Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.

Trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma: an acceptable alternative to dopamine agonists? (1/2178)

AIMS: Reported cure rates following trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma are variable and recurrence rates in some series are high. We wished to examine the cure rate of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, and to assess the long-term complications and recurrence rate. DESIGN: A retrospective review of the outcome of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, performed by a single neurosurgeon at a tertiary referral centre between 1976 and 1997. PATIENTS: All thirty-two patients operated on for microprolactinoma were female, with a mean age of 31 years (range 16-49). Indications for surgery were intolerance of dopamine agonists in ten (31%), resistance in six (19%) and resistance and intolerance in four (12.5%). Two patients were from countries where dopamine agonists were unavailable. RESULTS: The mean pre-operative prolactin level was 2933 mU/l (range 1125-6000). All but 1 had amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhoea, with galactorrhoea in 15 (46.9%). Twenty-five (78%) were cured by trans-sphenoidal surgery, as judged by a post-operative serum prolactin in the normal range. During a mean follow-up of 70 months (range 2 months to 16 years) there was one recurrence at 12 years. Post-operatively, one patient became LH deficient, two patients became cortisol deficient and two became TSH deficient. Out of 21 patients tested for post-operative growth hormone deficiency, 6 (28.6%) were deficient. Five patients developed post-operative diabetes insipidus which persisted for greater than 6 months. There were no other complications of surgery. The estimated cost of uncomplicated trans-sphenoidal surgery, and follow-up over 10 years, was similar to that of dopamine agonist therapy. CONCLUSION: In patients with hyperprolactinaemia due to a pituitary microprolactinoma, transsphenoidal surgery by an experienced pituitary surgeon should be considered as a potentially curative procedure. The cost of treatment over a 10 year period is similar in uncomplicated cases to long-term dopamine agonist therapy.  (+info)

Modulation of estrogen action in the rat pituitary and mammary glands by dietary energy consumption. (2/2178)

We are investigating the mechanisms through which estrogens induce development of prolactin (PRL)-producing pituitary tumors and mammary carcinomas in rats and how these mechanisms are affected by dietary energy consumption. The hypothesis under examination is that dietary energy restriction inhibits tumorigenesis in estrogen-responsive tissues by altering cellular responsiveness to estrogenic hormones. In the Fischer 344 (F344) rat strain, a 40% restriction of energy consumption virtually abolishes development of estrogen-induced pituitary tumors. Inhibition of pituitary tumorigenesis in the F344 strain by energy restriction results from modulation of estrogen regulation of cell survival, not cell proliferation. In contrast, energy restriction has no inhibitory effect on estrogen-induced pituitary tumor development in the ACI rat strain. However, energy restriction markedly inhibits induction of mammary carcinomas in female ACI rats treated with 17beta-estradiol. Data presented herein indicate that dietary energy restriction modulates the responsiveness of specific cell populations to estrogenic hormones and thereby inhibits estrogen-induced tumorigenesis in a manner specific to both rat strain and tissue.  (+info)

IL-8 mRNA expression by in situ hybridisation in human pituitary adenomas. (3/2178)

Several cytokines have been shown to be expressed in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. Recently, interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA was identified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in each of a series of 17 pituitary tumours examined. We have investigated further the presence of IL-8 mRNA, using in situ hybridisation in two normal human anterior pituitary specimens and 25 human pituitary adenomas. IL-8 mRNA was not identified in either of the two normal pituitary specimens. Only three of the 25 adenomas were positive for IL-8 mRNA. In these three tumours, which included two null cell adenomas and one gonadotrophinoma, the majority of tumour cells (>90%) were positive for IL-8 mRNA. The remaining 22 adenomas were completely negative. There was no difference in tumour size or type between the IL-8 positive and the IL-8 negative tumours, and immunocytochemistry for von Willebrandt factor showed that the two groups were also similar in their degree of vascularisation. In conclusion, IL-8 mRNA was found in 12% of pituitary adenomas studied and was histologically identified within the tumour cells. In situ hybridisation is a more appropriate technique for assessing cytokine mRNA production by human pituitary tumours because RT-PCR may be too sensitive, identifying very small, possibly pathologically insignificant, quantities of mRNA that could be produced by supporting cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells or macrophages.  (+info)

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland: a case report. (4/2178)

An unusual case of metastatic bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung presented as a pituitary tumour in a young adult Chinese female, who subsequently died after having undergone trans-sphenoidal resection. Metastatic cancers of the pituitary are uncommon even in necropsy series and rarely give rise to clinical symptoms. This case draws attention to the fact that, although uncommon, pituitary metastases have been noted with increasing frequency and their distinction from primary pituitary tumours is often difficult. A metastatic pituitary tumour may be the initial presentation of an unknown primary malignancy, wherein the metastatic deposits may also be limited to the pituitary gland. Clinicians and pathologists alike should consider a metastatic lesion in the differential diagnosis of a non-functioning pituitary tumour.  (+info)

Apoptosis in nontumorous and neoplastic human pituitaries: expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. (5/2178)

Analyses of apoptosis and of the apoptosis regulatory proteins Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-X, and Bad were done in 95 nontumorous and neoplastic pituitary tissues by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. The apoptotic index was relatively low in all groups but was at least fourfold higher in pituitary carcinomas compared with any other groups. Pituitaries from pregnant and postpartum women had a fivefold higher apoptotic index compared with matched controls from nonpregnant females. Preoperative treatment of adenomas with octreotide or dopamine agonists did not change the apoptotic index significantly. The lowest levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-X expression were in pituitary carcinomas as detected by immunostaining. An immortalized human pituitary adenoma cell line, HP75, developed in our laboratory using a replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus with an early large T-antigen, had a much higher level of apoptosis than nontumorous and neoplastic pituitaries. Treatment with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors increased apoptosis in this cell line. Analysis of the Bcl-2 family of proteins after treatment with TGF-beta1 and PKC inhibitors showed a 20% to 30% decrease in Bcl-X in the treated groups compared with controls. These results, which represent the first study of apoptosis in pituitaries from pregnant and postpartum cases and in pituitary carcinomas, indicate that 1) the apoptotic rate is low in nontumorous and neoplastic pituitary tissues but is relatively higher in pituitary carcinomas, 2) there are alterations in the expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in pituitary neoplasms with a decrease in Bcl-2 expression in pituitary carcinomas that may contribute to pituitary tumor pathogenesis and/or proliferation, and 3) cultured pituitary tumor cells respond to TGF-beta1 and PKC inhibitors by undergoing apoptotic cell death.  (+info)

Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports. (6/2178)

A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. Skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. Decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.  (+info)

Calcium block of Na+ channels and its effect on closing rate. (7/2178)

Calcium ion transiently blocks Na+ channels, and it shortens the time course for closing of their activation gates. We examined the relation between block and closing kinetics by using the Na+ channels natively expressed in GH3 cells, a clonal line of rat pituitary cells. To simplify analysis, inactivation of the Na+ channels was destroyed by including papain in the internal medium. All divalent cations tested, and trivalent La3+, blocked a progressively larger fraction of the channels as their concentration increased, and they accelerated the closing of the Na+ channel activation gate. For calcium, the most extensively studied cation, there is an approximately linear relation between the fraction of the channels that are calcium-blocked and the closing rate. Extrapolation of the data to very low calcium suggests that closing rate is near zero when there is no block. Analysis shows that, almost with certainty, the channels can close when occupied by calcium. The analysis further suggests that the channels close preferentially or exclusively from the calcium-blocked state.  (+info)

Expression of menin gene mRNA in pituitary tumours. (8/2178)

OBJECTIVE: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterised by the combined occurrence of parathyroid, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary tumours. The gene responsible for MEN 1, the menin gene, a putative tumour-suppressor gene located on human chromosome 11q13, has been cloned. To investigate the role of the menin gene in sporadic anterior pituitary tumorigenesis, its mRNA was assessed in a group of pituitary tumours. METHODS: Menin gene expression, along with glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene expression, has been studied in a group of normal pituitaries and in 23 pituitary tumours not associated with the MEN 1 syndrome. The pituitary tumours included 4 prolactinomas, 11 growth-hormone-secreting tumours and 8 non-functional tumours. Total RNA was extracted from the normal pituitaries and tumours, and cDNA was synthesised with standard reverse transcriptase methods. Duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was standardised in order to quantify the expression of the menin gene using intron-spanning primers across exons 9 and 10 in relation to the 'house-keeping' gene GAPDH. The PCR products were separated on agarose gel and densitometric analysis of the bands allowed semi-quantification. RESULTS: There was no evidence for a change in menin gene expression in any of the pituitary tumours when compared with normal pituitaries. CONCLUSIONS: These studies complement previous work on mutational analysis, and do not suggest a major role for the menin suppressor gene in sporadic pituitary tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, is the front portion of the pituitary gland. It is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones include:

* Growth hormone (GH), which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in bones and other tissues.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females by controlling the development and release of eggs or sperm.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and nursing women.
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain located just above it. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. These hormones are released into a network of blood vessels called the portal system, which carries them directly to the anterior pituitary gland.

Damage or disease of the anterior pituitary can lead to hormonal imbalances and various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, reproductive problems, and diabetes insipidus.

Pituitary diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproduction.

Pituitary diseases can be classified into two main categories:

1. Pituitary tumors: These are abnormal growths in or around the pituitary gland that can affect its function. Pituitary tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can vary in size. Some pituitary tumors produce excess hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms, while others may not produce any hormones but can still cause problems by compressing nearby structures in the brain.
2. Pituitary gland dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the normal function of the pituitary gland without the presence of a tumor. Examples include hypopituitarism, which is a condition characterized by decreased production of one or more pituitary hormones, and Sheehan's syndrome, which occurs when the pituitary gland is damaged due to severe blood loss during childbirth.

Symptoms of pituitary diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the hormones that are affected. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Pituitary hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls several other endocrine glands and regulates various bodily functions.

There are two main types of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary hormones and posterior pituitary hormones, which are produced in different parts of the pituitary gland and have distinct functions.

Anterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Growth hormone (GH): regulates growth and metabolism.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
5. Prolactin: stimulates milk production in lactating women.
6. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

Posterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during lactation.
2. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH): regulates water balance in the body by controlling urine production in the kidneys.

Overall, pituitary hormones play crucial roles in regulating growth, development, metabolism, reproductive function, and various other bodily functions. Abnormalities in pituitary hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, such as dwarfism, acromegaly, Cushing's disease, infertility, and diabetes insipidus.

Pituitary apoplexy is a medical emergency that involves bleeding into the pituitary gland (a small gland at the base of the brain) and/or sudden swelling of the pituitary gland. This can lead to compression of nearby structures, such as the optic nerves and the hypothalamus, causing symptoms like severe headache, visual disturbances, hormonal imbalances, and altered mental status. It is often associated with a pre-existing pituitary tumor (such as a pituitary adenoma), but can also occur in individuals without any known pituitary abnormalities. Immediate medical attention is required to manage this condition, which may include surgical intervention, hormone replacement therapy, and supportive care.

Anterior pituitary hormones are a group of six major hormones that are produced and released by the anterior portion (lobe) of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions and activities. The six main anterior pituitary hormones are:

1. Growth Hormone (GH): Also known as somatotropin, GH is essential for normal growth and development in children and adolescents. It helps regulate body composition, metabolism, and bone density in adults.
2. Prolactin (PRL): A hormone that stimulates milk production in females after childbirth and is also involved in various reproductive and immune functions in both sexes.
3. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH regulates the development, growth, and maturation of follicles in the ovaries (in females) and sperm production in the testes (in males).
4. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH plays a key role in triggering ovulation in females and stimulating testosterone production in males.
5. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): TSH regulates the function of the thyroid gland, which is responsible for producing and releasing thyroid hormones that control metabolism and growth.
6. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol, a steroid hormone involved in stress response, metabolism, and immune function.

