A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.
A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Neuroendocrine cells in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY. They produce MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from the post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
An endogenous opioid peptide derived from BETA-LIPOTROPIN of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. It is the 16-amino acid sequence of the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN and differs from GAMMA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid (beta-endorphin 1-17).
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An endogenous opioid peptide derived from BETA-LIPOTROPIN of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. It is the 17-amino acid sequence of the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN and differs from ALPHA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid (beta-endorphin 1-16).
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.
A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.

The epizootiology and pathogenesis of thyroid hyperplasia in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario. (1/4031)

The thyroid glands of coho salmon collected at different stages of their anadromous migration exhibited progressive and extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The incidence of overt nodule formation rose from 5% in fish collected in August to 24% in fish collected in October. The histological picture of the goiters was similar to that found in thiourea-treated teleosts and thiouracil-treated mammals. There was a concomitant, significant decrease in serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine values between September and October (thyroxine, 1.0+/-0.3 mug/100 ml and 0.4 mug/100 ml in September and October, respectively; triiodothyronine, 400.3+/-51.6 ng/100 ml and 80.2 ng/100 ml in September and October, respectively) and marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyrotrophs. These data indicate a progressive hypothyroid condition which, although it may be linked to iodide deficiency, may well be enhanced by other environmental factors. The evidence for involvement of other factors is discussed.  (+info)

Central peptidergic neurons are hyperactive during collateral sprouting and inhibition of activity suppresses sprouting. (2/4031)

Little is known regarding the effect of chronic changes in neuronal activity on the extent of collateral sprouting by identified CNS neurons. We have investigated the relationship between activity and sprouting in oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS). Uninjured MNS neurons undergo a robust collateral-sprouting response that restores the axon population of the neural lobe (NL) after a lesion of the contralateral MNS (). Simultaneously, lesioned rats develop chronic urinary hyperosmolality indicative of heightened neurosecretory activity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sprouting MNS neurons are hyperactive by measuring changes in cell and nuclear diameters, OT and VP mRNA pools, and axonal cytochrome oxidase activity (COX). Each of these measures was significantly elevated during the period of most rapid axonal growth between 1 and 4 weeks after the lesion, confirming that both OT and VP neurons are hyperactive while undergoing collateral sprouting. In a second study the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of neuronal activity would interfere with the sprouting response was tested. Chronic hyponatremia (CH) was induced 3 d before the hypothalamic lesion and sustained for 4 weeks to suppress neurosecretory activity. CH abolished the lesion-induced increases in OT and VP mRNA pools and virtually eliminated measurable COX activity in MNS terminals. Counts of the total number of axon profiles in the NL revealed that CH also prevented axonal sprouting from occurring. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity is required for denervation-induced collateral sprouting to occur in the MNS.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in neurons and pituitary cells implicated in reproductive functions in rainbow trout: a double immunohistochemical study. (3/4031)

In order to identify the nature of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-expressing neurons and pituitary cells that potentially mediate the negative effects of stress on reproductive performance, double immunohistochemical stainings were performed in the brain and pituitary of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To avoid possible cross-reactions during the double staining studies, combinations of primary antibodies raised in different species were used, and we report here the generation of an antibody raised in guinea pig against the rainbow trout glucocorticoid receptor (rtGR). The results obtained in vitellogenic females showed that GnRH-positive neurons in the caudal telencephalon/anterior preoptic region consistently exhibited rtGR immunoreactivity. Similarly, in the anterior ventral preoptic region, a group of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, known for inhibiting gonadotropin (GTH)-2 secretion during vitellogenesis, was consistently shown to strongly express GR. Finally, we show that a large majority of the GTH-1 (FSH-like) and GTH-2 (LH-like) cells of the pituitary exhibit rtGR immunoreactivity. These results indicate that cortisol may affect the neuroendocrine control of the reproductive process of the rainbow trout at multiple sites.  (+info)

Development and cytodifferentiation of the rabbit pars intermedia. II. Neonatal to adult. (4/4031)

Material from pars intermedia obtained from rabbits ranging from the second week post-partum to the adult stage, and including specimens from pregnant animals, was studied. The rate of cell division became greatly reduced early in postnatal) development. The commonest type of cell (the pars intermedia-glandular cell) becomes increasingly PAS-positive during the early stages of development. Although by 35 days differentiation of all the ACT-type cells is complete, the pars intermedia-glandular cells take as long as 53 days to mature. The epithelioid border of the hypophysial cleft persists throughout life, commonly containing dark cells. A ciliary fringe frequently appears in neonates and persists in pregnancy. Possible functions of such cilia are discussed. Throughout development the fine structure of the vasculature was studied. Secretory granules resembling those within the cells were seen in and around the blood vessels, and the mode of endocrine secretion in the pars intermedia tissue is discussed. The pars intermedia-glandular cells of the pregnant rabbits appeared hyperactive. The functional significance of the mammalian pars intermedia is discussed.  (+info)

Diffusion barriers limit the effect of mobile calcium buffers on exocytosis of large dense cored vesicles. (5/4031)

Fast exocytosis in melanotropic cells, activated by calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels, is very sensitive to mobile calcium buffers (complete block at 800 microM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)). This indicates that calcium diffuses a substantial distance from the channel to the vesicle. Surprisingly, 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), having a similar KD for calcium as EGTA but a approximately 100 times faster binding rate, blocked exocytosis only twice as effectively as EGTA. Using computer simulations, we demonstrate that this result cannot be explained by free diffusion and buffer binding rates. We hypothesized that local saturation of calcium buffers is involved. A diffusion barrier for both calcium and buffer molecules, located 50-300 nm from the membrane and reducing diffusion 1000 to 10,000 times, generated similar calcium concentrations for specific concentrations of EGTA and BAPTA. With such barriers, calcium rise phase kinetics upon short step depolarizations (2-20 ms) were faster for EGTA than for BAPTA, implying that short depolarizations should allow exocytosis with 50 microM EGTA but not with 25 microM BAPTA. This prediction was confirmed experimentally with capacitance measurements. Coupling exocytosis to calcium dynamics in the model, we found that a barrier with a approximately 3000 times reduced diffusion at approximately 130 nm beneath the membrane best explains the experimentally observed effects of EGTA and BAPTA on block and kinetics of release.  (+info)

Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. (6/4031)

Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb.  (+info)

Absent pituitary gland and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis associated with partial ophthalmoplegia and postaxial polydactyly: a variant of orofaciodigital syndrome VI or a new syndrome? (7/4031)

We report two sibs with features overlapping those of orofaciodigital syndrome type VI (Varadi syndrome). Both presented at birth with oculomotor abnormalities, dysmorphic facial features, and dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis. There were minimal oral manifestations (high arched palate) in both of them and one had postaxial polydactyly of both hands and one foot. In addition, there was evidence of aplasia of the pituitary gland on MRI scan in both of them with evidence of hypopituitarism. Both responded well to hormone replacement therapy with improvement in their linear growth and mental ability. These cases may represent a new autosomal recessive midline defect syndrome with features overlapping OFDS VI. Alternatively the features in these children could represent variability within OFDS VI.  (+info)

Leptin and reproduction. (8/4031)

In the few years since leptin was identified as a satiety factor in rodents, it has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes. Leptin has been shown to promote sexual maturation in rodent species and a role in reproduction has been investigated at various sites within the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review considers the evidence that leptin (or alteration in amount of body fat) can affect reproduction. There is evidence that leptin plays a permissive role in the onset of puberty, probably through action on the hypothalamus, where leptin receptors are found in cells that express appetite-regulating peptides. There is little evidence that leptin has a positive effect on the pituitary gonadotrophs and the gonads. There is also very little indication that leptin acts in an acute manner to regulate reproduction in the short term. It seems more likely that leptin is a 'barometer' of body condition that sends signals to the brain. Studies in vitro have shown negative effects on ovarian steroid production and there are no reports of effects on testicular function. Leptin concentrations in plasma increase in women during pregnancy, owing to production by the placenta but the functional significance of this is unknown. A number of factors that affect the production and action of leptin have yet to be studied in detail.  (+info)

