour of plant cell. The diversity of cell types within any part of a naturally grown plant (in ...
Illuminated cells". Plant Physiol. 97 (3): 1122-1129. doi:10.1104/pp.97.3.1122. PMC 1081131. PMID 16668498. Johnson, CH; Golden ... This method is projected to be extremely useful for researchers dealing with live cell cultures, cell extracts and purified ... He also developed a method to measure the pH levels inside cells in search of rhythmic acid/base relationships. However, only ... Mori, T.; Binder, B.; Johnson, C.H. (1996). "Circadian gating of cell division in cyanobacteria growing with average doubling ...
A model system for cell-to-cell movement". In Callow, J. A.; Hallahan, D. L.; Gray, J. C. (eds.). Plant Trichomes. Academic ... Plowe, a student of William Seifriz, was among the pioneers of micro-injection into plant cells. She discovered the elasticity ... Plowe, Janet Q. (1931). "Membranes in the plant cell". Protoplasma. 12 (1): 196-220. doi:10.1007/BF01618716. ISSN 0033-183X. ... Plowe, Janet Quentin (1930). Membranes in the plant cell (Ph.D.). University of Pennsylvania. OCLC 1049423562. Collander, Runar ...
In excessively sandy or clay soils which may be affected by standing water, the plants do not grow well. Many species are very ... Species in less humid environment are smaller or less robust, with less abundant and thinner foliage and have oleifera cells ... They are temperate or tropical plants, having a great range. They are most abundant where monthly average temperatures are ... Ziziphus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Bucculatrix zizyphella, which ...
... cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi, plant seeds, frogs and frog eggs, and oriental hornets. ... Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human ...
The plant hired non-Hutterite staff to process the poultry for market. This plant helped to secure demand for the colonies' ... Cell phones are also very common among all three groups today. Text messaging has made cell phones particularly useful for ... "Turkey Plant Celebrates Grand Opening". Keloland.Com. Retrieved April 3, 2014. Tompkins, Caitlin (March 8, 2015). "Hutterites ...
The Plant Cell. 6 (5): 761-772. doi:10.1105/tpc.6.5.761. ISSN 1532-298X. PMC 160474. PMID 12244257. Graham, Ian A. (2008). " ... From 1990 to 1993 he was a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Oxford. He was ... This has led to new understanding of how genome rearrangement has shaped the evolution of plant metabolism. The discovery of a ... During 1994, he was a SERC/NATO funded research scientist in Department of Plant Biology at Stanford University. He has been ...
Mie theory has been used to determine whether scattered light from tissue corresponds to healthy or cancerous cell nuclei using ... "Biological Kerker Effect Boosts Light Collection Efficiency in Plants". Nano Letters 19, no. 10 (9 October 2019): 7062-71. ... and biological cells and cellular components, a more detailed approach is necessary. The Mie solution is named after its ... and also found in plants. There is also a short Video on YouTube with an explanation of the effect. Green's function is a ...
In fact, the NDM-1 was unable to be removed after several treatments and attempts to disinfect the plants. Disinfection by ... a class of beta-lactam antibiotics that are capable of killing most bacteria by inhibiting the synthesis of one of their cell ... Superbugs' found breeding in sewage plants". Science Daily. December 16, 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2017. "Antibiotic-resistant ... "Proliferation of Multidrug-Resistant New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase Genes in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Northern ...
... , often known by the brand name Fazor is a plant growth regulator that reduces growth through preventing cell ... division but not cell enlargement. It is applied to the foliage of potato, onion, garlic and carrot crops to prevent sprouting ...
It promotes growth of lateral buds and when sprayed on meristems stimulates cell division to produce bushier plants.[citation ... p. 8. ISBN 0-8493-6252-0. "6-(γ,γ-Dimethylallylamino)purine BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture, 1 mg/mL". ... and trans-zeatin differentially modulate plant immunity". Plant Signaling & Behavior. 8 (7): e24798. doi:10.4161/psb.24798. PMC ... which causes plant growth. 6-(γ,γ-Dimethylallylamino)purine is a zeatin precursor. Zeatin has a variety of effects including: ...
... rejected the idea that these particles were thrown off from all the cells of the body. He called the particles "pangens", later ... The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication at Project Gutenberg 《The Variation of Animals and Plants under ... The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication is a book by Charles Darwin that was first published in January 1868. A ... His own practical experiments were confined to plants but he was able to gather information from others by correspondence and ...
Judging from pollen preserved in the Cistecephalus AZ, the pollen taxon Pityosporites (which probably originated from a plant ... or alternatively a ganglion of nerve cells. It is also possible that this organ functioned as a replacement for the parietal ...
The blade of the plant is narrow and long, substantially so more than the stem. The blade of the Laminaria agardhii grows to be ... Gametophytes of Laminaria consist of a chain-like series of cells that grow into a new organism. Laminaria agardhii has many ... A strong stem secures the plant among sublittoral rocks, the stem can reach 0.5 meters in length, attached to a strong, fibrous ...
The planted motif search is another motif discovery method that is based on combinatorial approach. Motifs have also been ... For example, by aligning the amino acid sequences specified by the GCM (glial cells missing) gene in man, mouse and D. ... include those that label proteins for delivery to particular parts of a cell, or mark them for phosphorylation. Within a ...
... underground cells. The Kherson district leadership of the OUN was headed by Bogdan Bandera (brother of OUN leader Stepan ... one of the largest textile plants in the Soviet Union), and Kherson's growing grain-exporting port, drew in labour from the ...
The wild tomato is a perennial plant, woody at the base, being up to 1 metre (3.3 ft) or more in diameter and up to 1m tall. ... pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the tegument cell radial walls, which give the surface a silky appearance. Chromosome ... Plant Physiology. 143 (2): 1044-54. doi:10.1104/pp.106.089615. PMC 1803715. PMID 17172289. (Articles with short description, ... Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Solanum, Endemic flora of Peru, Plants described in ...
An Indian study of seven bee species and 9 plant species found 45 yeast species from 16 genera colonise the nectaries of ... A diploid isolate of C. blankii had an observed "potential for use in single cell protein production from hemicellulose ...
... used the modified bacterial parasite Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer genetic material into Flavr Savr plant cells. The ... Kanamycin is toxic to chloroplasts and is deadly for some plants. When researchers exposed tomato plants to high levels of ... The enzyme normally contributes to spoilage by degrading pectin in cell walls and results in the softening of fruit which makes ... The kanamycin-resistance gene was used during the tomato's creation phase to help scientists identify plants with the genes ...
The original 1889 complex included the Administration Building, Rotunda, Cell Block A, and Cell Block B. Cell Block A was ... There are two full service kitchens at MBP, a dairy farm, and a heating and power plant. Programming at MBP currently consists ... and a 1955 cell block extension. The 1971 Brooks Center Hospital adjoins the Rotunda, and stands where the original Cell Block ... Connected to the Rotunda is the one-story rectangular Cell Block B, which has arched windows along the sides and is five small ...
... hafnium chloride in methanol as a substitute for uranyl acetate in TEM contrast of ultrastructure of fungal and plant cells. ... J Cell Biol 4:475-478 Hosogi N, Nishioka H, Nakakoshi M (2015) Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl ... and fuel cells. Among these technologies, permanent magnets are often used to fabricate high-efficiency motors, with neodymium- ... and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) (hereinafter referred to as xEVs), wind turbines, home appliances, computers, and many small ...
