Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Xenarthra: An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Platypus: A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.ArtiodactylaMonodelphis: A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.MonotremataSloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Insectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Armadillos: Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.Echidna: An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.PrimatesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Deoxyribodipyrimidine Photo-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reactivation by light of UV-irradiated DNA. It breaks two carbon-carbon bonds in PYRIMIDINE DIMERS in DNA.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)ShrewsBirds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The Rise of Placental Mammals. JHU Press. p. 236. ISBN 0-8018-8022-X. ...
Waddell, P. J.; Okada, N.; Hasegawa, M. (1999). "Towards Resolving the Interordinal Relationships of Placental Mammals". ... Asher, Robert J.; Helgen, Kristofer M. (2010). "Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10: 102 ... "A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 6: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-6-93. PMC 1654192 . ... "Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and ...
ISBN 0-632-05637-1. Kenneth David Rose (2005). The Rise of Placental Mammals. JHU Press. p. 144. ISBN 0-8018-8472-1. ... But the larger species may also have hunted small mammals, reptiles and birds. In the Late Miocene subepoch, what is at present ...
Asher, Robert J.; Helgen, Kristofer M. (2010). "Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10: 102 ... A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals. ...
BioMed Central , Full text , A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals Zhou, X.; Xu, S.; Xu, J.; Chen, B.; Zhou, K.; ... Springer, MS; Stanhope, MJ; Madsen, O; de Jong, WW (2004). "Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree". Trends Ecol Evol ... Asher, RJ; Bennet, N; Lehmann, T (2009). "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution". BioEssays. 31 (8): ... "Condylarths: Archaic hoofed mammals". Paleocene mammals of the world. Retrieved February 2010. Check date values in: ,access- ...
Springer, MS; Stanhope, MJ; Madsen, O; de Jong, WW (August 2004). "Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree". Trends in ... The Archonta are a group of mammals, considered a superorder in some classifications, which consists of the following orders: ... Penny, David; Phillips, Matthew J. (October 2004). "The rise of birds and mammals: are microevolutionary processes sufficient ... "Continental breakup and the ordinal diversification of birds and mammals" (PDF). Nature. 381 (6579): 226-9. doi:10.1038/ ...
Unusual among placental mammals, the anus and urogenital tracts of tenrecs share a common opening, or cloaca, a feature more ... Springer MS, Stanhope MJ, Madsen O, de Jong WW (2004). "Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree". Trends Ecol Evol. 19 ... "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution". BioEssays. 31 (8): 853-64. doi:10.1002/bies.200900053. PMID ... Tenrecs are small mammals of variable body form. The smallest species are the size of shrews, with a body length of around 4.5 ...
Eutheria (Placental mammals) • Human (Homo sapiens) • Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) • House mouse (Mus musculus) • Norway rat ...
The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origins and Relationships of the Major Extant Clades. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University ... Studies of genomic data, including millions of aligned nucleotides sampled for a growing number of placental mammals, also ... Springer, Mark S.; Michael J. Stanhope; Ole Madsen; Wilfried W. de Jong (2004). "Molecules consolidate the placental mammal ... Springer, M. S.; Murphy, W. J.; Eizirik, E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2003). "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous- ...
"Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals". Biological Reviews: n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/brv.12242. ISSN 1464-7931 ... Oxyaenidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. Traditionally classified in Creodonta, this group may be related to pangolins. ...
... s are placental mammals. After rodents, they are the largest order, making up about 20% of mammal species. In 1758, Carl ... Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of ... Jenness, R.; Birney, E.; Ayaz, K. (1980). "Variation of L-gulonolactone oxidase activity in placental mammals". Comparative ... The second largest order of mammals, bats comprise about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with about 1,240 ...
Asher, R. J.; Bennett, N.; Lehmann, T. (2009-07-06). "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution". ... Garbutt, N. (2007). Mammals of Madagascar, A Complete Guide. A&C Black Publishers. ISBN 978-0-300-12550-4. OCLC 154689042. ... Groves, C. P. (2005). "Order Primates". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... Elliot, D.G. (1907). A Catalogue of the Collection of Mammals in the Field Columbian Museum. Field Columbian Museum. ...