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The Pituitary Gland Anatomy of the pituitary gland: The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master gland of the endocrine system, because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea, located at the base of the brain. The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary gland itself consists of three sections: the anterior lobe the intermediate lobe the posterior lobe ...
The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master gland of the endocrine system because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea, and is located at the base of the brain. The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary gland itself consists of three sections:. ...
The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master gland of the endocrine system because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea, and is located at the base of the brain. The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary gland itself consists of three sections:. ...
Diseases of the pituitary gland can have an extremely varied presentation that depends on the convergence of several factors: the excess or defect of one or more hormones and the mechanical effect that can be exerted by a growth or tumour in the pituitary gland. Furthermore, the speed of onset of the disease plays an important part; many diseases of the pituitary gland are slow and progressive, so that the signs are not immediately noticed by the patient, nor are they readily recognised by doctors.. Many pituitary adenomas produce a large amount of one or, more rarely, more hormones, and the most common symptoms associated with these depend on an excessive production of hormones. The symptoms may be a direct consequence of excess pituitary hormone (eg prolactin, see below), or due to excessive stimulation of the peripheral endocrine gland which is controlled by the pituitary gland (for example, excessive ACTH production by the pituitary gland leads to excessive cortisol production by the adrenal ...
pituitary gland anatomy. this is a detailed image of the pituitary gland showing: 1. neurosecretory cells 2. portal system 3. ant. lobe 4. pituitary gland vein 5. pituitary fossa 6. post. lobe 7. artery 8. capillaries
TY - JOUR. T1 - DNA sequences required for expression of the LHβ promoter in primary cultures of rat pituitary cells. AU - Kim, Kyoon E.. AU - Day, Kathleen H.. AU - Howard, Paul. AU - Salton, Stephen R.J.. AU - Roberts, James L.. AU - Maurer, Richard A.. PY - 1990/12/3. Y1 - 1990/12/3. N2 - To begin analysis of the DNA sequences necessary for luteinizing hormone (LH) gene transcription, fusion genes containing the 5′ flanking region of the rat LHβ or the human α-subunit gene linked to luciferase were transfected into primary cultures of rat pituitary cells. The LHβ-luciferase construct was expressed in the primary cultures at a level 50 times greater than a promoterless luciferase control plasmid. Little or no expression of the LHβ-luciferase construct was detected following transfection of MCF-7, JAR or GH3 tumor cell lines. Treatment of transfected cells with gonadotropin-releasing hormone resulted in a modest induction of LHβ-luciferase activity. Considerably higher levels of ...
Located in the center of the brain, the pituitary gland manufactures and secretes hormones that regulate growth, sexual development and functioning, and the fluid balance of the body. About 10% of all cancers in the skull are pituitary tumors...
So, what happens if this very important gland does not properly perform its vital functions because it is either over or under stimulated? Since hormones control just about everything, then just about anything symptomatically can potentially occur. The most common problem I see with the pituitary gland is low function or suppression. That is, the pituitary just simply does not respond even when it is supposed to. Therefore, if estrogen drops, a suppressed pituitary gland does not respond with FSH and the net result is continued low estrogen. But here is the tricky part. When the pituitary is functionally suppressed, further suppression equals significant symptoms to the body as a whole. The three most likely pituitary suppressants in my testing are: insulin, white sugar and cortisol. So once again we see that when under stress (cortisol increase) sweets are craved and ingested (sugar) resulting sooner or later in hypoglycemia (insulin surges) or insulin resistance, all of which further suppress ...
The Pituitary Gland For nursing students the endocrine system can be difficult to learn. We will attempt to guide you through the very basics and hopefully this will help develop a grasp of the endocrine system. Today we will start with the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is also referred to as the master gland. Due to the fact that […]. » Read more ...
The pituitary gland is a small gland located beneath the brain. The pituitary gland produces substances (hormones) that enter the bloodstream and help control many processes of the body.. Hormones produced in the pituitary gland help manage these body functions:. ...
Find Best Removal Pituitary Gland in Shree nagar, Thane. 365Doctor.in are providing Top 10 Removal Pituitary Gland in Shree Nagar, Thane. Doctor reviews its helpful for you.
Pituitary gland tumours start in cells of the pituitary gland. Learn about benign pituitary adenomas and malignant pituitary carcinomas in our guide.
Coronal computed tomographic scans of the pituitary gland in 27 normal children, adolescents, and young adults (ages, 8-21 years) and in a comparison group of adults (ages, 24-91 years) were evaluated retrospectively to test the applicability of published criteria for size and configuration of normal adult pituitary glands to younger patients. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups, indicating that the pituitary gland in adolescents, particularly girls, is larger than in younger or older patients. The authors suggest that pubertal pituitary hyperplasia accounts for these findings. They conclude that standards for normal pituitary glands are probably inappropriate for adolescents. ...
Pituitary Gland, Intermediate; Intermediate Lobe of Pituitary. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Pituitary cancer is characterized by the abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. It affects the functioning of the pituitary gland and may cause an increased or decreased level of pituitary hormone secretions within the body. The small pituitary cancer treatment is accessible through noninvasive treatment or medicines. But, a large pituitary cancer treatment is challenging to treat because of its complex nature.
Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery Endoscopic pituitary surgery, also called transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery, is the most common surgery used to remove pituitary tumors. The pituitary gland is located at the bottom of your brain and above the inside of your nose. It is responsible for regulating most of your bodys hormones, the chemical messengers that travel through your blood. Endoscopic pituitary surgery is done with an instrument called an endoscope. An endoscope is a thin, rigid tube that has a micro...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequence analysis of the turkey LH β subunit and its regulation by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and prolactin in cultured pituitary cells. AU - You, Seungkwon. AU - Foster, L. K.. AU - Silsby, J. L.. AU - El Halawani, M. E.. AU - Foster, D. N.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - cDNAs encoding the precursor molecule of the turkey LH β subunit (tLHβ) were cloned from a turkey pituitary cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the longest of two different tLHβ cDNA clones contained 592 bp, and included 23 bp of the 5 untranslated region (UTR) and 92 bp of the 3 UTR in addition to a 477 bp open reading frame that encoded a 39 amino acid leader polypeptide and a 120 amino acid mature apoprotein. Turkey and chicken LHβ sequences shared approximately 92 and 93% nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities respectively. Northern blot analysis of total cellular anterior pituitary RNA showed that an approximate 800 base transcript hybridized to a 32P-labelled tLHβ cDNA ...
The pituitary gland, through the little-known hypothal-amus that lies directly above it, is also the appetite center and the sleep center of the body. Loss of appetite, and insomnia! Two universal complaints found in thousands of the past-forty group who have strayed from the rules of good nutrition.Exhaustive research has discovered that the pituitary is extremely sensitive to diet. If you do not eat enough high-protein foods (meat, especially, seems to have a stimulating effect on this gland), then your pituitary cannot produce a normal supply of its own dozen or more vitally needed hormones which, themselves, are made of protein. In addition to protein, the pituitary is stimulated by vitamin E (richest source is wheat germ); and increased amounts of vitamin A either in foods or in concentrated form, have directly beneficial effects on the entire endocrine group ...
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A comment in a previous post peaked my interest. I found this on LiveStrong. Bovine pituitary extract is a potential source of infectious agents. Bovine pituitary extract, or BPE, is a filtered, water-based extract of fresh pituitary glands from cattle. As a source of growth factors and hormones, BPE is used in tissue culture research to support various cell lines, such as skin, breast, lung and prostate. You might consider taking BPE to address any number of issues, including thyroid, ...
Other articles where Pituitary hormone is discussed: hormone: Hormones of the pituitary gland: The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, which dominates the vertebrate endocrine system, is formed of two distinct components. One is the neurohypophysis, which forms as a downgrowth of the floor of the brain and gives rise to the median eminence and the neural lobe;…
BioAssay record AID 195901 submitted by ChEMBL: Effective concentration for their ability to release growth hormone in the rat pituitary cell assay.
The bearing of these results on the Herring-Cushing theory of pituitary secretion is apparent. For the first time a true secretion antecedent has been demonstrated in the cells of the pars intermedia, an antecedent which appears in the cells at the same period of development at which active pressor effects may be obtained from the gland extracts. The route of export of this material from the gland to its point of utilization, however, is unknown; it may go by way of the blood or, as required by the Herring theory, by the transneural route to the third ventricle. The objections to the latter conclusion have been amply expanded in the introduction to this paper, but here may be emphasized the fact that the fetal pig hypophysis contains no hyaline bodies. Indeed they are rare in the adult, though there may be seen in the cells of the pars nervosa in the processes of its intrinsic cells, granular deposits which we believe to be the antecedents of the hyaline bodies but which in the pig rarely are ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, March 26, 2020 ) Market Overview The Global Pituitary Cancer Market is expected to grow at a high CAGR during the forecasting period (2019-2026). Pituitary cancer is characterized by the abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. It affects the functioning of the pituitary gland...
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones, which are chemical substances that control various bodily functions. The pituitary is divided
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones, which are chemical substances that control various bodily functions. The pituitary is divided
Immunocytochemical and morphometric changes of pituitary FSH and LH cells in juvenile (17th day of life) female rats neonatally (4th day of life) treated with five 0.25 mg doses of estradiol dipropionate (EDP) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (14th and 16th day of life) and with the combination of both were studied using rabbit antirat beta-follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and beta-luteinising hormone (LH) sera and a peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemical procedure. Morphometry and stereology were applied to evaluate the changes in FSH- and LH-producing cells, number and volume densities of the cells and the nuclei. In EDP-treated females significantly increased pituitary mass and the number of chromophobes and PRL cells were observed while all morphometric parameters of FSH/LH cells were decreased in comparison with the corresponding controls. This difference was much more prominent in FSH-beta- than in LH-beta cells. Treatment with hCG led to an increase in the number of FSH and ...
Date: 20th July 2017. Location: Newcastle, UK. Flyer. Website. This course is designed for Neurosurgeons, Otolaryngologists, Head and Neck Surgeons and Skull base Surgeons who are interested in the most recent developments in Endoscopic Surgery of the Cranial Base and Pituitary Gland.. This comprehensive one day course is a presentation of minimally invasive techniques for Endoscopic and Transcranial surgery of the Pituitary Fossa and Cranial Base.. Experts on the subject will present the anatomical and technical aspects of this procedure along with risks, benefits and outcomes.. Teaching is through cadaver dissection and surgeons will have hands-on practical dissection on fresh frozen specimens.. ...
Vertebrate sensory organs arise from epithelial thickenings called placodes. Along with neural crest cells, cranial placodes are considered ectodermal novelties that drove evolution of the vertebrate head. The anterior-most placode generates the endocrine lobe [adenohypophysis (ADH)] of the pituitary, a master gland controlling growth, metabolism, and reproduction. In addition to known ectodermal contributions, we use lineage tracing and time-lapse imaging in zebrafish to identify an endodermal contribution to the ADH. Single-cell RNA sequencing of the adult pituitary reveals similar competency of endodermal and ectodermal epithelia to generate all endocrine cell types. Further, endoderm can generate a rudimentary ADH-like structure in the near absence of ectodermal contributions. The fish condition supports the vertebrate pituitary arising through interactions of an ancestral endoderm-derived proto-pituitary with newly evolved placodal ectoderm. ...
The Pituitary Gland, or Hypophysis Cerebri, is a small and hard body about six lines broad, three long and three high. It is always formed of an anterior bean-shape, and a posterior and more rounded lobe, which are uniformly united. Its component parts, we are told, are almost identical with those of the Pineal Gland; yet not the slightest connection can be traced between the two. To this, however, Occultists take exception; they know that there is a connection, and this even anatomically and physically. Dissectors, on the other hand, have to deal with corpses; and, as they themselves admit, brain-matter, of all tissues and organs, collapses and changes form the soonest--in fact, a few minutes after death. When, then, the pulsating life which expanded the mass of the brain, filled all its cavities and energized all its organs, vanishes, the cerebral mass shrinks into a sort of pasty condition, and once open passages become closed. But the contraction and even interblending of parts in this ...
Diagnosis and Treatment of Pituitary Conditions. NorthShores team of board-certified endocrinologists works alongside your primary care physician to identify the cause of pituitary abnormalities. By using the latest laboratory tests and imaging technology our team provides expert knowledge on medical therapies to treat your individual symptoms. If we find that there are growths present, we collaborate with neurology, ophthalmology and radiation oncology to create a comprehensive personalized treatment plan. Treatment options for pituitary conditions could include transsphenoidal surgical resection, traditional radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery.. For More Information. For more information on the pituitary gland and its related conditions, please call 847.663.8540. ...
Tumors found in the pituitary gland, a small organ about the size of a pea in the center of the brain just above the back of the nose is called Pituitary Cancer. The pituitary gland makes hormones that affect the growth and the functions of other glands in the body.
In the fall, measuring a horses adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels is often used as a diagnostic tool for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID, also known as equine Cushings disease). It peaks between mid-August to mid-October as part of the metabolic preparation for winter and results in levels anywhere up to about three times those found…