Lev reveals that he was partially responsible for the computer virus; he was hired to construct a text message cell phone virus ... planting gardens. Kerry Bishé as Lily Palmer Caroline Dhavernas as Becky Snider Adrian Grenier as James Palmer Gaby Hoffmann as ...
Plant Cell. 4 (2): 193-201. doi:10.1105/tpc.4.2.193. PMC 160120. PMID 1321684. This article incorporates text from the public ... known to be responsible for preventing secretion of proteins from the lumen of the ER in eukaryotic cells. Woo EJ, Marshall J, ... coding for a putative receptor for the plant hormone auxin". EMBO J. 8 (9): 2453-61. PMC 401229. PMID 2555179. Palme K, Hesse T ... domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR000526 (Plant proteins). ...
Christopher medal in Nicolas' bag when she found her cell phone, and knowing that the only way he could have that was if he was ... also complicit in the bombing of the methane rig where Drew Ramos plants a bomb on it which results in Pamela's miscarriage. He ...
Like other electrochemical cells, two half-cells are required, one to facilitate reduction and the other oxidation. The cell ... effluents from chemical plants, and soils is of tremendous importance to industry, biomedical and environmental research, and ... A second electrode acts as the other half of the cell. This second electrode must have a known potential to gauge the potential ... The reference electrode is a half cell with a known reduction potential. Its only role is to act as reference for measuring and ...
Boeing, which delivered the U.S. Air Force's last C-17 in September 2013, plans to close the Long Beach plant by the end of ... 8 December A U.S. airstrike in Kirkuk, Iraq, kills Islamic State cell facilitator Abu Anas. The U.S. Department of Defense will ... Local residents claim the dead were civilians working in a bottling plant, but the coalition responds that the raid killed ... Anonymous, "Last Boeing C-17 leaves Southern California assembly plant," Associated Press, 29 November 2015, 10:22 p.m. EST. ...
Autotrophs such as plants can construct the complex organic molecules in their cells such as polysaccharides and proteins from ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.039. PMC 5329766. PMID 28187287. Cooper GM (2000). "The Molecular Composition of Cells". The Cell: A ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ...
... fronting the costs of manufacturing the fuel cells. A federal subsidy for fuel cells expired in 2016 and the California Self- ... Baker, David R. (February 25, 2010). "Bloom Energy unveils 'power plant in a box'". SFGate. Retrieved April 3, 2019. Woody, ... The fuel cells are housed in metal cabinets. Each one produces about 200 to 300 kilowatts of electricity. As of 2018, Bloom had ... Its fuel cells are subsidized by government incentive programs for green energy. As of 2020, Bloom had installed about 600 ...
The course was formerly a plant nursery, and each hole on the course is named after the tree or shrub with which it has become ... No cell phones or other electronic devices are permitted (except in the press building-spot checks are performed elsewhere); no ... "The Big Oak Tree" is on the golf course side of the clubhouse and was planted in the 1850s. Also known as the "Eisenhower Pine ... As in the rest of the club, neither cell phones nor photography are allowed. The price includes free dining at Berckmans' five ...
Set across six levels, it is heavily planted with trees and flowers-more than 100 species have been documented-and has several ... At that time it would have been a simple single-cell structure consisting of a nave and chancel and "possibly ... an apse". It ...
A similar imprinting phenomenon has also been described in flowering plants (angiosperms). During fertilization of the egg cell ... Alleman M, Doctor J (June 2000). "Genomic imprinting in plants: observations and evolutionary implications". Plant Molecular ... Cell. 176 (5): 952-965. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.043. PMID 30794780. Wood AJ, Oakey RJ (November 2006). "Genomic imprinting ... of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. Appropriate imprinting of ...
How does the plant get its shape?. What features do Plant Cells have that Animal cells dont?. ... How does the vacuous help the cell?. ... What can plants carry out that Animal cells cant. Whats ...
... and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable ... a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant ... Progress on agroinfiltration in ,i,Nicotiana,/i, and non-,i,Nicotiana,/i, plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of ... New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of ...
There is very little known at a mechanistic level about how plant cells regenerate, due to the difficulty in linking the ... 40,000 cells/sample was set as the lower limit for each sample. We collected GFP-positive and GFP-negative cells by FACS or ... Periodic Reporting for period 1 - POTENTIATE (A Molecular Framework for Plant Cell Totipotency). Reporting period: 2015-06-01 ... The cell-sorting system that we have set up will allow us to specifically analyse the transcriptome of these different cell ...
Plasmodesmata are small tubes that connect plant cells to each other, providing living bridges between cells. ... BACK TO PLANT CELL STRUCTURE. Questions or comments? Send us an email.. © 1995-2022 by Michael W. Davidson and The Florida ... some suggesting that the cells of higher plants are not really cells at all since they are not physically separated or ... Due to the presence of plasmodesmata, plant cells can be considered to form a synctium, or multinucleate mass with cytoplasmic ...
Plants do a good job of that. Turns out scientists have been working on ways to imitate… ... Solar cells that imitate plants. David Pescovitz 7:49 am Wed Apr 15, 2009 ... One reason that plants dont store fuel efficiently is that "plants goals are different than our goals," says (Devens Gust, a ... Plants do a good job of that. Turns out scientists have been working on ways to imitate natures photosynthesis since 1912. And ...
Is it easier to make a model of an animal cell or a plant cell? ... It depends, because plant cells have more functions, but it is ... Q&A for How to Build 3D Models of Animal and Plant Cells. ... Make an Animal Cell for a Science Project How to Draw a ... The cells can be whatever color you like. Just as long as the structure is correct, you can be as creative with color as you ... The animal cell has less functions, but it is more difficult to distribute it, since it is circular. ...
Plant cells are eukyrotic cells (cells with a clearly defined nucleus) and they change and divide as the plant develops. In ... The cell or plant wall is the structure through which the different cells of plant tissues are connected. ... plant cells dont have centrioles (exclusive to animal cells), and they have some characteristics that animal cells dont have ... Eukaryotic plant cells are very similar to animal cells. Both have a nucleus, mitochondrion, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, ...
Plants in soil are not solitary, hence continually interact with and obtain benefits from a community of microbes ( ... Plants in soil are not solitary, hence continually interact with and obtain benefits from a community of microbes ( ... plant compartment (Bai et al., 2015), plant genotype (Bouffaud et al., 2014), activity of the plant immune system, and plant ... Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) can be used to detect and sort cells from a ...
We hope to offer tiny mail again soon! Please join the newsletter to stay up to date, and in the meantime, explore Leas world of wonder. We hope to offer tiny mail again soon! Please join the newsletter to stay up to date, and in the meantime, explore Leas world of wonder. JOIN ...
Suitable for plant cell culture; Adenine has been used in yeast extract supplemented (YES) broth and yeast nitrogen base ... Adenine may be used as a plant cell culture additive. Adenine Sulphate (25mg/L) in the culture media such as Murashige & Skoog ...
Mimicking plants to make cheaper solar cells. By ,2004-08-26T00:00:00-04:00August 26th, 2004,Just the Facts Radio,Comments Off ...
Plant Cell Biology, genomic. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world. ... We have 3 Plant Cell Biology (genomic) PhD Projects, Programmes & Scholarships. PhD saved successfully ×. ... We have 3 Plant Cell Biology (genomic) PhD Projects, Programmes & Scholarships. Filter Results 3 ... Do you want to become expert in plant gene editing (GE) and develop the newest range of climate ready crops? GE or precision ...