Asher, R. J.; Bennett, N.; Lehmann, T. (2009-07-06). "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution". ... Unlike the lemurs in Madagascar, they have had to compete with monkeys and apes, as well as other mammals. Most of the academic ... Groves, C.P. (2005). "Strepsirrhini". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... Rose, K. D. (2006). The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8472-6. Sussman, R. W ...
Springer, Mark S.; Murphy, William J.; Eizirik, Eduardo; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2003). "Placental mammal diversification and the ... "Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny". Genome Research. 17: 413-421. doi:10.1101/gr.5918807 ... "Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals". Genome Research. 19 (5): 868-875. doi:10.1101/gr.090647.108. PMC ... "Towards Resolving the Interordinal Relationships of Placental Mammals". Systematic Biology. 48 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1093/sysbio/ ...
Rose, Kenneth David; Archibald, J. David (2005). The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origins and Relationships of the Major Extant ... Clade Paenungulata Asher, R. J.; Bennett, N.; Lehmann, T. (2009-07-06). "The new framework for understanding placental mammal ... INFRACLASS EUTHERIA: placental mammals Superorder Afrotheria Clade Afroinsectiphilia Order Afrosoricida Suborder Tenrecomorpha ... an extinct genus of insectivorous mammal from the Late Pleistocene/Holocene of Madagascar, now thought to be closely related to ...
Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny. Genome Research 17, pp.413-421. Kriegs, J.O., ... Retroposed elements as archives for the evolutionary history of placental mammals. Plos Biol 4, pp.e91. Goloboff, Pablo A.; ... Exafroplacentalia or Notolegia is a clade of placental mammals proposed in 2001 on the basis of molecular research. ... Springer, Mark S.; Murphy, William J.; Eizirik, Eduardo; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2003). "Placental mammal diversification and the ...
"The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals". Science. 339 (6120): 662-667. doi:10.1126/science. ... Asher, RJ; Bennett, N; Lehmann, T (2009). "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution". BioEssays. 31 (8): ... Springer, Mark S.; Murphy, William J.; Eizirik, Eduardo; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2003). "Placental mammal diversification and the ... Proc Natl Acad Sci USA Foley, Nicole M.; Springer, Mark S.; Teeling, Emma C. (2016-07-19). "Mammal madness: is the mammal tree ...
Asher, R. J.; Bennett, N.; Lehmann, T. (2009-07-06). "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution". ... Garbutt, N. (2007). Mammals of Madagascar, A Complete Guide. A&C Black Publishers. ISBN 978-0-300-12550-4. OCLC 154689042. ... Because only five terrestrial orders of mammals have made it to the island, each likely to have derived from a single ... Any extended ocean voyage without fresh water or food would prove difficult for a large, warm-blooded (homeothermic) mammal, ...
Springer MS, Murphy WJ, Eizirik E, O'Brien SJ; Murphy; Eizirik; O'Brien (February 2003). "Placental mammal diversification and ... By comparing human and chimp genes to the genes of other mammals, it has been found that genes coding for transcription factors ...
"Robust Time Estimation Reconciles Views of the Antiquity of Placental Mammals". PLoS ONE. 2 (4): e384. doi:10.1371/journal.pone ... Laurasiatheria is a superorder of placental mammals that originated on the northern supercontinent of Laurasia 99 million years ... Springer, Mark S.; Murphy, William J.; Eizirik, Eduardo; O'Brien, Stephen J. (2003). "Placental mammal diversification and the ... "Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals". PLoS Biology. 4 (4): e91. doi:10.1371/ ...