The menopausal ovary, in the absence of eggs, is unable to produce significant amounts of the female sex hormones. If a blood test is done to measure the levels of estrogen and progesterone, they will be found to be at significantly low levels. The function of the ovaries is under the control of the pituitary gland, found at the base of the brain and functions as the master controller for the many hormonal glands in the body. The pituitary gland is very sensitive to the hormonal output of the ovaries and it begins to react when the ovaries fail to produce estrogen and progesterone in the bloodstream. The pituitary gland compensates with the failure of the menopausal womans ovaries. It quickly starts to secrete large amounts of a hormonal messenger known as the follicle stimulating hormone, stimulating the ovaries to put them back into action. But still, the ovaries have stopped producing estrogen and progesterone, despite the hormonal stimulation of the pituitary gland and the ovaries remain ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of The Pituitary Gland in Animals. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
Tumors metastatic to the pituitary gland are an unusual complication of systemic cancer typically seen in elderly patients with diffuse malignant disease. Breast and lung are the commonest sites of the primary tumor, whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom at presentation. Their rari …
ABSTRACT: We model the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) by the ovine pituitary. GnRH, released by the hypothalamus, stimulates the secretion of LH from the pituitary. If stimulus pulses are regular, LH response will follow a similar pattern. However, during application of GnRH at high frequencies or concentrations or with continuous application, the pituitary delivers a decreased release of LH (termed desensitization). The proposed mathematical model consists of a system of nonlinear differential equations and incorporates two possible mechanisms to account for this observed behavior: desensitized receptor and limited, available LH. Desensitization was provoked experimentally in vitro by using ovine pituitary cells in a perifusion system. The model was fit to resulting experimental data by using maximum-likelihood estimation. Consideration of smaller models revealed that the desensitized receptor is significant. Limited, available LH ...
4-12-17 Charging away with this item but charging you this time! The reason you want that Pituitary gland working top notch is because it activates the ESP, hormone levels in the brain,health, past lives, psychic vision, mind reading, prophesy and even the chakras. With out these things working what can you really do?
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers.
Hello everyone. I am new to this site. Just had a brain MRI. Got a call from the Docs office stating that my pituitary gland is possibly enlarged. Have another appointment this Friday with him. ...
The pituitary gland, about the size of a pea, is situated on the under-surface of the brain (Fig. 5.1), attached through a little stalk to the area of the
Healthy nutrition obviously depends on the types and quantities of food you eat, but how your body digests, absorbs and metabolizes the nutrients is just as important. The pituitary gland resides in your brain and is responsible for regulating metabolism, among many other functions.
Taking care of your pituitary gland is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. Learn more about this master gland and what you can do to keep it healthy.
What is the pituitary gland? The pituitary gland is important because if controls other hormone glands, for example; the adrenals and thyroid. It is...
ISPGRS2016 composes of 31st Annual Meeting of Japan Society for Pituitary Research, Symposiums of Japan and USA, Japan Neuroendocrine Society,Japan Endocrine Pa
ISPGRS2016 composes of 31st Annual Meeting of Japan Society for Pituitary Research, Symposiums of Japan and USA, Japan Neuroendocrine Society,Japan Endocrine Pa
People know the fact that the growth hormone shortage is the effect of the underperforming and drifting pituitary gland. This could be congenital or even attained in nature. This problem can be the result of lack of secretion or even low production of HGH, or somatotropin, by the gland. Even, some of the people out there are born with GHD and doctors say that it is for the hereditary. Inherited GHD has been connected to the irregularity of pituitary gland, and it can also be the effect of another disorder. This has also been observed that kids who have the cleft palates or even lips are more likely to have the condition as they usually have badly-developed pituitary gland. But if you treat well, then there is a chance of curing HGH deficiency. Learn more about HGH deficiency in this website https://www.genf20plus.info/hgh-deficiency.php. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Pergolide Mesylate In Horses With Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction. AU - Rendle, D.I.. AU - Doran, Gregory. AU - Ireland, J.L.. AU - Edwards, Scott. PY - 2017/8/31. Y1 - 2017/8/31. N2 - Reasons for performing study: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pergolide in horses are poorly understood. Objectives: Investigate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of orally administered pergolide in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). Study design: Cohort study. Methods: Six horses with PPID received 4 μg/kg oral pergolide for 18 days. Samples were collected 0.5 h before and 2 and 12 h after administration of pergolide daily for 18 days and plasma pergolide and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were determined. Results: Maximum plasma concentrations after the first oral dose of pergolide (0.104-0.684 ng/mL; mean 0.308 ± 0.201 ng/mL) were not significantly different to the maximum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The distribution of immunoreactive α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone cells in the adult human pituitary gland. AU - Coates, P. J.. AU - Doniach, I.. AU - Hale, A. C.. AU - Rees, L. H.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - It has been suggested that a proportion of the adenomas and the nodular hyperplasia of cells in the pituitary gland in cases of Cushings disease are derived from cells of the pars intermedia rather than the pars anterior. The evidence can be summarized as follows: the posterior site of adenoma or nodular hyperplasia in the pituitary, the innervation of cells and the suppressive response to the dopamine agonist bromocriptine in vivo or to dopamine in vitro. All these observations infer analogy with cells of the pars intermedia of other species, which are controlled by direct neural tonic dopaminergic inhibition. The adult human pituitary gland, however, does not possess a morphologically distinct pars intermedia, due to regression of the rudimentary fetal pars intermedia ...
Definition of anterior pituitary gland in the Fine Dictionary. Meaning of anterior pituitary gland with illustrations and photos. Pronunciation of anterior pituitary gland and its etymology. Related words - anterior pituitary gland synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. Example sentences containing anterior pituitary gland
Define pituitary gonadotropins. pituitary gonadotropins synonyms, pituitary gonadotropins pronunciation, pituitary gonadotropins translation, English dictionary definition of pituitary gonadotropins. n. pl. pi·tu·i·tar·ies 1. The pituitary gland. 2. Medicine An extract from the anterior or posterior lobes of the pituitary gland, prepared for therapeutic...
The pituitary gland is a very small organ, located at the base of the brain, which produces and releases hormones (signals) that control other organs and body processes. The pituitary gland responds to signals from the hypothalamus. The anterior pituitary gland is the front portion of the pituitary gland, and it secretes hormones that control physiological processes including growth, reproduction, and stress. The posterior pituitary gland is behind the anterior portion and secretes hormones involved with water balance and uterine contractions during labor.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of steroidal and non-steroidal ovarian hormones on pituitary responsiveness to gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor. AU - Byrne, B AU - Fowler, Paul Alfred Francois. AU - Templeton, Allan. PY - 1996/9. Y1 - 1996/9. N2 - Primary pituitary cultures from adult female rats were used to investigate the effects of steroidal (oestradiol and progesterone) and non-steroidal (inhibin, follistatin) ovarian hormones on the suppressive actions of the ovarian factor gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF) in the control of gonadotrophin secretion. The source of GnSAF was a chromatographic preparation from follicular fluid containing four distinct protein bands as resolved on SDS-PAGE. Oestradiol and progesterone added alone had no effect on gonadotrophin secret ion but had a wide range of effects on the suppression of both LH and FSH secretion caused by the non-steroidal factors. Oestradiol, progesterone and oestradiol + progesterone enhanced the suppressive actions of ...
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae). The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum).. Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control: growth, blood ...
In seasonal mammals living in temperate zones, photoperiod regulates prolactin secretion, such that prolactin plasma concentrations peak during the summer months and are lowest during the winter. In sheep, a short-day breeder, circulating prolactin has important modulatory effects on the reproductive system via inhibitory actions on pituitary gonadotrophs and hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone release. The exact cellular mechanisms that account for the chronic hypersecretion of prolactin during the summer is not known, although evidence supports an intrapituitary mechanism regulated by melatonin. Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells are non-endocrine cells that play a crucial role in paracrine communication within the pituitary and produce factors controlling prolactin and gonadotrophin release. The present study examined the morphology of the FS and lactotroph cell populations and their distribution in the sheep pituitary during the annual reproductive cycle. Ovine pituitary glands were collected in
A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth on the pituitary gland, a small pea-sized organ located at the base of the brain behind the bridge of the nose. The pituitary gland produces nine hormones critical to normal body function. While technically not part of the brain, the pituitary glands location and the nature of tumors on the gland present many of the same challenges, risks, and dangers of other primary brain tumors.. Pituitary tumors are the third most common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for 9-12% of all such cases. Tumors arising from the pituitary gland itself are called adenomas or carcinomas. Pituitary adenomas are benign, slow-growing tumors. Carcinomas are a rare malignant form of pituitary adenoma.. ...
While PPID is not curable, medical management and meticulous husbandry are recommended to reduce the signs and symptoms associated with this disorder. An integral part of PPID management is medical treatment. The most widely used drug is the brand name veterinary product Prascend®. It helps decrease some of the hormone production by the pituitary gland. Several studies have shown that Prascend®-treated horses have significant improvements in hair coat, frequency of urination/drinking, frequency of infections and laminitis bouts, and many laboratory test results. The drug is prescribed for once daily administration.. Another drug, which may be useful in treatment of PPID, is cyproheptadine. Studies suggest that cyproheptadine is not as effective in improving PPID symptoms compared to Prascend®. However, it may aid those animals with minimal response to Prascend® alone. A combination of both drugs is occasionally recommended.. Over time, the amount of drug your horse requires to manage this ...
Lipocortin 1 (LC1, also called annexin 1), a Ca2(+)- and phospholipid-binding protein, is an important mediator of glucocorticoid action in the anterior pituitary gland. Previous studies based on immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis suggest that LC1 is found intracellularly both in the cytoplasm and in association with membranes and also on the cell surface where it attaches to the membrane by a Ca2(+)-dependent mechanism. However, as yet it is unclear which anterior pituitary cell types express the protein. Accordingly, we have developed a method based on a combination of fluorescence activated cell (FAC) analysis/sorting and electron microscopy to detect and quantify intracellular LC1 in rat anterior pituitary cells and to identify the cell types in which it is expressed. In addition, we have measured cell surface LC1 and examined the influence of glucocorticoids on the cellular disposition of the protein. Anterior pituitary cells were dispersed with collagenase. For experiments measuring
Fortunately there is an effective treatment available for the treatment of Cushings Syndrome. This is a drug called pergolide, available in a licensed form as Prascend. Pergolide reduces the production of ACTH by the pituitary gland. After 2-4 weeks of treatment we repeat the blood test to measure the level of ACTH in order to ensure we are providing the correct dose of pergolide. The most common side effect of pergolide is a decrease in appetite following initiation of treatment. This is almost always reversible and when it does occur, we normally reduce the dose of pergolide and the appetite returns. ...
Conference Paper: Norepinephrine inhibits growth hormone release from goldfish pituitary cells by suppressing cAMP synthesis through activation of pituitary a2 adrenergic receptors (Abstract ...
The anterior pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 was initially identified and cloned as a transactivator of the PRL and GH genes, and (...)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reproductive and growth responses of gilts to exogenous porcine pituitary growth hormone.. AU - Bryan, K. A.. AU - Hammond, J. M.. AU - Canning, S.. AU - Mondschein, J.. AU - Carbaugh, D. E.. AU - Clark, A. M.. AU - Hagen, D. R.. PY - 1989/1. Y1 - 1989/1. N2 - Forty gilts (mean wt = 72 kg) were administered daily either vehicle (C = control) or 70 micrograms porcine growth hormone (pGH)/kg BW. After 30 d of treatment, eight gilts per group (Exp. 1) were slaughtered and blood, uteri and ovaries were collected. Follicular fluid (FFl) was collected and granulosa cells (GC) were cultured. The remaining gilts (Exp. 2) were treated for up to 35 additional days and examined twice daily for estrus. Estrusal gilts were removed from the experiment. Noncyclic gilts (n = 9 of 12 pGH; n = 4 of 12 C) were slaughtered on d 66 and their ovaries were examined. Ovarian weights were not different for pGH and C gilts in either Exp. 1 (P greater than .1) or Exp. 2 (P = .09). Uterine weights were ...
Small, non-functional pituitary adenomas or tumors (2-3 mm in size) occur in about 10 percent of the population and are usually detected during brain imaging conducted for a different reason (pituitary incidentalomas). These small pituitary tumors usually do not cause any problems; however, if small pituitary tumors grow, problems may arise so clinical supervision is necessary upon discovery of these tumors.. With larger non-functional pituitary tumors, patients often experience headaches, vision problems, and symptoms of pituitary insufficiency. Vision problems are a serious complication of pituitary tumors and usually begin with loss of peripheral vision. If untreated, vision problems typically progress to blindness. However, if pituitary tumors are caught early enough and treated surgically, vision usually improves.. ...
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The Stanford Pituitary Center provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and streamlined care for the evaluation and treatment of pituitary tumors and other neuroendocrine disorders, including: acromegaly, prolactinomas, Cushings syndrome, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, craniopharygiomas and disorders of the pituitary and hypothalamic region that lead to growth hormone deficiency or adrenal, thyroid, ovarian, or testicular deficiency.. The pituitary and neuroendocrine clinical programs at Stanford bring together knowledge and expertise in clinical research and teaching applications to treatment of neuroendocrine diseases. Our endocrinologists and neurosurgeons collaborate in multidisciplinary management of patients, and are experienced in the most advanced diagnostic strategies and directed medical, neurosurgical or radiation options for patients with pituitary tumors.. Our clinical program is aimed at integration of care in a patient-friendly setting for people with pituitary disorders - not ...
The Stanford Pituitary Center provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and streamlined care for the evaluation and treatment of pituitary tumors and other neuroendocrine disorders, including: acromegaly, prolactinomas, Cushings syndrome, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, craniopharygiomas and disorders of the pituitary and hypothalamic region that lead to growth hormone deficiency or adrenal, thyroid, ovarian, or testicular deficiency.. The pituitary and neuroendocrine clinical programs at Stanford bring together knowledge and expertise in clinical research and teaching applications to treatment of neuroendocrine diseases. Our endocrinologists and neurosurgeons collaborate in multidisciplinary management of patients, and are experienced in the most advanced diagnostic strategies and directed medical, neurosurgical or radiation options for patients with pituitary tumors.. Our clinical program is aimed at integration of care in a patient-friendly setting for people with pituitary disorders - not ...