Therefore, we investigated the role of this selective autophagy cargo receptor in plant response to sulfur deficit (-S). ... Transcriptome analysis of the wild type and NBR1 overexpressing plants pointed out differences in gene expression in response ... Plants exposed to sulfur deficit elevate the transcription of NBR1 what might reflect an increased demand for NBR1 in such ... Karimi, M.; De Meyer, B.; Hilson, P. Modular cloning in plant cells. Trends Plant. Sci. 2005, 10, 103-105. [Google Scholar] [ ...
Further knowledge about the DNA replication in plants could help to increase food security by improving crops and yields. ... Lindau Alumna Paola Libertad García Medel explores the DNA replication of plants. ... The Mystery of Plant Cells. Paola waiting for the opening concert of #LINO22 to start.. Paola Libertad García Medel explores ... Thats similar to human cells. But the replication of plant DNA is not completely understood by now. We need to learn what is ...
Search CHROMosome and Plant Cell Division in Space EXperiment on Amazon. *Search CHROMosome and Plant Cell Division in Space ...
DE-Fuel cell manufacturer Bloom Energy will set up shop in the former Chrysler assembly plant here, creating as many as 1,500 ... NEWARK, DE-Fuel cell manufacturer Bloom Energy will set up shop in the former Chrysler assembly plant here, creating as many as ... Fuel Cell Maker to Invest $65 Million in Assembly Plant. See More ... Fuel Cell Manufacturer to Take Over Chrysler Plant. June 17, ... FREYR Battery to Open $2.6 Billion Assembly Plant in Atlanta, Create 700 Jobs ...
... the power plants in our cells. Our immune cells then suffer from a lack of energy, so to speak. This has doubly fatal ... With excessive salt consumption, the defending cells are strengthened, but the regulating cells are weakened, which is why ... At the same time, we must assume that such processes naturally take place not only in the immune cells, but that an excess of ... Of course, you can also salt them slightly, after all, the body needs salt, for example, for the elasticity of the cells or for ...
The cell headquarters and inheritance; controls and orders the activities of the cell. ... The tiny rod-shaped cell bodies where aerobic respiration occurs; the cell powerhouses. ... A system of membranes that appears to be a factory for life processes and a cell communication system for chemical messages. ... Although the following term is actually obsolete and somewhat misleading, the cell may still be referred to as a__________ ...
PV CellTech will be return to Berlin on 14-15 March 2023 and looking at the competing technologies and roadmaps for PV cell ... JA Solar Holdings has broken ground on its Phase II, ingot, cell and module facility in Yangzhou, China. According to Chinese ... JA Solar claims a solar cell production line costs US$10 million, suggesting approximately 6-8 lines could be added. ... The reports suggested the new plant would increase JA Solars production capacity by 300MW. ...
It is well known that plants can fix carbon dioxide (CO2) into sugar. In plant cells, the chloroplast is responsible for fixing ... Both proteins play identical role in the cell. In the cytosol of the plant cells, AKR2 picks up only chloroplast outer membrane ... Indeed without this protein in plant cells, outer membrane proteins were not targeted to the chloroplast. In mutant plants ... Interestingly, chloroplasts in plant cells are thought to be originated from ancestral cyanobacterium which is carbon fixing ...
... plant protein is now used to create alternatives to meat that resemble anything from fried chicken strips to burger patties ... plant protein is now used to create alternatives to meat that resemble anything from fried chicken strips to burger patties ... Plant-based meat substitutes are manufactured to look and feel like animal meat. To achieve this, the plants are dehydrated and ... However, it is not known whether human cells absorb plant- and animal-derived proteins equally well. ...
Home » Medically Related » Pharma/FDA News » Virus hits Genzyme plant - Virus Infected Hamster Ovary Cells ... Virus hits Genzyme plant - Virus Infected Hamster Ovary Cells This is a little different as we all read about computer viruses ... The plant had issues back in 2008 with a warning letter from the FDA. The plant makes drugs that treat enzyme deficiencies, so ... He expects the plant to reopen by the end of July, and supplies to be steady by the end of the year. ...
Scientists working on organic solar cells that collect energy like plants do, via photosynthesis ... Scientists working on organic solar cells that collect energy like plants do, via photosynthesis. Reprinting this article: Non- ... Known as organic solar technology, special cells designed to convert light into energy in the same way that plants do via ... Scientists working on organic solar cells that collect energy like plants do, via photosynthesis. Tuesday, August 13, 2013 by: ...
More from Plant Cell Extracts. Cutting edge research in plant science from The Plant Cell, published by the American Society of ... Reproduced from Movie S1 from Meena et al 2019, The plant Cell.. Like countries keeping an eye on their enemies, plant cells ... The Plant Cell.. Lets compare the plants in the figure above. The intact plants on the left were exposed to hungry ... The same idea applies to cells. To import or export ions, plants have holes in their external cell wall. Moreover, like you can ...
Pilot plant acquires next-generation froth flotation cells. The new froth flotation cells are part of the development of GTK ... One Response to "Pilot plant acquires next-generation froth flotation cells". * GTK is investing significantly to renew the GTK ... The new cells to be started in the summer of 2021 will be operated alongside with froth flotation cells that have been used ... This is how froth flotation cells work. This is how froth flotation cells work:. Pulp that contains minerals to be enriched is ...
However, MP expression in plant cells did not affect the microtubules network. Since plant epidermal cells are quiescent whilst ... were determined by localization studies in mammalian cell lines in comparison to plant cells. Wild-type MPAbMV and the distinct ... the replication-associated protein RepAbMV protein was then co-expressed with MPAbMV to induce cell progression into S-phase, ... MPAbMV: reporter protein fusions appeared as curled threads throughout mammalian cells. Co-staining with cytoskeleton markers ...
The succesive stages of the plant cell mitosis are animated here: prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase and cytokinesis. ... The succesive stages of the plant cell mitosis are animated here: prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase and cytokinesis. ... To observe the different stages of the plant cell mitosis: prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase and cytokinesis. ... The cell cycle is divided into two main phases: the interphase (G phase), in charge of DNAs semi-conservative replication, and ...
Protektive Pak 37291 Conductive In-Plant Handler, 20 Cells/Box ...
... this two-piece plant model reveals the structures of a typical plant cell with cytoplasm and cell organelles as viewed by an ... this two-piece plant model reveals the structures of a typical plant cell with cytoplasm and cell organelles as viewed by an ... For quick identification, all important organelles of the plant cell are in raised relief and full color.. ... Features include the cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, ...
What is a cell?, parts of a cell, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, vacuole, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, ... parts of a cell, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, vacuole, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrion, ribosomes and ... The INB compare plant and animal cells and the organelles of a plant and animal cell. ... This poster and interactive notebook (INB) set covers: What is a cell?, parts of a cell, cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ...
  • Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. (
  • In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. (
  • These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. (
  • The companion article in C&EN describes research by Gust and others to build small molecular systems that imitate what plants do using a biological "machine" consisting of 20 proteins. (
  • It was not easy to find a group in structural biology that is dealing with plant DNA and a focus on proteins. (
  • But - and that's an advantage of working with recombinant proteins from plant cells, but obtained in bacteria - you can keep the proteins in the fridge or freezer for quite a long time. (
  • The symbiotic cyanobacterium, the ancestral cyanobacterium which entered the host cell, had the genome that encodes all proteins necessary for the biological processes such as translation, import and export of ions and chemicals from the environment because it was a free living bacterium before it had entered into the host cell. (
  • Now the chloroplast in the plant cell contains a small genome encoding only about 200 genes, and depends on the host's genome for most of its proteins for a variety of chloroplast functions including photosynthesis, and import and export of ions and chemicals. (
  • By this protein import mechanism, the chloroplast can obtain from the host cytosol proteins necessary for photosynthesis and provide fixed sugars to the host cell. (
  • Both proteins play identical role in the cell. (
  • In the cytosol of the plant cells, AKR2 picks up only chloroplast outer membrane proteins among the large number of proteins and delivers them to the chloroplasts. (
  • Indeed without this protein in plant cells, outer membrane proteins were not targeted to the chloroplast. (
  • In mutant plants without AKR2, chloroplasts cannot develop into a mature form because chloroplast cannot obtain the outer membrane proteins, which in turn results in abnormal plants with yellow leaves. (
  • However, it is not known whether human cells absorb plant- and animal-derived proteins equally well. (
  • In a study published by the American Chemical Society , a team led by Osvaldo Campanella from The Ohio State University and Da Chen from the University of Idaho tested whether human cells can absorb similar amounts of digested proteins from a model meat alternative as they can from a piece of chicken. (
  • Both these plant seeds are considered to be sources of quality proteins and when they are pressed out of an extruder they take on a texture that is very similar to that of chicken. (
  • Cooked pieces of chicken meat, and of the substitute plant-based product were then ground up in the lab and mixed with an enzyme that humans use to digest proteins. (
  • This means that, despite the fact that plant foods may contain sufficient protein to start with, the proteins may not be broken down and absorbed adequately in the human digestive system. (
  • Like countries keeping an eye on their enemies, plant cells have 'sentinels', proteins that look out for troubles. (
  • Most bacteria are, however, surrounded by a rigid cell wall made out of peptidoglycan , a polymer composed of linked carbohydrates and small proteins. (
  • For instance, although archaea also have a cell wall, it's not made out of peptidoglycan-although it does contain carbohydrates and proteins. (
  • Fluorescent proteins (FPs) revolutionized the cell biology research by visualizing the dynamics of cellular events. (
  • In fusion with the targeted proteins , the FPs can be utilized to monitor the protein dynamics and localization in cells . (
  • To facilitate the usage of fluorescent proteins for protein localization and dynamic analysis in plant cell biology research , here we describe the updated protocol of Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana using fluorescent proteins to generate the stable expression transgenic plants for protein trafficking and localization study. (
  • GFI grantee Dr. Girish Ganjyal at Washington State University is texturizing proteins and fiber to make better plant-based meat. (
  • Learn about Dr. Zata Vickers's research to develop muscle-like structures from pulse proteins to improve the texture of plant-based meat. (
  • Hybrid products are a promising means to improve the cost and sustainability of animal-derived meat while improving the taste of plant proteins. (
  • Although water and nutrient uptake can be facilitated by membrane proteins known as aquaporins and nutrient transporters, respectively, there is a little evidence that root-localised overexpression of these proteins improves plant growth or stress tolerance. (
  • Most cells contain ribosomes , which are structures that combine amino acids to create proteins. (
  • Our cells do a lot for us: they synthesize proteins, convert nutrients from our food into energy we can use, and make up the tissues and organs in our bodies. (
  • Abrin causes illness by getting inside the cells of a person's body and preventing the cells from making the proteins they need. (
  • Without the proteins, cells die. (
  • Ross Sozzani, an NC State associate professor of plant and microbial biology and corresponding author of the paper, says that the conductor behind this communication - which is critical to key aspects of plant development, including plant cell division, proliferation and differentiation - is a gene called TCX2, which is present in all the different plant root stem cells. (
  • The interdisciplinary research included molecular biology experiments in Arabadopsis thaliana , or mustard weed, as well as mathematical modeling and machine learning approaches to narrow down some 3,000 candidate genes to learn about the causal relationships between different root stem cell networks. (
  • In vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 55: 695-701, (2019). (
  • The general phase courses Plant Physiology and Animal Physiology will emphasize integrative themes and basic concepts that are central to the biology of both life forms (e.g. communication within and between different organisms, signals between cells and organs, symbiosis, cooperation and plant-animal interactions). (
  • Plant journal: for cell and molecular biology / Society for Experimental Biology (Great Britain). (
  • Plasmodesmata (singular, plasmodesma) are small channels that directly connect the cytoplasm of neighboring plant cells to each other, establishing living bridges between cells. (
  • Magnified almost a million times its size, this two-piece plant model reveals the structures of a typical plant cell with cytoplasm and cell organelles as viewed by an electron microscope. (
  • Cytoplasm consists of the jelly-like cytosol inside the cell, plus the cellular structures suspended in it. (
  • The interior of all cells consists of cytoplasm filled with a jelly-like substance called cytosol. (
  • Shoot tips of maize are composed of small cells with a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. (
  • Plants 2022, 11, 2997. (
  • Kampala, 19th April 2022: - The Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Tree Adoption Uganda (TAU), joined hands to commemorate World Health Day in a tree-planting exercise, in line with the day's theme, "Our Planet, Our Health" . (
  • The calcium waves are due to the quantity of calcium ion increasing and decreasing in the liquid within cells (called the cytosol ). (
  • Structures inside the cell are suspended in the cytosol. (
  • The layer consisted of large cells with small nucleus, free-organelle cytosol, irregular plasmatic membrane, trichome- like structures, and thick cell walls. (
  • Reproduced from Movie S1 from Meena et al 2019, The plant Cell . (
  • Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 136: 289-302, (2019). (
  • Somewhat cylindrical in shape, plasmodesmata are lined with the plasma membrane so all connected cells are united through essentially one continuous cell membrane. (
  • The vacuole pushes out on the cell membrane and cell wall. (
  • We'll talk more about the nucleus and organelles in the next article on eukaryotic cells, but the main thing to keep in mind for now is that prokaryotic cells are not divided up on the inside by membrane walls, but consist instead of a single open space. (
  • however, if guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate was added to activate Arf and stimulate translocation to the membrane, high levels of Arf were precipitated by RalA from cell lysates. (
  • All cells are bound by a plasma membrane . (
  • Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus where their DNA is stored. (
  • Methods: Archived membrane filter samples collected at a Charleston, SC asbestos textile plant during 1964-1968 were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the bivariate diameter/length distribution of airborne fibers by plant operation. (
  • The cell or plant wall is the structure through which the different cells of plant tissues are connected . (
  • The observation of ion concentrations in living plant tissues in real-time . (
  • How do the calcium ions move within plant tissues, then? (
