Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic: Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees: Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Endpoint Determination: Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.United StatesOutcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Intention to Treat Analysis: Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Drugs, Investigational: Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.PiperazinesAcupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.QuinolinesImmunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.SulfonesMethotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.ThiophenesBupropion: A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Control Groups: Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Publication Bias: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Great BritainRisk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Homeopathy: A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.EuropeProbiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
... placebo-controlled clinical trial". Respir Med. 97 (11): 1195-1199. doi:10.1016/S0954-6111(03)00226-9. PMID 14635973.. ... Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug ... It can control the exact size and spacing of the droplets. The new test could improve the efficiency, accuracy and speed of ... C. A. Burtis and E. R. Ashwood, Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry (1994) 2nd edition, ISBN 0-7216-4472-4 ...
... placebo-controlled, clinical trial". Respir Med. 97 (11): 1195-1199. doi:10.1016/S0954-6111(03)00226-9. PMID 14635973.. ... Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2004. ISBN 1-56238-545-3.. *^ Kofstad J (1996). "Blood Gases and Hypothermia: Some ... can be compressed to control bleeding, and has less risk for occlusion. The selection of which radial artery to draw from is ...
"Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events in Controlled, Clinical Trials of Rofecoxib". Circulation. 104 (19): 2280-2288. doi:10.1161/ ... A 2003 placebo-controlled small short-term study in India of 80 women with premenstrual acne vulgaris acne, were given ... A randomized, controlled trial". Annals of Internal Medicine. 133 (1): 1-9. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-133-1-200007040-00002. PMID ... Petryna A (2009). When Experiments Travel:Clinical Trials and the Global Search for Human Subjects. Princeton University Press ...
... a placebo-controlled trial". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 64 (6): 648-53. doi:10.4088/JCP.v64n0605. PMID 12823078.. ... results of a controlled crossover trial". PLoS Clinical Trials. 2 (2): e7. doi:10.1371/journal.pctr.0020007. PMC 1851732. PMID ... Controlled trials by the medical scientist Dora Colebrook supported by the Medical Research Council, indicated that light ... Westrin, Åsa; Lam, Raymond W. (October 2007). "Seasonal Affective Disorder: A Clinical Update". Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. ...
... he has called for placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. His views on clinical trials are considered unethical by ... Tables on the Clinical trials of pandemic influenza prototype vaccines. July 2009. "Archived copy". Archived from the original ... A DNA-based vaccination, which is hoped to be even faster to manufacture, is as of 2011 in clinical trials, determining safety ... While there is no conclusive evidence from randomized clinical trials that vaccinating health care workers helps protect the ...
... a placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Ebselen Study Group». Stroke. 29 (1): 12-7. PMID 9445321. doi:10.1161/01.STR ... placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals». Arch Intern Med. 164 (21): 2335-42. PMID ... randomized placebo-controlled trial». QJM. 102 (5): 341-8. PMID 19273551. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcp026. ... Rietveld A, Wiseman S (2003). «Antioxidant effects of tea: evidence from human clinical trials». J Nutr. 133 (10): 3285S-3292S ...
... placebo-controlled trial". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : The Official Clinical Practice Journal of the American ... Another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center clinical trial conducted in the United States showed that ... systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 50 (4): 473-80. doi:10.1086/ ... A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Annals of Internal Medicine. 126 (5): 364-71. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-126- ...
... a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 60 (4): 706-08. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2008.09.010. PMID ... randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial". Br. J. Dermatol. 146 (3): 423-31. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.04617.x. PMID ... Several randomized, controlled trials have found that zinc sulfate, consumed orally, often reduces or eliminates warts.[25][26] ... Despite several clinical trials, evidence for the efficacy of duct tape therapy is inconclusive.[39] Despite the mixed evidence ...
... placebo-controlled trial. „Journal of Clinical Psychiatry". 72 (6), s. 744-750, 2011. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.09m05659gre. PMID: ... Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. „Arch Gen Psychiatry". 56 (5), s ... Zonisamide for bipolar disorder, mania or mixed states: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled adjunctive trial. „ ... Preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pramipexole added to mood stabilizers for treatment-resistant ...