Pituitary tumours occur with increased frequency among patients with CNC.8PRKAR1A, the gene mutated in almost half of the patients with CNC,1,2 codes for the most abundant regulatory subunit of cAMP dependent PKA, a cellular system highly involved in pituitary cell growth and function.13,15,16 In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that LOH or alterations of PRKAR1As sequence are involved in sporadic pituitary tumours, as well as inherited, non-CNC related pituitary tumours. The results of the experiments described here suggested that the RI-α subunit of PKA is not a significant contributor to tumorigenesis in pituitary cells, as shown by infrequent LOH of the PRKAR1A 17q22-24 locus and lack of PRKAR1A mutations in a large international series of pituitary tumours. Although the number of families that was investigated was small, we may also conclude from this study that PRKAR1A mutations are not responsible for a significant number of non-CNC related inherited pituitary lesions. ...
The anterior pituitary is a glandular structure under contorl of the hypothalamus. Together, the pituitary gland and hypothalamus control many endocrine functions. They secrete many hormones, some of which are crucial for the female menstrual cycle, preganncy, birth, and lactation. These important hormones include follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which stimulates development and maturation of a follicle in one of a womans ovaries, and leutinizing hormone (LH), which causes the bursting of that follicle (= ovulation) and the formation of a corpus luteum from the remains of the follicle.. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones into the blood. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin are produced in the hypothalamus and transported by axons to the posterior pituitary where they are dumped into the blood. ADH controls water balance in the body and blood pressure. Oxytocin is a small peptide hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth.. The hypothalamus produces ...
Pituitary Gland Disorders HYPOPITUITARISM Insuffecient quantities of anterior pituitary gland hormones. ASSESSMENT Lethargy Hypothermia Weight loss Amenorrhea Dry Skin Hypotension - Monitor the patients risk for infection. Treatment Surgery: if hypopituitarism is caused by a tumor. Hormone therapy Corticosteroids (cortisol) Growth hormone Sex hormones (testosterone for men and estrogen for women) Thyroid hormone HYPERPITUITARISM Also called Acromegaly and Cushingss…
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of stored rat growth hormone to restoration of depleted rat pituitary immediate release pools. AU - Stachura, M. E.. AU - Tyler, J. M.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Stored rat pituitary growth hormone (GH) is functionally divided into immediately releasable and more stable compartments. These observations are consistent with either intracellular hormone compartmentalization within cells of a functionally homogeneous somatotroph population or summed responses from a heterogeneous population of functionally specialized cell subgroups. We investigated the pituitarys ability to recruit stored rGH to replenish depleted immediate release pools. We used perifused pituitary fragments whose stored rGH was labeled during pre-incubation in the presence of [3H] leucine. Initial immediate release pool depletion was accomplished by continuous exposure to combined 21 mM potassium ion (K+) and 1 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP). During a subsequent perifusion period in the ...
The pituitary, albeit a small gland, is known as the master gland of the endocrine system and contributes to a wide spectrum of disorders, diseases, and syndromes. Since the publication of the second edition of The Pituitary, in 2002, there have been major advances in the molecular biology research of pituitary hormone production and action and there is now a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors and clinical syndromes resulting in perturbation of pituitary function. There have also been major advances in the clinical management of pituitary disorders. Medical researchers and practitioners now better understand the morbidity and mortality associated with pituitary hormone hyposecretion and hypersecretion. Newly developed drugs, and improved methods of delivering established drugs, are allowing better medical management of acromegaly and prolactinoma ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological role of salsolinol. T2 - Its hypophysiotrophic function in the regulation of pituitary prolactin secretion. AU - Tóth, Béla E.. AU - Bodnár, Ibolya. AU - Homicskó, Krisztián G.. AU - Fülöp, Ferenc. AU - Fekete, Márton I.K.. AU - Nagy, György M.. PY - 2002/9/1. Y1 - 2002/9/1. N2 - We have recently observed that 1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) produced by hypothalamic neurons can selectively release prolactin from the anterior lobe (AL) of the pituitary gland. Moreover, high affinity binding sites for SAL have been detected in areas, like median eminence (ME) and the neuro-intermediate lobe (NIL) that are known terminal fields of the tuberoinfundibular DAergic (TIDA) and tuberohypophysial (THDA)/periventricular (PHDA) DAergic systems of the hypothalamus, respectively. However, the in situ biosynthesis and the mechanism of action of SAL are still enigmatic, these observations clearly suggest that sites other than the AL might ...
Hypopituitarism, also known as an underactive pituitary gland, is a condition that affects the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. Symptoms of hypopituitarism vary depending on which hormone is no longer being produced by the pituitary gland.. Treatments for hypopituitarism also vary. If the condition is caused as the result of a pituitary tumor, surgery may be needed for treatment. In some cases, hormone therapy is whats needed to effectively treat hypopituitarism.. However, in the November 2011 issue of Nature, a new report shows promise for the future of hypopituitarism treatment. Japanese scientists successfully treated hypopituitary mice by transplanting pituitary gland tissue they grew from embryonic mice stem cells. After the hypopitiutary mice received the transplanted cells, they began to produce hormones they were previously missing.. Researchers used the mouse stem cells arranged in a three ...
The pituitary gland regulates hormones that affect growth & gland functions. Dr. Stonesifer specializes in pituitary disorders that may lead to tumors, AGHD, fatigue & more.
What is the difference between Adrenal Gland and Pituitary Gland? Adrenal gland is situated on top of the kidney; Pituitary gland is situated at the base..
Pituitary gland secretes nine hormones while pineal gland secretes only one hormone. Unlike the pineal gland, pituitary gland is composed of two parts.
The Bodys Orchestra Leader The Pituitary Gland, also known as the master gland is considered the most important in the body - as it controls the functions of all the endocrine glands. You can think of the pituitary gland as a powerful conductor of a large orchestra. About the size and shape…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression of melanotroph carcinogenesis leads to accelerated progression of pituitary anterior lobe tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas in Rb +/- mice. AU - Zhou, Zongxiang. AU - Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea. AU - Levine, Corinna G.. AU - Shmidt, Elena N.. AU - Eng, Jessica P.. AU - Nikitina, Ekaterina Yu. AU - Spencer, David M.. AU - Nikitin, Alexander Yu. PY - 2005/2/1. Y1 - 2005/2/1. N2 - Mice with a single copy of the retinoblastoma gene (Rb+/-) develop a syndrome of multiple neuroendocrine neoplasia. They usually succumb to fast-growing, Rb-deficient melanotropli tumors of the pituitary intermediate lobe, which are extremely rare in humans. Thus, full assessment of Rb role in other, more relevant to human pathology, neoplasms is complicated. To prevent melanotroph neoplasia while preserving spontaneous carcinogenesis in other types of cells, we have prepared transgenic mice in which 770-bp fragment of pro-opiomelanocortin promoter directs expression of the human BB gene to ...
A pituitary mass is an abnormal growth of cells affecting the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland or hypophysis controls a series of hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, and stress. Most...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of Release and Synthesis of Growth Hormone (GH) in Tissue Cultures of Anterior Pituitaries in Response to GH-Releasing Hormone (GH-RH) (34588). AU - Mittler, J. C.. AU - Sawano, S.. AU - Wakabayashi, I.. AU - Redding, T. W.. AU - Schally, A. V.. PY - 1970/3. Y1 - 1970/3. N2 - Addition of small amounts of pure or highly purified porcine GH-RH twice daily to rat anterior pituitary tissue, maintained for 5 days in Trowells T8 medium, significantly increased the amounts of GH in the medium and tissues relative to the controls as measured by bioassay. Apparent incorporation of radioactive amino acids into the GH bands on polyacrylamide gels after electrophoresis of medium and tissue was increased also. These results support other findings from this laboratory on the identity and properties of this neurohormone.. AB - Addition of small amounts of pure or highly purified porcine GH-RH twice daily to rat anterior pituitary tissue, maintained for 5 days in Trowells T8 ...
A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a small gland in the brain. It makes hormones that affect many other glands and many functions in your body. Most pituitary tumors are not cancerous (benign). But they can cause the pituitary to make too few or too many hormones, causing problems in the body.
A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a small gland in the brain. It makes hormones that affect many other glands and many functions in your body. Most pituitary tumors are not cancerous (benign). But they can cause the pituitary to make too few or too many hormones, causing problems in the body.
Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain that promotes tissue repairs, cell regeneration in the bones, muscles and vital organs, and generally supports the immune system in combating infections and diseases.. As the bodys cells die off, HGH acts to ensure that replacement cells are healthy and available. Thus, as we age, our HGH levels decline, causing our cell replacement levels to reduce to a fraction of the levels it was in our youth. And by the age of 40, nearly everyone is deficient in HGH, and by 80 years of age, the bodys production of HGH has usually diminished by 95%.. The above claims will make you wonder how some people never seem to lose their youthful vigor, no matter how much they age. ...
Fresh anterior pituitary glands from beef and pig were separated by differential centrifugation into subcellular fractions. Nuclei and debris were obtained at 700 g for 15 minutes, secretory granules at 7000 g for 20 minutes, mitochondria at 34,000 g for 15 minutes, and microsomes at 78,000 g for 3 hours. Electron micrographs were taken of the individual fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for nitrogen, pentosenucleic acid (PNA), and phospholipide. Beef and pig anterior lobes were quite similar in their intracellular composition as seen in the subcellular fractions. Succinic dehydrogenase was localized in mitochondria, while alkaline phosphatase was concentrated in the microsomes. A proteinase with pH optimum at 8.2 was exclusively localized. in microsomal and supernatant fractions. Acid phosphatase, acid ribonuclease, and acid proteinase were distributed among the subcellular fractions in another pattern, indicating the presence of a particle type distinct from mitochondria and microsomes. ...
Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop in your pituitary gland. Some pituitary tumors result in too many of the hormones that regulate important functions of your body. Some pituitary tumors can cause your pituitary gland to produce lower levels of hormones.. Most pituitary tumors are noncancerous (benign) growths (adenomas). Adenomas remain in your pituitary gland or surrounding tissues and dont spread to other parts of your body.. There are various options for treating pituitary tumors, including removing the tumor, controlling its growth and managing your hormone levels with medications. Your doctor may recommend observation - or a wait and see approach. ...
brain and it secretes hormones that predominantly act on the pituitary gland which is connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum which is a thin tissue structure. Once the hormones are released, they enter the hypothalamic pituitary portal system which is where the blood vessels are arranged in capillary beds. The hormones travel through the infundibulum in the portal vein and then the hormones can act on the anterior pituitary. The pituitary gland can be split into two different regions called the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The posterior lobe is the neural connection between the pituitary and the hypothalamus and it is in this lobe that the axon terminals of the neurons are located. The neural endings release vasopressin and oxytocin both of which are synthesised by the neurons. They are then transported to the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary by secretory vesicles. Their release is controlled by exocytosis when a signal comes in from the nerves and they are then ...
BioAssay record AID 102693 submitted by ChEMBL: Compounds were tested for the effective dose to induce luteinizing hormone (LH) release in rat pituitary receptors.
To our knowledge, asymmetry of pituitary enhancement on dynamic MR images has not been mentioned as a feature of cavernous sinus AVF in the previous literature. No abnormality was detected on the routine (nondynamic) pre- and postcontrast MR images, other than a decrease in size after successful therapy. No pituitary dysfunction was noted, probably because of the localized venous congestion in the pituitary gland. The finding of delayed enhancement itself may not have clinical importance, as no pituitary dysfunction was noted. However, neuroradiologists and interventional neuroradiologists should be aware of this phenomenon in patients with a dural AVF in the cavernous sinus. Although we are aware of no report regarding pituitary dysfunction caused by the venous congestion, long-term exposure to the congestion or acute progression of the congestion could theoretically cause a functional disorder or hemorrhage of the pituitary gland, as seen in the venous congestion of the brain.. The unique ...
https://nursingschoolessays.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/logo1.png 0 0 admin https://nursingschoolessays.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/logo1.png admin2018-07-01 00:00:002018-07-01 00:00:00Name the glands and hormones affected by the posterior pituitary gland and describe the major effects they have on the body ...
Mount Sinai Neurosurgery offers treatment options for Pituitary Tumors. We work with you to develop a treatment plan that addresses the pituitary tumor and the symptoms it is causing.
The endocrine system is regulated by feedback in much the same way that a thermostat regulates the temperature in a room. For the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland, a signal is sent from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland in the form of a releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary to secrete a stimulating hormone into the circulation. The stimulating hormone then signals the target gland to secrete its hormone. As the level of this hormone rises in the circulation, the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland shut down secretion of the releasing hormone and the stimulating hormone, which in turn slows the secretion by the target gland. This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland ...
(Medical Xpress) -- A new study published in Nature reports that scientists have been able to grow working pituitary glands from embryonic stem cells from mice. When these were transplanted into mice with defects in the pituitary ...
4. This point is very important height depended on pituitary gland hormone so every day takes a simple 5 minutes meditation on pituitary gland. Pituitary gland is located in the center of the skull, just behind the bridge of the nose, is about the size of a pea. The method of meditation is close your eyes and take all your concentration on pituitary gland part. And think this part is stimulated and work more effectively. You see magic effect of this meditation after 2-3 months. Hundreds of followers find it result very good so try it and increase your height such a magic but scientific way. ...
4. This point is very important height depended on pituitary gland hormone so every day takes a simple 5 minutes meditation on pituitary gland. Pituitary gland is located in the center of the skull, just behind the bridge of the nose, is about the size of a pea. The method of meditation is close your eyes and take all your concentration on pituitary gland part. And think this part is stimulated and work more effectively. You see magic effect of this meditation after 2-3 months. Hundreds of followers find it result very good so try it and increase your height such a magic but scientific way. ...