  • Geminiviral single-stranded circular DNA genomes replicate in nuclei so that the progeny DNA has to cross both the nuclear envelope and the plasmodesmata for systemic spread within plant tissues. (
  • With what he called an "integrated biofabrication platform," Modern Meadow CEO Andras Forgacs said his company engineers animal cells and tissues to produce edible meat products and material goods like leather. (
  • Stem cells are responsible for generating all of the differentiated cells, tissues, and organs in a multicellular organism and, thus, play a crucial role in cell renewal, regeneration, and organization. (
  • Arene L, Pellegrino C, Gudin S. A comparison of the somaclonal variation level of Rosa hybrida L. cv Meirutral plants regenerated from callus or direct induction from different vegetative and embryonic tissues. (
  • Sitosterolemia is a condition in which fatty substances (lipids) from vegetable oils, nuts, and other plant-based foods accumulate in the blood and tissues. (
  • They hope to mimic the early, energy-efficient light-harvesting steps of photosynthesis, but then direct the harnessed light energy entirely toward producing fuel instead of growing a plant. (
  • The overall efficiency of photosynthesis for making sugar fuels is low-only about 2-3%-because plants' primary goal is to live and reproduce, not store fuel. (
  • A generally accepted idea for the origin of the chloroplast is that during evolution, an ancestral cyanobacterium, being capable of photosynthesis, entered an ancestral eukaryotic cell and became an organelle of the host cell. (
  • Known as organic solar technology, special cells designed to convert light into energy in the same way that plants do via photosynthesis are set to become a whole lot more efficient as a result of some new tweaks, which means their potential for inexpensive, large-scale use is soon on the horizon. (
  • If plants do not get enough water, photosynthesis slows down. (
  • The more turgid the leaf cells, the more photosynthesis can take place. (
  • Plants open the stomata to let in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. (
  • The new cells to be started in the summer of 2021 will be operated alongside with froth flotation cells that have been used since the 1980s. (
  • Researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) have revealed in a study published in Cell Reports that the circadian clock plays a guiding role in plant cell differentiation. (
  • The function of circadian clocks in the process of differentiation has been shown in many multicellular organisms, however, how plant circadian clocks regulate cell differentiation has remained unclear. (
  • The researchers isolated individual cells in tiny glass tubes and analyzed the expression of various genes related to circadian rhythms and cell differentiation in each cell. (
  • According to Motomu Endo, senior author of the study, this powerful approach helped them demonstrate that the expression profile of clock genes is changed before cell differentiation. (
  • This happens specifically in early differentiating cells, as the induction of the clock gene LUX ARRYTHMO directly targets genes involved in cell-cycle progression to regulate cell differentiation. (
  • Owing to close associations of different chromosomes at their heterochromatic regions, nuclear repatternings consisting of changes in the number and size of the chromocenters may occur with tissue differentiation in plant species. (
  • and (iii) that this large-scale control mechanism of gene expression is exploited in cell differentiation from its early stages. (
  • In the second part of the trajectory, the student can choose to take specific plant- or animal-directed differentiation courses. (
  • The long co-evolution of plants and their microbial communities has shaped the holobiont, and contributed to the development of microbial species that are specifically adapted to their respective plant host, and play a significant role in plant productivity and stress resistance. (
  • Due to the important role that the microbiome plays in plant health, stress resistance and nutrition acquisition, there is an increasing interest to design microbial communities that can promote plant growth in diverse environments. (
  • Most plant-associated microbial communities, for example root surface bacterial communities, are spatially organized structures composed of root-attached biofilms and planktonic cells arranged in complex layers ( Castiblanco and Sundin, 2016 ). (
  • Thus chloroplasts as the factory for sugar production play essential roles not only for plants themselves but also for most of living organisms on Earth. (
  • All living organisms have cells that contain genetic material ( DNA ). (
  • At the end of 2016, the United States had 56 large-scale fuel cell generating units greater than 1 megawatt (MW), totaling 137 megawatts (MW) of net summer capacity. (
  • This has doubly fatal consequences, because the immune cells perform two functions in our body, to put it very simply: Some fend off newly attacking viruses, parasites and bacteria, others control this killing and thus prevent inflammation. (
  • Interestingly, chloroplasts in plant cells are thought to be originated from ancestral cyanobacterium which is carbon fixing bacteria. (
  • Some bacteria also have specialized structures found on the cell surface, which may help them move, stick to surfaces, or even exchange genetic material with other bacteria. (
  • Archaea may also have most of these cell surface features, but their versions of a particular feature are typically different from those of bacteria. (
  • Prokaryotic cells include bacteria and archaea. (
  • The PulseNet specimens have no connection other than symbiotic flora, colonization, contamination, or infection by bacteria that at some point years ago were progeny of the same cell. (
  • We therefore investigated the antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of cannabidiol (CBD) in human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145, PC3, and assessed whether there is any advantage in using cannabis extracts enriched in cannabidiol and low in THC. (
  • High CBD cannabis extracts are cytotoxic to androgen responsive LNCaP cells and may effectively inhibit spheroid formation in cancer stem cells. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Genotoxicity of benzene in mammalian cells (Rattus rattus) and its minimization by medicinal plant extracts and Vitamin C. (
  • Therefore, vitamin C and crude extracts of fruits of medicinal plants Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) and Allium sativum (garlic) cloves were tested for their comparative effectiveness in minimizing the genotoxicity of benzene. (
  • Antioxidants vitamin C (10 mg/kg b.wt) and crude medicinal plant extracts (P. emblica=1000mg/kg b.wt. (
  • He is also the co-founder of Natural Response in Chile, which is dedicated to the production of plant extracts. (
  • How can I make the shape of a mitochondria in an animal cell? (
  • For example, the operating principle of mitochondria - the energy generators in cells - is still a mystery. (
  • This is because it dampens respiration and thus the activity of the mitochondria, i.e., the power plants in our cells. (
  • The phrase lives of a cell refers to the independent yet interrelated parts of a human cell including mitochondria, centrioles, and basal bodies that once led independent lives. (
  • The learning trajectory Physiology and Adaptation aims to develop the student's skills and knowledge of plant and animal physiological processes and to relate these to the functioning of the entire organism. (
  • check the tag ADOLESCENCE HN - 2008 BX - Nutrition in Adolescence FX - Adolescent Nutrition Physiology MH - Peritoneal Stomata UI - D054048 MN - A01.047.025.600.700 MN - A10.810 MS - Natural openings in the subdiaphragmatic lymphatic plexus in the PERITONEUM, delimited by adjacent mesothelial cells. (
  • What is the cell walls function? (
  • Similar to the gap junctions found in animal cells, the plasmodesmata, which penetrate both the primary and secondary cell walls (see Figure 1), allow certain molecules to pass directly from one cell to another and are important in cellular communication. (
  • At the same time, we must assume that such processes naturally take place not only in the immune cells, but that an excess of salt also affects the metabolism of other body cells, for example, in the intestine or in the vascular walls. (
  • Sweet purées and snack foods dominate the market, deriving a high proportion of energy from free sugar (‎including fruit juice)‎ or because intense maceration (‎puréeing)‎ has released intrinsic sugars from within plant cell walls. (
  • Plant cells are eukyrotic cells (cells with a clearly defined nucleus) and they change and divide as the plant develops. (
  • The genetic information contained in each nucleus of each plant cell is the same in all the members of the same species. (
  • The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell contains its DNA. (
  • Prokaryotic cells don't contain a nucleus. (