... placebo-controlled clinical trial". Human Psychopharmacology. 25 (7-8): 570-6. doi:10.1002/hup.1158. PMID 21312292.. ... In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial reboxetine significantly improved the symptoms of panic disorder.[8] ... a meta-analysis of double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 47 (11): 1557-63. doi: ... Numerous clinical trials have provided support for the efficacy of reboxetine in the treatment of attention deficit ...
... a placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Ebselen Study Group". Stroke. 29 (1): 12-7. doi:10.1161/01.STR.29.1.12. PMID ...
"Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and ... "Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials". The Lancet. 350 (9081 ... Ernst, E; Pittler, MH (1998). "Efficacy of homeopathic arnica: a systematic review of placebo-controlled clinical trials". ... "Impact of study quality on outcome in placebo-controlled trials of homeopathy". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 52 (7): 631-6 ...
... placebo-controlled, clinical trial". Respir Med. 97 (11): 1195-1199. doi:10.1016/S0954-6111(03)00226-9. PMID 14635973. ... Blood is most commonly drawn from the radial artery because it is easily accessible, can be compressed to control bleeding, and ... Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2004. ISBN 1-56238-545-3. Kofstad J (1996). "Blood Gases and Hypothermia: Some ...
... placebo-controlled clinical trials". Clinical Therapeutics. 25 (1): 81-104. doi:10.1016/s0149-2918(03)90011-7. PMID 12637113. ... Gabapentin for Adults with Neuropathic Pain: A Review of the Clinical Efficacy and Safety [Internet]. Ottawa: Canadian Agency ... Gabapentin for Adults with Neuropathic Pain: A Review of the Clinical Evidence and Guidelines [Internet]. Ottawa: Canadian ...
... the BOOST-2 randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial". European Heart Journal. 38 (39): 2936-2943. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ ... Clinical trials[edit]. Further information: Human embryonic stem cells clinical trials. Regenerative treatment models[edit]. ... The TIME trial, which used a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial design, concluded that "bone marrow mononuclear ... clinical trials on MSCs have failed which used cryopreserved product immediately post thaw as compared to those clinical trials ...
... a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial». Sleep. 28 (11): 1465-71. PMID 16335333.. CS1-vedlikehold: Flere navn: ... september 2004). «Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Pharmacotherapy for Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Direct ... A Randomized Controlled Trial». JAMA the Journal of the American Medical Association. 281 (11): 991. PMID 10086433. doi:10.1001 ... two randomised controlled multicentre trials». Lancet. 373 (9662): 482. PMID 19054552. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61812-7.. ...
"Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial". Sleep. ... Due to lack of scientific evidence supported by randomized clinical trials in humans, Corvalol and its components should be ... However, few of these indications are supported by clinical trials in humans. Taking a combination product containing valerian ... There is evidence in limited animal trials that valerian root may reduce coronary vessel spasm, such as one that may occur in ...
... a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial". Equine Veterinary Journal. 35 (4): 407-13. doi:10.2746/042516403776014226. ... but its benefits have not been confirmed by formal clinical studies. One pilot study examined horses given gallium nitrate in ...
... placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. The original 2009 design was for 1,350 volunteers to participate and for half ... HVTN 505 is a clinical trial testing an HIV vaccine regimen on research participants. The trial is conducted by the HIV Vaccine ... In August 2011 because of new data from other clinical trials, NIAID shifted the focus of the study to determine whether ... is conducting the trial. The Vaccine Research Center (VRC) developed the vaccines being researched in the trial. The research ...
... placebo-controlled clinical trial". European Journal of Applied Physiology. 103 (1): 33-40. doi:10.1007/s00421-007-0669-3. PMID ... However, as of 2014, there were no randomised controlled trials establishing its effectiveness when supplemented, for ... Kamber M, Koster M, Kreis R, Walker G, Boesch C, Hoppeler H. Creatine supplementation-part I: performance, clinical chemistry, ... "Long-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of health in athletes". Molecular and ...
