The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.

Semialactone, isofouquierone peroxide and fouquierone, three new dammarane triterpenes from Rhus javanica. (1/477)

Three new dammarane triterpenes and semialactic acid were isolated from the stem bark of Rhus javanica. The structures of these triterpenes, named semialactone, isofouquierone peroxide and fouquierone, were elucidated by 2D-NMR analysis (HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC), and the 13C-NMR data of semialatic acid is revised.  (+info)

Quinone-type podocarpanes from the bark of Taiwania cryptomerioides. (2/477)

Three quinone-type podocarpanes, 3beta-hydroxy-13-methoxy-8,12-podocarpadiene-11,14-dione (1), 18-hydroxy-13-methoxy-8,12-podocarpadiene-11,14-dione (2), and 13-methoxy-8,12-podocarpadiene-2,11,14-trione (3) were isolated from the bark of Taiwania cryptomerioides. Their structures were elucidated using spectral methods.  (+info)

Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark aqueous extract. (3/477)

BACKGROUND: Tabebuia avellanedae is a tree from the Bignoniaceae family. Commonly know as "pau d'arco" in Brazil, its inner bark is used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplasic and diuretic at the Brazilian northeast. A validation of the plant usage has not been previously performed. RESULTS: Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark were measured by nociceptive experimental models in mice. A rat paw edema test induced by carrageenan (1%) was also performed in rats to access the plant's antiedematogenic effect. The inner bark aqueous extract, administered via oral in three different concentration, namely 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid (0.6% in water, i.p.) by 49.9%, 63.7% and 43.8%, respectively. The aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) reduced formalin (1%) effects only at the second phase of the experiment by 49.3% and 53.7%, respectively. Naloxone (5 mg/Kg, i.p.) was not able to revert the extract effect, however caffeine (10 mg/Kg, i.p.) reverted its effect by 19.8% at the second phase of the formalin test. The aqueous extract (200 mg/Kg, p.o.) inhibited edema by 12.9% when we used the rat paw edema model. The acute toxicity was low in mice. CONCLUSION: The T. avellanedae inner bark aqueous extract presented antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities at the used models, with a possible antinociceptive effect associated to the adenosine system.  (+info)

Stem diameter variations and cold hardiness in walnut trees. (4/477)

The effect of freezing temperatures on stem diameter was measured in the field and in climatic chambers using linear variable differential transformers (LVDT sensors). In acclimated stems, there was reversible stem shrinkage associated with freeze-thaw cycles. The maximum shrinkage correlated with stem diameter (thickness of the bark). The wood was responsible for only 15% of the shrinkage associated with a freeze event, and experiments with isolated bark showed that connection with the wood was not necessary for most of the freeze-induced shrinkage to occur. Considering the amount of stem shrinkage associated with summer drought in walnut, the amount of contraction of the bark with freezing was actually much less than might be predicted by water relations theory. Reversible stem shrinkage occurred in living tissues, but not in autoclaved tissues. For the latter, swelling was observed with freezing and this swelling could be explained by the bark alone. Similar swelling was observed during September and October for non-acclimated plants. Water was lost with each freeze-thaw cycle starting with the first, and freezing injury of the bark, with discoloration of tissues, was also observed in non-acclimated plants. Given that the diameter fluctuation patterns were dramatically different for acclimated versus non-acclimated plants, and for living versus autoclaved tissues, LVDT sensors could represent a novel, non-invasive approach to testing cold hardiness.  (+info)

A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba. (5/477)

Himatanthus sucuuba is an Amazonian tree with abundant, yet conflicting ethnobotanical information. Investigation of the polar and non-polar constituents led to the isolation of plumericin, a bioactive spirolactone iridoid, and four known pentacylic triterpenes: lupeol acetate, lupeol cinnamate, lupeol beta-phenyl propionate, and alpha-amyrin cinnamate.  (+info)

Antiproliferative constituents in the plants 7. Leaves of Clerodendron bungei and leaves and bark of C. trichotomum. (6/477)

The constituents of the leaves of Clerodendron bungei STEUD. (Verbenaceae) and leaves and bark of C. trichotomum THUNB. were investigated guided by the antiproliferative activity against three tumor cell lines (MK-1: human gastric adenocarcinoma, HeLa: human uterus carcinoma, and B16F10: murine melanoma). Two phenylethanoid glycoside caffeic acid esters, acteoside and isoacteoside, were isolated as the constituents which selectively inhibit the growth of B16F10 cells. The antiproliferative activities against B16F10 cells of acteoside (GI50: 8 microM), isoacteoside (8 microM) and their methanolysis products, methyl caffeate (26 microM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol (8 microM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl glucoside (10 microM), desrhamnosyl acteoside (6 microM), and desrhamnosyl isoacteoside (6 microm) suggested that the 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol group might be more responsible for the activities of acteoside and isoacteoside than the caffeoyl group. The activities of chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylamine hydrochloride, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, and five dihydroxybenzoic acids were also determined and compared with those of the above compounds.  (+info)

Anti-tumor-promoting activity of the diterpene from Excoecaria agallocha. II. (7/477)

Eight new diterpenoids (1-8) have been isolated from the wood of Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae) and their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells were examined to search for potent anti-tumor-promoters from natural resources. Of these compounds, the secolabdane-type diterpenoid, compound 7 exhibited a remarkable inhibitory effect on EBV-EA induction, and a significant anti-tumor-promoting effect in the mouse two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanovl-phorbol-13-acetate.  (+info)

Myxomycetes from upper Egypt. (8/477)

The results of the first inventory of Myxomycetes from the subtropical region Upper Egypt are reported. The substrates were wood, bark of living and dead tree and leaf litter. 20 species belonging to 17 genera of Myxomycetes were identified. Wood was the best substrate for Myxomycetes colonization. Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, Didymiun melanospermum, Licea biforis and Lycogala epidendrum were the most common species. Brief description and classification of species are provided.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Bark" is not a term with a specific medical definition. In general, the bark refers to the outermost covering of a tree or other plant, which serves as protection and provides a barrier against external threats. It is composed of layers including the inner bark (phloem), which transports nutrients throughout the plant, and the outer bark (periderm), which is made up of dead cells that form a protective layer.