  • In the inner cell layer, small and isodiametric cells with a prominent nucleus, small vacuoles, endoplasmatic reticulum, Golgi, mitochondrias and chloroplasts were observed. (
  • The target transgene is integrated into the plant genome and the RP can be produced in successive generations [ 3 ]. (
  • In this strategy, the transgene is not integrated into the plant genome but rather quickly directs the production of the RP while residing transiently within the plant cell. (
  • However, during the process of becoming an organelle of the host cell, the symbiotic ancestral cyanobacterium must have transferred most of its genetic content to the host nuclear genome. (
  • The Plant Genome 9(3): 10.3835/plantgenome2016.05.0047. (
  • It depends, because plant cells have more functions, but it is easier to distribute the organelles onto a flat, rectangular surface. (
  • They are very large vesicles that can occupy 90% of the cell volume, displacing all organelles to the other side of the cell. (
  • They are the organelles responsible for the production of energy in the cell. (
  • In fact, in the cell, a large number of different organelles exist. (
  • For quick identification, all important organelles of the plant cell are in raised relief and full color. (
  • The INB compare plant and animal cells and the organelles of a plant and animal cell. (
  • Recently, FPs have been used as reporters for live cell imaging to study the protein localization or organelles dynamics in plants , allowing cell biologists to explore the plant cell function by obtaining tremendous details of cell structures and functions in combination with confocal imaging. (
  • Eukaryotic cells contain smaller structures, called organelles , that help it carry out these functions. (
  • Particularly, the bacterial communities of the root surface are spatially organized structures composed of root-attached biofilms and planktonic cells arranged in complex layers. (
  • Fimbriae are numerous, hair-like structures that are used for attachment to host cells and other surfaces. (
  • Which set of structures is in the correct order from the outside to the inside of a general plant leaf? (
  • Preliminaries of the molecules of life and cell structures are investigated in this course. (
  • which bipolar structures that resemble zygotic nevertheless, improvement through genetic embryos are developed from haploid or diploid engineering or mutagenesis requires a reliable somatic cells through an orderly embryologi- and efficient in vitro culture system. (
  • Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are all eukaryotes- eu means true-and are made up of eukaryotic cells. (
  • No algae species are currently considered a "plant pest risk," so they would not need USDA approval, explained David Glass, of D. Glass Associates, a consulting firm specializing in biotechnology and renewable fuels. (
  • M.S. Plant Biotechnology. (
  • Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C signaling mediates expression of two phenylalanine ammonia lyase genes induced by salicylic acid in Capsicum chinense cells.Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. (
  • Many are derived the rise of biotechnology, new occupational hazards have from animals or plants, and exposure usually involves emerged. (
  • Joint stiffness and pain resulting from plant sterol deposits may also occur in individuals with sitosterolemia. (
  • Changes in the lipid composition of the membranes of red blood cells and platelets may account for the other blood abnormalities that sometimes occur in sitosterolemia. (
  • Phytophotodermatitis (PPD) can occur through ingestion of the plant or, more commonly, through topical contact. (
  • Foliar injury from soaps and oils may occur on plants under drought stress. (
  • New characteristics of ectopically produced Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) MP (MPAbMV), either authentically expressed or fused to a yellow fluorescent protein or epitope tags, respectively, were determined by localization studies in mammalian cell lines in comparison to plant cells. (
  • Wild-type MPAbMV and the distinct MPAbMV: reporter protein fusions appeared as curled threads throughout mammalian cells. (
  • Since plant epidermal cells are quiescent whilst mammalian cells are proliferating, the replication-associated protein RepAbMV protein was then co-expressed with MPAbMV to induce cell progression into S-phase, thereby inducing distinct microtubule bundling without MP recruitment to the newly formed threads. (
  • In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. (
  • The approval of the first plant-derived therapeutic enzyme for Gaucher's disease has demonstrated the promise of plant-based systems for recombinant protein (RP) production [ 1 ]. (
  • In addition, plant protein is now used to create alternatives to meat that resemble anything from fried chicken strips to burger patties. (
  • Previous research has shown that plant-based substitutes do not break down into their constituent molecules as easily as animal meats do during digestion, but the researchers aimed to test the extent of protein absorption as well. (
  • Fluorescent Fusion Protein Expression in Plant Cells. (
  • We further use the GFP-tagged SDP1 ( sugar -dependent protein ) lipase , mCherry-tagged peroxisome marker, and BODYPY or Nile Red ( lipid droplet staining dye ) as examples to introduce the method for the protein localization analysis in plants . (
  • This protein is involved in eliminating plant sterols, which cannot be used by human cells. (
  • Sterolin is a transporter protein, which is a type of protein that moves substances across cell membranes. (
  • However, PLD1 precipitated from cell lysates with immobilized glutathione S-transferase-RalA fusion protein is active. (
  • When you look at how conventional meat is produced, it's plant protein going through a cow or chicken or pig, et cetera, and getting turned into a different form," says Boyman. (
  • After more than a decade of fast growth, plant-based milks have now captured about 13 percent of the liquid milk market, according to the Good Food Institute, a non-profit that promotes alternatives to animal protein. (
  • It is widely thought that by constricting and dilating the openings at the ends of the plasmodesmata, plants cells regulate the passage of small molecules, such as sugars, salts, and amino acids, though this mechanism is not yet well understood. (
  • Solazyme , which won BIO's George Washington Carver Award this year, turns plant-based sugars into new sources of healthy food ingredients and oils. (
  • With the distinct but coordinated roles among the different member cells, bacterial communities resemble properties of a multicellular organism. (
  • Eukaryotes-organisms composed of eukaryotic cells-are multicellular or complex unicellular organisms. (
  • We saw that TCX2 was able to target different stem cell genes in different stem cell networks and regulate their functional timing," Sozzani said. (
  • A number of stem cell type-specific genes have a known role in stem cell maintenance, identity, and/or division. (
  • Yet, how genes expressed across different stem cell types, referred here as stem-cell-ubiquitous genes, contribute to stem cell regulation is less understood. (
  • Our results highlight that genes expressed across different stem cell types ensure cross-communication among cells, allowing them to divide and develop harmonically together. (
  • Root-specific expression of plant and bacterial phytohormone-related genes, using either root-specific or root-inducible promoters or grafting non-transformed plants onto constitutive hormone producing rootstocks, has examined the role of root hormone production in mediating crop stress tolerance. (
  • To eliminate the long time frame of generating transgenic plants, transient expression systems have been developed. (
  • However, scale-up of RP production by transient expression poses a bigger challenge than transgenic plants, because no genetically stable seed bank is produced and scale-up is no longer just a matter of increasing acreage to boost yield. (
  • Here we discuss strategies for the isolation of single bacterial cells, mRNA enrichment, library construction, and analysis and interpretation of the resulting single-cell RNA-Seq datasets. (
  • 2. Define the transcriptional landscape of embryogenic cells using high throughput mRNA sequencing. (
  • The mRNA expression level of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 , vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), PSA (prostate specific antigen) are significantly higher in human prostate cell lines. (
  • A majority of plasmodesmata also contain a narrow tube-like structure called the desmotubule , which is derived from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the connected cells. (
  • Water-splitting is key to the renewable production of hydrogen gas and other energy fuels, and doing so with inexpensive catalysts, as plants do a billion times per day, would be a huge step forward for solar power research. (