Research publications on pituitary tumors and neuroendocrine disorders from the pituitary brain tumor team. This includes research on pituitary tumor surgery, benign brain tumors, pituitary adenomas and more.
... pituitary gland, and 4. hypothalamus. Pituitary and hypothalamic causes are often grouped together. Women who perform ... is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, from premature menopause or ... Elevated concentrations of ghrelin alter the amplitude of GnRH pulses, which causes diminished pituitary release of LH and ... Hyperprolactinemia, characterized by high levels of the hormone prolactin, is often associated with a pituitary tumor. A ...
Functions of the Pituitary Gland. Boston, 1936. The Hypophysis and Secretion of Insulin. Journal of Experimental Medicine, New ... After graduating, he quickly developed and presented his M.D. thesis on the physiological activities of pituitary extracts, ... was a co-recipient of a Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the role played by pituitary hormones in ... was on the experimental investigation of the role of the anterior hypophysis gland in the metabolism of carbohydrates, ...
Discovered Malady Affecting Pituitary Gland. Was Noted Teacher and Author". The New York Times. 8 October 1939. Retrieved 2010- ... "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism)". Bulletin of the Johns ... Reprinted in Cushing, Harvey (April 1969). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body". Annals of the Royal College of ...
The pituitary gland in position. Shown in sagittal section. Cerebrum. Inferior view.Deep dissection Hypothalamus Vascular organ ... The lamina terminalis is immediately anterior to the tuber cinereum; together they form the pituitary stalk. The lamina ...
One possible mechanism involves stimulation of the hypothalamus, CRF (corticotropin release factor) -> pituitary gland releases ... glands, heart, intestines -> flight-or-fight response. Between this flow there is an alternate path that can be taken after the ...
Simantov R, Snyder SH (March 1977). "Opiate receptor binding in the pituitary gland". Brain Research. 124 (1): 178-84. doi: ... In 1979, dextrallorphan was found to have a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for binding to the pituitary and brain ...
Harris, G; Jacobsohn, D; Adrian, E. D. (1952). "Functional grafts of the anterior pituitary gland". Proceedings of the Royal ... she is best known for her work with Geoffrey Harris showing that the anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus ... She also did work showing that the posterior pituitary is required for milk ejection, later discovered to be mediated by the ... This first showed that the anterior pituitary must be controlled by, and in contact with, the brain via the hypothalamus. ...
The mammary glands are also controlled by the pituitary gland, so lactation can also be affected. The pituitary gland is ... The pituitary gland controls most other hormonal glands in the human body. Therefore, any pituitary malfunctioning affects ... causing an inhibition of the negative feedback of estrogen on the pituitary gland, resulting in an increase in secretion of ... possibly due to poor hormonal secretions from the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus. ...
Relationship of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, receives rich blood flow ... dopamine released at the median eminence reaches the pituitary gland via the hypophyseal portal system) Hypothalamospinal ...
Relationship of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, receives rich blood flow ... Dopamine released at this site inhibits the secretion of prolactin from anterior pituitary gland lactotrophs by binding to D2 ...
Harvey Cushing was obsessed with the pituitary gland. He sent his assistant, William Sharp, to retrieve this gland from a giant ... Cushing was absolutely fascinated with the idea of mishaps in the pituitary gland. He often sought out circuses and freak shows ... He was later forgiven, as Cushing still had his pituitary. ...
In 1976, Choh Hao Li and David Chung recorded the sequences of α-, β-, and γ-endorphin isolated from camel pituitary glands for ... Endorphins are released from the pituitary gland, typically in response to pain, and can act in both the central nervous system ... They are produced and stored in the pituitary gland. The classification of molecules as endorphins is based on their ... Endorphin precursors are primarily produced in the pituitary gland. All three types of endorphins are fragments of the ...
... which when involving the pituitary gland may result in multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. Neurocysticerosis is diagnosed by ... The pituitary gland is very rarely involved in neurocysticercosis. The cysts may rarely coalesce and form a tree-like pattern ... Dutta, Deep; Kumar, Mano; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar (2013). "Pituitary hormone deficiency due ...
The anterior pituitary gland contributes to growth, metabolism, and sexual development. The most common pituitary ... Dysfunction of the hypothalamus results in loss of regulation over behavior and function of the pituitary gland (master gland ... The posterior pituitary gland produces anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), which controls outflow of water from the body by urine. ADH ... A poorly functioning pituitary gland may also cause a lack of thyroid hormone, leading to central hypothyroidism. Thyroid ...
... refers to an inflammation of the pituitary gland. Hypophysitis is rare and not fully understood. There are four ... It was also found that when using corticosteroids, there was a decrease in size of the gland, and relieved compression on the ... Through the use of corticosteroids, the vision defects tend to recover when the gland size began to decrease. The prognoses of ... Autoimmune hypophysitis Lymphocytic hypophysitis Pituitary disease Hypopituitarism "Autoimmune Hypophysitis Symptoms". Johns ...
TSH Isomers - natural variations of the TSH molecule, which have lower activity, so the pituitary gland would need to produce ... It is a glycoprotein hormone produced by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which regulates the endocrine ... so the pituitary gland would need to produce more TSH to obtain the same overall level of TSH activity. ... TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to produce TSH. Somatostatin is also produced by the hypothalamus, and has an ...
FSH is synthesized and secreted by the gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary gland, and regulates the development, ... Control of FSH release from the pituitary gland is unknown. Low frequency gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulses increase ... It is expressed in two cell types, most notably the basophils of the anterior pituitary. The gene for the FSH beta subunit is ... Hypothalamic control of pituitary FSH-regulatory proteins and their relationship to changes in FSH synthesis and secretion". ...
... it gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. By seven weeks of gestation, the anterior pituitary vascular system begins to ... The pituitary gland is formed within the rostral neural plate. The Rathke's pouch, a cavity of ectodermal cells of the ... The posterior pituitary lobe is formed from the diverticulum. Portions of the pituitary tissue may remain in the nasopharyngeal ... At birth, the adrenal glands weight approximately eight to nine grams (twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are 0.5% of ...
The IGSF1 gene is particularly active in the pituitary gland. The pituitary synthesizes and secretes thyroid-stimulating ... "Expression profile of active genes in the human pituitary gland". Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. 28 (1): 33-44. doi: ... In Igsf1 deficient mice, the receptor for TRH is downregulated in the pituitary. This decrease could explain, at least in part ... by the thyroid gland. TSH secretion is controlled by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is released by neurons in the ...
The pituitary gland lies between the two paired cavernous sinuses. An abnormally growing pituitary adenoma, sitting on the bony ... Medially: Hypophysis cerebri or (pituitary gland) and sphenoidal air sinus. Laterally: temporal lobe with uncus. Anteriorly: ... superior and lateral to the pituitary gland on each side, and enters the orbital apex via the optic canal. As a venous sinus, ... pituitary tumors or pituitary apoplexy, aneurysms of the intracavernous carotid artery, carotid-cavernous fistula, bacterial ...
He later had a tumor removed from his pituitary gland. On June 6, 1988, Judge White indefinitely postponed Presser's trial ...
The pituitary glands of these patients were believed to have been producing excessive amounts of thyroid-stimulating hormone ... By x-raying the pituitary gland, the swelling was reduced. Three years after treatment patients had gained an average of 13 ... which he developed in the 1970s to allow for imaging of the adrenal gland. He was awarded the Scientific Achievement Award, the ... so that the radioactivity could be detected when the substance traveled to cells in the adrenal gland and related tissues. ...
Messages from the hypothalamus are sent to the pituitary gland. In turn, the pituitary gland releases hormones to the ovaries. ... When the oocyte finishes its maturation in the ovary, a surge of luteinizing hormone secreted by the pituitary gland stimulates ... These feedback mechanisms are controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. ... Ovaries in females are analogous to testes in males, in that they are both gonads and endocrine glands. Ovaries of some kind ...
In a transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, the pituitary gland or section of the pituitary gland is removed through the sphenoid ... a cavity is opened within the skull to reach the pituitary gland. Once the cavity is open, the pituitary gland is removed ... orientation of the lasers administering radiation to specifically destroy the pituitary gland or part of the pituitary gland. ... Hypophysectomy is the surgical removal of the hypophysis (pituitary gland). It is most commonly performed to treat tumors, ...
The underlying mechanism generally involves problems with the pituitary gland. Some cases are associated with a lack of other ... Until 1985, growth hormone for treatment was obtained by extraction from human pituitary glands collected at autopsy. Since ... When GH deficiency (usually with other anterior pituitary deficiencies) is associated with posterior pituitary hormone ... a structurally abnormal pituitary, or a history of damage to the pituitary. This would confirm the diagnosis; in the absence of ...
In the pituitary gland, null cell adenomas have been found. Null cells have also been identified in nontumorous adeno- ... Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva; Ryan, Nancy; Ezrin, Calvin (1980-06-01). "Null cell adenoma of the human pituitary". Virchows ...
Endocrine glands: Hypothalamic pituitary axis commonly involved. Diabetes insipidus is most common. Anterior pituitary hormone ... 50% of cases involve the pituitary stalk, often leading to diabetes insipidus. The triad of diabetes insipidus, exophthalmos, ... Tumourous lesions are usually found in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis with space-occupying lesions with or without ... Broadbent, V; Dunger, DB; Yeomans, E; Kendall, B (1993). "Anterior pituitary function and computed tomography/magnetic ...
Pituitary gland an endocrine gland at the base of the brain. It is usually called the master gland, for its signals control the ... Adrenal gland An endocrine gland located on top of the human kidney. Secretes adrenaline, one of the primary 'fight or flight' ... Gland a tissue which produces a product used elsewhere. The pancreas is a large gland, and a complex one. It produces ... Endocrine glands several glands and tissues which secrete signaling chemicals (almost always in very very small quantities) ...
Li spent his entire academic career studying the pituitary-gland hormones. In collaboration with various co-workers, he ... He isolated another pituitary hormone called melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and found that not only does this hormone ... that human pituitary growth hormone (somatotropin) consists of a chain of 256 amino acids. In 1970 he succeeded in synthesizing ...
The inferior end adjoins the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Capillaries of the tuber cinereum are specialized and ... In addition to the ventral hypothalamus, the tuber cinereum includes the median eminence and pituitary gland. Together with the ... The tuber cinereum primarily constitutes nerve fibres travelling from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland. Rather than ... and pituitary gland, and from there into the general circulation. Mesal aspect of a brain sectioned in the median sagittal ...
These include depression, food allergies, ingestion of certain chemicals, bulimia, anorexia nervosa, pituitary gland ...
"Amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary glands". J. Biol. Chem. 251 (4): ... Fujiki Y، Rathnam P، Saxena BB (1980). "Studies on the disulfide bonds in human pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone". ...
Some tumors do not contain a discrete border between tumor and pituitary gland; therefore, careful sectioning through pituitary ... Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism ... Cushing was confident that Minnie's symptoms were due to dysfunction of the pituitary gland, and resembled those associated ... that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous ...
... and it stabilizes the pituitary gland.. *^ a b c d Schumacher, John (July-August 1990). "Preparing for Inversions". Yoga ...
Hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. *Hormones of the thyroid gland ... Sherwood, Lauralee (2010). "19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands". Human Physiology. Brooks/Cole. p. 694. ISBN 978-0-495-39184-5. ... Levothyroxine is a synthetic form of thyroxine (T4), an endogenous hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, which is converted to ... was first isolated in pure form in 1914 at the Mayo Clinic by Edward Calvin Kendall from extracts of hog thyroid glands.[28] ...
The pineal and parapineal glands are photoreceptive in non-mammalian vertebrates, but not in mammals. Birds have photoactive ... are thought to influence these targets by releasing from their axon terminals the neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary ...
Talk:Anterior pituitary. *Talk:Anterior spinal veins. *Talk:Anterior spinothalamic tract. *Talk:Anterior sternoclavicular ... Talk:Bartholin's gland. *Talk:Basal lamina. *Talk:Basal plate (neural tube). *Talk:Basal vein ...
Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human ... Conversion of testosterone to the more potent DHT occurs the prostate gland, liver, brain and skin. ... Androgens are synthesized in the testes, the ovaries, and the adrenal glands. ... In adulthood, DHT contributes to balding, prostate growth, and sebaceous gland activity. ...
During embryonic development, the thyroid gland is being formed, beginning at the base of the tongue and moving towards the ... as an irregular neck mass or a lump which develops from cells and tissues left over after the formation of the thyroid gland ...
... pituitary gland) and pineal gland (which is glandular tissue) attached at the bottom; tumors of the pituitary and pineal gland ... This is perhaps because the pituitary gland is in the skull, however it is not part of the brain. Pituitary adenomas are rarely ... Pituitary adenomas ("pituitary tumours") are sometimes incorrectly referred to as a brain tumours.[68][69] ... Most pituitary adenomas can be removed surgically, often using a minimally invasive approach through the nasal cavity and skull ...
Antigonadotropins are drugs that suppress the GnRH-mediated secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland.[64] ... Tissues in which DHT forms at a high rate include the prostate gland, skin, and hair follicles.[37][111] In accordance, DHT is ... They act as growth factors in the prostate gland, stimulating cell division and tissue growth.[13] In accordance, therapeutic ... They are effective because androgens act as growth factors in the prostate gland.[33] The antiandrogens chlormadinone acetate ...
"Functional neuroanatomy of thyroid hormone feedback in the human hypothalamus and pituitary gland". Molecular and Cellular ...
The American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing in 1914 reported a patient with a pituitary tumour that he had operated on. Post ... The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular ...
They are usually in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. More endorphins are released in the pituitary gland during times of ... They are produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland. Their name has two parts: endo- and -orphin; these are ... Endorphins are also involved in the release of sex hormones in the pituitary gland.[4] Also, scientists think that acupuncture ...
