A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
The beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin. It is a 112-amino acid glycopolypeptide of about 16 kD. Full biological activity of TSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.
A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Neuroendocrine cells in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY. They produce MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from the post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
An endogenous opioid peptide derived from BETA-LIPOTROPIN of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. It is the 16-amino acid sequence of the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN and differs from GAMMA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid (beta-endorphin 1-17).
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An endogenous opioid peptide derived from BETA-LIPOTROPIN of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system. It is the 17-amino acid sequence of the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN and differs from ALPHA-ENDORPHIN by one amino acid (beta-endorphin 1-16).
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.
A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.

The epizootiology and pathogenesis of thyroid hyperplasia in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario. (1/4031)

The thyroid glands of coho salmon collected at different stages of their anadromous migration exhibited progressive and extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The incidence of overt nodule formation rose from 5% in fish collected in August to 24% in fish collected in October. The histological picture of the goiters was similar to that found in thiourea-treated teleosts and thiouracil-treated mammals. There was a concomitant, significant decrease in serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine values between September and October (thyroxine, 1.0+/-0.3 mug/100 ml and 0.4 mug/100 ml in September and October, respectively; triiodothyronine, 400.3+/-51.6 ng/100 ml and 80.2 ng/100 ml in September and October, respectively) and marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyrotrophs. These data indicate a progressive hypothyroid condition which, although it may be linked to iodide deficiency, may well be enhanced by other environmental factors. The evidence for involvement of other factors is discussed.  (+info)

Central peptidergic neurons are hyperactive during collateral sprouting and inhibition of activity suppresses sprouting. (2/4031)

Little is known regarding the effect of chronic changes in neuronal activity on the extent of collateral sprouting by identified CNS neurons. We have investigated the relationship between activity and sprouting in oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons of the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system (MNS). Uninjured MNS neurons undergo a robust collateral-sprouting response that restores the axon population of the neural lobe (NL) after a lesion of the contralateral MNS (). Simultaneously, lesioned rats develop chronic urinary hyperosmolality indicative of heightened neurosecretory activity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sprouting MNS neurons are hyperactive by measuring changes in cell and nuclear diameters, OT and VP mRNA pools, and axonal cytochrome oxidase activity (COX). Each of these measures was significantly elevated during the period of most rapid axonal growth between 1 and 4 weeks after the lesion, confirming that both OT and VP neurons are hyperactive while undergoing collateral sprouting. In a second study the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of neuronal activity would interfere with the sprouting response was tested. Chronic hyponatremia (CH) was induced 3 d before the hypothalamic lesion and sustained for 4 weeks to suppress neurosecretory activity. CH abolished the lesion-induced increases in OT and VP mRNA pools and virtually eliminated measurable COX activity in MNS terminals. Counts of the total number of axon profiles in the NL revealed that CH also prevented axonal sprouting from occurring. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased neuronal activity is required for denervation-induced collateral sprouting to occur in the MNS.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in neurons and pituitary cells implicated in reproductive functions in rainbow trout: a double immunohistochemical study. (3/4031)

In order to identify the nature of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-expressing neurons and pituitary cells that potentially mediate the negative effects of stress on reproductive performance, double immunohistochemical stainings were performed in the brain and pituitary of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To avoid possible cross-reactions during the double staining studies, combinations of primary antibodies raised in different species were used, and we report here the generation of an antibody raised in guinea pig against the rainbow trout glucocorticoid receptor (rtGR). The results obtained in vitellogenic females showed that GnRH-positive neurons in the caudal telencephalon/anterior preoptic region consistently exhibited rtGR immunoreactivity. Similarly, in the anterior ventral preoptic region, a group of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, known for inhibiting gonadotropin (GTH)-2 secretion during vitellogenesis, was consistently shown to strongly express GR. Finally, we show that a large majority of the GTH-1 (FSH-like) and GTH-2 (LH-like) cells of the pituitary exhibit rtGR immunoreactivity. These results indicate that cortisol may affect the neuroendocrine control of the reproductive process of the rainbow trout at multiple sites.  (+info)

Development and cytodifferentiation of the rabbit pars intermedia. II. Neonatal to adult. (4/4031)

Material from pars intermedia obtained from rabbits ranging from the second week post-partum to the adult stage, and including specimens from pregnant animals, was studied. The rate of cell division became greatly reduced early in postnatal) development. The commonest type of cell (the pars intermedia-glandular cell) becomes increasingly PAS-positive during the early stages of development. Although by 35 days differentiation of all the ACT-type cells is complete, the pars intermedia-glandular cells take as long as 53 days to mature. The epithelioid border of the hypophysial cleft persists throughout life, commonly containing dark cells. A ciliary fringe frequently appears in neonates and persists in pregnancy. Possible functions of such cilia are discussed. Throughout development the fine structure of the vasculature was studied. Secretory granules resembling those within the cells were seen in and around the blood vessels, and the mode of endocrine secretion in the pars intermedia tissue is discussed. The pars intermedia-glandular cells of the pregnant rabbits appeared hyperactive. The functional significance of the mammalian pars intermedia is discussed.  (+info)

Diffusion barriers limit the effect of mobile calcium buffers on exocytosis of large dense cored vesicles. (5/4031)

Fast exocytosis in melanotropic cells, activated by calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels, is very sensitive to mobile calcium buffers (complete block at 800 microM ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)). This indicates that calcium diffuses a substantial distance from the channel to the vesicle. Surprisingly, 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), having a similar KD for calcium as EGTA but a approximately 100 times faster binding rate, blocked exocytosis only twice as effectively as EGTA. Using computer simulations, we demonstrate that this result cannot be explained by free diffusion and buffer binding rates. We hypothesized that local saturation of calcium buffers is involved. A diffusion barrier for both calcium and buffer molecules, located 50-300 nm from the membrane and reducing diffusion 1000 to 10,000 times, generated similar calcium concentrations for specific concentrations of EGTA and BAPTA. With such barriers, calcium rise phase kinetics upon short step depolarizations (2-20 ms) were faster for EGTA than for BAPTA, implying that short depolarizations should allow exocytosis with 50 microM EGTA but not with 25 microM BAPTA. This prediction was confirmed experimentally with capacitance measurements. Coupling exocytosis to calcium dynamics in the model, we found that a barrier with a approximately 3000 times reduced diffusion at approximately 130 nm beneath the membrane best explains the experimentally observed effects of EGTA and BAPTA on block and kinetics of release.  (+info)

Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. (6/4031)

Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb.  (+info)

Absent pituitary gland and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis associated with partial ophthalmoplegia and postaxial polydactyly: a variant of orofaciodigital syndrome VI or a new syndrome? (7/4031)

We report two sibs with features overlapping those of orofaciodigital syndrome type VI (Varadi syndrome). Both presented at birth with oculomotor abnormalities, dysmorphic facial features, and dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis. There were minimal oral manifestations (high arched palate) in both of them and one had postaxial polydactyly of both hands and one foot. In addition, there was evidence of aplasia of the pituitary gland on MRI scan in both of them with evidence of hypopituitarism. Both responded well to hormone replacement therapy with improvement in their linear growth and mental ability. These cases may represent a new autosomal recessive midline defect syndrome with features overlapping OFDS VI. Alternatively the features in these children could represent variability within OFDS VI.  (+info)

Leptin and reproduction. (8/4031)

In the few years since leptin was identified as a satiety factor in rodents, it has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes. Leptin has been shown to promote sexual maturation in rodent species and a role in reproduction has been investigated at various sites within the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review considers the evidence that leptin (or alteration in amount of body fat) can affect reproduction. There is evidence that leptin plays a permissive role in the onset of puberty, probably through action on the hypothalamus, where leptin receptors are found in cells that express appetite-regulating peptides. There is little evidence that leptin has a positive effect on the pituitary gonadotrophs and the gonads. There is also very little indication that leptin acts in an acute manner to regulate reproduction in the short term. It seems more likely that leptin is a 'barometer' of body condition that sends signals to the brain. Studies in vitro have shown negative effects on ovarian steroid production and there are no reports of effects on testicular function. Leptin concentrations in plasma increase in women during pregnancy, owing to production by the placenta but the functional significance of this is unknown. A number of factors that affect the production and action of leptin have yet to be studied in detail.  (+info)