  • JA Solar Holdings has broken ground on its Phase II, ingot, cell and module facility in Yangzhou, China. (
  • JA Solar claims a solar cell production line costs US$10 million, suggesting approximately 6-8 lines could be added. (
  • For years, technologists have been trying to improve the conversion efficiency of solar cells, as all across the board conversion rates have traditionally been low. (
  • Typical silicon-based solar cells today, for instance, achieve between 20 and 25 percent energy efficiency, while emerging organic solar cells achieve only about half this amount, or 12 percent efficiency. (
  • After using a special, laser-based technology to carefully evaluate the way electrons function inside organic solar cells, the multinational team learned some electrons devolve into a catatonic state where they no longer possess energy. (
  • Electrons in solar cells can be lost through a process called 'recombination,' where electrons lose their energy -- or 'excitation' state -- and fall back into an empty state known as the 'hole. (
  • After pinning down how electrons normally function within an organic solar cell, effectively keeping conversion efficiency rates low, the team figured out that electron spin can be altered to improve these rates. (
  • This discovery is very exciting, as we can now harness spin physics to improve solar cells, something we had previously not thought possible," says Dr. Akshay Rao, a Research Fellow at the Cavendish Laboratory and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge and one of the lead authors of the study. (
  • We should see new materials and solar cells that make use of this very soon. (
  • Hanwha Q Cells is supplying modules for Marubeni to construct a large scale solar power plant located in southern Japan. (
  • Under the agreement, Hanwha Q Cell will deliver 82 MW of modules to a solar plant project. (
  • Upon completion, data on plant operation, maintenance as well as other aspects will be collected for the risk evaluation on future mega-solar projects. (
  • The non-mutant plant (WT, wild type) kept some intact leaf tissue. (
  • To produce a hide, the Modern Meadow platform uses the best naturally performing cells of a cow, then proceeds to "tweak the performance of cells so they grow faster," and then focuses on tissue architecture. (
  • If you wanted to help a plant become more drought tolerant, for example, how do you build more vascular tissue which is important for that function? (
  • Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. (
  • Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. (
  • Tissue culture of ornamental pot plant: A critical review on present scenario and future prospects. (
  • In Cell and Tissue Culture in Forestry. (
  • That is why we conducted two studies at the Max Delbrück Center together with the Charité in Berlin: On the one hand, we examined cell cultures from male volunteers who had increased their salt intake over a period of two weeks. (
  • Plasmodesmata typically form during cell division when parts of the endoplasmic reticulum of the parent cell get trapped in the new cell wall that is produced to create daughter cells. (
  • Prokaryotes-organisms composed of a prokaryotic cell-are always single-celled (unicellular). (
  • She is currently completing her PhD thesis at the Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa in Spain, with focus on the DNA replication of plants. (
  • Therefore, we at the Integrated Plant Protection Unit aim to generate knowledge towards the development of sustainable pest and disease management solutions based on conceptual theory and empirical eco-evolutionary, molecular and genetic data that can meet the needs of current and evolving plant production systems. (
  • Cells are the microscopic units that make up humans and every other living organism. (
  • When the vacuole is full of water, the cells are rigid and firm. (
  • The cngc19-2 mutant plant was heavily eaten with only leaf stems remaining. (
  • Calcium wave initiated by cutting the leaf of a fully functional (wild-type) Arabidopsis plant. (
  • The cell on the left is from a healthy, firm leaf or stem. (
  • The cell on the right is from a soft, drooping stem or leaf. (
  • Factors controlling high efficiency adventitious bud formation and plant regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of roses (Rosa hybrida L.). Sci. (
  • It has been shown that the circadian rhythmic potassium flux from/into motor cells triggers cell shrinking/swelling to cause nyctinastic leaf-folding/opening movement in S. saman . (
  • Additionally, SPORK2 was identified as an outward-rectifying potassium channel that causes leaf-movement in the same plant. (
  • Here, we report that JAG induces leaf-folding through accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the extensor motor cells of S. saman , and this occurs independently of plant hormone signaling. (
  • Circadian rhythmic leaf-folding, called nyctinasty, is a widely observed physiological behavior of leguminous plants 1 , 2 , wherein the plants open their leaves in the morning and fold them in the evening. (
  • Unequal volume changes in the motor cells in the adaxial/abaxial side of the pulvinus cause the leaf movement. (
  • Scales feed on plants by piercing the leaf, stem, or branch with their mouthparts and sucking sap. (
  • The present work was aimed at studying the genotoxic effects (chromosomal aberrations and mitotic index changes) of benzene on somatic (bone marrow) cells of 10-15 week old albino rats (Rattus rattus). (
  • [ 5 ] In the presence of oxygen, activated molecules form photoaddition products with DNA pyrimidine bases via DNA interstrand crosslinking at cytosine and thymidine with the furan ring of the psoralen and result in epidermal cell nucleic acid damage (type I reaction). (
  • Characteristics of prokaryotic cells. (
  • It also means that you-for some definition of the word you-actually consist of both of the major types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. (
  • There are some key ingredients that a cell needs in order to be a cell, regardless of whether it is prokaryotic or eukaryotic. (
  • Image of a typical prokaryotic cell, with different portions of the cell labeled. (
  • Typical prokaryotic cells range from 0.1 to 5.0 micrometers (μm) in diameter and are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells, which usually have diameters ranging from 10 to 100 μm. (
  • 4. There are two main types of cells: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: The traditional plant, Andrographis paniculata (Sambiloto), exhibits insulin-releasing actions in vitro. (
  • Paola Libertad García Medel explores the DNA replication of plants - which is a fairly new field in biochemistry. (
  • However, chloroplasts are not just carbon dioxide fixing factory but also responsible for producing a large number of chemical compounds that are essential for plant growth and development. (
  • Plant-based meat substitutes are manufactured to look and feel like animal meat. (
  • The researchers say the next step is to identify other ingredients that could help facilitate the peptide uptake from plant-based meat substitutes, in the same way that vitamin C has been shown to boost iron uptake. (
  • But the industry faces emerging threats on two fronts: plant-based meat substitutes and actual meat grown in labs. (
  • Plant-based meat substitutes are a lot more, well, meaty than they used to be. (
  • Plant-based meat substitutes tend to be more expensive than meat, and high in saturated fat. (
  • In fact, livestock producers face two big threats to market share: rapidly-improving plant-based meat substitutes, and meat grown from animal cells in laboratories. (
  • In a new paper, researchers at North Carolina State University lift the veil on the "conductor" plant root stem cell gene that helps orchestrate and coordinate stem cell division of different root stem cell types, ensuring the harmonic communication necessary for plant growth and maintenance. (
  • Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus , have received renewed interest in recent years due to their diverse pharmacologic activities such as cell growth inhibition, anti-inflammatory effects and tumor regression, but their use in chemotherapy is limited by their psychotropic activity. (
  • Results obtained in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines clearly indicate that cannabidiol is a potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth, with significantly lower potency in non-cancer cells. (
  • Telgen H, Elag V, Mil AV, Paffen A, Klerk G. Role of plant hormones in lateral bud growth of rose and apple in vitro. (
  • Notably, Alife is using plant-based cell culture medium to avoid ethical concerns and the high cost of animal-based growth serums. (
  • 2004). Therefore, there in response to culture (concentration and type is considerable interest in the development of of plant growth regulators), and environmen- new maize cultivars tolerant to diseases, pests tal (light intensity, temperature and photope- and drought (O'Connor-Sanchéz et al . (