These anterior pituitary hormones are regulated by the hypothalamus, which is located above the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus releases releasing and inhibiting factors that control the synthesis and secretion of anterior pituitary hormones, creating a complex feedback system to maintain homeostasis in the body.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon family. It was first isolated from the ovine hypothalamus and later found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including the brain, pituitary gland, and peripheral nerves.

PACAP exists in two forms, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27, which differ in their length but share the same amino acid sequence at the N-terminus. PACAP exerts its effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors, including PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 receptors, which are widely distributed throughout the body.

PACAP has a wide range of biological activities, including neurotrophic, neuroprotective, vasodilatory, and immunomodulatory effects. In the pituitary gland, PACAP stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, leading to an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn regulates the release of various hormones, including growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Overall, PACAP is a crucial neuropeptide involved in various physiological processes, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, mood disorders, and cancer.

The posterior pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis, is the posterior portion of the pituitary gland. It is primarily composed of nerve fibers that originate from the hypothalamus, a region of the brain. These nerve fibers release two important hormones: oxytocin and vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH).

Oxytocin plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. During childbirth, it stimulates uterine contractions to help facilitate delivery, and after birth, it helps to trigger the release of milk from the mother's breasts during breastfeeding.

Vasopressin, on the other hand, helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of water that is excreted by the kidneys. It does this by increasing the reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts of the kidney, which leads to a more concentrated urine and helps prevent dehydration.

Overall, the posterior pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining fluid balance, social bonding, and reproduction.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