While some plants or plant parts do have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional or alternative medicine, "Plant Bark" by itself does not have any specific medical connotations. If you're referring to a specific type of plant bark with potential medicinal uses, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

'Plant development' is not a term typically used in medical definitions, as it is more commonly used in the field of botany to describe the growth and differentiation of plant cells, tissues, and organs over time. However, in a broader context, plant development can be defined as the series of changes and processes that occur from the fertilization of a plant seed to the formation of a mature plant, including germination, emergence, organ formation, growth, and reproduction.

In medicine, terms related to plant development may include "phytotherapy" or "herbal medicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as medicinal treatments for various health conditions. The study of how these plants develop and produce their active compounds is an important area of research in pharmacology and natural products chemistry.

'Toxic plants' refer to those species of plants that contain toxic substances capable of causing harmful effects or adverse health reactions in humans and animals when ingested, touched, or inhaled. These toxins can cause a range of symptoms from mild irritation to serious conditions such as organ failure, paralysis, or even death depending on the plant, the amount consumed, and the individual's sensitivity to the toxin.

Toxic plants may contain various types of toxins, including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, resinous substances, and essential oils. Some common examples of toxic plants include poison ivy, poison oak, nightshade, hemlock, oleander, castor bean, and foxglove. It is important to note that some parts of a plant may be toxic while others are not, and the toxicity can also vary depending on the stage of growth or environmental conditions.

If you suspect exposure to a toxic plant, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately and, if possible, bring a sample of the plant for identification.

A plant cell is defined as a type of eukaryotic cell that makes up the structural basis of plants and other forms of multicellular plant-like organisms, such as algae and mosses. These cells are typically characterized by their rigid cell walls, which provide support and protection, and their large vacuoles, which store nutrients and help maintain turgor pressure within the cell.

Plant cells also contain chloroplasts, organelles that carry out photosynthesis and give plants their green color. Other distinctive features of plant cells include a large central vacuole, a complex system of membranes called the endoplasmic reticulum, and numerous mitochondria, which provide energy to the cell through cellular respiration.

Plant cells are genetically distinct from animal cells, and they have unique structures and functions that allow them to carry out photosynthesis, grow and divide, and respond to their environment. Understanding the structure and function of plant cells is essential for understanding how plants grow, develop, and interact with their surroundings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Structures" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of botany to refer to the different parts of a plant, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Each of these structures has specific functions that contribute to the overall growth, reproduction, and survival of the plant. If you have any questions related to biology or botany, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Edible plants are those that can be safely consumed by humans and other animals as a source of nutrition. They have various parts (such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, roots, stems, and leaves) that can be used for food after being harvested and prepared properly. Some edible plants have been cultivated and domesticated for agricultural purposes, while others are gathered from the wild. It is important to note that not all plants are safe to eat, and some may even be toxic or deadly if consumed. Proper identification and knowledge of preparation methods are crucial before consuming any plant material.

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are natural or synthetic chemical substances that, when present in low concentrations, can influence various physiological and biochemical processes in plants. These processes include cell division, elongation, and differentiation; flowering and fruiting; leaf senescence; and stress responses. PGRs can be classified into several categories based on their mode of action and chemical structure, including auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and others. They are widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield and quality, regulate plant growth and development, and enhance stress tolerance.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

"Plant immunity" refers to the complex defense mechanisms that plants have evolved to protect themselves from pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and nematodes. Plants do not have an adaptive immune system like humans, so they rely on their innate immune responses to detect and respond to pathogen invasion.

Plant immunity can be broadly categorized into two types: PTI (PAMP-triggered immunity) and ETI (Effector-triggered immunity). PTI is activated when the plant recognizes conserved microbial patterns, known as PAMPs (Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns), through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the cell surface. This recognition triggers a series of defense responses, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the expression of defense genes.

ETI is activated when the plant recognizes effector proteins produced by pathogens to suppress PTI. Effector recognition typically occurs through resistance (R) proteins that can directly or indirectly recognize effectors, leading to the activation of stronger defense responses, such as the hypersensitive response (HR), which involves localized programmed cell death to limit pathogen spread.

Overall, plant immunity is a complex and dynamic process involving multiple layers of defense mechanisms that help plants protect themselves from pathogens and maintain their health and productivity.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Meliaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the Mahogany family of plants, which includes around 50 genera and over 1,300 species of trees and shrubs. Some of these plants have medicinal properties, but "Meliaceae" itself does not have a medical definition.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Plant Epidermis" is not a medical term. Instead, it is a term used in botany to describe the outermost layer of cells in plant tissues. The epidermis serves as a protective barrier for the plant, regulating gas exchange and water loss through stomata, and producing cutin, a waxy substance that helps prevent water loss.

In summary, "Plant Epidermis" is a term related to plant biology and not medicine.

Stomata are microscopic pores found in the epidermis of plant leaves, stems, and other organs. They are essential for gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, allowing the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and the release of oxygen. Plant stomata consist of two guard cells that surround and regulate the size of the pore. The opening and closing of the stomatal pore are influenced by environmental factors such as light, humidity, and temperature, as well as internal signals within the plant.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pinus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as pine trees, which belong to the family Pinaceae in the kingdom Plantae. These evergreen coniferous resinous trees are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with some species also found in the Southern Hemisphere.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please feel free to ask!