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The Pituitary Gland Anatomy of the pituitary gland: The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master gland of the endocrine system, because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea, located at the base of the brain. The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary gland itself consists of three sections: the anterior lobe the intermediate lobe the posterior lobe ...
The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master gland of the endocrine system because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea, and is located at the base of the brain. The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary gland itself consists of three sections:. ...
The pituitary gland is sometimes called the master gland of the endocrine system because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea, and is located at the base of the brain. The gland is attached to the hypothalamus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary gland itself consists of three sections:. ...
Diseases of the pituitary gland can have an extremely varied presentation that depends on the convergence of several factors: the excess or defect of one or more hormones and the mechanical effect that can be exerted by a growth or tumour in the pituitary gland. Furthermore, the speed of onset of the disease plays an important part; many diseases of the pituitary gland are slow and progressive, so that the signs are not immediately noticed by the patient, nor are they readily recognised by doctors.. Many pituitary adenomas produce a large amount of one or, more rarely, more hormones, and the most common symptoms associated with these depend on an excessive production of hormones. The symptoms may be a direct consequence of excess pituitary hormone (eg prolactin, see below), or due to excessive stimulation of the peripheral endocrine gland which is controlled by the pituitary gland (for example, excessive ACTH production by the pituitary gland leads to excessive cortisol production by the adrenal ...
pituitary gland anatomy. this is a detailed image of the pituitary gland showing: 1. neurosecretory cells 2. portal system 3. ant. lobe 4. pituitary gland vein 5. pituitary fossa 6. post. lobe 7. artery 8. capillaries
TY - JOUR. T1 - DNA sequences required for expression of the LHβ promoter in primary cultures of rat pituitary cells. AU - Kim, Kyoon E.. AU - Day, Kathleen H.. AU - Howard, Paul. AU - Salton, Stephen R.J.. AU - Roberts, James L.. AU - Maurer, Richard A.. PY - 1990/12/3. Y1 - 1990/12/3. N2 - To begin analysis of the DNA sequences necessary for luteinizing hormone (LH) gene transcription, fusion genes containing the 5′ flanking region of the rat LHβ or the human α-subunit gene linked to luciferase were transfected into primary cultures of rat pituitary cells. The LHβ-luciferase construct was expressed in the primary cultures at a level 50 times greater than a promoterless luciferase control plasmid. Little or no expression of the LHβ-luciferase construct was detected following transfection of MCF-7, JAR or GH3 tumor cell lines. Treatment of transfected cells with gonadotropin-releasing hormone resulted in a modest induction of LHβ-luciferase activity. Considerably higher levels of ...
Located in the center of the brain, the pituitary gland manufactures and secretes hormones that regulate growth, sexual development and functioning, and the fluid balance of the body. About 10% of all cancers in the skull are pituitary tumors...
So, what happens if this very important gland does not properly perform its vital functions because it is either over or under stimulated? Since hormones control just about everything, then just about anything symptomatically can potentially occur. The most common problem I see with the pituitary gland is low function or suppression. That is, the pituitary just simply does not respond even when it is supposed to. Therefore, if estrogen drops, a suppressed pituitary gland does not respond with FSH and the net result is continued low estrogen. But here is the tricky part. When the pituitary is functionally suppressed, further suppression equals significant symptoms to the body as a whole. The three most likely pituitary suppressants in my testing are: insulin, white sugar and cortisol. So once again we see that when under stress (cortisol increase) sweets are craved and ingested (sugar) resulting sooner or later in hypoglycemia (insulin surges) or insulin resistance, all of which further suppress ...
The Pituitary Gland For nursing students the endocrine system can be difficult to learn. We will attempt to guide you through the very basics and hopefully this will help develop a grasp of the endocrine system. Today we will start with the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is also referred to as the master gland. Due to the fact that […]. » Read more ...
The pituitary gland is a small gland located beneath the brain. The pituitary gland produces substances (hormones) that enter the bloodstream and help control many processes of the body.. Hormones produced in the pituitary gland help manage these body functions:. ...
Find Best Removal Pituitary Gland in Shree nagar, Thane. 365Doctor.in are providing Top 10 Removal Pituitary Gland in Shree Nagar, Thane. Doctor reviews its helpful for you.
Pituitary gland tumours start in cells of the pituitary gland. Learn about benign pituitary adenomas and malignant pituitary carcinomas in our guide.
Coronal computed tomographic scans of the pituitary gland in 27 normal children, adolescents, and young adults (ages, 8-21 years) and in a comparison group of adults (ages, 24-91 years) were evaluated retrospectively to test the applicability of published criteria for size and configuration of normal adult pituitary glands to younger patients. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups, indicating that the pituitary gland in adolescents, particularly girls, is larger than in younger or older patients. The authors suggest that pubertal pituitary hyperplasia accounts for these findings. They conclude that standards for normal pituitary glands are probably inappropriate for adolescents. ...
Pituitary Gland, Intermediate; Intermediate Lobe of Pituitary. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Pituitary cancer is characterized by the abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. It affects the functioning of the pituitary gland and may cause an increased or decreased level of pituitary hormone secretions within the body. The small pituitary cancer treatment is accessible through noninvasive treatment or medicines. But, a large pituitary cancer treatment is challenging to treat because of its complex nature.
Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery Endoscopic pituitary surgery, also called transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery, is the most common surgery used to remove pituitary tumors. The pituitary gland is located at the bottom of your brain and above the inside of your nose. It is responsible for regulating most of your bodys hormones, the chemical messengers that travel through your blood. Endoscopic pituitary surgery is done with an instrument called an endoscope. An endoscope is a thin, rigid tube that has a micro...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequence analysis of the turkey LH β subunit and its regulation by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and prolactin in cultured pituitary cells. AU - You, Seungkwon. AU - Foster, L. K.. AU - Silsby, J. L.. AU - El Halawani, M. E.. AU - Foster, D. N.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - cDNAs encoding the precursor molecule of the turkey LH β subunit (tLHβ) were cloned from a turkey pituitary cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the longest of two different tLHβ cDNA clones contained 592 bp, and included 23 bp of the 5 untranslated region (UTR) and 92 bp of the 3 UTR in addition to a 477 bp open reading frame that encoded a 39 amino acid leader polypeptide and a 120 amino acid mature apoprotein. Turkey and chicken LHβ sequences shared approximately 92 and 93% nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities respectively. Northern blot analysis of total cellular anterior pituitary RNA showed that an approximate 800 base transcript hybridized to a 32P-labelled tLHβ cDNA ...
The pituitary gland, through the little-known hypothal-amus that lies directly above it, is also the appetite center and the sleep center of the body. Loss of appetite, and insomnia! Two universal complaints found in thousands of the past-forty group who have strayed from the rules of good nutrition.Exhaustive research has discovered that the pituitary is extremely sensitive to diet. If you do not eat enough high-protein foods (meat, especially, seems to have a stimulating effect on this gland), then your pituitary cannot produce a normal supply of its own dozen or more vitally needed hormones which, themselves, are made of protein. In addition to protein, the pituitary is stimulated by vitamin E (richest source is wheat germ); and increased amounts of vitamin A either in foods or in concentrated form, have directly beneficial effects on the entire endocrine group ...
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A comment in a previous post peaked my interest. I found this on LiveStrong. Bovine pituitary extract is a potential source of infectious agents. Bovine pituitary extract, or BPE, is a filtered, water-based extract of fresh pituitary glands from cattle. As a source of growth factors and hormones, BPE is used in tissue culture research to support various cell lines, such as skin, breast, lung and prostate. You might consider taking BPE to address any number of issues, including thyroid, ...
Other articles where Pituitary hormone is discussed: hormone: Hormones of the pituitary gland: The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, which dominates the vertebrate endocrine system, is formed of two distinct components. One is the neurohypophysis, which forms as a downgrowth of the floor of the brain and gives rise to the median eminence and the neural lobe;…
BioAssay record AID 195901 submitted by ChEMBL: Effective concentration for their ability to release growth hormone in the rat pituitary cell assay.
The bearing of these results on the Herring-Cushing theory of pituitary secretion is apparent. For the first time a true secretion antecedent has been demonstrated in the cells of the pars intermedia, an antecedent which appears in the cells at the same period of development at which active pressor effects may be obtained from the gland extracts. The route of export of this material from the gland to its point of utilization, however, is unknown; it may go by way of the blood or, as required by the Herring theory, by the transneural route to the third ventricle. The objections to the latter conclusion have been amply expanded in the introduction to this paper, but here may be emphasized the fact that the fetal pig hypophysis contains no hyaline bodies. Indeed they are rare in the adult, though there may be seen in the cells of the pars nervosa in the processes of its intrinsic cells, granular deposits which we believe to be the antecedents of the hyaline bodies but which in the pig rarely are ...
(EMAILWIRE.COM, March 26, 2020 ) Market Overview The Global Pituitary Cancer Market is expected to grow at a high CAGR during the forecasting period (2019-2026). Pituitary cancer is characterized by the abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. It affects the functioning of the pituitary gland...
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones, which are chemical substances that control various bodily functions. The pituitary is divided