The nasal area of the aardvark is another unique area, as it contains ten nasal conchae, more than any other placental mammal. ... Asher, R. J.; Bennett, N.; Lehmann, T. (2009). "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution". BioEssays. 31 ... Its nose is made up of more turbinate bones than any other mammal, with between 9 and 11, compared to dogs with 4 to 5. With a ... The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File Publications. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. WGBH (2013). "About the Program: " ...
The order of golden moles and tenrecs, Afrosoricida, is part of Afrotheria, one of the four main divisions of placental mammals ... The question of higher-level relationships among placental mammal centers on the order Inserctivora. Huxley argued that ... doi:10.1007/s00359-006-0163-0. Asher, Robert (August 2009). "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution". ... placentals) on the one hand, and boreoeutherians ("northern" placentals) on the other. For example, Leche argued that in ...
195-216 in F. S. Szalay, M. J. Novacek and M. C. McKenna (eds.) Mammal Phylogeny, Volume 2, Placentals. Springer-Verlag, New ... Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8. ...
195-216 in F. S. Szalay, M. J. Novacek and M. C. McKenna (eds.) Mammal Phylogeny, Volume 2, Placentals. Springer-Verlag, New ... Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8 Reguero, M.A ... Mesotheriidae ("Middle Beasts") is an extinct family of notoungulate mammals known from the Eocene through the Pleistocene of ... Mesotheriids were small to medium-sized herbivorous mammals adapted for digging. Mesotheriids were small to medium sized ...
The Rise of Placental Mammals. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801880223. OCLC 55801049. McKenna, Malcolm C.; Bell, Susan K. (1997). ... Rose, Kenneth David (2006). The beginning of the age of mammals. Baltimore: JHU Press. ISBN 0801884721. Thewissen, J.G.M.; ... Altungulata or Pantomesaxonia (sensu Fischer 1986 and later authors) is an invalid clade (mirorder) of ungulate mammals ... Mammal classification "Mirorder Altungulata". Systema Naturae 2000. Retrieved 5 May 2013. Rose 2006, pp. 241-4 Hooker 2005, pp ...
... s are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals. They are an informal grouping ... "Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9.. *. Whitehead, H. (2003). Sperm Whales: Social Evolution in the Ocean. ... UNEP Marine Mammal Technical Report. pp. 33-65. ASIN B00KX9I8Y8.. *. Skeat, Walter W. (1898). An Etymological Dictionary of the ... Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 1005-1011. ISBN 978-0-08-091993-5.. ...
"A higher level MRP supertree of placental mammals". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 6: 93. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-6-93. PMC 1654192. ... Hutterer, Rainer (November 16, 2005). Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn M. Reeder (ed.). Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns ... Shrews are small mammals which look rather like mice. They were classified in the old Insectivora, but that is no longer used. ... Barnard, Christopher J. (1984). Macdonald D. (ed.). The encyclopedia of mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 758-763. ISBN 0- ...
On the Cladogram it shows placental mammals, which is where the sloth would be. A Hypothesis About Where Genetic Variation May ... All three of these animals are members of the Xenarthra, the group of placental mammals that appeared around 100 million years ... the truth is the first variety of sloths branched off with many other placental mammals about 100 million years ago in Central ... These mammals lived in Central and South America from the Pliocene Era (5.4 million years ago) to the Pleistocene Era (1.8 ...
Placental mammals and marsupials have an XY system, birds have a ZW system. Reptiles and amphibians have different systems, ... and XY and ZW systems that differ in origin from birds and placental mammals. Monotremes diverged early in mammalian evolution ...
2013 The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339, 662-667. (doi:10.1126/science. ... 2013 Response to comment on The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 341, 613. (doi: ... 2013 Technical comment on The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 341, 613. (doi: ... 2003 Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 1056-1061. (doi: ...
List of placental mammals contains the placental mammals. The class Mammalia (mammals) is divided into two subclasses based on ... pouched mammals and placental mammals. See List of monotremes and marsupials, and for the clades and families, see mammal ... the Even-toed ungulate Pig Camel Cattle Deer Mammal classification List of prehistoric mammals List of recently extinct mammals ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 3-21. ISBN 978 ...