... the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands ( ... The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. In particular, CRH and vasopressin stimulate the secretion of adrenocorticotropic ... Cortisol produced in the adrenal cortex will negatively feedback to inhibit both the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. This ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ...
大多數具有PCOS的婦女具有胰島素抵抗或肥胖的症狀。 他們的胰島素濃度異常的提高導致「下丘腦-垂體-卵巢軸(英语:Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis)」區域中的異常並引起PCOS的症狀。高胰島素血症提高
A hormone (frae Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is ony member o a cless o signalin molecules produced bi glands in multicellular ... hormones is eften dependent on complex sets o direct influence an feedback interactions involvin the hypothalamic-pituitary- ... Endocrine glands are the cardinal example, but speicialised cells in various ither organs an aw secrete hormones. Hormone ... The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine seegnalin system. The term hormone is whiles extendit tae include ...
... pituitary gland - placebo - placebo controlled study - placebo effect - plasma - plasma cells - platelets - PML - Pneumocystis ...
glands. Hypothalamic-. pituitary. Hypothalamus. *GnRH. *TRH. *Dopamine. *CRH. *GHRH. *Somatostatin (GHIH). *MCH ...
... continued stimulation with GnRH agonists desensitizes the pituitary gland (by causing GnRH receptor downregulation) to GnRH. ... Pituitary desensitization reduces the secretion of LH and FSH and thus induces a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadal ... Cryptorchidism; Delayed puberty; Diagnostic agent (pituitary disorders); Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; Veterinary medicine ( ... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ...
Cell death may be instigated in the meibomian glands,[30][55] hypothalamic cells,[56] hippocampus cells[57][58] and-important ... the hormone regulatory centre of the brain and part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, a key part of the body's stress ... Lambert RW, Smith RE (March 1989). "Effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid on the hamster meibomian gland". The Journal of ... Kremer I, Gaton DD, David M, Gaton E, Shapiro A (1994). "Toxic effects of systemic retinoids on meibomian glands". Ophthalmic ...
অন্তঃক্ষরা গ্রন্থি (Endocrine gland). *পিটুইটারি গ্রন্থি (পোষণিকা গ্রন্থি) (Pituitary gland). *পিনিয়াল গ্রন্থি (Pineal gland) ...
FSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Kisspeptin and its associated receptor KISS1R are known to be involved in the regulation ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) functions normally at birth and well into adult life, giving normal puberty ... Brain MRI to rule out any structural abnormalities in the hypothalamus or pituitary and to check for presence of olfactory ... HH is caused by a disruption in the production of the gonadotropin hormones normally released by the anterior pituitary gland ...
Pituitary gland. Anterior. *Pars intermedia. *Pars tuberalis. *Pars distalis. *Acidophil cell *Somatotropic cell ... The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.[1] It is located at the center of the ... gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex.[1] It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of chromaffin cells ... The adrenal medulla may be poorly formed or absent in cases of absent adrenal gland. The deficiency in circulating ...
For example, the ascorbic acid content of pituitary and adrenal glands can exceed 2,000 µmol/L, and muscle is at 200-300 µmol/L ... Szent-Györgyi isolated hexuronic acid from animal adrenal glands, and suspected it to be the antiscorbutic factor.[176] In late ...
Mohanty, Banalata (2006). "Extracellular Accumulations in the Avian Pituitary Gland: Histochemical Analysis in Two Species of ...
regulation of branching involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. • positive regulation of phagocytosis. • negative regulation ... Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by stimulating the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) ... epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. • positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic ...
The salivary glands and tear glands have a radiation tolerance of about 30 Gy in 2 Gy fractions, a dose which is exceeded by ... Effects on pituitary system[edit]. Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar ... Similarly, sweat glands in treated skin (such as the armpit) tend to stop working, and the naturally moist vaginal mucosa is ... An example of this problem is seen in radiation of the prostate gland, where the sensitivity of the adjacent rectum limited the ...
The main glands are all exocrine glands, secreting via ducts. All of these glands terminate in the mouth. The largest of these ... It is both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland.[29] The endocrine part secretes insulin when the blood sugar becomes high ... Saliva contains digestive enzymes called amylase, and lingual lipase, secreted by the salivary glands and serous glands on the ... Lipase is a digestive enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of lipids (fats). These glands are termed Von Ebner's glands which ...
glands. Hypothalamic-. pituitary. Hypothalamus. *GnRH. *TRH. *Dopamine. *CRH. *GHRH. *Somatostatin (GHIH). *MCH ...
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is ... pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached ... Pituitary gland. Medically reviewed by Healthline Medical Team on. March 5, 2015 ... intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland releases a hormone that stimulates the melanocytes, cells which control pigmentation ...
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is ... Pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to ... The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland releases a hormone that stimulates the melanocytes, cells which control ... The pituitary is divided into three sections: the anterior, intermediate, and posterior lobes. The anterior lobe is mainly ...
Got a call from the Docs office stating that my pituitary gland is possibly enlarged. Have another appointment this Friday ... Just told my pituitary gland is enlarged. Hello everyone. I am new to this site. Just had a brain MRI. Got a call from the ... Got a call from the Docs office stating that my pituitary gland is possibly enlarged. Have another appointment this Friday ... Docs office stating that my pituitary gland is possibly enlarged. Have another appointment this Friday with him. For the past ...
Learn about Pituitary Gland quality, side effects, benefits and more. ... Read Pituitary Gland reviews from a range of authenticated and trusted reviews from eVitamins. ...
Pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small gland located beneath the brain. The pituitary gland produces substances ( ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of The Pituitary Gland in Animals. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from ... Also see Pet Health content regarding the pituitary gland in dogs and the pituitary gland in cats. ... The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is composed of the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe) and the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe). ... synthesizes and secretes each of the pituitary trophic hormones. Pituitary cells have a secretory cycle and enter an actively ...
CT appearance of the adolescent and preadolescent pituitary gland.. R G Peyster, E D Hoover, R R Viscarello, T Moshang, M E ... CT appearance of the adolescent and preadolescent pituitary gland.. R G Peyster, E D Hoover, R R Viscarello, T Moshang, M E ... CT appearance of the adolescent and preadolescent pituitary gland.. R G Peyster, E D Hoover, R R Viscarello, T Moshang and M E ... CT appearance of the adolescent and preadolescent pituitary gland. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary ... gland of the endocrine system, because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no ... The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master ... gland itself consists of three sections: the anterior lobe the ... The Pituitary Gland Anatomy of the pituitary gland: ... The Pituitary Gland. Anatomy of the pituitary gland:. The ...
Underactive Pituitary Gland (Hypopituita... Hypopituitarism occurs when your pituitary gland in your brain is not releasing one ... Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. ... Underactive Pituitary Gland. Underactive Pituitary Gland Learning Center. ...
Cancer Types - The Pituitary Gland. Anatomy of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master" gland ... The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary ... Functions of the pituitary gland. Each lobe of the pituitary gland produces certain hormones. ... The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea, and is located at the base of the brain. ...
The pituitary gland resides in your brain and is responsible for regulating metabolism, among many other functions. ... The Pituitary Gland & Nutrition. Written by Johnathon Andrew; Updated December 17, 2018 The Pituitary Gland & Nutrition ... Pituitary Gland. The pituitary gland sits at the base of your brain within the sphenoid bone. Its located below the ... mammary glands, liver and kidneys. The pituitary gland controls these glands and organs by producing its own hormones, ...
Intermediate Lobe of Pituitary. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several ...
The pituitary gland, about the size of a pea, is situated on the under-surface of the brain (Fig. 5.1), attached through a ... The pituitary gland is also known as the hypophysis, or growth underneath; removal of the pituitary gland is the operation ... The pituitary gland has two major parts, or lobes: the anterior pituitary - also called the adenohypophysis - and the posterior ... The pituitary gland, about the size of a pea, is situated on the under-surface of the brain (Fig. 5.1), attached through a ...
Pituitary adenomas, noncancerous tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.. All of the functions of the pituitary gland can be ... Pituitary gland[edit]. The Greek physician Galen referred to the pituitary gland by only using the (Ancient Greek) name ἀδήν,[ ... Pituitary gland. Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella ... In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams ...
The pituitary gland makes growth hormone. Abnormal growth can signal a gland problem or disease. ... The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other tissues. Children who have too little ... Usually the cause is a pituitary gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, ... Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Summary) (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ...
The most common type of pituitary tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your body. ... Your pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland at the base of your brain. The pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes ... Pituitary Tumors (Hormone Health Network) Also in Spanish * Pituitary Tumors (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and ... Treatment Option Overview (Pituitary Tumors) (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish * Treatment Options for Pituitary ...
The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamu ... The pituitary gland is a small oval-shaped gland found inside ... Pituitary gland hormones. The pituitary gland makes 9 different hormones. Both the anterior pituitary gland and the posterior ... Cancer information / Cancer types / Pituitary gland tumour / Pituitary gland tumours / The pituitary gland ... The pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized gland found inside the skull and below the brain. As part of the ...
... a noncancerous tumor that makes growth hormone from your pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is in the skull, just below the ... If these tests are abnormal, you will have an MRI that will help your doctor see if a tumor is growing in the pituitary gland. ... To learn more about acromegaly, visit the acromegaly website of the Pituitary Network Association. You can get information ... The most common cause is a pituitary adenoma, ... What Is a Pituitary Gland Tumor? * Brain Tumors: Symptoms, ...
... the pituitary gland is actually two fused glands, the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. Each gland is made up of ... Adrenal gland , Corpus luteum , Hypothalamus , Kidney , Ovaries , Pancreas , Parathyroid gland , Pineal gland , Pituitary gland ... Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis). Despite its name, the posterior pituitary gland is not a gland, per se; rather, it is ... The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master gland" of the body, since all other secretions from endocrine glands depend ...
Most tumours of the pituitary gland are benign and start in the anterior (front) part of the pituitary gland. ... Different types of tumours can affect the pituitary gland. ... Other pituitary gland tumours. The following pituitary gland ... develops from the gland cells of the pituitary gland. It is the most common type of pituitary gland tumour. Most PitNETs start ... Types of pituitary gland tumours. Tumours can affect the pituitary gland. A tumour is an abnormal growth of tissue formed when ...
The pituitary gland is a small structure that is located at the base of the posterior brain. It is directly below the ... The pituitary gland is divided into the anterior pituitary, the intermediate pituitary and the posterior pituitary. Each ... The pituitary gland is an organ that is part of the endocrine system. It produces its own hormones and stores other types of ... The pituitary gland is a small structure that is located at the base of the posterior brain. It is directly below the ...
This article is an overview about the functions of the pituitary gland in humans. Learn the functions of the pituitary gland. ... The pituitary gland in humans is located at the base... ... How to Study the Functions of the Pituitary Gland in Humans. ... The pituitary gland is considered the master gland of the body because of its role in giving orders to other endocrine glands ... Learn about the other hormones of the pituitary gland. Many other hormones that are secreted by the pituitary gland have also ...
Neuroendocrinology and The Pituitary Gland - 6th Edition. Print Book. ISBN 9780323240628 ... Endocrinology Adult and Pediatric: Neuroendocrinology and The Pituitary Gland 6th Edition. Authors: Shlomo Melmed J. Larry ... Stay abreast of the newest knowledge in neuroendocrinology and the pituitary gland, including… ... Apply the latest advances in management of neuroendocrine and pituitary disorders with the Neuroendocrinology & The Pituitary ...
... The pituitary gland is a small gland located beneath the brain. The pituitary gland produces substances ( ...
Find treatment reviews for Pituitary gland removal from other patients. Learn from their experiences about effectiveness, side ...
Drouins team studies the pituitary gland, which is the master gland located at the base of the skull that secretes hormones to ... Within the pituitary gland, each hormone is produced by cells of a different lineage. Unique cell identities are created by ... Reprogramming cell identity in the pituitary gland. 17.10.2012. A discovery by IRCM researchers could lead to new treatments ... Cushings disease is caused by small tumours of the pituitary gland that produce excessive amounts of hormones. For patients ...
The pituitary gland is divided into two distinct regions, the anterior and the posterior pituitary. The posterior pituitary is ... The Pituitary Gland is a structure in the endocrine system. Often called the Master gland, this small region regulates the ... Pituitary Gland. Intro , Amygdala , Brainstem , Cerebellum , Cerebrum , Corpus Callosum , Reticular Formation , Hippocampus , ... The pituitary gland is attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus via a stalk that contains blood vessels and neurons. These ...
The pituitary is a gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that govern the onset of puberty, sexual ... The pituitary is a gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that govern the onset of puberty, sexual ...
... vision problems and pituitary hormone deficiency, states the University of Virginia Health System. A... ... Although the majority of pituitary gland cysts are asymptomatic, some cysts can cause headaches, ... How Do Doctors Treat the Symptoms of Pituitary Gland Problems?. A: Doctors treat the symptoms of pituitary gland problems by ... Although the majority of pituitary gland cysts are asymptomatic, some cysts can cause headaches, vision problems and pituitary ...
Learn how the hormones secreted by the master gland affect your body. Learn what the functions of these hormones are. ... Posterior Pituitary Hormones: How Does the Pituitary Gland Affect You?. Medical Science / By danxtptrnrth / Anatomy & ... The "master gland", the pituitary, controls the function of all other glands, though, it itself is under the control of the ... though they are stored and secreted by the pituitary gland. The hormones are transported through the pituitary stalk and, ...