Banana paper, a paper made from the bark of the banana plant. Dó paper, a paper traditionally produced in many villages in ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bark paper. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ... Bark paper may refer to: Amate, a form of paper manufactured in Mexico. ...
Bark is present only on woody plants - herbaceous plants and stems of young plants lack bark. From the outside to the inside of ... Bark is the outermost layer of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs. Bark ... Bark beetle Bark painting Trunk (botany) Bark isolate Bark-binding, a diseased condition of tree bark Raven, Peter H.; Evert, ... Kauri bark Beech bark with callus growth following fire (heat) damage Damaged bark Common oak bark "Rainbow" Eucalyptus bark on ...
... s enter trees by boring holes in the bark of the tree, sometimes using the lenticels, or the pores plants use for ... Bark beetle gallery engraving the sapwood Bark beetle galleries with bark showing exit holes Some species produce single ... Bark beetles can also be transporters of different plant pathogens such as cankers. The transport of the pathogens also result ... It is an aggregation pheromone that attracts insects to the plant/ tree host, including the bark beetle. Monoterpenes has also ...
"Witch Craft Magical Plants Birch Bark". Magical Plants. Takomamamma. 27 July 2022. Retrieved 30 October 2022. Child, Francis ...
Several fires broke out in early 2020 in a bark processing plant, a bark pile, a garage and rental home, and a large area of ... "Bark processing plant fire in Whakamarama". Sun Media. Sun Live. 25 February 2020. "Large Whakamarama bark fire sends smoke ...
It is also a honeyed plant. The bark and leaves contain tannins. According to research, the bark may contain some toxic ... The raw material of "木荷 mù hé" comes from the bark, which can "攻毒/attack poison" and "消腫/reduce swelling". The raw material of ... Schima superba is a species of flowering plant in the tea family Theaceae, native to subtropical areas of Vietnam, southern ... "Schima superba Gardner & Champ". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 22 November 2022. "木荷 mu he ...
... is a disease in trees that causes the bark of the plant to become hardened and tough, restricting the growth of ... It can be cured by slitting the bark, cutting it along the grain of the tree, or by scraping away all of the diseased bark. ... 1728). "Bark-binding". Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1st ed.). James and John Knapton, et al. p ... or by lichens and other parasites on the bark. It is possible to prevent the disease by keeping the tree away from animals and ...
Male plant in bloom. Pollen cones. Female cones. Ripe cones with seeds. Female plant with ripe cones. Rhizome and bark. " ... Medicinal plants of Asia, Medicinal plants of Europe, Plants described in 1753, Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus, Stimulants, Soma ( ... It was isolated from the plant by Nagayoshi Nagai in 1885. All parts of the plant contain up to 3% ephedrine. Although Ephedra ... Switzerland, France, Italy, Slovenia, Austria Ephedra is part of a group of plants called 'gnetophytes'. These plants have ...
They mine the bark of their host plant. Fauna Europaea Hants Moths Moths of Suffolk v t e (Articles with short description, ...
They mine the bark of their host plant. The mine consists of a long gallery in the bark of the stem. The larva first mines down ...
They mine the bark of their host plant. It is found in most of Europe, in all of the Baltic and Fennoscandian countries, Great ... Chrysoclista linneella, (common names include Linnaeus's spangle-wing, linden bark borer and cosmet) is a moth of the family ... Majka, Christopher (2005). "The linden bark borer (Lepidoptera: Agonoxenidae) infesting European linden in Nova Scotia" (PDF). ...
Rabbits strip bark, killing the plants by ringbarking. Rabbits also expose roots and destabilise sand dunes by burrowing. Newly ... Although the plant is visited by a wide range of native pollinators but a small number of these visitors are effective ... The plant has an ancient history of asexual reproduction along with habitat disturbance which both have affected the setting of ... The growth rate is very slow in mature plants, shown through photo points of over 30 years. The prickly appearance of the shrub ...
They mine the bark of their host plant. "Chrysoclista lathamella (T. Fletcher, 1936)". Faunae Europaea. Retrieved 22 April 2020 ... Plant Parasites of Europe v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with ' ...
They mine the bark of their host plant. The larvae make long, linear mines in the bark of the trunk and branches. The cocoon is ... spun under loose bark at the end of the mine.[citation needed] "Marmara fasciella (Chambers, 1875)". Catalogue of Life. Species ...
They occasionally strip the bark from woody plants. Seeds and tubers are stored in nests and burrows. Evidence of coprophagy is ... They can cause damage to fruit trees, garden plants, and commercial grain crops. The species was formerly grouped with the ... In winter, eastern meadow voles consume green basal portions of grass plants, often hidden under snow. Other winter diet ... Eastern meadow voles eat most available species of grasses, sedges, and forbs, including many agricultural plant species. In ...
The plant's leaves and bark have medicinal uses. Its timber is suitable for light construction, furniture, carving, firewood ... The tree may grow up to 51 meters tall and 80 centimeters diameter at breast height, with cracked and fissured bark. The stems ... Plants of the World online: Cratoxylum sumatranum (Jack) Blume (retrieved 5 October 2019) Cratoxylum sumatranum on PhytoImages ... Cratoxylum sumatranum is a species of flowering plant in the Hypericaceae family. It is indigenous to Southeast Asia, including ...
The bark sheds in small polygonal flakes giving the tree a mottled appearance. Young plants and coppice regrowth have ... "Corymbia erythrophloia Variable Bark Bloodwood, Red Bloodwood". Plant this. 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016. "Corymbia ... Corymbia erythrophloia, commonly known as red bloodwood, variable-barked bloodwood, red-barked bloodwood or gum-topped ... It has rough bark on the trunk and branches, egg-shaped or lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, creamy ...
They feed under the bark of their host plant. Fauna Europaea UKmoths Wikispecies has information related to Cydia indivisa. ...
They bore under the bark of their host plant. Savela, Markku (14 December 2013). "Gonioma hypoxantha (Lower, 1894)". ...