A variety of placental mammals have been introduced to Australia since the arrival of Captain Cook in 1770. They have ranged in ... A Field Guide to the Mammals of Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne ISBN 0-19-550870-X iGoTerra Checklist of Mammals ... This is a sub-list of the list of mammals of Australia. Note that this sub-list includes six species of introduced rodent that ... Lepus europaeus List of mammals of Australia List of monotremes and marsupials of Australia List of bats of Australia List of ...
The evolution of placental mammal body sizes: evolutionary history, form, and function.. Lovegrove BG1, Haines L. ... The unimodal, right-skewed distribution, most frequently identified in contemporary descriptions of placental mammal body size ... A species gap occurs at body sizes around 1 kg at the interface between the largest plantigrade mammals and the smallest ... digitigrade mammals, coincident with the minimum interspecific variance of basal metabolic rate. In terms of the evolution of ...
Cryptosporidium species are common parasites of wild placental mammals. Recent parasitological studies combined with molecular ... Cryptosporidium in wild placental mammals Exp Parasitol. 2010 Jan;124(1):128-37. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2008.11.005. Epub 2008 ... Therefore, public health significance of some Cryptosporidium species in wild placental mammals, such as the cervine genotype, ... Cryptosporidium species are common parasites of wild placental mammals. Recent parasitological studies combined with molecular ...
Burkitt, J. H., 1995: Mammals: A world listing of living and extinct species.. -iNet: (List not Available, looking for new link ... Nowak, R. M., 1991: Walkers Mammals of the World; Part 1.. -The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1991, ... Nowak, R. M., 1991: Walkers mammals of the World; Part 2.. -The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1991, ... McKenna, M. C. & Bell, S. K., (eds.) 1997: Classification of mammals - above the species level.. -Columbia University Press, ...
... placental mammal explanation. Define placental mammal by Websters Dictionary, WordNet Lexical Database, Dictionary of ... placental mammal Noun. 1.. placental mammal - mammals having a placenta; all mammals except monotremes and marsupials. Synonyms ... Placental. -- placental mammal --. Placentalia. Placentary. Placentation. Placentiferous. Placentiform. Placentious. Placer. ... hoofed mammal, hyrax, insectivore, lagomorph, livestock, mammal, Orycteropus afer, pachyderm, pangolin, placental, plantigrade ...
Next by thread: Re: No Cretaceous placental mammals? *Indexes: * DINOSAUR-2007Jun by date * DINOSAUR-2007Jun by thread * ... Re: No Cretaceous placental mammals? *From: David Marjanovic ,[email protected], ... Previous by thread: Re: No Cretaceous placental mammals? * ... Re: No Cretaceous placental mammals?. *To: DML ,[email protected] ... The placental mode of reproduction must have evolved very late, apparently in the Maastrichtian, just in time for the mass ...
Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics. By William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, Stephen ... Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics. By William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, Stephen ... Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Molecular phylogenetic studies have resolved placental mammals into four major groups, but have not established the full ...
The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339, 662-667 ... Further to the previous article on placental mammal phylogeny, I now want to start looking at a few specific details of the ... Surprises From Placental Mammal Phylogeny 2: Skunks Are Not Weasels. *By Darren Naish on July 25, 2015 ... A disclaimer: those of you up to date and informed as goes placental mammal phylogeny will be familiar with the relationships ...
... all functional placental mammal branches, and all pseudogenic placental mammal branches as distinct branch categories as well ... The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339, 662-667 (2013).. ... Molecular decay of the tooth gene enamelin (ENAM) mirrors the loss of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals. PLOS ... 1 Schematic illustrating disrupting mutations in ucp1 across the placental mammal phylogeny.. (A) Xenarthra, (B) Pholidota, (C ...