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones, which are chemical substances that control various bodily functions. The pituitary is divided
Immunocytochemical and morphometric changes of pituitary FSH and LH cells in juvenile (17th day of life) female rats neonatally (4th day of life) treated with five 0.25 mg doses of estradiol dipropionate (EDP) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (14th and 16th day of life) and with the combination of both were studied using rabbit antirat beta-follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and beta-luteinising hormone (LH) sera and a peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemical procedure. Morphometry and stereology were applied to evaluate the changes in FSH- and LH-producing cells, number and volume densities of the cells and the nuclei. In EDP-treated females significantly increased pituitary mass and the number of chromophobes and PRL cells were observed while all morphometric parameters of FSH/LH cells were decreased in comparison with the corresponding controls. This difference was much more prominent in FSH-beta- than in LH-beta cells. Treatment with hCG led to an increase in the number of FSH and ...
Date: 20th July 2017. Location: Newcastle, UK. Flyer. Website. This course is designed for Neurosurgeons, Otolaryngologists, Head and Neck Surgeons and Skull base Surgeons who are interested in the most recent developments in Endoscopic Surgery of the Cranial Base and Pituitary Gland.. This comprehensive one day course is a presentation of minimally invasive techniques for Endoscopic and Transcranial surgery of the Pituitary Fossa and Cranial Base.. Experts on the subject will present the anatomical and technical aspects of this procedure along with risks, benefits and outcomes.. Teaching is through cadaver dissection and surgeons will have hands-on practical dissection on fresh frozen specimens.. ...
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Vertebrate sensory organs arise from epithelial thickenings called placodes. Along with neural crest cells, cranial placodes are considered ectodermal novelties that drove evolution of the vertebrate head. The anterior-most placode generates the endocrine lobe [adenohypophysis (ADH)] of the pituitary, a master gland controlling growth, metabolism, and reproduction. In addition to known ectodermal contributions, we use lineage tracing and time-lapse imaging in zebrafish to identify an endodermal contribution to the ADH. Single-cell RNA sequencing of the adult pituitary reveals similar competency of endodermal and ectodermal epithelia to generate all endocrine cell types. Further, endoderm can generate a rudimentary ADH-like structure in the near absence of ectodermal contributions. The fish condition supports the vertebrate pituitary arising through interactions of an ancestral endoderm-derived proto-pituitary with newly evolved placodal ectoderm. ...
The Pituitary Gland, or Hypophysis Cerebri, is a small and hard body about six lines broad, three long and three high. It is always formed of an anterior bean-shape, and a posterior and more rounded lobe, which are uniformly united. Its component parts, we are told, are almost identical with those of the Pineal Gland; yet not the slightest connection can be traced between the two. To this, however, Occultists take exception; they know that there is a connection, and this even anatomically and physically. Dissectors, on the other hand, have to deal with corpses; and, as they themselves admit, brain-matter, of all tissues and organs, collapses and changes form the soonest--in fact, a few minutes after death. When, then, the pulsating life which expanded the mass of the brain, filled all its cavities and energized all its organs, vanishes, the cerebral mass shrinks into a sort of pasty condition, and once open passages become closed. But the contraction and even interblending of parts in this ...
Diagnosis and Treatment of Pituitary Conditions. NorthShores team of board-certified endocrinologists works alongside your primary care physician to identify the cause of pituitary abnormalities. By using the latest laboratory tests and imaging technology our team provides expert knowledge on medical therapies to treat your individual symptoms. If we find that there are growths present, we collaborate with neurology, ophthalmology and radiation oncology to create a comprehensive personalized treatment plan. Treatment options for pituitary conditions could include transsphenoidal surgical resection, traditional radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery.. For More Information. For more information on the pituitary gland and its related conditions, please call 847.663.8540. ...
Tumors found in the pituitary gland, a small organ about the size of a pea in the center of the brain just above the back of the nose is called Pituitary Cancer. The pituitary gland makes hormones that affect the growth and the functions of other glands in the body.
In the fall, measuring a horses adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels is often used as a diagnostic tool for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID, also known as equine Cushings disease). It peaks between mid-August to mid-October as part of the metabolic preparation for winter and results in levels anywhere up to about three times those found…
The menopausal ovary, in the absence of eggs, is unable to produce significant amounts of the female sex hormones. If a blood test is done to measure the levels of estrogen and progesterone, they will be found to be at significantly low levels. The function of the ovaries is under the control of the pituitary gland, found at the base of the brain and functions as the master controller for the many hormonal glands in the body. The pituitary gland is very sensitive to the hormonal output of the ovaries and it begins to react when the ovaries fail to produce estrogen and progesterone in the bloodstream. The pituitary gland compensates with the failure of the menopausal womans ovaries. It quickly starts to secrete large amounts of a hormonal messenger known as the follicle stimulating hormone, stimulating the ovaries to put them back into action. But still, the ovaries have stopped producing estrogen and progesterone, despite the hormonal stimulation of the pituitary gland and the ovaries remain ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of The Pituitary Gland in Animals. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
Tumors metastatic to the pituitary gland are an unusual complication of systemic cancer typically seen in elderly patients with diffuse malignant disease. Breast and lung are the commonest sites of the primary tumor, whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom at presentation. Their rari …
ABSTRACT: We model the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) by the ovine pituitary. GnRH, released by the hypothalamus, stimulates the secretion of LH from the pituitary. If stimulus pulses are regular, LH response will follow a similar pattern. However, during application of GnRH at high frequencies or concentrations or with continuous application, the pituitary delivers a decreased release of LH (termed desensitization). The proposed mathematical model consists of a system of nonlinear differential equations and incorporates two possible mechanisms to account for this observed behavior: desensitized receptor and limited, available LH. Desensitization was provoked experimentally in vitro by using ovine pituitary cells in a perifusion system. The model was fit to resulting experimental data by using maximum-likelihood estimation. Consideration of smaller models revealed that the desensitized receptor is significant. Limited, available LH ...
4-12-17 Charging away with this item but charging you this time! The reason you want that Pituitary gland working top notch is because it activates the ESP, hormone levels in the brain,health, past lives, psychic vision, mind reading, prophesy and even the chakras. With out these things working what can you really do?
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers.
Hello everyone. I am new to this site. Just had a brain MRI. Got a call from the Docs office stating that my pituitary gland is possibly enlarged. Have another appointment this Friday with him. ...
The pituitary gland, about the size of a pea, is situated on the under-surface of the brain (Fig. 5.1), attached through a little stalk to the area of the
At ARP Press, we carry the most up-to-date AFIP fascicles covering tumors of the pituitary gland with detailed illustrations & guidelines for diagnosis, prognosis, & treatment. Order online now to enjoy our affordable prices & fast shipping on all orders.
Healthy nutrition obviously depends on the types and quantities of food you eat, but how your body digests, absorbs and metabolizes the nutrients is just as important. The pituitary gland resides in your brain and is responsible for regulating metabolism, among many other functions.
pituitary gland section Thickness: 7-micrometer section Stain: hematoxylin and eosin Digital file available Factory outlets Histology Slides wholesale and retail. We provide human and animal histology prepared slides. University standard is the best quality which prepared with selected typical material. All the slides can be purchased either in complete sets or series or individually.
Taking care of your pituitary gland is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. Learn more about this master gland and what you can do to keep it healthy.
What is the pituitary gland? The pituitary gland is important because if controls other hormone glands, for example; the adrenals and thyroid. It is...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Pergolide Mesylate In Horses With Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction. AU - Rendle, D.I.. AU - Doran, Gregory. AU - Ireland, J.L.. AU - Edwards, Scott. PY - 2017/8/31. Y1 - 2017/8/31. N2 - Reasons for performing study: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pergolide in horses are poorly understood. Objectives: Investigate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of orally administered pergolide in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). Study design: Cohort study. Methods: Six horses with PPID received 4 μg/kg oral pergolide for 18 days. Samples were collected 0.5 h before and 2 and 12 h after administration of pergolide daily for 18 days and plasma pergolide and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were determined. Results: Maximum plasma concentrations after the first oral dose of pergolide (0.104-0.684 ng/mL; mean 0.308 ± 0.201 ng/mL) were not significantly different to the maximum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The distribution of immunoreactive α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone cells in the adult human pituitary gland. AU - Coates, P. J.. AU - Doniach, I.. AU - Hale, A. C.. AU - Rees, L. H.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - It has been suggested that a proportion of the adenomas and the nodular hyperplasia of cells in the pituitary gland in cases of Cushings disease are derived from cells of the pars intermedia rather than the pars anterior. The evidence can be summarized as follows: the posterior site of adenoma or nodular hyperplasia in the pituitary, the innervation of cells and the suppressive response to the dopamine agonist bromocriptine in vivo or to dopamine in vitro. All these observations infer analogy with cells of the pars intermedia of other species, which are controlled by direct neural tonic dopaminergic inhibition. The adult human pituitary gland, however, does not possess a morphologically distinct pars intermedia, due to regression of the rudimentary fetal pars intermedia ...