They tunnel into the bark of their host plant. tortricidae.com lepidoptera.butterflyhouse Wikispecies has information related ...
"Nestlé Purina solar-power plant nothing to bark at". Denver Business Journal. Retrieved September 2, 2014. Brown, Lisa ( ... Its Colorado plant built the largest privately owned solar panel system in the state. In September 2010, Nestlé reached an ... In 2005, Nestlé Purina Petcare voluntarily recalled all of its dry pet food produced from a plant in La Encrucijada, Venezuela ... As of 2014, it has 19 manufacturing plants. In 2021, Purina PetCare enabled Nestlé reach its highest sales in five years. ...
They mine under the bark of their host plant. Fauna Europaea Meyrick, E., 1895 A Handbook of British Lepidoptera MacMillan, ...
Fruits Flowers Leaves Bark Plant Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). "Lama" (PDF). Common Forest Trees of Hawaii ( ... Plants described in 1844, Flora without expected TNC conservation status). ...
... and to Florida where it was planted as an ornamental plant and windbreak. The bark has been used to plant orchids on. It ... The bark is greyish brown, fissured and scaly. The branchlets are sometimes drooping, up to 380 mm (15 in) long, the leaves ... Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture. Vol. 38. p. 455. doi:10.1007/0-306-47615-0_254. ISBN 0-7923-6233-0. ... The specific epithet (glauca) means "glaucous". The Kabi name for the plant, bilai, was used for the town and locality of Bli ...
Plant materials consist of leaves, tree bark, and roots. Herbal extracts can either be consumed or applied to affected area(s ... pounding of the plant then applying the extract on affected area), and infusion (infusing plants in water for a certain period ... Plants for herbal medicine are obtained through a panagalap or the search for plants in mountains and forests which then ... Aside from plants, this yearly concoction search also scavengers for potions, candles, oil, and amulets. A plethora of ...
This is a medicinal plant. The bark is used to treat toothache and earache. It is used as an anti-inflammatory. It is used to ... Parts of the plant also have antibacterial and fungicidal action. It contains nitidine, an alkaloid with anti-malarial action. ... 1993). Plant uses in a Brazilian coastal fishing community (Buzios Island). Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine J ... Duke, J. A. Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America. CRC Press 2008. da Silva, S. L., et al. (2007). Cytotoxic ...
... thick bark can protect plants because they keep stems away from high temperature. Under the protection of bark, living tissue ... plants in crown or high-severity fire regimes usually have thinner barks because it is meaningless to invest in thick bark ... and bark thickness (increasing exponentially with bark thickness). Thick bark is common in species adapted to surface or low- ... Not all plants have thick bark and epicormic buds. But for some shrubs and trees, their buds are located below ground, which ...
lower trunk bark upper bark "Eucalyptus conica". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 7 May 2019. "Eucalyptus conica". Euclid: ... It has rough, flaky greyish bark with some paler patches, on the trunk and larger branches, smooth whitish bark on the thinner ... Young plants and coppice regrowth have egg-shaped leaves 40-80 mm (1.6-3.1 in) long and 14-45 mm (0.55-1.77 in) wide. Adult ... It has rough, flaky bark on the trunk and larger branches, smooth above, lance-shaped adult leaves, oval to diamond-shaped ...
Peach-shaped receptacle and epimatium Bark has anticancer potential. Plant Thomas, P.; Farjon, A. (2013). "Podocarpus nakaii". ... Endangered plants, Endemic flora of Taiwan, Taxonomy articles created by Polbot, Plants described in 1916, All stub articles, ... The diameter at breast height of the largest plant is about 30 cm, but nearly 90% of the trees have a diameter at breast height ... Podocarpus nakaii is a good garden plant because of its beautiful tree shape and lovely bright red receptacles. In addition, ...
Larval host plant is Osbeckia. "Bark and Ambrosia Beetles of , Scolytomimus rectus Wood 1988". www.barkbeetles.info. Retrieved ...
Join Bark, Portland Parks & Recreation and the Columbia Slough Watershed Council to plant native shrubs and trees at Columbia ... bark: to make known by persistent outcry. Sign up to receive bi-monthly Bark Alerts ... Questions: For more information contact Meg Waller, Barks Restoration Coordinator, at forestwatch@bark-out.org ... Project details: Join Portland Parks & Recreation and Columbia Slough Watershed Council to plant native shrubs and trees in the ...
... excessively tight wire or tree ties or mammals gnawing on the bark, often at the base of the main trunk. Occasionally, girdled ... Ring barking or girdling can cause dieback or death of a tree. Damage may result from careless use of machinery close to a tree ... Common name Ring-barking or girdling. Plants affected Trees and shrubs. Main symptoms Loss of bark at the base of trees, ... Gnawing of bark by mammals including voles, rabbits, deer and horses around the base of newly planted trees or in very cold ...
A bark recognition algorithm for plant classification using a least square support vector machine. ... In this paper, a bark recognition algorithm for plant classification is presented. A Least-Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM ...
... organic product made from Pinus radiata bark from renewable forests in New Zealand. The natural properties of this exceptional ... Outer bark holds water and nutrients; inner bark remains stable.. *Uniform chip size ensures consistent hydration and longevity ... Orchiata is a natural, organic product made from Pinus radiata bark from renewable forests in New Zealand. The natural ...
Banana paper, a paper made from the bark of the banana plant. Dó paper, a paper traditionally produced in many villages in ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bark paper. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ... Bark paper may refer to: Amate, a form of paper manufactured in Mexico. ...
Bark. Perhaps it is inevitable that my attention in winter would be drawn to the barren trees, devoid of distracting leaves and ... More Information about Plant Whatever Brings You Joy, the book. Where You Can Purchase the Book ... even branches, the trunks of trees quite bare, revealing, simply, bark. I decided to bear witness to those that share the ...
The whitish bark on old trunks, longitudinally fissured and transversely split, presents a neat pattern of sometimes nearly ... Bark on the branches may also be darker to nearly black and rough from the cracks and fissures. ... Coates Palgrave described this bark as resembling crocodile skin (Coates Palgrave, 2002; Schmidt, et al, 2002; Pooley, 1993; ...