... a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 60 (4): 706-08. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2008.09.010. PMID ... randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial". Br. J. Dermatol. 146 (3): 423-31. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2002.04617.x. PMID ... In a placebo-controlled study of 70 patients, silver nitrate given over nine days resulted in clearance of all warts in 43% and ... Despite several clinical trials, evidence for the efficacy of duct tape therapy is inconclusive. Despite the mixed evidence for ...
A Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 40 (7): 773-779. doi: ... Placebo-Controlled Trial". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 43 (11): 1387-1396. doi:10.1097/01 ... Geller, Daniel A. (2003). "Which SSRI? A Meta-Analysis of Pharmacotherapy Trials in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder". ...
... placebo-controlled clinical trial". The Lancet. 357 (9252): 251-256. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03610-2. Knudsen, J. F.; Sokol, ... a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial". Archives of Internal Medicine. 163 (13): 1587-90. doi:10.1001 ... In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, glucosamine supplementation had no additional effect on any rehabilitation outcome ... a randomized placebo-controlled trial". Res. Sports Med. 23 (1): 14-26. doi:10.1080/15438627.2014.975809. PMID 25630243. ...
Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial". Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 13: 2312-2319.e1. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2015.04. ... As of June 2015, relamorelin is in phase II clinical trials for diabetic gastroparesis and constipation. The United States Food ... "Randomized Controlled Phase Ib Study of Ghrelin Agonist, RM-131, in Type 2 Diabetic Women With Delayed Gastric Emptying: ... from animal studies to Phase II trials". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 24 (6): 769-779. doi:10.1517/13543784.2015. ...
... at ClinicalTrials.gov Clinical trial number NCT00950248 for "Double Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase I/II Clinical Trial of ... Clinical trial number NCT00229632 for "Idebenone to Treat Friedreich's Ataxia" at ClinicalTrials.gov Clinical trial number ... 2011). "A randomized placebo-controlled trial of idebenone in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy". Brain. 134 (9): 2677-86. ... placebo-controlled trial". Lancet Neurol. 6 (10): 878-86. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70220-X. PMID 17826341. Tonon C, Lodi R ( ...
... systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials". BMJ Open. 9 (9): e026686. doi:10.1136/bmjopen- ... Webster MW (July 2011). "Clinical practice and implications of recent diabetes trials". Current Opinion in Cardiology. 26 (4): ... meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". BMJ. 343: d4169. doi:10.1136/bmj.d4169. PMC 3144314. PMID 21791495.. ... a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". PLOS Medicine. 9 (4): e1001204. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001204. PMC 3323508 ...
This type of clinical trial is a placebo- controlled trial. When neither the patient nor the examiner knows whether the patient ... Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials offer the most effective way to control for the placebo effect and have ... It dictates the design of clinical trials of new medications by the inclusion of placebo groups. The placebo effect might be ... of placebo medication. Placebo effects appear to be particularly evident in the clinical trials of surgical therapies. ...
2. Linde K. et al. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet ... Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and ... Randomised placebo-controlled trials of individualised homeopathic treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic ... and co-workers identified 89 clinical trials that showed an overall odds ratio of 2.45 in favor of homeopathy over placebo. ...
Epub 2007 Jul 2. Clinical Trial, Phase II; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support ... A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of curcuminoids in oral lichen planus.. Chainani-Wu N1, Silverman ... A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. In all, 100 consecutive, eligible patients with OLP ... Two interim analyses were to be conducted during the trial. The trial was conducted between February 2003 and September 2004. ...
Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... placebo-controlled clinical trial.. Vergunst CE1, Gerlag DM, ... The study was designed as a phase IIa clinical trial with a human CCR2 blocking antibody (MLN1202) in patients with active RA. ... Accordingly, no clinical improvement was observed.. CONCLUSION: Treatment with anti-CCR2 blocking antibody did not result in ... The results do not support the notion that blockade of CCR2 may be sufficient to induce clinical improvement in RA. ...
Phase 3 Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial of Donepezil (Remember). The safety and scientific validity of this study ... A Phase 3 Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial of Donepezil in Chemotherapy Exposed Breast Cancer Survivors With ... Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 24 weeks of exposure to drug or placebo followed by a 12 week wash-out ... Placebo Comparator: Placebo Participants will be asked to take one tablet of matching placebo daily for 6 weeks followed by two ...