Definition of anterior pituitary gland in the Fine Dictionary. Meaning of anterior pituitary gland with illustrations and photos. Pronunciation of anterior pituitary gland and its etymology. Related words - anterior pituitary gland synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. Example sentences containing anterior pituitary gland
TY - CONF. T1 - Surgical strategies for giant adult pituitary adenoma with radiologically invasive behavior - the role of staged surgery.. AU - Ma, Jun. AU - Ma, Shunchang. AU - Jia, Guijun AU - Yao, Fei. AU - Jia, Wang PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Jun Ma, Shunchang Ma, Guijun Jia, Fei Yao, Wang Jia. Surgical strategies for giant adult pituitary adenoma with radiologically invasive behavior - the role of staged surgery. - 2020 AANS Annual Scientific Meeting. (Apr 25-29, 2020.). AB - Jun Ma, Shunchang Ma, Guijun Jia, Fei Yao, Wang Jia. Surgical strategies for giant adult pituitary adenoma with radiologically invasive behavior - the role of staged surgery. - 2020 AANS Annual Scientific Meeting. (Apr 25-29, 2020.). M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Define pituitary gonadotropins. pituitary gonadotropins synonyms, pituitary gonadotropins pronunciation, pituitary gonadotropins translation, English dictionary definition of pituitary gonadotropins. n. pl. pi·tu·i·tar·ies 1. The pituitary gland. 2. Medicine An extract from the anterior or posterior lobes of the pituitary gland, prepared for therapeutic...
The pituitary gland is a very small organ, located at the base of the brain, which produces and releases hormones (signals) that control other organs and body processes. The pituitary gland responds to signals from the hypothalamus. The anterior pituitary gland is the front portion of the pituitary gland, and it secretes hormones that control physiological processes including growth, reproduction, and stress. The posterior pituitary gland is behind the anterior portion and secretes hormones involved with water balance and uterine contractions during labor.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of steroidal and non-steroidal ovarian hormones on pituitary responsiveness to gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor. AU - Byrne, B AU - Fowler, Paul Alfred Francois. AU - Templeton, Allan. PY - 1996/9. Y1 - 1996/9. N2 - Primary pituitary cultures from adult female rats were used to investigate the effects of steroidal (oestradiol and progesterone) and non-steroidal (inhibin, follistatin) ovarian hormones on the suppressive actions of the ovarian factor gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF) in the control of gonadotrophin secretion. The source of GnSAF was a chromatographic preparation from follicular fluid containing four distinct protein bands as resolved on SDS-PAGE. Oestradiol and progesterone added alone had no effect on gonadotrophin secret ion but had a wide range of effects on the suppression of both LH and FSH secretion caused by the non-steroidal factors. Oestradiol, progesterone and oestradiol + progesterone enhanced the suppressive actions of ...
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae). The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone. The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum).. Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control: growth, blood ...
In seasonal mammals living in temperate zones, photoperiod regulates prolactin secretion, such that prolactin plasma concentrations peak during the summer months and are lowest during the winter. In sheep, a short-day breeder, circulating prolactin has important modulatory effects on the reproductive system via inhibitory actions on pituitary gonadotrophs and hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone release. The exact cellular mechanisms that account for the chronic hypersecretion of prolactin during the summer is not known, although evidence supports an intrapituitary mechanism regulated by melatonin. Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells are non-endocrine cells that play a crucial role in paracrine communication within the pituitary and produce factors controlling prolactin and gonadotrophin release. The present study examined the morphology of the FS and lactotroph cell populations and their distribution in the sheep pituitary during the annual reproductive cycle. Ovine pituitary glands were collected in
A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth on the pituitary gland, a small pea-sized organ located at the base of the brain behind the bridge of the nose. The pituitary gland produces nine hormones critical to normal body function. While technically not part of the brain, the pituitary glands location and the nature of tumors on the gland present many of the same challenges, risks, and dangers of other primary brain tumors.. Pituitary tumors are the third most common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for 9-12% of all such cases. Tumors arising from the pituitary gland itself are called adenomas or carcinomas. Pituitary adenomas are benign, slow-growing tumors. Carcinomas are a rare malignant form of pituitary adenoma.. ...
While PPID is not curable, medical management and meticulous husbandry are recommended to reduce the signs and symptoms associated with this disorder. An integral part of PPID management is medical treatment. The most widely used drug is the brand name veterinary product Prascend®. It helps decrease some of the hormone production by the pituitary gland. Several studies have shown that Prascend®-treated horses have significant improvements in hair coat, frequency of urination/drinking, frequency of infections and laminitis bouts, and many laboratory test results. The drug is prescribed for once daily administration.. Another drug, which may be useful in treatment of PPID, is cyproheptadine. Studies suggest that cyproheptadine is not as effective in improving PPID symptoms compared to Prascend®. However, it may aid those animals with minimal response to Prascend® alone. A combination of both drugs is occasionally recommended.. Over time, the amount of drug your horse requires to manage this ...
Summary. Thirty primiparous suckling beef cows were slaughtered on Day 7, 14, 28,42 or 56 after parturition. Some had resumed oestrous cyclicity by the time they were slaughtered on Days 42 and 56. Amongst acyclic cows between Days 7 and 42, pituitary LH concentrations and basal and GnRH-induced release of LH from pituitary explants doubled. Pituitary FSH concentration and basal release in FSH increased only by 15-20%, while GnRH-induced release of FSH in vitro was unchanged. During post-partum anoestrus, overall mean concentrations of serum FSH did not change, whereas overall mean concentrations and pulse amplitudes of serum LH increased. Numbers and affinity constants of GnRH-binding sites in pituitary glands remained constant during the post-partum period studied. We conclude that, under these experimental conditions, numbers and affinity constants of GnRH-binding sites in the pituitary gland of post-partum beef cows do not limit the ability of the anterior pituitary gland to release ...
Lipocortin 1 (LC1, also called annexin 1), a Ca2(+)- and phospholipid-binding protein, is an important mediator of glucocorticoid action in the anterior pituitary gland. Previous studies based on immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis suggest that LC1 is found intracellularly both in the cytoplasm and in association with membranes and also on the cell surface where it attaches to the membrane by a Ca2(+)-dependent mechanism. However, as yet it is unclear which anterior pituitary cell types express the protein. Accordingly, we have developed a method based on a combination of fluorescence activated cell (FAC) analysis/sorting and electron microscopy to detect and quantify intracellular LC1 in rat anterior pituitary cells and to identify the cell types in which it is expressed. In addition, we have measured cell surface LC1 and examined the influence of glucocorticoids on the cellular disposition of the protein. Anterior pituitary cells were dispersed with collagenase. For experiments measuring
Fortunately there is an effective treatment available for the treatment of Cushings Syndrome. This is a drug called pergolide, available in a licensed form as Prascend. Pergolide reduces the production of ACTH by the pituitary gland. After 2-4 weeks of treatment we repeat the blood test to measure the level of ACTH in order to ensure we are providing the correct dose of pergolide. The most common side effect of pergolide is a decrease in appetite following initiation of treatment. This is almost always reversible and when it does occur, we normally reduce the dose of pergolide and the appetite returns. ...
Conference Paper: Norepinephrine inhibits growth hormone release from goldfish pituitary cells by suppressing cAMP synthesis through activation of pituitary a2 adrenergic receptors (Abstract ...
The anterior pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1 was initially identified and cloned as a transactivator of the PRL and GH genes, and (...)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reproductive and growth responses of gilts to exogenous porcine pituitary growth hormone.. AU - Bryan, K. A.. AU - Hammond, J. M.. AU - Canning, S.. AU - Mondschein, J.. AU - Carbaugh, D. E.. AU - Clark, A. M.. AU - Hagen, D. R.. PY - 1989/1. Y1 - 1989/1. N2 - Forty gilts (mean wt = 72 kg) were administered daily either vehicle (C = control) or 70 micrograms porcine growth hormone (pGH)/kg BW. After 30 d of treatment, eight gilts per group (Exp. 1) were slaughtered and blood, uteri and ovaries were collected. Follicular fluid (FFl) was collected and granulosa cells (GC) were cultured. The remaining gilts (Exp. 2) were treated for up to 35 additional days and examined twice daily for estrus. Estrusal gilts were removed from the experiment. Noncyclic gilts (n = 9 of 12 pGH; n = 4 of 12 C) were slaughtered on d 66 and their ovaries were examined. Ovarian weights were not different for pGH and C gilts in either Exp. 1 (P greater than .1) or Exp. 2 (P = .09). Uterine weights were ...
Small, non-functional pituitary adenomas or tumors (2-3 mm in size) occur in about 10 percent of the population and are usually detected during brain imaging conducted for a different reason (pituitary incidentalomas). These small pituitary tumors usually do not cause any problems; however, if small pituitary tumors grow, problems may arise so clinical supervision is necessary upon discovery of these tumors.. With larger non-functional pituitary tumors, patients often experience headaches, vision problems, and symptoms of pituitary insufficiency. Vision problems are a serious complication of pituitary tumors and usually begin with loss of peripheral vision. If untreated, vision problems typically progress to blindness. However, if pituitary tumors are caught early enough and treated surgically, vision usually improves.. ...
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The Stanford Pituitary Center provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and streamlined care for the evaluation and treatment of pituitary tumors and other neuroendocrine disorders, including: acromegaly, prolactinomas, Cushings syndrome, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, craniopharygiomas and disorders of the pituitary and hypothalamic region that lead to growth hormone deficiency or adrenal, thyroid, ovarian, or testicular deficiency.. The pituitary and neuroendocrine clinical programs at Stanford bring together knowledge and expertise in clinical research and teaching applications to treatment of neuroendocrine diseases. Our endocrinologists and neurosurgeons collaborate in multidisciplinary management of patients, and are experienced in the most advanced diagnostic strategies and directed medical, neurosurgical or radiation options for patients with pituitary tumors.. Our clinical program is aimed at integration of care in a patient-friendly setting for people with pituitary disorders - not ...