Plant parts: Ayurvedic Pharm. of India (1999-2011) Aegle marmelos Corr. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa. ...
Create your design to sit on a table, mount your new air plants flat to the wa ... Wholesale to the Public No Tax ID or Business License Needed Our arrangements of tillandsia air plants on pieces of cork bark ... Glue is not included, however it can be purchased here. The air plants will not arrive attached to the bark. Plants range from ... Each cork bark chunk is paired with one tillandsia air plant. Throughout the tropics, air plants attach themselves to the ...
No air plants are included with the cork bark in this listing. Size - Dimensions Mini - 2 X 4 Inches Small - 4 X 6 Inches ... Cork bark replicates one of the air plants favorite natural hosts, the branches and trunks of tropical trees. Great for ... Cork bark is a perfect medium for displaying air plants, orchids and bromeliads. You can create beautiful wall hangings by ...
All plant machinery hire experts. All London areas. Est. over 30yrs. FREE hire quote Call 0333 800 2186 ... Digger Hire Barking. Plant and machinery hire in Barking, London is the most important part of modern construction. In fact, ... mechanical engineers and plant operators. If you want to hire the machinery and plant from Desenex, then obviously you will ... Other Plant and Machinery That We Hire. Digger Hire , Crusher Hire , Dumper Hire , Telehandler Hire , ...
Effect of ethanolic bark extract of the mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum on oxidative stress indices in streptozotocin- ... Das, S.K., Samantaray, D., Patra, J.K., Samanta, L. and Thatoi, H. (2016) Antidiabetic potential of mangrove plants: a review. ... The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different concentration of Xylocarpus granatum bark extract (Xg) ... the plant extract didnt show a linear dose response. Since Glb has a greater risk of cholestatic jaundice and is not ...
Ornamental Plants Red-barked dogwood, Common Dogwood, Cornus Photo, care and characteristics, cultivation and growing - ... catalog , Ornamental Shrubs and Trees , Red-barked dogwood, Common Dogwood. Ornamental Plants Red-barked dogwood, Common ... Not poisonous plant. Plant height (cm) higher 200 cm. Cold hardiness zone 4 (-34 to -29°c), 5 (-29 to -23°c), 6 (-23 to -18°c ... Ornamental Plants Red-barked dogwood, Common Dogwood (Cornus) care, characteristics and Photo ...
... was found to produce a metabolite with antifungal and plant growth promoting activity. The structure and absolute configuration ... isolated from composted hardwood bark in Western Australia, ... isolated from composted hardwood bark in Western Australia, was ... Harzianic acid, an antifungal and plant growth promoting metabolite from Trichoderma harzianum J Nat Prod. 2009 Nov;72(11):2032 ... A plant growth promotion effect was observed at low concentrations of 1. ...
Learn how to plant, grow, and care for petunia flowers from The Old Farmers Almanac. ... Handpick; avoid thick bark mulch; use copper plant collars; avoid overhead watering; lay boards on soil in evening, in morning ... When to Plant Petunias. *Its easiest to buy young plants from a nursery that sells petunias in flats. Look for plants that are ... I planted around 60 plants from six-packs over a 3-4 week period. Some died within a week of planting, some after a couple ...
They are herbivores, eating twigs, leaves, tree bark and water plants. Beavers topple trees in order to construct dams which ...
Ranking list Plants , Tree-Trunks/Barks Score. Name. Type of quiz. Date. ... Tree-Trunks/Barks. The series Tree-Trunks/Barks for experts belongs to the group Series with limited selection of images - ... Species list Tree-Trunks/Barks. The series Tree-Trunks/Barks - Switzerland - Experts contains 27 Species ...
A sprouting plant. A closeup on tree bark. A rolling field of green. Young scientists pipetting into a petri dish. A soothing ... No, this isnt a futuristic movie or a lesson on plant biology. If this sounds familiar, its because youve seen an ... In the last decade, the fossil fuel industry has spent huge amounts of money to convince the public that flowering plant ... Theyll use social media, advertising, the press and more to plant competing narratives into public discourse. Under the guise ...
Agave folks...Look at the bark on the plant in the last photo. ;) So pretty.. I have 1 A arborescens and Im so excited for ... Agave folks...Look at the bark on the plant in the last photo. ;) ... The large plant in the back is Agave mapisaga var. Lisa, which is going to be way too big for that spot, but it was the only ... I also plant Hercules in random places in AZ - about 35 in total. 18"-36" ones. Vandalism by aloe. lol Im over off 59th ave ...
Spices drawn from various parts of plants like bud, bark, root, flower, and fruits. Spices are being used by many medical ... As cinnamon is the bark part of plant, its powder form is used as an antidiabetic by Ayurveda in Indian as well as Chinese ... while some other piece of the plant is known as a flavor. Flavors can be leaf (for example, narrows leaf), buds (clove), bark ( ... among all plant-based nourishment items [17]. When all is said in done, the leaves of a plant utilized in cooking are ...
If he curdles it with Putika plants or with bark, that is fit for Soma; if with jujubes, that is for the Raksases; if with rice ... With honey he unites (them); honey is the sap of the waters and the plants; verily it rains from the waters and the plants; ... He who desires offspring should offer a barren cow to the plants, the plants hinder him from offspring who being fit for ... the plants are connected with Mitra, and the waters with Varuna; on the sap of the water and of the plants do we live; verily ...
Spices - seeds, fruits, roots, bark, or other plant substances primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food. ...
Plant Extract Powder Magnolia Bark Extract Magnolia officinalis P.E. Magnolol Honokiol Product Description Magnolia Bark ... Plant Extract Powder Magnolia Bark Extract Magnolia officinalis P.E. Magnolol Honokiol ... Kosher Certified Natural Plant Extracts Spirulina Extract Reduce Blood Fat Description: Spirulina is a kind of lower plant ...
Contains cherry bark polyphenol, bamboo charcoal, and plant extracts. Minimal smoke.. Available in two sizes:. *60g ( approx. ...
Created from the bark of the Daphne plant (locally known as Lokta), this e... ...