The findings show a modest hypnotic effect for a valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine relative to placebo. Sleep ... Valerian-hops combination and diphenhydramine for treating insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial Sleep. 2005 ... Design and setting: Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study conducted in 9 sleep disorders centers ... placebo for 28 days (n = 65), or (3) 2 tablets of diphenhydramine (25 mg) for 14 days followed by placebo for 14 days (n = 60 ...
Enrolling children with asthma in the placebo arm of a clinical trial is common, harmful and ethically unjustified argue ... Placebo-controlled clinical trials put children with asthma at risk. University of Chicago Medical Center ... "These me too studies should not be designed as placebo-controlled trials" Ross said. "No study subject should be denied ... Enrolling children with asthma in the placebo arm of a clinical trial is common, harmful and ethically unjustified argue ...
... (saffron) on depression and food craving among overweight ... placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned into one of the two groups receiving daily ... The demographic and clinical variables at baseline were the same in two groups. Mean depression scores in the saffron group ... body weight and depression among overweight women with mild and moderate depression compared to the placebo. ...
Phase III Randomized, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial of Hepcortespenlisimut-L (Hepko-V5) Versus Placebo in Patients With ... Liver Cancer Immunotherapy: Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial of Hepcortespenlisimut-L (Hepko-V5). The safety and scientific ... Phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial aimed to seek the therapeutic benefit of hepcortespenlisimut-L ... Phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial aimed to seek the therapeutic benefit of hepcortespenlisimut-L ...
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the ability of curcumin to reduce ... Curcumin for Radiation Dermatitis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Thirty Breast Cancer ... Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Thirty Breast Cancer Patients," Radiation Research, 180(1), 34-43, (7 June 2013) Include: ... Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Thirty Breast Cancer Patients," Radiation Research 180(1), 34-43, (7 June 2013). https:// ...
MDA Collaborates with AVI BioPharma on First Phase 2 Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Exon-51 Skipping Drug as Potential ... Jerry Mendell is receiving funding from MDA to help initiate this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-patient trial ... "AVI BioPharma already completed a 19-patient clinical trial in the United Kingdom confirming the potential of eteplirsen to be ... The first three of 12 DMD boys participating in the AVI BioPharma clinical trial at Nationwide Childrens Hospital in Columbus ...
... a prospective randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. ... 1.Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Chair of ... One-hundred twenty patients applied a steroid cream twice a day for 4 weeks, and another group of 120 pts used a placebo cream ... In: Lay G, Ragon FG (eds) Clinical dermatology, Oxford University Press, New York, pp 300-310Google Scholar ... Steroid therapy using monometasone furoate 0.1% in our series gave better results that placebo with an overall efficacy of 65.8 ...
... double-blind clinical trial of curcuminoids in oral lichen planus.(Report) by Phytomedicine: International Journal of ... Antimitotic agents Product development Antineoplastic agents Clinical trials Corticosteroids Drug interactions Fluconazole Food ... clinical+trial+of...-a0168513684,/a,. Citations: *MLA style: "A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of ... clinical+trial+of...-a0168513684. *APA style: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of curcuminoids in ...
... Design: This is a Phase I/II safety/efficacy trial with an adaptive trial design: one year of pretreatment baseline period ... NIH Clinical Center Detailed Web Page Publications: Artuch R, Aracil A, Mas A, Colomé C, Rissech M, Monrós E, Pineda M. ...
Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial of FCM as Treatment for Heart Failure With Iron Deficiency ... Clinical trial for Heart disease , Congestive Heart Failure , Iron Deficiency , Cardiac Disease , Heart failure , ... Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial of FCM as Treatment for Heart Failure With Iron Deficiency Brief description of study. The ... placebo-controlled study to assess the effects of IV FCM compared to placebo on the 12-month rate of death, hospitalization for ...