The Stanford Pituitary Center provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and streamlined care for the evaluation and treatment of pituitary tumors and other neuroendocrine disorders, including: acromegaly, prolactinomas, Cushings syndrome, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, craniopharygiomas and disorders of the pituitary and hypothalamic region that lead to growth hormone deficiency or adrenal, thyroid, ovarian, or testicular deficiency.. The pituitary and neuroendocrine clinical programs at Stanford bring together knowledge and expertise in clinical research and teaching applications to treatment of neuroendocrine diseases. Our endocrinologists and neurosurgeons collaborate in multidisciplinary management of patients, and are experienced in the most advanced diagnostic strategies and directed medical, neurosurgical or radiation options for patients with pituitary tumors.. Our clinical program is aimed at integration of care in a patient-friendly setting for people with pituitary disorders - not ...
Pituitary tumours occur with increased frequency among patients with CNC.8PRKAR1A, the gene mutated in almost half of the patients with CNC,1,2 codes for the most abundant regulatory subunit of cAMP dependent PKA, a cellular system highly involved in pituitary cell growth and function.13,15,16 In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that LOH or alterations of PRKAR1As sequence are involved in sporadic pituitary tumours, as well as inherited, non-CNC related pituitary tumours. The results of the experiments described here suggested that the RI-α subunit of PKA is not a significant contributor to tumorigenesis in pituitary cells, as shown by infrequent LOH of the PRKAR1A 17q22-24 locus and lack of PRKAR1A mutations in a large international series of pituitary tumours. Although the number of families that was investigated was small, we may also conclude from this study that PRKAR1A mutations are not responsible for a significant number of non-CNC related inherited pituitary lesions. ...
The anterior pituitary is a glandular structure under contorl of the hypothalamus. Together, the pituitary gland and hypothalamus control many endocrine functions. They secrete many hormones, some of which are crucial for the female menstrual cycle, preganncy, birth, and lactation. These important hormones include follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which stimulates development and maturation of a follicle in one of a womans ovaries, and leutinizing hormone (LH), which causes the bursting of that follicle (= ovulation) and the formation of a corpus luteum from the remains of the follicle.. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones into the blood. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin are produced in the hypothalamus and transported by axons to the posterior pituitary where they are dumped into the blood. ADH controls water balance in the body and blood pressure. Oxytocin is a small peptide hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth.. The hypothalamus produces ...
Pituitary Gland Disorders HYPOPITUITARISM Insuffecient quantities of anterior pituitary gland hormones. ASSESSMENT Lethargy Hypothermia Weight loss Amenorrhea Dry Skin Hypotension - Monitor the patients risk for infection. Treatment Surgery: if hypopituitarism is caused by a tumor. Hormone therapy Corticosteroids (cortisol) Growth hormone Sex hormones (testosterone for men and estrogen for women) Thyroid hormone HYPERPITUITARISM Also called Acromegaly and Cushingss…
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of stored rat growth hormone to restoration of depleted rat pituitary immediate release pools. AU - Stachura, M. E.. AU - Tyler, J. M.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Stored rat pituitary growth hormone (GH) is functionally divided into immediately releasable and more stable compartments. These observations are consistent with either intracellular hormone compartmentalization within cells of a functionally homogeneous somatotroph population or summed responses from a heterogeneous population of functionally specialized cell subgroups. We investigated the pituitarys ability to recruit stored rGH to replenish depleted immediate release pools. We used perifused pituitary fragments whose stored rGH was labeled during pre-incubation in the presence of [3H] leucine. Initial immediate release pool depletion was accomplished by continuous exposure to combined 21 mM potassium ion (K+) and 1 mM dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP). During a subsequent perifusion period in the ...
The pituitary, albeit a small gland, is known as the master gland of the endocrine system and contributes to a wide spectrum of disorders, diseases, and syndromes. Since the publication of the second edition of The Pituitary, in 2002, there have been major advances in the molecular biology research of pituitary hormone production and action and there is now a better understanding of the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors and clinical syndromes resulting in perturbation of pituitary function. There have also been major advances in the clinical management of pituitary disorders. Medical researchers and practitioners now better understand the morbidity and mortality associated with pituitary hormone hyposecretion and hypersecretion. Newly developed drugs, and improved methods of delivering established drugs, are allowing better medical management of acromegaly and prolactinoma ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological role of salsolinol. T2 - Its hypophysiotrophic function in the regulation of pituitary prolactin secretion. AU - Tóth, Béla E.. AU - Bodnár, Ibolya. AU - Homicskó, Krisztián G.. AU - Fülöp, Ferenc. AU - Fekete, Márton I.K.. AU - Nagy, György M.. PY - 2002/9/1. Y1 - 2002/9/1. N2 - We have recently observed that 1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) produced by hypothalamic neurons can selectively release prolactin from the anterior lobe (AL) of the pituitary gland. Moreover, high affinity binding sites for SAL have been detected in areas, like median eminence (ME) and the neuro-intermediate lobe (NIL) that are known terminal fields of the tuberoinfundibular DAergic (TIDA) and tuberohypophysial (THDA)/periventricular (PHDA) DAergic systems of the hypothalamus, respectively. However, the in situ biosynthesis and the mechanism of action of SAL are still enigmatic, these observations clearly suggest that sites other than the AL might ...
Detailed information on pituitary gland disorders, including acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, empty sella syndrome, hypopituitarism, and pituitary gland tumors
Hypopituitarism, also known as an underactive pituitary gland, is a condition that affects the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. Symptoms of hypopituitarism vary depending on which hormone is no longer being produced by the pituitary gland.. Treatments for hypopituitarism also vary. If the condition is caused as the result of a pituitary tumor, surgery may be needed for treatment. In some cases, hormone therapy is whats needed to effectively treat hypopituitarism.. However, in the November 2011 issue of Nature, a new report shows promise for the future of hypopituitarism treatment. Japanese scientists successfully treated hypopituitary mice by transplanting pituitary gland tissue they grew from embryonic mice stem cells. After the hypopitiutary mice received the transplanted cells, they began to produce hormones they were previously missing.. Researchers used the mouse stem cells arranged in a three ...
The pituitary gland regulates hormones that affect growth & gland functions. Dr. Stonesifer specializes in pituitary disorders that may lead to tumors, AGHD, fatigue & more.
What is the difference between Adrenal Gland and Pituitary Gland? Adrenal gland is situated on top of the kidney; Pituitary gland is situated at the base..
Pituitary gland secretes nine hormones while pineal gland secretes only one hormone. Unlike the pineal gland, pituitary gland is composed of two parts.
The Bodys Orchestra Leader The Pituitary Gland, also known as the master gland is considered the most important in the body - as it controls the functions of all the endocrine glands. You can think of the pituitary gland as a powerful conductor of a large orchestra. About the size and shape…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression of melanotroph carcinogenesis leads to accelerated progression of pituitary anterior lobe tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas in Rb +/- mice. AU - Zhou, Zongxiang. AU - Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea. AU - Levine, Corinna G.. AU - Shmidt, Elena N.. AU - Eng, Jessica P.. AU - Nikitina, Ekaterina Yu. AU - Spencer, David M.. AU - Nikitin, Alexander Yu. PY - 2005/2/1. Y1 - 2005/2/1. N2 - Mice with a single copy of the retinoblastoma gene (Rb+/-) develop a syndrome of multiple neuroendocrine neoplasia. They usually succumb to fast-growing, Rb-deficient melanotropli tumors of the pituitary intermediate lobe, which are extremely rare in humans. Thus, full assessment of Rb role in other, more relevant to human pathology, neoplasms is complicated. To prevent melanotroph neoplasia while preserving spontaneous carcinogenesis in other types of cells, we have prepared transgenic mice in which 770-bp fragment of pro-opiomelanocortin promoter directs expression of the human BB gene to ...
A pituitary mass is an abnormal growth of cells affecting the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland or hypophysis controls a series of hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, and stress. Most...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of Release and Synthesis of Growth Hormone (GH) in Tissue Cultures of Anterior Pituitaries in Response to GH-Releasing Hormone (GH-RH) (34588). AU - Mittler, J. C.. AU - Sawano, S.. AU - Wakabayashi, I.. AU - Redding, T. W.. AU - Schally, A. V.. PY - 1970/3. Y1 - 1970/3. N2 - Addition of small amounts of pure or highly purified porcine GH-RH twice daily to rat anterior pituitary tissue, maintained for 5 days in Trowells T8 medium, significantly increased the amounts of GH in the medium and tissues relative to the controls as measured by bioassay. Apparent incorporation of radioactive amino acids into the GH bands on polyacrylamide gels after electrophoresis of medium and tissue was increased also. These results support other findings from this laboratory on the identity and properties of this neurohormone.. AB - Addition of small amounts of pure or highly purified porcine GH-RH twice daily to rat anterior pituitary tissue, maintained for 5 days in Trowells T8 ...
A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a small gland in the brain. It makes hormones that affect many other glands and many functions in your body. Most pituitary tumors are not cancerous (benign). But they can cause the pituitary to make too few or too many hormones, causing problems in the body.
A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth in the pituitary gland. The pituitary is a small gland in the brain. It makes hormones that affect many other glands and many functions in your body. Most pituitary tumors are not cancerous (benign). But they can cause the pituitary to make too few or too many hormones, causing problems in the body.
Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain that promotes tissue repairs, cell regeneration in the bones, muscles and vital organs, and generally supports the immune system in combating infections and diseases.. As the bodys cells die off, HGH acts to ensure that replacement cells are healthy and available. Thus, as we age, our HGH levels decline, causing our cell replacement levels to reduce to a fraction of the levels it was in our youth. And by the age of 40, nearly everyone is deficient in HGH, and by 80 years of age, the bodys production of HGH has usually diminished by 95%.. The above claims will make you wonder how some people never seem to lose their youthful vigor, no matter how much they age. ...
Fresh anterior pituitary glands from beef and pig were separated by differential centrifugation into subcellular fractions. Nuclei and debris were obtained at 700 g for 15 minutes, secretory granules at 7000 g for 20 minutes, mitochondria at 34,000 g for 15 minutes, and microsomes at 78,000 g for 3 hours. Electron micrographs were taken of the individual fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for nitrogen, pentosenucleic acid (PNA), and phospholipide. Beef and pig anterior lobes were quite similar in their intracellular composition as seen in the subcellular fractions. Succinic dehydrogenase was localized in mitochondria, while alkaline phosphatase was concentrated in the microsomes. A proteinase with pH optimum at 8.2 was exclusively localized. in microsomal and supernatant fractions. Acid phosphatase, acid ribonuclease, and acid proteinase were distributed among the subcellular fractions in another pattern, indicating the presence of a particle type distinct from mitochondria and microsomes. ...
Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop in your pituitary gland. Some pituitary tumors result in too many of the hormones that regulate important functions of your body. Some pituitary tumors can cause your pituitary gland to produce lower levels of hormones.. Most pituitary tumors are noncancerous (benign) growths (adenomas). Adenomas remain in your pituitary gland or surrounding tissues and dont spread to other parts of your body.. There are various options for treating pituitary tumors, including removing the tumor, controlling its growth and managing your hormone levels with medications. Your doctor may recommend observation - or a wait and see approach. ...
While exposure of vertebrates to estrogens during early development has been shown to alter adult reproductive behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology, effects on gonadotropin secretion have not been studied. We conducted the present studies to assess the effects of neonatal exposure to xenobiotic estrogens on luteinizing hormone secretion in castrated adult rats. Rat pups
brain and it secretes hormones that predominantly act on the pituitary gland which is connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum which is a thin tissue structure. Once the hormones are released, they enter the hypothalamic pituitary portal system which is where the blood vessels are arranged in capillary beds. The hormones travel through the infundibulum in the portal vein and then the hormones can act on the anterior pituitary. The pituitary gland can be split into two different regions called the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The posterior lobe is the neural connection between the pituitary and the hypothalamus and it is in this lobe that the axon terminals of the neurons are located. The neural endings release vasopressin and oxytocin both of which are synthesised by the neurons. They are then transported to the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary by secretory vesicles. Their release is controlled by exocytosis when a signal comes in from the nerves and they are then ...
BioAssay record AID 102693 submitted by ChEMBL: Compounds were tested for the effective dose to induce luteinizing hormone (LH) release in rat pituitary receptors.
To our knowledge, asymmetry of pituitary enhancement on dynamic MR images has not been mentioned as a feature of cavernous sinus AVF in the previous literature. No abnormality was detected on the routine (nondynamic) pre- and postcontrast MR images, other than a decrease in size after successful therapy. No pituitary dysfunction was noted, probably because of the localized venous congestion in the pituitary gland. The finding of delayed enhancement itself may not have clinical importance, as no pituitary dysfunction was noted. However, neuroradiologists and interventional neuroradiologists should be aware of this phenomenon in patients with a dural AVF in the cavernous sinus. Although we are aware of no report regarding pituitary dysfunction caused by the venous congestion, long-term exposure to the congestion or acute progression of the congestion could theoretically cause a functional disorder or hemorrhage of the pituitary gland, as seen in the venous congestion of the brain.. The unique ...
https://nursingschoolessays.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/logo1.png 0 0 admin https://nursingschoolessays.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/logo1.png admin2018-07-01 00:00:002018-07-01 00:00:00Name the glands and hormones affected by the posterior pituitary gland and describe the major effects they have on the body ...
Mount Sinai Neurosurgery offers treatment options for Pituitary Tumors. We work with you to develop a treatment plan that addresses the pituitary tumor and the symptoms it is causing.
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Dataset S1 srep24928-s1. hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition from the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone creating cells from the adenohypophysis aswell as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its own focus on and mutations have already been connected with hypopituitarism and pituitary malformations7,8. On the other hand surplus Hh signaling activity because of overexpression of Shh leads to pituitary hyperplasia in mice9. Furthermore, inactivating mutations may influence the hormone homeostasis from the pituitary since individuals with heterozygous germline mutation (Gorlin-Goltz-Syndrome) aswell as heterozygous knockout mice sometimes develop acromegaly-like symptoms10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19. Aside from the participation ...
The endocrine system is regulated by feedback in much the same way that a thermostat regulates the temperature in a room. For the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland, a signal is sent from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland in the form of a releasing hormone, which stimulates the pituitary to secrete a stimulating hormone into the circulation. The stimulating hormone then signals the target gland to secrete its hormone. As the level of this hormone rises in the circulation, the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland shut down secretion of the releasing hormone and the stimulating hormone, which in turn slows the secretion by the target gland. This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland ...
Sildenafil has been found to enhance electrically evoked oxytocin release from the pituitary gland.[81][qualify evidence] In ... In the pituitary gland, oxytocin is packaged in large, dense-core vesicles, where it is bound to neurophysin I as shown in the ... It is then released into the blood from the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) of the pituitary gland. These axons (likely, but ... Oxytocin and vasopressin are the only known hormones released by the human posterior pituitary gland to act at a distance. ...
A traumatic brain injury is defined as a blunt non-missile penetrating or missile injury to the head.[10] It has been shown that the extent of the damage incurred after a head trauma correlates more directly with the amount of deformation incurred by the brain than the amount of stress per area applied to the head. There are two modes of axotomy that can occur as a result of a TBI. Primary axotomy occurs immediately and is characterized as complete mechanical transaction of axons. More often, secondary axotomy occurs, evolving over time and ultimately leading to disconnection. While this type of injury is often irreversible, the axons do occasionally recover. Researchers are currently working towards utilizing this potential for recovery to develop therapies for patients suffering from traumatic brain injuries. These therapies rely on the scientific understanding of the axotomy response. Two mechanisms that aid in the reinnervation process are acute inflammation and the activation of molecules ...
Adrenal gland. *Adrenalectomy. *Tests *Dexamethasone suppression test. *ACTH stimulation test. *Captopril suppression test ... Pituitary. *Hypophysectomy. *Transsphenoidal surgery *Combined rapid anterior pituitary evaluation panel. Thyroid. * ...
pituitary gland:. *Hypophysectomy. hippocampus:. *Amygdalohippocampectomy. *Brain biopsy. Cerebral meninges. *Meningeal biopsy ...
Laminectomy is an open or minimally invasive surgical procedure in which a portion of the posterior arch of the vertebrae and/or spinal ligaments is removed from the spine to alleviate the pressure on the spinal canal contents. This procedure is usually performed when decompression of more than one nerve root is needed. In the lumbar spine it is commonly used to treat spinal claudication caused by spinal stenosis, and is considered the most effective treatment for this condition based on current evidence.[3] In the cervical and thoracic spine it is used to treat myelopathy caused by compression of the spinal cord itself. ...
pituitary gland:. *Hypophysectomy. hippocampus:. *Amygdalohippocampectomy. *Brain biopsy. Cerebral meninges. *Meningeal biopsy ...
Conventional FTCD has limitations for the study of cerebral lateralization. For example, it may not differentiate the lateralising effects due to stimulus characteristics from those due to light responsiveness, and does not distinguish between flow signals emanating from cortical and subcortical branches of the cerebral arteries of the circle of Willis. Each basal cerebral artery of the circle of Willis gives origin to two different systems of secondary vessels. The shorter of these two is called the ganglionic system, and the vessels belonging to it supply the thalami and corpora striata; the longer is the cortical system, and its vessels ramify in the pia mater and supply the cortex and subjacent brain substance. Furthermore, the cortical branches are divisible into two classes: long and short. The long or medullary arteries pass through the grey substance and penetrate the subjacent white substance to the depth of 3-4 cm. The short vessels are confined to the cortex. Both cortical and ...
That Moniz began his experiments with leucotomy just three months after the congress has reinforced the apparent cause and effect relationship between the Fulton and Jacobsen presentation and the Portuguese neurologist's resolve to operate on the frontal lobes.[67] As the author of this account Fulton, who has sometimes been claimed as the father of lobotomy, was later able to record that the technique had its true origination in his laboratory.[68] Endorsing this version of events, in 1949, the Harvard neurologist Stanley Cobb remarked during his presidential address to the American Neurological Association that, "seldom in the history of medicine has a laboratory observation been so quickly and dramatically translated into a therapeutic procedure." Fulton's report, penned ten years after the events described, is, however, without corroboration in the historical record and bears little resemblance to an earlier unpublished account he wrote of the congress. In this previous narrative he ...