... are from plants and plant parts. Spices often come from the seeds, berries, bark, or roots of plants. ... There are several topics in which one can research to see if the plant derivative is beneficial to the aliments you are facing ... There are several herbs, spices and plant goods that have been researched and have shown to have healing powers and treatment ... There are several herbs, derivatives and plant based substances that have shown promising in the treatment of cancers. Several ...
In a blender, blitz the Alpro Strawberry plant-based alternative to yoghurt with the maple syrup, frozen banana, and frozen ... In a blender, blitz the Alpro Strawberry plant-based alternative to yoghurt with the maple syrup, frozen banana, and frozen ... When the mango and strawberry bark is frozen, break it into shards and keep in a freezer bag. ... When the mango and strawberry bark is frozen, break it into shards and keep in a freezer bag. ...
The latter is a bast fibre; i.e., it is obtained from the inner bast tissue of the bark of the plants stem. Jute fibres… ... white moss (plant). cushion moss, any of the plants of the genus Leucobryum (subclass Bryidae), which form tufts resembling ... white mustard (plant). white mustard, (Sinapis alba), annual herbaceous plant of the family Brassicaceae grown primarily for ... white lupine (plant). lupine: Major species: White lupine, or wolf bean (L. albus), is cultivated for forage and as a cover ...
OUCMDZ-302 with the mangrove plant, Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae). The new structures of 2-6 were established on the ... OUCMDZ-302 with the mangrove plant, Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae). The new structures of 2-6 were established on the ... 2009). A new atisane-type diterpene from the bark of the mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha. Molecules 14:414. doi: 10.3390/ ... The outer bark was removed, and the inner bark was cut into small pieces that were then placed on a potato dextrose agar (PDA) ...
The bark and twigs of Cinnamomum plant have long been used as a source of aromatic spices worldwide (HelmyAbdou et al., 2019; ... Plant materials and chemicals culture media.. Cassia bark, bay fruits, and cloves, which were harvested in Guiping Country of ... In this study, three species with Chinese characteristics unique and widely used by the public were selected: cassia bark (bark ... J Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 71. *Zhiwei Z, Ruichao L, Lianwei Y, et al. (2019) Genetic Characterization of bla ,sub,CTX-M ...
  • In addition to the trichilianones A-D recently reported from Trichilia adolfi, a continuing investigation of the chemical constituents of the ethanol extract of the bark of this medicinal plant yielded the five new limonoids 1-5. (lu.se)
  • Antiulcer effect of bark extract of Tabebuia avellanedae: activation of cell proliferation in gastric mucosa during the healing process. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Shrubs and other plants in the landscape can be fertilized yearly. (backyardgardener.com)
  • They are tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and woody vines that have resin ducts in the bark. (bvsalud.org)
  • Though there are as many as nine species of the plant, only three of them are used medicinally (Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea purpurea). (chinese-herbs.org)
  • Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally. (pfaf.org)
  • The three key plant nutrients usually derived from soil are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, while carbon, oxygen and hydrogen are absorbed from the air. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Apply recommended amount for plant per label directions in the soil at time of planting or at least during the first growing season. (backyardgardener.com)
  • Excess nitrogen in the soil can cause excessive vegetative growth on plants at the expense of flower bud development. (backyardgardener.com)
  • An easily grown plant, it succeeds in any soil of good or moderate fertility[1], ranging from acid to shallow chalk[200]. (pfaf.org)
  • Conversely, Western and dry-area gardeners may use containers to grow selected plants that require richer soil and more frequent watering. (highcountrygardens.com)
  • Or the perennials can be divided and re-planted back into the same pot with fresh soil-less mix. (highcountrygardens.com)
  • Pre-hydrated Hydro-Gels are included in the top of each container to use when planting as they help retain soil moisture, and plants will establish more quickly with less transplant shock. (soonerplantfarm.com)
  • Ring barking or girdling can cause dieback or death of a tree. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Damage may result from careless use of machinery close to a tree, excessively tight wire or tree ties or mammals gnawing on the bark, often at the base of the main trunk. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Ring-barking or girdling are terms used to describe the complete or nearly complete loss of bark from around the circumference of a tree or shrub's limb or trunk. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Access to bark above tree guards can occur when snowfall is deep. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Partial ring-barking or 'ringing' is also used in fruit production to reduce shoot vigour and promote fruitfulness but again is not advised for home gardeners as it can, if not done properly, lead to the loss of the tree. (rhs.org.uk)
  • A closeup on tree bark. (earthrights.org)
  • ʻōhiʻa tree, with his legs becoming roots firmly planted in the earth and his skin turning to bark. (mauidivers.com)
  • Hemp stalks are harvested for their fibers and grow on the outside of the plant's stalk, similar to the bark of a tree. (reade.com)
  • Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen, popularly known as sapoti or sapota (sapodilla), is a tree bearing an important fruit, in addition to different parts of the plant being widely used in folk medicine in the management of inflammation, pain, fevers, coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, among other ailments. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is hardly a place in the world, where people know nothing and never heard of Echinacea - a plant, traditionally recognized as a valuable medicinal herb. (chinese-herbs.org)
  • Container gardening has traditionally been focused on the use of annual plants, but containers are a great way to garden, and we can also use them to grow beautiful perennials and ornamental grasses. (highcountrygardens.com)
  • The approach has an interdisciplinary character as it introduces the concept of water use efficiency (WUE), traditionally used for agricultural yield estimations and drought tolerance of plants, in the field of biosphere carbon cycling and greenhouse gas mitigation. (lu.se)