As early as 1916 he described neurologic and psychiatric sequelae of pituitary neoplasms. In 1930 he provided an early ...
They include pituitary adenoma and carcinoid tumor Group II tumors/neoplasms: nonepithelial neuroectodermal neoplasms. These ... A neuroectodermal neoplasm is a neoplasm or tumor of the neuroectoderm. They are most commonly tumors in the central or ... "Neuroectodermal Neoplasms of the Head and Neck with Emphasis on Neuroendocrine Carcinomas". Modern Pathology. 15 (3): 264-278. ... Group I tumors/neoplasms: neuroendocrine carcinomas. These show predominantly epithelial differentiation. ...
The MEN1 phenotype is inherited via an autosomal-dominant pattern and is associated with neoplasms of the pituitary gland, the ... of sporadic pituitary adenomas. Consequently, alterations of the gene represent a candidate pathogenetic mechanism of pituitary ... MEN1 pituitary tumours are adenomas of anterior cells, typically prolactinomas or growth hormone-secreting. Pancreatic tumours ... MEN1 gene mutations and deletions also play a role in the development of hereditary and a subgroup of sporadic pituitary ...
... androgen-secreting neoplasms, and other pituitary or adrenal disorders, should be investigated. History-taking, specifically ... Elevated insulin levels contribute to or cause the abnormalities seen in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis that lead to ... by the anterior pituitary gland through high levels of insulin in the blood (hyperinsulinaemia) in women whose ovaries are ...
Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. They ...
... spinal cord and motor neurons retina posterior pituitary Neural plate Neuroectodermal neoplasm Neuroepithelial cell Larsen's ...
... s represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms and the estimated prevalence rate in the general ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Most pituitary tumors are benign, approximately 35% are ... Unlike tumors of the posterior Pituitary, Pituitary adenomas are classified as endocrine tumors (not brain tumors). Pituitary ... While pituitary adenomas are common, affecting approximately one in 6 of the general population, clinically active pituitary ...
Adrenal tumor Pituitary adenoma The most common form is thyroid cancer. Conditions such as pancreatic cancer or ovarian cancer ... An endocrine gland neoplasm is a neoplasm affecting one or more glands of the endocrine system.[citation needed]Examples ...
Neoplasm of uncertain behavior of endocrine glands and nervous system 237.0 Pituitary gland and craniopharyngeal duct Pituitary ... 140 Malignant neoplasm of lip 141 Malignant neoplasm of tongue 142 Malignant neoplasm of major salivary glands 143 Malignant ... benign neoplasm of uterus 220 Benign neoplasm of ovary 221 Benign neoplasm of other female genital organs 222 Benign neoplasm ... neoplasm of oropharynx 147 Malignant neoplasm of nasopharynx 148 Malignant neoplasm of hypopharynx 149 Malignant neoplasm of ...
... pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.149 - acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.149.500 - ... pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.617.500 - laurence-moon syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.617.738 - pituitary diseases MeSH ... hypothalamic neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.211.885.500.600 - pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.252 - cerebellar diseases MeSH ... hypothalamic neoplasms MeSH C10.551.240.250.700.500.500 - pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.551.240.375 - central nervous system ...
... directly to neoplasm Headache attributed to carcinomatous meningitis Headache attributed to hypothalamic or pituitary hyper- or ... attributed to intracranial neoplasm Headache attributed to increased intracranial pressure or hydrocephalus caused by neoplasm ... Headache attributed to benign angiopathy of the central nervous system Headache attributed to pituitary apoplexy Headache ...
... a neoplasm, or tumor composed of glial cells) on a lobe of the pituitary gland, as well congenital underdevelopment of the ... Findings affecting pituitary function in some Johanson-Blizzard syndrome patients have included such anomalies as the formation ... in Johanson-Blizzard syndrome can be attributed to growth hormone deficiency caused by diminished anterior pituitary function, ... anterior pituitary. Growth failure and associated short stature (dwarfism) ...
Craniopharyngioma is a neoplasm which can arise from the epithelium within the cleft. It is named for Martin Rathke. Rathke's ... The pouch eventually loses its connection with the pharynx giving rise to the anterior pituitary. The anterior wall of Rathke's ... It gives rise to the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), a part of the endocrine system. Rathke's pouch, and therefore the ... cleft cyst "Rathke's Cleft Cyst - Pituitary & Skull Base Tumor , UCLA Health". UCLA Health. Retrieved 9 February 2023. synd/ ...
Salivary gland neoplasm occurrence within heterotopic salivary gland tissue is rare. Stafne defect Barnes L (2008). Surgical ... Other reported sites of heterotopic salivary gland tissue are the middle ear, parathyroid glands, thyroid gland, pituitary ...
... may be used for determining the possibility of gastrinomas associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasm syndromes (MEN ... and pituitary), higher levels of C-peptide together with the presence of a gastrinoma suggest that organs besides the stomach ... may harbor neoplasms. C-peptide levels may be checked in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) to help determine degree ...
... familial Pancreatic diseases Pancreatic islet cell neoplasm Pancreatic islet cell tumors Pancreatic lipomatosis duodenal ... Pinsky-Di George-Harley syndrome Pinta Pipecolic acidemia PIRA Pitt-Hopkins syndrome Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome Pituitary ... et varioliformis acuta Pityriasis rubra pilaris Piussan-Lenaerts-Mathieu syndrome Placenta disorder Placenta neoplasm Placental ... retardation-hyperkeratosis Parapsoriasis Parasitophobia Parastremmatic dwarfism Parathyroid cancer Parathyroid neoplasm ...
... and anterior pituitary (15-90% of cases). Other endocrine and non-endocrine neoplasms including adrenocortical and thyroid ... In 1903 Erdheim described the case of an acromegalic patient with a pituitary adenoma and three enlarged parathyroid glands.[ ... reported a case series of 8 patients with a syndrome of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet adenomas.[citation needed ... A useful mnemonic to remember the associated neoplasias is below:[citation needed] MEN I (3 Ps) - Pituitary, Parathyroid, ...
The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... Mac Kenzie, William; Garner, F. (1973). "Comparison of Neoplasms in Six Sources of Rats". JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer ... The Lewis rat suffers from several spontaneous pathologies: first, they can suffer from high incidences of neoplasms, with the ... A 1972 study compared neoplasms in Sprague Dawleys from six different commercial suppliers and found highly significant ...
"Craniopharyngioma , UCLA Pituitary Tumor Program". pituitary.ucla.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-09. "Diabetes insipidus - Symptoms and ... usually suprasellar neoplasm, which may be cystic, that develops from nests of epithelium derived from Rathke's pouch. Rathke's ... Pituitary insufficiency Often occurs to some degree because craniopharyngiomas develop in the area of the pituitary stalk, ... Large pituitary tumors can paradoxically elevate blood prolactin levels due to the "stalk effect". This elevation occurs as a ...