... targets the anterior cingulate cortex, which is a part of the limbic system. This system is responsible for the integration of feelings and emotion in the human cortex. It consists of the cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala and the hippocampal formation.[6] Studies in patients that were a subject to bilateral cingulotomy, that involved fMRI analyses, showed that the anterior cingulate cortex has a key role in cognitive control and is highly likely to be involved in the control of attentional response, whereas the dorsal part of that region of the brain was not identified to be involved in such a process, although this is still under dispute.[7] The function of the dorsal part of the cingulate cortex was connected to the sorting out and processing of conflicting information signals. In addition, neuroimaging studies also indicated that the anterior cingulate cortex participates in the modulation of cortical regions that are of higher order as well as sensory ...
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment. A patient is assessed against the criteria of the scale, and the resulting points give a patient score between 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) and either 14 (original scale) or 15 (more widely used modified or revised scale). GCS was initially used to assess level of consciousness after head injury, and the scale is now used by first responders, EMS, nurses, and doctors as being applicable to all acute medical and trauma patients. In hospitals it is also used in monitoring chronic patients in intensive care. The scale was published in 1974 by Graham Teasdale and Bryan J. Jennett, professors of neurosurgery at the University of Glasgow's Institute of Neurological Sciences at the city's Southern General Hospital. GCS is used as part of several ICU scoring systems, including APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA, ...
... of all cells in the anterior pituitary gland. If these cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they will give rise to a ... Prolactin is involved in the maturation of mammary glands and their secretion of milk in association with oxytocin, estrogen, ... is a cell in the anterior pituitary which produces prolactin in response to hormonal signals including dopamine which is ...
Male left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. ... Pituitary gland disorders[edit]. Posterior pituitary[edit]. *Diabetes insipidus. Anterior pituitary[edit]. *Hypopituitarism (or ... "Diagnosing Hyperthyroidism: Overactivity of the Thyroid Gland". endocrineweb.. *^ Savage, M W; P Mah; A Weetman; J Newell-Price ... Tumours of the endocrine glands not mentioned elsewhere[edit]. *Multiple endocrine neoplasia *MEN type 1 ...
Anterior pituitary gland. Function. Gonadotropin secretion (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)). ... Gonadotropic cells are endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary that produce the gonadotropins, such as the follicle- ... "Rescue of Obesity-Induced Infertility in Female Mice due to a Pituitary-Specific Knockout of the Insulin Receptor (IR)". Cell ...
The Pineal Gland and Pineal Tumours". Neuroendocrinology, Hypothalamus, and Pituitary,. Endotext.com. pp. an E-book edited by ... linking the retina to the pineal gland. Among sighted individuals, FRD usually first appears in the teens or early twenties. As ...
"How does the pituitary gland work?". PubMed Health. Nussey, Stephen; Whitehead, Saffron (2001-01-01). The pituitary gland. BIOS ... Secondary empty sella syndrome is the result of the pituitary gland regressing within the cavity after an injury, surgery, or ... Empty sella syndrome is the condition when the pituitary gland shrinks or becomes flattened, filling the sella turcica with ... Primary empty sella syndrome occurs when a small anatomical defect above the pituitary gland increases pressure in the sella ...
... pituitary gland; pgll, pituitary gland lateral lobes; pf, pontine flexure; rob, right olfactory bulb; vc, vidian canal; vc=spa ... an enlarged pituitary gland, and an overall elongated shape; all-in-all resembling a reptilian brain. The braincase was also ... various skin glands (such as sweat glands), and whiskers; however, some reptiles present a similar patterning of foramina, ... sweat glands, or whiskers. Their brains were reminiscent of modern reptilian brains, rather than those of living mammals. Most ...
Pituitary glandEdit. The pituitary gland grows by about one-third as a result of hyperplasia of the lactrotrophs in response to ... Adrenal glandsEdit. Total cortisol increases to three times of non-pregnant levels by the third trimester.[2] The increased ... The adrenal gland also produces more aldosterone, leading to an eight-fold increase in aldosterone.[2] Women do not show signs ... The adrenal gland also produces more androgens, such as testosterone, but this is buffered by estrogen's increase in sex- ...
Functions of the Pituitary Gland. Boston, 1936.. *The Hypophysis and Secretion of Insulin. Journal of Experimental Medicine, ... After graduating, he quickly developed and presented his M.D. thesis on the physiological activities of pituitary extracts, ... was a co-recipient of a Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the role played by pituitary hormones in ... was on the experimental investigation of the role of the anterior hypophysis gland in the metabolism of carbohydrates, ...
... pituitary gland, and 4. hypothalamus. Pituitary and hypothalamic causes are often grouped together. Women who perform ... is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, from premature menopause or ... Elevated concentrations of ghrelin alter the amplitude of GnRH pulses, which causes diminished pituitary release of LH and ... Hyperprolactinemia, characterized by high levels of the hormone prolactin, is often associated with a pituitary tumor. A ...
Discovered Malady Affecting Pituitary Gland. Was Noted Teacher and author". The New York Times. October 8, 1939. Retrieved ... In 1912 he reported in a study an endocrinological syndrome caused by a malfunction of the pituitary gland which he termed " ... he showed the possibility of influencing stature by operating on the pituitary gland. In 1924, Cushing was awarded the Cameron ... Norman Dott Wilder Penfield, pioneer neurosurgeon and founder of the Montreal Neurological Institute The Pituitary Body and its ...
Discovered Malady Affecting Pituitary Gland. Was Noted Teacher and Author". The New York Times. 8 October 1939. Retrieved 2010- ... "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism)". Bulletin of the Johns ... Reprinted in Cushing, Harvey (April 1969). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body". Annals of the Royal College of ...
Discovered Malady Affecting Pituitary Gland. Was Noted Teacher and Author". The New York Times. October 8, 1939. Retrieved ...
The pituitary gland in position. Shown in sagittal section. Cerebrum. Inferior view.Deep dissection Hypothalamus Vascular organ ... The lamina terminalis is immediately anterior to the tuber cinereum; together they form the pituitary stalk. The lamina ...
Tuberoinfundibular pathway: Hypothalamus (Infundibular nucleus) → Pituitary gland (Median eminence). Norepinephrine. *Locus ...
Chronic stress has also been shown to impair developmental growth in children by lowering the pituitary gland's production of ... Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysregulation in Sexually Abused Girls *^ Taylor, Shelley, and Sirois, Fuschia. (2012). ... The autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are two major systems that respond to stress.[1] ... ACTH may then stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol. The HPA axis is subject to negative feedback regulation as well ...
Tuberoinfundibular pathway: Hypothalamus (Infundibular nucleus) → Pituitary gland (Median eminence). Norepinephrine. *Locus ... Epinephrine which is also synthesized from tyrosine takes part in controlling the adrenal glands. It plays a role in sleep, ... or gland cell.[1] Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft, where they are ...
One possible mechanism involves stimulation of the hypothalamus, CRF (corticotropin release factor) -> pituitary gland releases ... glands, heart, intestines -> flight-or-fight response. Between this flow there is an alternate path that can be taken after the ...
The pituitary gland also controls the thyroid gland. The cranial cavity has a variety of spinal and cranial nerves residing in ... A gland that is found in this cavity is called the pituitary gland which secretes different fluids that are necessary for ... The pituitary gland is also found in the make up of the cranial cavity. It plays a major role in the body, creating and ... The body's temperature, physical, and sexual functions are regulated by this gland. One of the major glands are controlled ...
"History of Pituitary Tumors and Microneurosurgery". www.neurosurgery.org.. *^ a b "Neurosurgery surgical power tools". www. ... Techniques such as endoscopic endonasal surgery are used in pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, chordomas, and the repair of ... 1907 Austrian surgeon Hermann Schloffer became the first to successfully remove a pituitary tumor.[12] ...
Diaphragma sellae, smallest infolding; covers the pituitary gland and sella turcica. The middle element of the meninges is the ...
These include depression, food allergies, ingestion of certain chemicals, bulimia, anorexia nervosa, pituitary gland ...
"Amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary glands". J. Biol. Chem. 251 (4): ... Fujiki Y، Rathnam P، Saxena BB (1980). "Studies on the disulfide bonds in human pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone". ...
Some tumors do not contain a discrete border between tumor and pituitary gland; therefore, careful sectioning through pituitary ... Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism ... Cushing was confident that Minnie's symptoms were due to dysfunction of the pituitary gland, and resembled those associated ... that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous ...
... and it stabilizes the pituitary gland.. *^ a b c d Schumacher, John (July-August 1990). "Preparing for Inversions". Yoga ...
Hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. *Hormones of the thyroid gland ... Sherwood, Lauralee (2010). "19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands". Human Physiology. Brooks/Cole. p. 694. ISBN 978-0-495-39184-5. ... Levothyroxine is a synthetic form of thyroxine (T4), an endogenous hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, which is converted to ... was first isolated in pure form in 1914 at the Mayo Clinic by Edward Calvin Kendall from extracts of hog thyroid glands.[28] ...
The pineal and parapineal glands are photoreceptive in non-mammalian vertebrates, but not in mammals. Birds have photoactive ... are thought to influence these targets by releasing from their axon terminals the neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary ...
Talk:Anterior pituitary. *Talk:Anterior spinal veins. *Talk:Anterior spinothalamic tract. *Talk:Anterior sternoclavicular ... Talk:Bartholin's gland. *Talk:Basal lamina. *Talk:Basal plate (neural tube). *Talk:Basal vein ...
Before the production of the pituitary hormone luteinizing hormone (LH) by the embryo starting at about weeks 11-12, human ... Conversion of testosterone to the more potent DHT occurs the prostate gland, liver, brain and skin. ... Androgens are synthesized in the testes, the ovaries, and the adrenal glands. ... In adulthood, DHT contributes to balding, prostate growth, and sebaceous gland activity. ...