Timing of cranial suture closure in placental mammals: phylogenetic patterns, intraspecific variation, and comparison with ... Placentals exhibit a larger number of suture closures than marsupials and in both groups the sutures at the base of the skull ... ectocranial sutures and synchondroses were recorded in a sample of 1161 skulls belonging to 38 species from all major placental ...
A) The cumulative number of CHIA losses in placental mammals relative to the origin of eutherians, placental mammals, and the K ... 1 Placental mammal CHIA gene tree, simplified from fig. S3.. Closed circles indicate functional CHIAs, and open circles ... Placental mammal RAxML CHIA gene tree based on genomic contig-derived and mRNA sequences, after removing chiropteran CHIA4 and ... Placental mammal RAxML CHIA gene tree based on genomic contig-derived and mRNA sequences, after removing chiropteran CHIA4 and ...
... shows that crown clade Placentalia and placental orders originated after the K-Pg boundary. Many nodes discovered using ... To discover interordinal relationships of living and fossil placental mammals and the time of origin of placentals relative to ... The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals.. @article{OLeary2013ThePM, title={The placental mammal ... To discover interordinal relationships of living and fossil placental mammals and the time of origin of placentals relative to ...
... Proc Biol Sci. 2017 Oct 11;284(1864):20171357. doi: 10.1098/ ... Focusing on the origin of the placental mammals within the Eutheria, we identify 357 novel Homology Groups that arose on the ...
... which occurs in most placental mammals but is absent from several afrotherian lineages. Here, we discovered that afrotherians ...
... ... Morphology and relationships of Apternodus and other extinct, zalambdodont, placental mammals. Bulletin of the AMNH ; no. 273. ... We describe and illustrate new, middle Cenozoic fossils of dentally zalambdodont, North American placentals, including six ... anatomically zalambdodont placentals, Parapternodus and Koniaryctes. We regard two other taxa previously associated with North ...
Timing of cranial suture closure in placental mammals: Phylogenetic patterns, intraspecific variation, and comparison with ... Timing of cranial suture closure in placental mammals: Phylogenetic patterns, intraspecific variation, and comparison with ... Placentals exhibit a larger number of suture closures than marsupials and in both groups the sutures at the base of the skull ... Placentals exhibit a larger number of suture closures than marsupials and in both groups the sutures at the base of the skull ...
The topology is highly congruent with recent (molecular) phylogenetic analyses of placental mammals, but is considerably more ... to produce a supertree that includes every family of extant placental mammals. The supertree is well-resolved and supports both ... and supports the idea that biogeography has played a crucial role in the evolution of placental mammals. Our results ... protocol played a key role in the major changes relative to a previously published higher-level supertree of placentals. The ...
We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with ... Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although ... An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level ... Asher RJ: Insectivoran grade placental mammals: character evolution and fossil history. The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origin ...
Major Clades of Placental Mammals Fri, 29 Jul 2011 , Placental Mammals Our analyses extend studies with the Murphy et al. 2001b ... Wed, 06 Jul 2011 , Placental Mammals A review of the patterns of social organization in those groups of placental mammals that ... Acknowledgments On Mammals Thu, 28 Apr 2016 , Placental Mammals We thank Matt Ravosa and Marian Dagosto for inviting us to ... Fri, 20 Jan 2017 , Placental Mammals Although primates do not significantly differ from other mammals in the scaling of body ...
About 90 per cent of todays mammals - including us - are placental mammals. We give birth to fully developed offspring that ... These bump the previous title holder for oldest-known placental mammal - again, from China - a squirrel-like animal dating from ... Two years after its discovery, another equally old fossil of a rat-like mammal Rugosodon eurasiaticus was discovered - also in ... Placental mammal: 160 million years. Artists impression of earliest known placental mammal ...