In the 1930s, Doctor Georgeanna Jones discovered that hCG was produced not by the pituitary gland, but by the placenta. This ... and gestational trophoblastic neoplasms). bacterial contamination and blood in urine Spurious evaporation lines may appear on ... False positives can also be caused by (in order of incidence) quiescent pregnancy, pituitary sulfated hCG, heterophilic ... Early studies of hCG had concluded that it was produced by the pituitary gland. ...
"Entrez Gene: PTTG1 pituitary tumor-transforming 1". Pei L (Jan 1999). "Pituitary tumor-transforming gene protein associates ... is overexpressed in hematopoietic neoplasms. Evidence for a transcriptional activation function of hPTTG". Oncogene. 17 (17): ... Yu R, Melmed S (2004). "Pituitary tumor transforming gene: an update". Molecular Pathology of the Pituitary. Frontiers of ... and pituitary tumor transforming gene in pituitary tumors". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 87 (9): 4238- ...
... parathyroid neoplasms MeSH C04.588.322.609 - pituitary neoplasms MeSH C04.588.322.609.145 - acth-secreting pituitary adenoma ... hypothalamic neoplasms MeSH C04.588.614.250.195.885.500.600 - pituitary neoplasms MeSH C04.588.614.250.387 - central nervous ... skull base neoplasms MeSH C04.588.149.828 - spinal neoplasms MeSH C04.588.180.260 - breast neoplasms, male MeSH C04.588.180.390 ... bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.120.250.250 - common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C04.588.274.120.401 - gallbladder neoplasms ...
... pituitary acth hypersecretion MeSH C19.700.482.311 - dwarfism, pituitary MeSH C19.700.734.145 - acth-secreting pituitary ... MeSH C19.053.098.265 - adrenal cortex neoplasms MeSH C19.053.098.265.500 - adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.053.098.265.750 - ... acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.344.609.145.500 - nelson syndrome MeSH C19.344.609.292 - growth hormone-secreting ... ovarian neoplasms MeSH C19.391.630.705.265 - brenner tumor MeSH C19.391.630.705.331 - carcinoma, endometrioid MeSH C19.391. ...
Neoplasms will often show as differently colored masses (also referred to as processes) in CT or MRI results.[citation needed] ... Most pituitary adenomas can be removed surgically, often using a minimally invasive approach through the nasal cavity and skull ... More generally a neoplasm may cause release of metabolic end products (e.g., free radicals, altered electrolytes, ... The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ...
This can include kidney, skin, brain and lung involvement, and less frequently retroorbital tissue, pituitary gland and heart ... The ASCO Post Staff (2 November 2022). "FDA Approves Oral MEK Inhibitor Cobimetinib for Histiocytic Neoplasms". The ASCO Post. ... "Erdheim-Chester Disease Declared a Histiocytic Neoplasm" (PDF). 18 May 2016. Retrieved 2018-07-18 - via erdheim-chester.org. " ... Rosa K (2 November 2022). "FDA Approves Cobimetinib for Histiocytic Neoplasms". OncLive. Retrieved 2022-11-19. Abeykoon JP, ...
In 1914 an American neurosurgeon, Harvey Cushing, reported on a patient with a pituitary tumour on whom he had operated. The ... Melanocytic nevi and neoplasms, Syndromes affecting the skin, Syndromes affecting the heart, Syndromes with tumors). ... "Pancreatic ductal and acinar cell neoplasms in Carney complex: a possible new association". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96 (11): ... Epithelioid blue nevus List of cutaneous neoplasms associated with systemic syndromes Carney Syndrome at eMedicine Carney, J.; ...
Asscheman H, Gooren LJ, Assies J, Smits JP, de Slegte R (June 1988). "Prolactin levels and pituitary enlargement in hormone- ... ISBN 978-0-323-32195-2. Meningeal Neoplasms-Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition: ScholarlyBrief. ScholarlyEditions ... 544-. ISBN 978-3-642-60107-1. Kovacs K, Stefaneanu L, Ezzat S, Smyth HS (May 1994). "Prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma in a ... Moltz, L.; Römmler, A.; Schwartz, U.; Hammerstein, J. (1978). "Effects of Cyproterone Acetate (CPA) on Pituitary Gonadotrophin ...
Neoplasms arising from these cells are pheochromocytomas (also called chromaffin or sympathetic paragangliomas, in contrast to ... which are secreted from the pituitary); all of these peptides bind to opioid receptors and produce analgesic (and other) ... non-chromaffin or parasympathetic paragangliomas of glomus cells). Sometimes only neoplasms of adrenal origin are named ...
An adrenocortical adenoma or adrenal adenoma is commonly described as a benign neoplasm emerging from the cells that comprise ... caused by pituitary adenomas. In contrast, "Cushing's syndrome" refers specifically to "primary hypercortisolism" classified as ...
... femoral neoplasms MeSH C05.116.231.754 - skull neoplasms MeSH C05.116.231.754.450 - jaw neoplasms MeSH C05.116.231.754.450.583 ... pituitary MeSH C05.116.099.343.679 - Laron syndrome MeSH C05.116.099.343.796 - Mulibrey nanism MeSH C05.116.099.343.914 - ... palatal neoplasms MeSH C05.116.231.754.600 - nose neoplasms MeSH C05.116.231.754.659 - orbital neoplasms MeSH C05.116.231.754. ... mandibular neoplasms MeSH C05.500.499.601 - maxillary neoplasms MeSH C05.500.499.692 - palatal neoplasms MeSH C05.500.607.221 ...
The most common type of pituitary tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your body. ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Pituitary Neoplasms (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Prolactinoma (National Institutes ... Pituitary Tumors (Endocrine Society) * Pituitary Tumors (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Also in ... Familial isolated pituitary adenoma: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Risk Factors for Pituitary Tumors ( ...
A neoplasm that arises from the anterior or posterior lobe of pituitary gland and is characterized by the absence of atypical ... Benign Neoplasm of Pituitary; benign neoplasm of pituitary; Benign Neoplasm of Pituitary Gland; benign neoplasm of pituitary ... pituitary gland benign neoplasm; Pituitary Neoplasms, Benign; pituitary neoplasms, benign; Pituitary Tumor, Benign; pituitary ... benign neoplasm of the pituitary gland; Benign Pituitary Gland Neoplasm; benign pituitary gland neoplasm; Benign Pituitary ...
Benign neoplasm of pituitary gland. D49. Neoplasms of unspecified behavior. D50.9. Iron deficiency anemia, unspecified. ...
The recorded number of patients with central hyperthyroidism due to TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma doubled in the last few ... Pituitary Neoplasms / complications* * Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism* * Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery * Postoperative Period ... underwent pituitary surgery. Hypersecretion of other pituitary hormones was diagnosed in 5 of 17 patients. Four patients were ... Criteria of cure and follow-up of central hyperthyroidism due to thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas J Clin Endocrinol ...
Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis* * Pituitary Neoplasms / mortality * Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy * Pituitary Neoplasms ... unidentifiable pituitary stalk (p , 0.001), dislocated chiasm (p , 0.038), either not visible infundibular recess (p , 0.019) ...
Pituitary tumors are found on autopsy in as many as 25% of unselected cases. The annual incidence of pituitary neoplasms varies ... Most pituitary adenomas are microadenomas. Pituitary imaging is important in confirming the diagnosis of pituitary macroadenoma ... Pituitary macroadenomas are benign epithelial neoplasms composed of adenohypophysial cells. Primary malignant tumors of the ... Pituitary macroadenomas often require surgical extirpation for cure. [1] Signs and symptoms of pituitary macroadenomas. ...