  • The drug industry's development, urbanization, cultural and social changes have contributed to the loss of popular knowledge about medicinal plants. (bvsalud.org)
  • The present study aimed to identify the main medicinal plants and knowledge about ways to use and toxicity referred to by herbalists for oral diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is little appreciation of information about appropriate ways in the preparation of the parties, the hygiene material and toxicity of the medicinal plants suitable for oral diseases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Medicinal plants used by traditional medical practitioners (TMP) to treat cancers are considered safe when used alone or combined with conventional therapy to ensure their effectiveness and eliminate the toxic effects of orthodox medicines. (who.int)
  • Using cytotoxic and antioxidant studies, the study attempted to assess some of the commonly used medicinal plants used to cure cancer among Yoruba people in Ogun, Oyo, Osun, and Lagos (South-West, Nigeria). (who.int)
  • Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. (pfaf.org)
  • Plant products cause a variety of adverse cutaneous effects, and they are responsible for most cases of allergic contact dermatitis. (medscape.com)
  • The indication and adequate guidance on the preparation, cleaning, toxicity and risk of use of plants constitutes itself a guarantee of their correct use and effectiveness while minimizing the likelihood of adverse effects or other harms to health. (bvsalud.org)
  • If you'd prefer a low-growing more formal hedge, choose plants like Rosemary and Lavender as they'll grow up to 60cm (2ft). (rspb.org.uk)
  • The same goes for growing Lavender , native Sage (Salvia greggii and hybrids), and other popular xeric plants! (highcountrygardens.com)
  • For example, gardeners in Zones 4 and 5, fcan enjoy Perennial African Daisy (Gazania) , native Sage cultivars/hybrids (Salvia greggii), and Spanish Lavender (Lavandula stoechas) by planting in containers and overwintering the plants indoors. (highcountrygardens.com)
  • Avoid planting climbers into a new hedge, as their vigorous growth can smother younger plants. (rspb.org.uk)
  • Plants able to take full sun in some climates may only be able to tolerate part sun in other climates. (backyardgardener.com)
  • The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. (pfaf.org)
  • Among the most cited plant to treat oral diseases the aroeira, barbatimão , quixaba , pomegranate , purple cashew, tanchagem and juá , all due to its anti-inflammatory properties , except juá would whitening dental and barbatimão to display further healing action. (bvsalud.org)
  • If a shade loving plant is exposed to direct sun, it may wilt and/or cause leaves to be sunburned or otherwise damaged. (backyardgardener.com)
  • Their herbivorous diet keeps them busy nibbling on bark, leaves, and aquatic plants, contributing to the natural cycle of growth and renewal. (forestry.com)
  • For one year, researchers at the Western University of Health Sciences, in Pomona, California, USA, observed a group of dogs after the pets transitioned from a meat-based diet to a plant-based one. (petfoodindustry.com)
  • In this study, we confirm that clinically healthy adult dogs maintain health when fed a nutritionally complete, commercially available, plant-based diet with pea protein as a main ingredient over a twelve-month period," the scientists wrote in the journal BioRxiv . (petfoodindustry.com)
  • Because we must water pots more frequently than plants in the ground, we need to replenish nutrients that are flushed away. (highcountrygardens.com)
  • The method was finally applied to the determination of target analytes in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, Bakio, Gernika and Galindo (Spain)) and in one water purification plant (WPP) in Zornotza (Spain). (who.int)
  • Most of the interviewees mentioned informing of the plants buyers about your hygiene, especially with running water, toxicity and contraindications. (bvsalud.org)
  • The concept of WUE relies on the strong link between plant carbon uptake by photosynthesis and plant water use from transpiration, depending on the common pathway of the two fluxes - through the stomata. (lu.se)
  • Plants which do not receive sufficient light may become pale in color, have fewer leaves and a "leggy" stretched-out appearance. (backyardgardener.com)
  • In spring, the handsome leaves emerge, each sporting dramatically deep veins that make the plant stand out in the landscape. (pridescorner.com)
  • As winter comes and the leaves drop, the plant's elegant frame is revealed, along with amazing light tan peeling bark. (pridescorner.com)
  • These plants have 3-5 leaflets per compound leaf, which leads to the adage "Leaves of three, leave them be" (see first image below). (medscape.com)
  • Plants are fairly wind resistant[K]. Plants grow and crop well in pots. (pfaf.org)
  • We need to protect the pots and their resident perennial plants from the extremes of the winter weather. (highcountrygardens.com)
  • We are thrilled to be able to bring this outstanding plant, previously known only by collectors and plant geeks, to everyone in North America. (pridescorner.com)
  • It is possible to provide supplemental lighting for indoor plants with lamps. (backyardgardener.com)
  • Gnawing of bark by mammals including voles , rabbits , deer and horses around the base of newly planted trees or in very cold weather when food is scarce. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Stripping of bark by grey squirrels , though this is often higher up in the canopy of more mature trees so does not usually result in the tree's demise. (rhs.org.uk)
  • They prefer freshwater rivers, lakes, and wetlands, where they can find ample trees for building and aquatic plants for sustenance. (forestry.com)
  • Many of these trees are host plants for native pollinator larvae too! (naturehills.com)
  • Why not give our hedge wedge a try, and just use a small corner of the garden to grow a few hedge plants. (rspb.org.uk)
  • Yet to plant a hedge? (rspb.org.uk)
  • Don't feel you have room to plant a complete hedge? (rspb.org.uk)
  • Simply plant up one corner with hedge plants - 30cm away from boundaries, and the plants 30cm apart. (rspb.org.uk)
  • Allow the hedge to become established for a few years, then plant climbers to ramble and weave their way through the hedge. (rspb.org.uk)
  • Hedge plants - sold as tiny whips. (rspb.org.uk)
  • [ 4 ] The terpene thujone is found in a variety of plants, including arborvitae ( Thuja ), sage ( Salvia officinalis ), and wormood ( Artemisia absinthium ). (medscape.com)