However, once a pituitary problem is suspected, an MRI of the pituitary and pituitary hormonal blood levels will usually reveal ... The pituitary is a small bean-shaped gland that sits at the base of the skull, below the brain and behind the nasal sinuses. It ... Pituitary hormonal levels are also closely monitored to determine if the pituitary has recovered or whether hormonal ... and pituitary failure. With loss of pituitary hormone production a person may experience decreased sex drive, infertility, ...
... and the part of the pituitary in which the cysts occur should be indicated in the diagnosis (e.g., Pituitary Gland, Pars ... Pituitary Gland - Cyst in a male F344/n rat from a chronic study. The cysts in the pars distalis are lined by ciliated cuboidal ... Pituitary Gland - Cyst, multiple in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Multiple cysts are present in the pars nervosa ( ... Pituitary Gland - Cyst, multiple in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Higher magnification of Figure 4 shows the cysts ...
Notes can be found in imueos.blogspot.com under the label: pituitary gland. ... This is a quiz on the pituitary gland lectures in Week 1 endocrine. ... This is a quiz on the pituitary gland lectures in Week 1 endocrine. Notes can be found in imueos. Blogspot. Com under the label ... This is a histologic image of the pituitary gland. The basophils are bluish in colour and the acidophils pinkish. What are ...
... is there anyone here who got pituitary gland tumor surgery by Malaysian doctor, Parthiban Navoo, in Malakas Mahkota Medical ... Communities>Brain/Pituitary Tumors>Pituitary Gland Tumour Surgery By Doctor Partiban Navoo ... from what source you get the info that doctor Parthiban Navoo does more than 50 pituitary gland tumor surgery per year and more ... Hi Guys, is there anyone here who got pituitary gland tumor surgery by Malaysian doctor, Parthiban Navoo, in Malakas Mahkota ...
Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. The pars distalis (asterisk) is reduced ... Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Higher magnification of Figure 1 shows ... Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Higher magnification of Figure 2 shows ... Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Higher magnification of Figure 3 shows ...
In order to clarify the environmental factors which are involved in the development of the primordium of the pituitary gland ... The development and morphogenesis of the human pituitary gland Anat Embryol (Berl). 1988;178(4):327-36. doi: 10.1007/BF00698663 ... In order to clarify the environmental factors which are involved in the development of the primordium of the pituitary gland ... of the epithelium of Rathkes pouch is thought to be heavily involved in the growth of the primordium of the pituitary gland in ...
... an endocrine gland at the base of a vertebrate brain, showing a region that contains fewer acidophils (red), cells that stain ... Light micrograph at 700x magnification of the interior lobe of a human pituitary gland, ... Light micrograph at 700x magnification of the interior lobe of a human pituitary gland, an endocrine gland at the base of a ...
Complete medical information regarding pituitary tumors, including a description, treatment, symptoms, prognosis, and current ... What are the Pituitary Tumors? Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths found in the pituitary gland, a small organ--about the ... A pituitary tumor may make the pituitary gland produce too many hormones, which can cause other problems in the body. Tumors ... What are the Pituitary Tumors? *Is there any treatment for pituitary tumors? *What is the prognosis for pituitary tumors? *What ...
The pituitary gland is a small gland (about the size of a pea) that is located at the base of the brain. ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that form in the pituitary gland. ... The pituitary gland is a small gland (about the size of a pea) ... The pituitary gland secretes hormones. Pituitary adenoma can often go undiagnosed. These tumors are classified based on plasma ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that form in the pituitary gland. ... Pituitary Adenoma. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor. Sex cord-stromal ...
... on my Pituitary Gland. I have an appointment with the Endocrinologist on Friday to talk about the ... Pituitary Disease Message Board HealthBoards , Endocrine , Pituitary Disease > MRI shows something in my Pituitary Gland! ... MRI shows something in my Pituitary Gland! My recent head MRI shows something on my Pituitary Gland. I have an appointment ... Pituitary Disease. 0. 09-14-2011 12:41 PM. mildly enlarged thyroid and hypopituitary jkhh. Pituitary Disease. 2. 11-26-2007 ...
Leos pituitary was 4 times in volume, as a normal pituitary. So his pituitary was also obvious. I guess that is kinda lucky if ... Shmees Pituitary Gland Removal Surgery. Discussion in Acromegaly / IAA / Cushings Cats started by Amanda & Shmee, Jul 31, ... Until this morning I thought they would just be taking a tiny tumour off the pituitary gland but it seems they take out the ... Until this morning I thought they would just be taking a tiny tumour off the pituitary gland but it seems they take out the ...
  • Pituitary disease -- such as tumor formation -- can also affect the adrenal glands and result in abnormal secretion of hormones called corticosteroids. (sfgate.com)
  • I have undergone a pituitary tumor removal surgery on 10th Dec 2017 and after one week did an MRI, the report showing some residuals remains. (tenderapp.com)
  • intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland releases a hormone that stimulates the melanocytes, cells which control pigmentation - like skin color - through the production of melanin. (healthline.com)
  • Pituitary cells have a secretory cycle and enter an actively synthesizing phase in response to increased demand for a particular hormone. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • For most pituitary trophic hormones, negative feedback control is accomplished by a feedback loop involving the blood concentration of the hormone produced by the target endocrine gland (eg, thyroid gland, adrenal cortex, ovary, or testis). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - sometimes called thyrotropin - acts on the thyroid gland to stimulate the production of thyroid hormones and to stimulate growth of the gland (discussed further below, Section 5.4). (alpfmedical.info)
  • For instance, if extra thyroid hormones are needed, the pituitary will send out a hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). (drscottmonk.com)
  • If extra adrenal hormones are required to fight stress, the pituitary will send out a hormone called ACTH. (drscottmonk.com)
  • If a woman's progesterone is low, the pituitary sends out luteinizing hormone (LH). (drscottmonk.com)
  • In other words, when a hormone begins to get low, the pituitary must become activated or facilitated so as to increase the low hormone. (drscottmonk.com)
  • When a hormone becomes high, the pituitary must become inactivated or inhibited so that the hormone does not become too high (it is the liver's job to eliminate excess hormone). (drscottmonk.com)
  • The reason you want that Pituitary gland working top notch is because it activates the ESP, hormone levels in the brain,health, past lives, psychic vision, mind reading, prophesy and even the chakras. (hauntedcuriosities.com)
  • Growth hormone, produced by the pituitary gland, stimulates linear growth and regulates metabolic functions. (britannica.com)
  • Inadequate secretion of this hormone by the pituitary will impair growth in children, which is evidenced by their poor rate of growth and delayed bone age (i.e., slowed bone development). (britannica.com)
  • Pituitary growth hormone, a protein with molecular weight of 21,600 and of known amino-acid composition, is secreted by the pituitary gland throughout life. (britannica.com)
  • Pituitary hormone s stimulate ovarian or testicular tissue, which secretes the sex hormones. (britannica.com)
  • The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secretes a hormone essential for growth and development of the skeleton. (britannica.com)
  • While being roughly the size of a pea, the pituitary gland is an integral part of your body's endocrine system, and it plays a key role in hormone regulation. (khromaherbs.com)
  • Once secreted into the bloodstream, these hormones act as the pituitary gland's messengers, helping it to regulate the activity of other hormone-producing glands. (khromaherbs.com)
  • Adrenocorticotropin - This hormone stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol. (khromaherbs.com)
  • Conditions associated with the pituitary gland often stem from benign growths (adenomas) which may cause symptoms through either excess hormone production or compression of surrounding structures. (northshore.org)
  • If anyone has the incompetent pituitary gland, then they can face this Growth hormone deficiency once in their life. (krop.com)
  • People know the fact that the growth hormone shortage is the effect of the underperforming and drifting pituitary gland. (krop.com)
  • The Arginine test determines whether the pituitary gland is producing normal levels of human growth hormone. (hgh10.com)
  • The arginine test will determine the levels of human growth hormone present in your blood, and the pituitary glands ability to release HGH. (hgh10.com)
  • This test determines whether the pituitary gland produces normal amounts of growth hormone. (hgh10.com)
  • The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is composed of the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe) and the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The pituitary gland has two major parts, or lobes: the anterior pituitary - also called the adenohypophysis - and the posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis. (alpfmedical.info)
  • It consists of two lobes that arise from distinct parts of embryonic tissue: the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) is neural tissue, whereas the anterior pituitary (also known as the adenohypophysis) is glandular tissue that develops from the primitive digestive tract. (openstax.org)
  • It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, and posterior pituitary, or neurohypophysis. (casadicurasanrossore.it)
  • By producing specific hormones, the adenohypophysis regulates the function of other endocrine glands, including the thyroid, adrenal glands, testes and ovaries. (casadicurasanrossore.it)
  • A specific population of endocrine cells in the pars distalis (and in the pars intermedia for ACTH in dogs) synthesizes and secretes each of the pituitary trophic hormones. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The anterior pituitary secretes at least six distinct peptide and glycoprotein hormones. (alpfmedical.info)
  • This complex secretes several hormones that directly produce responses in target tissues, as well as hormones that regulate the synthesis and secretion of hormones of other glands. (openstax.org)
  • The posterior pituitary gland does not produce hormones, but rather stores and secretes hormones produced by the hypothalamus. (openstax.org)
  • Working hard within its pea-sized frame, the pituitary gland secretes various hormones that control and regulate many systems throughout the body. (khromaherbs.com)
  • The sex hormones not only maintain the growth of the sexual tissues generally but inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones, so that the process does not get out of hand. (britannica.com)
  • This problem can be the result of lack of secretion or even low production of HGH, or somatotropin , by the gland. (krop.com)
  • Pituitary disease leading to inadequate production of cortisol negatively impacts blood sugar levels by retarding the process of gluconeogenesis, which involves breaking down sugars stored as triglycerides and glycogen. (sfgate.com)
  • The pituitary gland, about the size of a pea, is situated on the under-surface of the brain (Fig. 5.1), attached through a little stalk to the area of the brain known as the hypothalamus. (alpfmedical.info)
  • In addition, the hypothalamus is anatomically and functionally related to the pituitary gland (or hypophysis), a bean-sized organ suspended from it by a stem called the infundibulum (or pituitary stalk). (openstax.org)
  • It connects to the pituitary gland by the stalk-like infundibulum. (openstax.org)
  • The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, which dominates the vertebrate endocrine system, is formed of two distinct components. (britannica.com)
  • Hormones produced by the anterior lobe regulate growth, and stimulate the adrenal and thyroid glands, as well as the ovaries and testes. (healthline.com)
  • The pituitary gland consists of an anterior and posterior lobe, with each lobe secreting different hormones in response to signals from the hypothalamus. (openstax.org)
  • Figure 17.8 Posterior Pituitary Neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus release oxytocin (OT) or ADH into the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (openstax.org)
  • The pituitary gland produces substances (hormones) that enter the bloodstream and help control many processes of the body. (peacehealth.org)
  • The endocrine system consists of glands situated in different parts of the body, which produces hormones which regulate the activity of other organs and tissues in the body directly into the blood. (clickfortherapy.com)
  • The cell bodies of these regions rest in the hypothalamus, but their axons descend as the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract within the infundibulum, and end in axon terminals that comprise the posterior pituitary ( Figure 17.8 ). (openstax.org)
  • The Pituitary Gland & Nutrition" last modified December 17, 2018. (sfgate.com)
  • A chronically sluggish metabolism -- which can occur with pituitary disease -- leads to increased risk of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and even heart disease, which collectively is referred to as "metabolic syndrome. (sfgate.com)
  • Not enough dietary iodine prevents adequate production of thyroid hormones, which triggers overproduction of TSH in the pituitary. (sfgate.com)
  • According to Dr. Jim Forneo, chiropractor and nutritionist, important nutrients needed for healthy pituitary function include a variety of minerals -- especially manganese and magnesium -- and vitamin E. Foods rich in various minerals and vitamin E include wheat, leafy greens, nuts and some legumes. (sfgate.com)
  • NorthShore's team of board-certified endocrinologists works alongside your primary care physician to identify the cause of pituitary abnormalities. (northshore.org)
  • people with pituitary disease do not necessarily have all the symptoms at the same time and more commonly have only some of them. (casadicurasanrossore.it)
  • In vertebrate anatomy , the pituitary gland , or hypophysis , is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland, about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland , or hypophysis , is an endocrine gland located near the base of vertebrate brain , and that produces secretions that stimulate activities in other endocrine glands, impacting metabolism , growth, and other physiological processes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The tissue that forms the roof of the mouth also forms the anterior pituitary, a true endocrine gland of epithelial origin. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This anatomical structure in the brain is an important endocrine gland which is the main regulator of all other endocrine glands that are spread in the various parts of the body. (wikihow.com)
  • This relatively small anatomical structure is responsible for secreting many hormones into the blood circulation each of which is a specific signaling molecule of a different endocrine gland in the body. (wikihow.com)
  • The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland found at the base of the brain . (wisegeek.com)
  • Light micrograph at 700x magnification of the interior lobe of a human pituitary gland, an endocrine gland at the base of a vertebrate brain, showing a region that contains fewer acidophils (red), cells that stain easily with acid dyes, than basophils (purple), cells that stain easily with basic dyes. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In vertebrate anatomy , the pituitary gland , or hypophysis , is an endocrine gland aboot the size o a pea an weighin 0.5 gram (0.018 oz) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland is an important gland in the brain, and is often referred to as the "master endocrine gland" because it secretes a variety of hormones that affect many bodily functions. (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea. (lumenlearning.com)
  • An endocrine gland, about the size of a pea, that sits in a small, bony cavity at the base of the brain whose secretions control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation. (lumenlearning.com)
  • While the pituitary gland is known as the master endocrine gland, both of its lobes are under the control of the hypothalamus: the anterior pituitary receives its signals from the parvocellular neurons, and the posterior pituitary receives its signals from the magnocellular neurons. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The fully developed pituitary gland or hypophysis is a pea-sized endocrine gland and weighs about 0.5 g. (collinsbooks.com.au)
  • i. (a) Pituitary is often termed as master endocrine gland. (topperlearning.com)