  • This information can be used to classify cells based on functional gene expression patterns, and predict the spatial organization of the community. (
  • Top right, damage done by Spodoptera caterpillars on a fully functional plant (WT, wild type). (
  • Basic functional unit of plants. (
  • The succesive stages of the plant cell mitosis are animated here: prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase and cytokinesis. (
  • To observe the different stages of the plant cell mitosis: prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase and cytokinesis. (
  • Most cells in the human body can divide via a processes called mitosis. (
  • Mitosis occurs when a cell divides and creates two genetically identical copies of itself. (
  • PV CellTech will be return to Berlin on 14-15 March 2023 and looking at the competing technologies and roadmaps for PV cell mass production during 2024-2026. (
  • Working with Arabidopsis thaliana plants, NC State researchers find a mastermind gene in root stem cells. (
  • Here, we find that, in the Arabidopsis root, a stem-cell-ubiquitous gene, TESMIN-LIKE CXC2 (TCX2), controls stem cell division by regulating stem cell-type specific networks. (
  • Main objective in this project has been to isolate and characterize the different embryogenic cell types in Brassica napus microspore culture using a set of fluorescently-tagged gene reporters. (
  • 1. Define and collect the different embryogenic cell types present in microspore culture using GFP-based reporters, time-lapse imaging, and cell sorting. (
  • The three GFP reporters mark an overlapping set of embryogenic cells, each with different fates i) differentiated embryos (DR5, LEC1 and GRP) and ii) unorganized callus (LEC1 and GRP) (Figure 1). (
  • Time-lapse imaging of the embryo-expressed GFP reporter lines was used to determine the fate of the different embryogenic cell types in culture. (
  • Kim SW, Oh SC, In D S, Liu JR. Plant regeneration of rose (Rosa hybridia) from embryogenic cell-derived protoplasts. (
  • Kim SW, Oh SC, In DS, Liu JR. Plant regeneration of rose (Rosa hybridia) from embryogenic cell-derived protoplasts. (
  • This showed that even this one meal was enough to weaken the metabolism of our immune cells. (
  • What is the cell wall made from? (
  • The plasmodesmata is structured in an entirely different configuration than the animal cell gap junction because of the thick cell wall. (
  • To import or export ions, plants have holes in their external cell wall. (
  • They insert themselves into the cell wall and transport specific ions by creating a tiny bridge between the outside and the inside. (
  • Water uptake by growing cells: an assessment of the controlling roles of wall relaxation, solute uptake, and hydraulic conductance. (
  • P.8 left column top paragraph: 'In addition to the contribution of their structural elements, the mechanical properties of cells largely depend on osmotic pressure commonly in the range of 2,300-6,800mmHg (0.3-0.9MPa) in growing cells (primary source) and estimated at up to 75,000-375,000mmHg (10-50MPa) for wall tensile stresses. (
  • The ultrastructure of the two-layered cell wall is unique among land plants, although a simple large helical thickening suggests affinity with the Tracheophyta. (
  • The lumen of each cell is lined with a thin microporate layer that overlies the bulk of the wall, including the simple helical thickening, which has a spongy texture. (
  • The microporate layer resembles that found in some extant hepatics, although a convincing argument for a close phylogenetic relationship requires more information on the chemical structure of the wall layers and the morphology of the whole plant. (
  • The cell wall provides an extra layer of protection, helps the cell maintain its shape, and prevents dehydration. (
  • A fuel cell creates electricity from hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich fuel, and oxygen, and can be used in a wide range of applications including transportation, stationary, portable, and backup power applications. (
  • The SOFC plant generates electricity from hydrogen atoms without producing harmful emissions. (
  • Hyundai Motor Co. introduces its fuel cell electric vehicle, the NEXO, in a hydrogen mobility show held at KINTEX in Goyang, north of Seoul, on July 1, 2020, in this photo provided by the automaker. (
  • SEOUL, Jan. 5 (Korea Bizwire) - Hyundai Motor Co., South Korea's biggest carmaker, will build its first overseas hydrogen fuel cell systems plant in China as it seeks to enter the local hydrogen market, industry sources said Tuesday. (
  • Hyundai Motor aims to build the hydrogen fuel cell systems plant in Guangzhou within this year as it has recently obtained government approval for the investment plan, a person familiar with the matter said over the phone. (
  • The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy reviewed the impact of hydrogen fuel cell systems' exports as the hydrogen technologies are regarded as one of the country's core technologies, government sources said. (
  • The ministry approved the plan as it judged building a hydrogen fuel cell systems plant will pave the way for Korean auto parts suppliers to increase their exports to the world's biggest automobile market, they said. (
  • Hyundai recently launched a brand dedicated to its fuel cell system, called HTWO, which stands for the hydrogen molecule H2, and aims to sell 700,000 hydrogen fuel cells in global markets in 2030. (
  • One of the big questions surrounding hydrogen fuel-cell cars is how to produce the hydrogen used to power them. (
  • Mass adoption of fuel-cell vehicles would not only require much more hydrogen than is currently available, but hydrogen that is generated with minimal carbon emissions. (
  • Today's hydrogen production methods increase a fuel-cell vehicle's overall carbon footprint beyond that of a battery-electric vehicle. (
  • It has a project to produce hydrogen using wind power , but only for fuel-cell forklifts, reports the Associated Press. (
  • The hydrogen is produced at a wind-power plant in Yokohama, southwest of Tokyo. (
  • In theory, the same wind plant could supply hydrogen for Mirai fuel-cell sedans, although there are still relatively few of those on Japanese roads. (
  • Japan's government plans to showcase hydrogen fuel-cell technology at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. (
  • That includes plans to build more hydrogen fueling stations, and put more fuel-cell vehicles into service. (
  • It's part of a larger effort by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to create a "hydrogen society," in which fuel cells are used to power buildings and infrastructure, as well as vehicles. (
  • Due to the presence of plasmodesmata, plant cells can be considered to form a synctium , or multinucleate mass with cytoplasmic continuity. (
  • Thousands of plasmodesmata may be formed that connect the daughter cells to one another. (
  • However, these methods are generally unable to reconstruct the assembly of these communities, or how the gene expression patterns in individual cells/species are coordinated within these communities. (
  • Single-cell transcriptomes of community members can identify how gene expression patterns vary among members of the community, including differences among different cells of the same species. (
  • They then developed a new algorithm called PeakMatch to reconstruct actual-time gene expression patterns from the single-cell datasets. (
  • Caffeine extraction, enzymatic activity and gene expression of caffeine synthase from plant cell suspensions. (
  • The studies listed below are on human and animal cells, laboratory animals, livestock animals, and plants. (
  • But the livestock industry is lobbying to try to stop plant-based meats from gaining market share with ambiguous labels. (
  • Foliar nyctinasty, a circadian rhythmic movement in plants, is common among leguminous plants and has been widely studied. (
  • That's right - you are home to around 100 trillion bacterial cells! (
  • Let's hope that many more school districts recognize the benefits to the children, the animals and the plant, of choosing plant-based nuggets, and they adopt the Kickin' Nuggets more widely. (
  • We get everything we need from the plants we eat, or from the meat of animals that ate plants. (
  • More papers have been published on unintended outcomes and risks of gene editing in medical research on human and animal cells and laboratory animals, compared with plants. (
  • After having followed the courses in this trajectory, the student will comprehend the relationships of plants and/or animals with their environment. (
  • The student will also understand how the functioning of plants and/or animals is adapted to the environment by the process evolution. (
  • After all, if only a few cells from a living animal are required, and it doesn't have to die, why not use cells from the very tastiest animals. (
  • When up and running, Kyushu Electric Power Company will buy all the electricity generated by the plant for more than 20 years. (
  • A rigid structure which protects the cells and gives them their shape. (