As early as 1916 he described neurologic and psychiatric sequelae of pituitary neoplasms. In 1930 he provided an early ...
Pituitary adenomas (PA) are commonly occurring benign neoplasms. Identification of molecular pathway resulting in pituitary ... MicroRNA-543 promotes cell invasion and impedes apoptosis in pituitary adenoma via activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by ...
Three endocrine neoplasms: an unusual combination of pituitary adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and follicular thyroid ... Coexisting hurthle cell neoplasm and thyroid hormone resistance. Yaylali Guzin Fidan , Erturk Mehmet Sercan , Akin Fulya , ... Brown tumors may also mimic true neoplasm and lead to misdiagnosis if close attention is not paid. We present three case ... Functional pituitary adenoma coexisting with differentiated thyroid carcinoma was reported previously in literature. We report ...
growth hormone-producing pituitary gland neoplasm (en) eritasuna. Espezialitatea. endokrinologia. Identifikatzaileak. GNS-10-MK ...
The majority of sellar region neoplasms are pituitary adenomas.. *Although the 2017 WHO Classification of Tumours of Endocrine ... Pituitary Adenoma. The diagnosis of pituitary adenoma is usually straightforward on H&E stained sections, which readily ... The term "atypical pituitary adenoma" is no longer utilized in the WHO 2017 classification. Since a MIB1 proliferative index ... Pituitary carcinoma, a rare entity, can only be diagnosed in the setting of clinicoradiologic evidence of metastasis. Invasion ...
Benign neoplasm of brain and other parts of central nervous system. D35.2 - D35.4. Benign neoplasm of pituitary gland, ... Unspecified/other malignant neoplasm of skin of unspecified sites of skin. D00.- - D09.-. In-situ neoplasms Note: Carcinoma in ... Neoplasm of uncertain or unknown behavior of meninges, brain, CNS. D44.3 - D44.5. Neoplasm of uncertain or unknown behavior of ... Unspecified/other malignant neoplasm of skin of eyelid. C44.20-, C44.29-. Unspecified/other malignant neoplasm skin of ear and ...
Small pituitary fossa in Cushings syndrome due to adrenal neoplasm. N Engl J Med 1963;269(24):1286-1289. DOI: 10.1056/ ... Height of normal pituitary gland as a function of age evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in children. Pediatr Radiol 1991; ... Pituitary gland growth during normal pregnancy: an in vivo study using magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Med 1988;85(2):217-220 ... Kjær I. Sella turcica morphology and the pituitary gland-a new contribution to craniofacial diagnostics based on histology and ...
... secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS. ... A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or ...
Research of Prolactinoma has been linked to Pituitary Neoplasms, Pituitary Diseases, Adenoma, Neoplasms, Pituitary Adenoma. The ... prolactinoma of pituitary gland, prolactinoma (disorder), prolactinoma, familial, familial prolactinoma, pituitary adenoma. ... Prolactinoma is also known as prolactinoma, pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting, prolactinoma (morphologic abnormality), ...
The Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms used included Acromegaly, "Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion", Pituitary Neoplasms ... nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), prolactinomas resistant to dopamine agonists or other pituitary-related tumors. ... Pituitary. 2012;15(2):150-9.). Two (66. Cho D-Y, Liau W-R. Comparison of endonasal endoscopic surgery and sublabial ... Patients with pituitary tumor. Postoperative complications. No (high risk). No mentioned (unclear). No applicable. No (low risk ...
... Publication , Journal Article ... "Pituitary adenoma presenting as facial pain: report of two cases and review of the literature." Neurosurgery 10, no. 6 Pt 1 ( ... "Pituitary adenoma presenting as facial pain: report of two cases and review of the literature." Neurosurgery, vol. 10, no. 6 Pt ... Pituitary adenoma presenting as facial pain: report of two cases and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 1982 Jun;10(6 Pt 1 ...
Overall, neoplasms (benign, malignant, or unspecified) were reported in 15% of the patients in the semaglutide groups and in 8 ... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma2. *haplotype2. *heart defects, congenital2 ... 2%). Malignant neoplasms were reported in 3 patients who received semaglutide (1%) and in no patients who received placebo. ...
An increase in mammary, pituitary and endocrine pancreas neoplasms has been found in rodents after chronic administration of ... An increase in pituitary gland, mammary gland and pancreatic islet cell neoplasia (mammary adenocarcinomas, pituitary and ... Hyperprolactinemia may suppress hypothalamic GnRH, resulting in reduced pituitary gonadotropin secretion. This, in turn, may ... There were statistically significant increases in pituitary gland adenomas, endocrine pancreas adenomas and mammary gland ...
An increase in mammary, pituitary, and endocrine pancreas neoplasms has been found in rodents after chronic administration of ... An increase in pituitary gland, mammary gland, and pancreatic islet cell neoplasia (mammary adenocarcinomas, pituitary and ... Mammary gland neoplasm, Total rat Male 1.5 (9.4) 0.4 (2.4) Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to chronically elevate prolactin ... Hyperprolactinemia may suppress hypothalamic GnRH, resulting in reduced pituitary gonadotropin secretion. This, in turn, may ...
... for the disruption of ADH synthesis or secretion in hypophyseal diabetes insipidus include large pituitary neoplasms ( ... Also see Pet Health content regarding diabetes insipidus in dogs Diabetes Insipidus The pituitary gland is located near the ... read more and diabetes insipidus in cats Diabetes Insipidus The pituitary gland is located near the center and bottom of the ...
Corticotroph Aggressive Pituitary Tumors and Carcinomas Frequently Harbor ATRX Mutations. Casar-Borota, O., Boldt, H. B., ... Neoplasms Medicine & Life Sciences 42% * Central Nervous System Neoplasms Medicine & Life Sciences 38% ...
Thyroid Neoplasms, Breast Neoplasms, Prostatic Neoplasms, Antithyroid Agents, Pituitary Gland, Pituitary Diseases, Medical ... Thyroid Neoplasms, Pituitary Gland, Pituitary Diseases, Medical Oncology, Molecular Biology, Orthomolecular Therapy, Andrology ... Oncology, Genes, Neoplasm, Antineoplastic Protocols, Pediatrics, Neurology, Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological, Health ...
Visual acuity in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma: Prognostic factors and long-term outcome after surgery. ...
Pituitary Gland; Pituitary Neoplasms; Reference Values; Tretinoin; Endocrinology ... The molecular mechanisms governing the pathogenesis of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas are still obscure. Furthermore, the ... The molecular mechanisms governing the pathogenesis of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas are still obscure. Furthermore, the ... and its expression is reduced in corticotrophinomas obtained from Cushings patients compared with the normal pituitary. BMP-4 ...
Pituitary (1). *. Pituitary neoplasms (1). *. Postpartum period (1). *. Practice management, medical (1) ... The Application of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Pituitary Adenomas. Congxin Dai, Bowen Sun, Renzhi Wang, Jun ... Diagnostic algorithm of the subclinical forms of adrenal neoplasms. Sofya G. Blyumina, Pavel N. Romashchenko, Igor S. ...