  • Another growth disorder disease is Cretinism which is a result of a disease of the thyroid gland it is the cause of most dwarfism in Europe, Canada, and the United States. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Hormones produced by the thyroid gland regulate the rate of metabolism and the way the human body uses calcium. (steadyhealth.com)
  • A specific population of endocrine cells in the pars distalis (and in the pars intermedia for ACTH in dogs) synthesizes and secretes each of the pituitary trophic hormones. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Cushing's disease - once again a benign tumour, but this time producing ACTH which overstimulates the adrenal glands and causes symptoms like a prolonged overdose of steroids. (familydoctors.nz)
  • Although patients with prolactinomas can typically be treated with a medicine (cabergoline) to lower prolactin levels and shrink the tumor, other pituitary tumor types typically require surgical removal. (emaxhealth.com)
  • For example, prolactin affects primarily the mammary gland, and GH has its principal effect on the liver-both nonendocrine tissues. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • DNA complementary to the prolactin mRNA from human pituitary was obtained and cloned. (eurekamag.com)
  • For example, the pituitary gland produces prolactin , which acts on the breasts to induce milk production. (yourhormones.info)
  • What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors? (medlineplus.gov)
  • They are usually macrotumours and can cause symptoms by pressing on the pituitary gland and nearby tissues such as nerves. (cancer.ca)
  • What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Gland Cysts? (reference.com)
  • How Do Doctors Treat the Symptoms of Pituitary Gland Problems? (reference.com)
  • Doctors treat the symptoms of pituitary gland problems by prescribing medications such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogues or pegvisomant, says th. (reference.com)
  • Pituitary tumors may be difficult to diagnose since they can produce a vast array of relatively common symptoms. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Symptoms of pituitary tumors may include headaches, vision problems, nausea and vomiting, or any of the problems caused by the production of too many hormones such as infertility or loss of menstrual periods in women, abnormal growth, high blood pressure , heat or cold intolerance, and other skin and body changes. (medicinenet.com)
  • Physicians will look at the combination of symptoms mentioned above in order to begin diagnosis of a pituitary adenoma. (knowcancer.com)
  • Pituitary tumors can lead to an assortment of symptoms, symptoms based on the hormones they affect. (mountsinai.org)
  • The variety of symptoms makes it challenging to diagnose pituitary disease. (mountsinai.org)
  • Other symptoms can include fever, pituitary failure, loss of consciousness, hypothalamic failure and death. (cedars-sinai.org)
  • Doctors suspect pituitary gland problems from your symptoms. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Pituitary gland tumors often go undiagnosed due to lack of symptoms. (uhhospitals.org)
  • While most pituitary tumors are not cancerous, pituitary tumor symptoms can wreak havoc on the body by causing hormones to be over-produced or under-produced. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Other causes of dwarfism are Down\'s syndrome, a congenital condition with symptoms similar to those of cretinism, achondroplasia, a disease characterized by short extremities resulting from absorption of cartilaginous tissue during the fetal stage, spinal tuberculosis, and deficiency of the secretions of the pituitary gland or of the ovary. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • This case illustrates that metastatic pituitary lesions can mimic typical symptoms and signs of pituitary macroadenoma. (ufrgs.br)
  • Symptoms of an enlarged gland include frequent headaches, disturbances in vision, excessive sweating, and blood pressure irregularities. (medhelp.org)
  • Morphogenesis of craniopharyngeal derivatives in the neurohypophysis of Fisher 344 rats: Abnormally developed epithelial tissues including parotid glands derived from the stomatodeum. (nih.gov)
  • It is then released into the blood from the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland. (mysticbanana.com)
  • Most pituitary tumors are benign, which means they are non-cancerous, grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • Majority of the pituitary tumors are not malignant meaning they are noncancerous or benign. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • Nearly all pituitary tumors, including those that cause acromegaly, are benign, and not malignant. (pituitarysociety.org)
  • Prolactinomas are common benign tumors of the pituitary and many respond to medications. (healthtap.com)
  • Is mass on the pituitary gland benign? (healthcaremagic.com)
  • I have a nonfunctioning benign pituitary tumor called an adenoma. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • That prominence may be your pituitary gland is swolled up for some reason, and that CAN be serious if it's a benign tumor growing there or something significant like that. (medhelp.org)
  • There are different medications or drugs available for different types of pituitary tumors. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • Other pituitary tumors can cause acromegaly, a condition in which the hands, feet and face are larger than normal. (medicinenet.com)
  • My Shmee has acromegaly and we will be traveling to the Animal Medical Center in NYC August 27th to have the pituitary gland removal surgery. (felinediabetes.com)
  • This gland is especially important for normal growth and excessive amounts of one of the pituitary growth hormones may even lead to gigantism and acromegaly. (steadyhealth.com)
  • The anterior lobe of the pituitary can be divided into the pars tuberalis (pars glandularis) and pars distalis (pars glandularis) that constitutes ~80% of the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pituitary cysts in the pars distalis are frequent incidental findings in rats more than a year old and in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Atrophy of the pars distalis can occur as a sequela of necrosis secondary to ischemia and/or from compression on the pituitary by a space occupying mass. (nih.gov)
  • The pars distalis is the largest part of the pituitary gland. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In contrast, interruption of hypophyseal nerve fibers would likely result in atrophy of the posterior lobe of the pituitary. (nih.gov)
  • A neoplasm without metastatic potential arising from the anterior or the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (icd10data.com)
  • Pituitary gland is divided into three sections: the anterior lobe, the intermediate lobe, and the posterior lobe. (steadyhealth.com)
  • The pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These hormones control certain body functions and tell other glands to make other hormones. (cancer.ca)
  • The hormones found in the pituitary gland also control many bodily functions. (reference.com)
  • This article is an overview about the functions of the pituitary gland in humans. (wikihow.com)
  • Learn the functions of the pituitary gland. (wikihow.com)
  • If the anterior pituitary under functions, it results in retarded growth and decreased function of all other glands controlled by this part of the pituitary gland except for the parathyroid glands. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • These pituitary tumors restrict the pituitary gland from producing the hormones which regulate various functions. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland that plays a major role in regulating vital body functions and general wellbeing. (yourhormones.info)
  • They lead to an overproduction of TSH, which stimulates the thyroid glands to make too much thyroxine, causing hyperthyroidism. (mountsinai.org)
  • This gland is especially important during pregnancy and childbirth, since it stimulates the contractions of uterine, which is the crucial aspect of delivery. (steadyhealth.com)
  • The most common type of pituitary gland cyst is the Rathke's cleft cyst, reports the University of Virginia Health System. (reference.com)
  • Although prognosis depends on the type of pituitary tumor and the patient's age and general state of health, pituitary tumors are usually curable. (medicinenet.com)
  • My daughter had a tumor remover from her pituitary gland 2 years ago, since surgery she has headaches daily. (justanswer.com)
  • Vasopressin and oxytocin are secreted from the posterior pituitary gland. (vanderbilthealth.com)
  • The posterior pituitary does not directly synthesize any hormones but rather releases oxytocin and ADH (vasopressin) which have traveled down the infundibulum in vesicles termed Herring bodies. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Diffusing out of the second capillary bed, the hypothalamic releasing hormones then bind to anterior pituitary endocrine cells, upregulating or downregulating their release of hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior lobe of the pituitary receives hypothalamic-releasing hormones from the hypothalamus that bind with receptors on endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary that regulate the release of adrenal hormones into the circulatory system. (lumenlearning.com)
  • In the hypothalamus, oxytocin is made in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and is stored in Herring bodies at the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary. (mysticbanana.com)
  • How serious is a small tumor on the pituitary gland? (healthtap.com)
  • Hi, I was wondering if anyone could please explain to me the regulatory function of the pituitary gland and/or the mechanism of the regulation function? (biology-online.org)
  • Hormones produced by the anterior lobe regulate growth, and stimulate the adrenal and thyroid glands, as well as the ovaries and testes. (healthline.com)
  • It can also disturb all of the hormones in your body since it secretes the regulatory hormones for your thyroid , adrenal glands,and ovaries.If these are disrupted, it will make it hard to conceive. (healthtap.com)
  • Flowing out from, or through, the pituitary are hormones which affect the adrenal glands, the ovaries and testes, the thyroid, the kidneys, the uterus and the breasts. (familydoctors.nz)
  • Which approach does the surgeon take for a pituitary gland surgery? (proprofs.com)
  • Hi Guys, is there anyone here who got pituitary gland tumor surgery by Malaysian doctor, Parthiban Navoo, in Malaka's Mahkota Medical Center? (medhelp.org)
  • from what source you get the info that doctor Parthiban Navoo does more than 50 pituitary gland tumor surgery per year and more than 500 so far? (medhelp.org)
  • Then if surgery is mentioned, do the same and make sure you see a pituitary expert, not just any old neurosurgeon. (healthboards.com)
  • The plan may include medication management, pituitary surgery, or radiation therapy. (mountsinai.org)
  • The most common method of pituitary tumor treatment is surgery. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • Usually the surgery is performed in almost all the cases of pituitary tumors. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • The two main pituitary tumors surgery techniques for treatment are Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and the Transcranial hypophysectomy. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • Sometimes the medications may alone be able to treat the pituitary tumor without having any need to perform surgery or even radiation therapy. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • Why is my mother behaving abnormally after pituitary gland surgery? (ndtv.com)
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » Why is my mother behaving abnormally after pituitary gland surgery? (ndtv.com)
  • Thus because of availability of very good treatment facilities, very good success rate of tumor surgery and very low cost of surgical treatment, many international patients are attracted to India for their pituitary gland tumor surgery in India . (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • Surgery for a pituitary tumor is often successful, but requires a surgeon skilled in this form of surgery. (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • India has top-class healthcare facilities for pituitary gland tumor surgery in most prominent cities of India. (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • Over the last decade he has organized ongoing courses and symposia including the California Pituitary Conference, Endonasal and Keyhole Surgery Course, Pacific Neuroscience Symposium (for physicians), and the California Pituitary & Hormonal Health Symposium for patients and the public. (pacificneuroscienceinstitute.org)
  • Certain pituitary tumors cause Cushing's disease in which fat builds up in the face, back and chest, and the arms and legs to become very thin. (medicinenet.com)
  • The pituitary tumors cause exactly is unknown. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • The magnocellular neurosecretory cells, of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei located in the hypothalamus, project axons down the infundibulum to terminals in the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fresh anterior pituitary glands from beef and pig were separated by differential centrifugation into subcellular fractions. (rupress.org)
  • The pituitary fossa is surrounded by a layer of dura, continuous with the diaphragma sellae above (the dural anatomy is discussed in more detail in the pituitary fossa article). (radiopaedia.org)
  • When this happens, it is called metastatic cancer, or secondary pituitary gland tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Metastatic cancer in the pituitary gland is much more common than pituitary carcinoma. (cancer.ca)
  • Are most metastatic pituitary tumors symptomatic? (brainscape.com)
  • Tumors metastatic to the pituitary gland are an unusual complication of systemic cancer typically seen in elderly patients with diffuse malignant disease. (nih.gov)
  • Metastatic tumors involving the pituitary gland are an uncommon finding and occur in up to 1% of all pituitary tumor resections. (ufrgs.br)
  • [3] In all animals, the fleshy, glandular anterior pituitary is distinct from the neural composition of the posterior pituitary , which is an extension of the hypothalamus . (wikipedia.org)
  • The posterior pituitary, on the other hand, is an extension of neural tissue. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The posterior pituitary is composed of neural tissue and considered an extension of the hypothalamus. (athabascau.ca)
  • Baumgarten, H. G., Björklund, A., Holstein, A. F., Nobin, A.: Organization and ultrastructural identification of the catecholamine nerve terminals in the neural lobe and pars intermedia of the rat pituitary. (springer.com)
  • However, LSL-MYCN;hGFAP-Cre double transgenic mice did neither develop neural crest tumors nor tumors of the central nervous system, but presented with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and, less frequently, the pituitary gland. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Glands are organs that make and release hormones into your blood. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Demonstrative of the adage "Good things come in small packages" the pituitary is divided into ante and posterior lobes, each of which secretes several hormones that control the function of other endocrine glands and organs throughout the body. (webnat.com)
  • It senses the body's needs and sends signals to different organs and glands throughout the body to regulate their function and maintain an appropriate environment. (yourhormones.info)
  • Pituitary gland is also responsible for normal functioning of sex organs in both sexes. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Pituitary gland secreted hormones and influenced organs in the body. (stockfresh.com)
  • This pituitary gland took three weeks to grow and included all the cell types that are found in a normal pituitary gland . (medicalxpress.com)
  • The pituitary gland secretes various hormones regulating homeostasis, including trophic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • What are the Best Tips to Stimulate the Pituitary Gland? (wisegeek.com)
  • An exercise regimen helps to stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • By finding ways to stimulate the pituitary gland, many of these health issues may be able to be lessened or even avoided. (wisegeek.com)
  • Exercise is one of the easiest and most natural ways to stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • A healthy diet, combined with exercise, is the best natural way to stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • Maintaining a proper body weight often helps to stimulate the pituitary gland and increase production of HGH. (wisegeek.com)
  • Increasing the amount of protein in the diet is believed to help stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • If natural methods are not successful, the healthcare provider may be able to prescribe medications that can be used to help stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • Pressing the thumb against the roof of the mouth (the way a baby does when sucking his or her thumb) and using a pumping action will also stimulate the pituitary gland. (webnat.com)