  • Rhus is the largest genus in the family Anacardiaceae, but it does not contain the allergenic plants, most of which belong to the genus Toxicodendron. (medscape.com)
  • A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Members of the family Anacardiaceae cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than those of all other plant families combined. (medscape.com)
  • What is certain about cocoa is that is contains flavanols which are plant phytonutrients known to have antioxidant properties and considered to be good for you. (almanac.com)
  • Samples of commonly utilized anticancer plants obtained from the chosen areas using physical and virtual oral seminars were studied for physiochemical composition and a possible antioxidant and cytotoxic potential to validate the basis for the use of the selected anticancer plants. (who.int)
  • Temple of Bloom ™ seven-son flower does not need special fertilizing, but if you wish to encourage more rapid growth, you may apply a granular fertilizer formulated for woody plants (like a rose fertilizer) in early spring. (pridescorner.com)
  • Now then the earth was small, plants were not born, they offered the barren ewe to the Adityas as desire. (sacred-texts.com)
  • Fill the empty space in between with small bark nuggets. (highcountrygardens.com)
  • This article provides a brief introduction to botanical dermatology and highlights the small minority of plants that cause skin reactions. (medscape.com)
  • The bark and the fruit are astringent, febrifuge and nutritive[7]. (pfaf.org)
  • Cocoa refers to the plant and its fruit (pod) and seed (cacoa bean). (almanac.com)
  • The flowers and fruit of the plant grow in an axillary position in the angle between the leaf and the twig (see second image below). (medscape.com)
  • A pre-applied, pre-measured amount of time release fertilizer that keeps your plant well nourished for up to one year. (soonerplantfarm.com)
  • Scientists conducted an experiment on how plant-based diets affect dogs' health. (petfoodindustry.com)
  • A plant growth promotion effect was observed at low concentrations of 1. (nih.gov)
  • Alabama who live near a plant that manufactured concentrations and systolic and diastolic blood pressure polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (cdc.gov)
  • The given plant is native to the open woods and prairies of the USA: it can be found growing wildly in Ohio and Iowa, Louisiana and Georgia. (chinese-herbs.org)
  • A Trichoderma harzianum strain, isolated from composted hardwood bark in Western Australia, was found to produce a metabolite with antifungal and plant growth promoting activity. (nih.gov)
  • Bark is removed partially or completely at or above ground level exposing the paler inner wood. (rhs.org.uk)
  • The conveyor was part of a belt system used to carry waste wood chips and bark from a truck dumping site to a steam plant where the waste is burned. (cdc.gov)
  • Its bark and wood have been used for many conditions, but with little evidence. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pau d'arco bark and wood might prevent cancer cells from growing and slow tumor growth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To grow well, plants need a wide range of nutrients in various amounts, depending on the individual plant and its stage of growth. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Also expect plants to grow slower and have fewer blooms when light is less than desirable. (backyardgardener.com)
  • The risk of acquiring plant-related dermatitis is influenced by host susceptibility and exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Allergic contact dermatitis requires exposure and sensitization to the causative plant products. (medscape.com)
  • Food Forest Plants for Hotter Conditions: 250+ Plants For Tropical Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens. (pfaf.org)
  • This is especially true when it comes to growing xeric plants that would be unhappy in the ground because of excessive moisture and soggy freeze-thaw conditions in spring. (highcountrygardens.com)
  • Plants will also survive drought-like conditions and accidental missed waterings better. (soonerplantfarm.com)
  • If possible, select a large enough area that includes some noticeable variety in the natural environment-plants and wildlife or wildlife signs. (unh.edu)
  • In the last 50 years we have lost more than half our hedgerows, so planting one in your garden will really help wildlife. (rspb.org.uk)
  • Believe it or not, this beautiful and unusual plant requires essentially no care. (pridescorner.com)
  • The rich chemical content and valuable qualities of the plant allows using it as a supplement or all-sufficient mean for treatment or strengthening the organism, aromatization of hay or quarters. (chinese-herbs.org)
  • Gardeners can add nutrients by applying fertilisers (either artificial or naturally derived) to boost plant growth and improve flowering and fruiting. (rhs.org.uk)
  • It is an absolutely wonderful treasure trove for any plant lover and we will be back (frequently! (architecturalplants.com)
  • In the last decade, the fossil fuel industry has spent huge amounts of money to convince the public that flowering plant imagery means that the industry is committed to a healthy future for all. (earthrights.org)
  • Our Latest books on Perennial Plants For Food Forests and Permaculture Gardens in paperback or digital formats. (pfaf.org)
  • Plants for Your Food Forest: 500 Plants for Temperate Food Forests & Permaculture Gardens. (pfaf.org)
  • Since a spice is considered a plant substance used to flavor or preserve food and comes from the root, bark or seed of a plant and cocoa comes from the cocoa bean which is the seed of the cocoa pod, couldn't it be considered a spice? (almanac.com)
  • Catalogs of new and exciting plant brands, such as Garden Debut® and Proven Winners® . (soonerplantfarm.com)
  • Plant it where it can be seen, often, and enjoyed any time of the year. (pridescorner.com)
  • Terpenes are natural products derived from plants that have medicinal properties and biological activity. (medscape.com)
  • Plants quickly become root-bound and it becomes difficult if not impossible to keep them adequately watered and fertilized. (highcountrygardens.com)
  • This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Bark paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Banana paper, a paper made from the bark of the banana plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sumac plant family in the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. (bvsalud.org)
  • Deep cherry red bell-shaped flowers with a waxy texture on a low growing plant to 2′ high. (atlanticrhodo.org)