  • Reptiles and amphibians have different systems, including temperature-dependent sex determination, and XY and ZW systems that differ in origin from birds and placental mammals. (edu.au)
  • Used as markers of postnatal growth closure sequences of 22 ectocranial sutures and synchondroses were recorded in a sample of 1161 skulls belonging to 38 species from all major placental clades: Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires (Boreoeutheria). (nih.gov)
  • An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, empirical studies have shown widespread presence of gene tree heterogeneity within mammals and other clades ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The earliest-known eutherian mammal hunting on a tree fern. (livescience.com)
  • Researchers from the RVC in the UK collaborated with academics from University of California, Davis (UC Davis), Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Konkuk University in Seoul and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, to go back in time by computationally recreating the chromosomes of the first eutherian mammal, the long-extinct shrew-like ancestor of all placental mammals. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • The authors of the paper state, "Placental mammals underwent a continuous radiation across the K-Pg boundary without apparent interruption by the mass extinction," and "the K-Pg catastrophe evidently played a limited role in placental diversification. (icr.org)
  • Furthermore, several researchers have suggested that primates are long-lived among mammals at least in part because they are largely arboreal ( 25 , 26 ). (pnas.org)
  • If this is right, then Chiroptera [the proper name for the bats] is not monophyletic, and true flight evolved at least twice among mammals. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Bats are unique among mammals as they are the only group to have evolved true powered flight. (tolweb.org)
  • Among mammals, compressive failure strength ranges from 180 to 220 MPa ( Biewener, 1990 ), and ultimate bending strength ranges from 170 to 300 MPa ( Biewener, 1982 ). (biologists.org)
  • Evolutionary descriptions of placental origin and its profound structures are found wanting, but a design explanation fits the scientific observations far better. (icr.org)
  • Adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) of placental mammals is predominantly mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which resides at high levels in the mitochondrial inner membrane of brown adipose tissue (BAT) ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals . (pbs.org)
  • A species gap occurs at body sizes around 1 kg at the interface between the largest plantigrade mammals and the smallest digitigrade mammals, coincident with the minimum interspecific variance of basal metabolic rate. (nih.gov)
  • The evolution of mammals has passed through many stages since the first appearance of their synapsid ancestors in the Pennsylvanian sub-period of the late Carboniferous period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most research concerning the evolution of mammals centers on the shapes of the teeth, the hardest parts of the tetrapod body. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe and illustrate new, middle Cenozoic fossils of dentally zalambdodont, North American placentals, including six relatively complete crania of Apternodus and two of Oligoryctes, as well as many partial skulls, mandibles, and teeth of these and other taxa. (amnh.org)
  • While living mammal species can be identified by the presence of milk-producing mammary glands in the females, other features are required when classifying fossils , because mammary glands and other soft-tissue features are not visible in fossils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rich maintains that similar doubts could be raised about several fossils from the northern hemisphere that are generally assumed to be primitive placentals. (newscientist.com)
  • Thus, female mammals invest a great deal of energy caring for each of their offspring, which has important ramifications in mammalian evolution, ecology, and behavior (explained in more detail in Development and Reproduction sections). (eol.org)
  • The fact that a single premolar is all that is left of Brasilestes and that it is incomplete prevented the researchers from distinguishing with absolute confidence the group of mammals to which the species belonged. (eurasiareview.com)
  • A strange group of mammals lived 10,000 years ago in South America. (nhm.ac.uk)
  • This pattern, noted previously for several morphological traits in mammals, has been explained to occur as a result of mechanical constraints over bones due to the differential effect of gravity on small and large-sized forms. (biologists.org)
  • As further explained in the supplementary information, the teeth are almost certainly not homologous: embryology says the lower gnawing tooth in Glires is the no-longer-deciduous second incisor of the standard placental three, while in Zalambdalestidae it is the first of the standard therian four. (cmnh.org)
  • But mammals have a different jaw joint, composed only of the dentary (the lower jaw bone, which carries the teeth) and the squamosal (another small skull bone). (wikipedia.org)
  • Molars are four-cusped teeth found in mammals and have the purpose of grinding food at the back of the mouth. (prezi.com)
  • Adults of some species lose most or all of their hair but, even in mammals like whales and dolphins, hair is present at least during some phase of ontogeny. (eol.org)