  • Seventeen patients with a TSH-secreting adenoma, diagnosed on the basis of detectable TSH levels in the face of high free thyroid hormone concentrations and pituitary lesion at neuroimaging, underwent pituitary surgery. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence suggests that pituitary adenoma development occurs in several steps, including an irreversible initiation phase followed by tumor promotion. (medscape.com)
  • MicroRNA-543 promotes cell invasion and impedes apoptosis in pituitary adenoma via activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by negative regulation of Smad7. (cancerindex.org)
  • The diagnosis of pituitary adenoma is usually straightforward on H&E stained sections, which readily identify the monomorphic adenoma cell population. (cap.org)
  • Table 1 summarizes the transcription factors associated with each of the pituitary adenoma subtypes. (cap.org)
  • Evidence of improved surgical outcome following endoscopy for nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma removal. (scielo.br)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Pituitary adenoma presenting as facial pain: report of two cases and review of the literature. (duke.edu)
  • ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
  • A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE. (uams.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
  • Case report: ACTH-secreting pituitary carcinoma metastatic to the liver in a patient with a history of atypical pituitary adenoma and Cushing's disease. (uams.edu)
  • METHOD: Sex-dependent differences in prevalence, age at diagnosis, diagnostic delay, pituitary adenoma size, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations were estimated. (regionh.dk)
  • IGF-ISDS was significantly lower in females compared to males, whereas neither nadir GH nor pituitary adenoma size differed between males and females. (regionh.dk)
  • Serum IGF-I levels were significantly lower in female patients, whereas nadir GH, and pituitary adenoma size were comparable. (regionh.dk)
  • Identification of small compound biomarkers of pituitary adenoma: a bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling study. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Finally, we screened for published case reports on pituitary adenoma, pituitary apoplexy, Rathke's cleft cyst, craniopharyngioma and hypophysitis. (medscape.com)
  • The most common type of pituitary tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, normalization of thyroid function alone does not necessarily reflect complete removal of the tumor, and more comprehensive criteria of cure based on pituitary imaging, hormone measurement, and suppression of TSH during T3 administration should be used. (nih.gov)
  • Pituitary tumor development is a monoclonal process with several contributing factors. (medscape.com)
  • The role of genetic mutations was highlighted in a report suggesting that patients with pituitary tumors from 4 Irish families share a common mutation with a patient from the 18th century who had pituitary tumor-mediated gigantism. (medscape.com)
  • Possible histogenetic relationships of this tumor with other pituitary neoplasms are presented . (symptoma.com)
  • These results are presented with a review of the relevant literature on the differential characteristics of FRT versus SRS in the treatment of functional and non-functional pituitary adenomas and validate postoperative irradiation as a potentially safe and effective means for tumor control. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (PTTG) family members are well documented to be involved in cell-cycle regulation and mitosis, and contribute to cancer development by their involvement in cellular transformation in several tumor types. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Although RESP18 is translocated across microsomal membranes after in vitro translation, AtT-20 pituitary tumor cells, which endogenously synthesize RESP18, do not release it into the culture medium. (unlv.edu)
  • Diagnosis is augmented by reticulin staining, which allows identification of loss of normal pituitary acinar architecture. (cap.org)
  • Height of normal pituitary gland as a function of age evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in children. (thejcdp.com)
  • In this study, we report that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) is expressed in the corticotrophs of human normal adenohypophysis and its expression is reduced in corticotrophinomas obtained from Cushing's patients compared with the normal pituitary. (unisr.it)
  • The empty sella syndrome is usually associated with normal pituitary function. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • AU - Coulson,C J, AU - Siddiq,M A, AU - Johnson,A P, PY - 2007/12/12/pubmed PY - 2008/5/2/medline PY - 2007/12/12/entrez SP - 623 EP - 5 JF - British journal of neurosurgery JO - Br J Neurosurg VL - 21 IS - 6 N2 - The empty sella syndrome is usually associated with normal pituitary function. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • They arise from epithelial pituitary cells and account for 10-15% of all intracranial tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Pituitary macroadenomas are benign epithelial neoplasms composed of adenohypophysial cells. (medscape.com)
  • Pituitary adenomas (PA) are commonly occurring benign neoplasms. (cancerindex.org)
  • Experience in the SEER registries has shown that using the Supplemental List increases casefinding for benign brain and CNS, hematopoietic neoplasms, and other reportable diseases. (cancer.gov)
  • Fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) and gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) are used as adjuvant therapies to surgical resection for functional and non-functional pituitary adenomas, although their optimum role in the treatment algorithm, as well as long-term safety and efficacy, still awaits further study. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The majority (86%) of hyperthyroid patients normalized thyroid hormone concentrations and regained euthyroidism, although pituitary imaging, alpha-subunit, and alpha-subunit/TSH molar ratio normalized in only 47%, 54%, and 58% of patients, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • A neoplasm that arises from the anterior or posterior lobe of pituitary gland and is characterized by the absence of atypical or malignant cytological and architectural features, and absence of invasive features or metastatic potential. (nih.gov)
  • They also can be used to assess anterior pituitary reserve. (medscape.com)
  • Pituitary adenomas are neoplasms in the anterior pituitary and are associated with conditions such as acromegaly (an overproduction of growth hormone), Cushing's syndrome (excessive production of cortisol), and diabetes insipidus (a reduction in the production of antidiuretic hormone). (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • Rat anterior pituitary extracts contain 18-kDa and O-glycosylated RESP18 with similar properties. (unlv.edu)
  • Hormones secreted by adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary). (medscape.com)
  • The pituitary gland is entirely ectodermal in origin but is composed of 2 functionally distinct structures that differ in embryologic development and anatomy: the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) and the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary). (medscape.com)
  • The sella turcica is a saddle-shaped depression that surrounds the inferior, anterior, and posterior aspects of the pituitary. (medscape.com)
  • Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM , optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS ), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS ). (nih.gov)