... in controlling MDS. Researchers will also study the effect of the study drug/placebo on the heart, kidneys, and liver. ... The goal of this clinical research study is to study the effectiveness of the drug Exjade® (deferasirox) ... A multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of deferasirox in patients with myelodysplastic ... Clinical Trials As part of our mission to eliminate cancer, MD Anderson researchers conduct hundreds of clinical trials to test ...
AcupunctureClinical TrialsMedical Academia. On the dangers of using valid placebo controls in clinical trials of acupuncture. ... Indeed, a funny thing happens when rigorous placebo controls are introduced, and thats sometimes the placebo control does ... In any case, clinical pregnancy rates for "real" acupuncture and placebo acupuncture were 38.9% and 49.2%, respectively (p= ... Science and MedicinePolitics and RegulationClinical TrialsScience and the MediaVaccinesHerbs & SupplementsCancerPublic Health ...
Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) protocol: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial ... Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) protocol: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial ... The ACTION trial is a phase II randomised, double blind, investigator led, parallel group placebo controlled trial to examine ... Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) trial visit schedule. Aq-4, aqusporin-4; FBC, full-blood count; HVF, ...
Celecoxib 2% Cream in Acute Soft Tissue Injuries: Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Villegas-Rivera ... 2017) Celecoxib 2% Cream in Acute Soft Tissue Injuries: Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial. Clin Res ... placebo, was taken [1]. The Jeyaseelan clinical trial formula was used [18] by taking the change in the VAS score. An α 5% ... Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo control trial with 3 parallel groups was conducted. We include Mexicans patients ...
Neurotrope Completes Enrollment in its Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Bryostatin in ... news-releases/neurotrope-completes-enrollment-in-its-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-phase-2-clinical-trial-of- ... placebo-controlled, Phase 2 study in moderate to severe Alzheimers disease patients. The primary endpoint of the trial is the ... placebo for 12 weeks are being tested. A total of 148 patients were enrolled into the study. ...
... controlled heat, 9 out of 14 (64%); and placebo, 0 out of 11. ... and placebo, 6 (27%). The cure rate for those with infections ... those receiving localized controlled heat from a radio-frequency generator, 50°C for 30 sec, 3 treatments at 7 day intervals; ... and those receiving treatment with a placebo. Of 53 isolates identified, 40 were Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis and 13 ... Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Meglumine Antimonate (Glucantime) Vs. Localized Controlled Heat in the Treatment of ...
... and placebo (n = 292) arms. Language and mathematics scores of end-of-term school examinations for 1998 and 1999 and number of ... 49.24-54.38 in chloroquine group and 51.12-56.38 in placebo group) scores between the two groups prior to the intervention. ... in children who received chloroquine compared with the placebo group. Post-intervention, children who received chloroquine ... than children who received placebo. In a multivariate model, educational attainment was significantly associated with taking ...
Why the vaccine industry REFUSES to conduct clinical trials using a genuine placebo control group. Tuesday, March 12, 2019 by: ... Why the vaccine industry REFUSES to conduct clinical trials using a genuine placebo control group ... www.naturalnews.com/2019-03-12-why-the-vaccine-industry-refuses-to-conduct-clinical-trials-using-a-genuine-placebo-control- ... www.naturalnews.com/2019-03-12-why-the-vaccine-industry-refuses-to-conduct-clinical-trials-using-a-genuine-placebo-control- ...
Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of Testosterone Therapy in Older Men: Popular culture often equates testosterone with ... placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62(6):406-412. ... Testosterone and Aging: Clinical Research Directions (2004) Chapter: Appendix B: Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of ... Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials of Testosterone Therapy in Older Men. Searches of the medical literature (described in ...
Search Clinical Trials. Clinical Trials. New Search Title A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Center ... Pragmatic Clinical Trial To Evaluate The Effectiveness Of Low Dose Oral Methotrexate In Patients With Pediatric Crohns Disease ...
  • Placebo effects can result simply from contact with doctors or other health care providers, even in the mere act of interviewing or examining a patient. (apdaparkinson.org)
  • A well-known example of this phenomenon in medical literature is the improvement in angina pectoris (chest pain from cardiac disease) that accompanied a control surgical procedure which consisted only of anesthesia and cutting the skin. (apdaparkinson.org)
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