  • The pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG), also known as securin, is a mitotic checkpoint protein which inhibits sister chromatid separation during mitosis. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Other specified malignant neoplasm (Other specified cancer tumour Other codes are obsolete, ie the entities have been in the previous edition). (who.int)
  • The release of these pituitary hormones is mediated by hypothalamic neurohormones that are secreted from the median eminence (a site where axon terminals emanate from the hypothalamus) and that reach the adenohypophysis via a portal venous system. (medscape.com)
  • The infundibulum pierces the diaphragma sellae in order to connect the pituitary to the hypothalamus. (medscape.com)
  • The pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hypersecretion of other pituitary hormones was diagnosed in 5 of 17 patients. (nih.gov)
  • Often referred to as the "master gland", the pituitary gland synthesizes and releases various hormones that affect several organs throughout the body (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • Hormones secreted by neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary). (medscape.com)
  • The adenohypophysis constitutes roughly 80% of the pituitary and manufactures an array of peptide hormones. (medscape.com)
  • These hypothalamic cell bodies produce hormones that undergo axonal transport through the pituitary stalk and into terminal axons within the neurohypophysis. (medscape.com)
  • Pituitary imaging is important in confirming the diagnosis of pituitary macroadenoma and also for determining the differential diagnoses of other sellar lesions. (medscape.com)
  • During the course of his workup , an MRI of the brain was performed, which showed a pituitary/sellar mass. (symptoma.com)
  • [ 1 ] Headaches are frequently linked to pituitary disease, and it is generally accepted that headache is a common presenting feature of pituitary adenomas and other sellar pathologies. (medscape.com)
  • Small pituitary fossa in Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal neoplasm. (thejcdp.com)
  • Your pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland at the base of your brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Approximately 85% of masses from this region are pituitary adenomas, followed in incidence by craniopharyngioma, Rathke cleft cyst, meningioma, and metastasis. (cap.org)
  • Patients with pituitary macroadenomas may be asymptomatic or may present with complaints due to hormonal imbalance or mass effects. (medscape.com)
  • Headache is very common in pituitary disease and is reported to be present in more than a third of all patients with pituitary adenomas. (medscape.com)
  • Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach: an additional reason in support of surgery in the management of pituitary lesions. (scielo.br)
  • The incidence of lung neoplasms was 19/59, or 32 percent, for those animals examined after 53 weeks of the study. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the exact pathophysiologic/molecular mechanisms leading to the development of pituitary adenomas remain unknown. (medscape.com)
  • In the 2017 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs , pituitary adenomas remain classified by hormone expression as assessed by IHC staining. (cap.org)
  • Unspecified/other malignant neoplasm of skin of upper limb, incl. (cancer.gov)
  • The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is responsible for many body functions in mammals. (bvsalud.org)
  • Once excited, the PVN produces the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which travels through the hypophyseal portal system and stimulates the adrenal and pituitary glands to produce many neurotransmitters. (bvsalud.org)
  • Kjær I. Sella turcica morphology and the pituitary gland-a new contribution to craniofacial diagnostics based on histology and neuroradiology. (thejcdp.com)
  • A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. (mcw.edu)
  • In the 1990s, a distinct impulse came from the otorhinolaryngologists, with the use of the endoscope in functional endoscopic sinus surgery, disclosing the pathway to the sella turcica and the endoscopic approach for resection of pituitary tumors either alone or as an adjunct to the microneurosurgery. (scielo.br)
  • The pituitary gland is enveloped by dura and sits within the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. (medscape.com)
  • The lesions responsible for the disruption of ADH synthesis or secretion in hypophyseal diabetes insipidus include large pituitary neoplasms (endocrinologically active or inactive), a dorsally expanding cyst or inflammatory granuloma, and traumatic injury to the skull, with hemorrhage and glial proliferation in the neurohypophyseal system. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, pituitary adenomas (most often prolactinomas) occur in association with tumors of the parathyroid and pancreatic islet cells. (medscape.com)
  • Identification of molecular pathway resulting in pituitary tumorigenesis remains challenges in endocrine oncology. (cancerindex.org)
  • Regulated endocrine-specific protein, 18-kDa (RESP18), was previously cloned from rat neurointermediate pituitary based on its coordinate regulation with proopiomelanocortin and neuroendocrine specificity. (unlv.edu)
  • Pituitary macroadenomas often require surgical extirpation for cure. (medscape.com)
  • A third transcription factor, pituitary cell-restricted T box factor (Tpit), drives corticotroph adenomas but its antibody is not yet commercially available as an IHC marker. (cap.org)
  • We examined pituitary and other organ weights, blood levels of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH), body weights, and pituitary tissue histology. (utmb.edu)
  • The authors suggest that the HPV-16 and HHV-6 viruses activate the TLR3/ NF-kB signaling pathway which in turn contributes to the progression and proliferation of invasive pituitary adenomas. (hhv-6foundation.org)
  • The data presented in this edition of Cancer Incidence in Five The CI5 data include all invasive malignant neoplasms and Continents (CI5) are mainly organised according to anatomical some non-invasive malignant neoplasms For most morphology site However, for some sites, the histological type of cancer codes, a fifth digit /1 or /2 automatically excludes the data entry. (who.int)
  • The present review attempts to systematically review the literature for any combination of headache and pituitary or hormone overproduction or deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Whereas in pituitary apoplexy a mechanical component explains the almost universal association of the condition with headaches, this correlation is less clear in other forms of pituitary disease and a positive impact of surgery on headaches is not guaranteed. (medscape.com)
  • Overview of the 2022 WHO Classification of Pituitary Tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Comparative inpatient resource utilization for patients undergoing endoscopic or microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary lesions. (scielo.br)
  • MEN 1 involves parathyroid, pancreatic, and pituitary neoplasms. (medscape.com)
  • Phytoestrogens neither changed any wet organ weight (uterus, ovary, cervix, liver, and kidney) after 10 weeks of treatment, nor reversed the adverse effects of DES on pituitaries, GH and PRL levels, or body weight gain after 8 weeks of co-treatment. (utmb.edu)
  • We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that compared pure endoscopic with microscopic transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in the resection of pituitary tumors. (scielo.br)
  • In the following systematic review, we address the literature on headache and pituitary disorders with regard to prevalence, aetiology, pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment. (medscape.com)