During embryonic development, the thyroid gland is being formed, beginning at the base of the tongue and moving towards the ... as an irregular neck mass or a lump which develops from cells and tissues left over after the formation of the thyroid gland ...
... pituitary gland) and pineal gland (which is glandular tissue) attached at the bottom; tumors of the pituitary and pineal gland ... This is perhaps because the pituitary gland is in the skull, however it is not part of the brain. Pituitary adenomas are rarely ... Pituitary adenomas ("pituitary tumours") are sometimes incorrectly referred to as a brain tumours.[68][69] ... Most pituitary adenomas can be removed surgically, often using a minimally invasive approach through the nasal cavity and skull ...
Antigonadotropins are drugs that suppress the GnRH-mediated secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland.[64] ... Tissues in which DHT forms at a high rate include the prostate gland, skin, and hair follicles.[37][111] In accordance, DHT is ... They act as growth factors in the prostate gland, stimulating cell division and tissue growth.[13] In accordance, therapeutic ... They are effective because androgens act as growth factors in the prostate gland.[33] The antiandrogens chlormadinone acetate ...
"Functional neuroanatomy of thyroid hormone feedback in the human hypothalamus and pituitary gland". Molecular and Cellular ...
The American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing in 1914 reported a patient with a pituitary tumour that he had operated on. Post ... The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular ...
They are usually in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. More endorphins are released in the pituitary gland during times of ... They are produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland. Their name has two parts: endo- and -orphin; these are ... Endorphins are also involved in the release of sex hormones in the pituitary gland.[4] Also, scientists think that acupuncture ...
... the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands ( ... The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. In particular, CRH and vasopressin stimulate the secretion of adrenocorticotropic ... Cortisol produced in the adrenal cortex will negatively feedback to inhibit both the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. This ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ...
Davis, SR; Dinatale, I; Rivera-Woll, L; Davison, S. Postmenopausal hormone therapy: from monkey glands to transdermal patches. ... 下丘脑垂体性腺轴(英语:Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) ...
大多數具有PCOS的婦女具有胰島素抵抗或肥胖的症狀。 他們的胰島素濃度異常的提高導致「下丘腦-垂體-卵巢軸(英语:Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis)」區域中的異常並引起PCOS的症狀。高胰島素血症提高
A hormone (frae Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is ony member o a cless o signalin molecules produced bi glands in multicellular ... hormones is eften dependent on complex sets o direct influence an feedback interactions involvin the hypothalamic-pituitary- ... Endocrine glands are the cardinal example, but speicialised cells in various ither organs an aw secrete hormones. Hormone ... The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine seegnalin system. The term hormone is whiles extendit tae include ...
... pituitary gland - placebo - placebo controlled study - placebo effect - plasma - plasma cells - platelets - PML - Pneumocystis ...
glands. Hypothalamic-. pituitary. Hypothalamus. *GnRH. *TRH. *Dopamine. *CRH. *GHRH. *Somatostatin (GHIH). *MCH ...
... as well as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. BNST abnormalities often lead to sexual confusion and immaturity. BNST also ... Mucus also covers the olfactory epithelium, which contains mucous membranes that produce and store mucus and olfactory glands ... olfactory glands, olfactory neurons, and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves.[1] ...
... continued stimulation with GnRH agonists desensitizes the pituitary gland (by causing GnRH receptor downregulation) to GnRH. ... Pituitary desensitization reduces the secretion of LH and FSH and thus induces a state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadal ... Cryptorchidism; Delayed puberty; Diagnostic agent (pituitary disorders); Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; Veterinary medicine ( ... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ...
Cell death may be instigated in the meibomian glands,[30][55] hypothalamic cells,[56] hippocampus cells[57][58] and-important ... the hormone regulatory centre of the brain and part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, a key part of the body's stress ... Lambert RW, Smith RE (March 1989). "Effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid on the hamster meibomian gland". The Journal of ... Kremer I, Gaton DD, David M, Gaton E, Shapiro A (1994). "Toxic effects of systemic retinoids on meibomian glands". Ophthalmic ...
অন্তঃক্ষরা গ্রন্থি (Endocrine gland). *পিটুইটারি গ্রন্থি (পোষণিকা গ্রন্থি) (Pituitary gland). *পিনিয়াল গ্রন্থি (Pineal gland) ...
FSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Kisspeptin and its associated receptor KISS1R are known to be involved in the regulation ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) functions normally at birth and well into adult life, giving normal puberty ... Brain MRI to rule out any structural abnormalities in the hypothalamus or pituitary and to check for presence of olfactory ... HH is caused by a disruption in the production of the gonadotropin hormones normally released by the anterior pituitary gland ...
Pituitary gland. Anterior. *Pars intermedia. *Pars tuberalis. *Pars distalis. *Acidophil cell *Somatotropic cell ... The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.[1] It is located at the center of the ... gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex.[1] It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of chromaffin cells ... The adrenal medulla may be poorly formed or absent in cases of absent adrenal gland. The deficiency in circulating ...
For example, the ascorbic acid content of pituitary and adrenal glands can exceed 2,000 µmol/L, and muscle is at 200-300 µmol/L ... Szent-Györgyi isolated hexuronic acid from animal adrenal glands, and suspected it to be the antiscorbutic factor.[176] In late ...
... pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus, and adrenal glands.. endocrine ... endocrine gland. A gland of the animalian endocrine system that secretes hormones directly into the blood rather than through a ... In humans, the major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, ... The collection of glands that produce hormones which regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, and a wide ...
Mohanty, Banalata (2006). "Extracellular Accumulations in the Avian Pituitary Gland: Histochemical Analysis in Two Species of ...
regulation of branching involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. • positive regulation of phagocytosis. • negative regulation ... Stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by stimulating the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) ... epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. • positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic ...
Pituitary adenomas, noncancerous tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.. All of the functions of the pituitary gland can be ... Pituitary gland[edit]. The Greek physician Galen referred to the pituitary gland by only using the (Ancient Greek) name ἀδήν,[ ... Pituitary gland. Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella ... In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams ...
pituitary gland, small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain. It is sometimes called the master gland of the ... Disorders of Pituitary Hormone Secretion The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University ... body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its secretions for stimulation (see endocrine system).. Sections in this ...
The pituitary gland makes growth hormone. Abnormal growth can signal a gland problem or disease. ... The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other tissues. Children who have too little ... Usually the cause is a pituitary gland tumor, which is not cancer. Too much growth hormone can cause gigantism in children, ... Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney ...
The most common type of pituitary tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your body. ... Your pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland at the base of your brain. The pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes ... Pituitary Tumors (Hormone Health Network) Also in Spanish * Pituitary Tumors (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and ... Treatment Option Overview (Pituitary Tumors) (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish * Treatment Options for Pituitary ...
The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamu ... The pituitary gland is a small oval-shaped gland found inside ... Pituitary gland hormones. The pituitary gland makes 9 different hormones. Both the anterior pituitary gland and the posterior ... Cancer information / Cancer types / Pituitary gland tumour / Pituitary gland tumours / The pituitary gland ... The pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized gland found inside the skull and below the brain. As part of the ...
... a noncancerous tumor that makes growth hormone from your pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is in the skull, just below the ... If these tests are abnormal, you will have an MRI that will help your doctor see if a tumor is growing in the pituitary gland. ... To learn more about acromegaly, visit the acromegaly website of the Pituitary Network Association. You can get information ... The most common cause is a pituitary adenoma, ... What Is a Pituitary Gland Tumor? * Brain Tumors: Symptoms, ...
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is ... pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached ... Pituitary gland. Medically reviewed by Healthline Medical Team on. March 5, 2015 ... intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland releases a hormone that stimulates the melanocytes, cells which control pigmentation ...
... the pituitary gland is actually two fused glands, the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. Each gland is made up of ... Adrenal gland , Corpus luteum , Hypothalamus , Kidney , Ovaries , Pancreas , Parathyroid gland , Pineal gland , Pituitary gland ... Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis). Despite its name, the posterior pituitary gland is not a gland, per se; rather, it is ... The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master gland" of the body, since all other secretions from endocrine glands depend ...
Most tumours of the pituitary gland are benign and start in the anterior (front) part of the pituitary gland. ... Different types of tumours can affect the pituitary gland. ... Other pituitary gland tumours. The following pituitary gland ... develops from the gland cells of the pituitary gland. It is the most common type of pituitary gland tumour. Most PitNETs start ... Types of pituitary gland tumours. Tumours can affect the pituitary gland. A tumour is an abnormal growth of tissue formed when ...
The pituitary gland is a small structure that is located at the base of the posterior brain. It is directly below the ... The pituitary gland is divided into the anterior pituitary, the intermediate pituitary and the posterior pituitary. Each ... The pituitary gland is an organ that is part of the endocrine system. It produces its own hormones and stores other types of ... The pituitary gland is a small structure that is located at the base of the posterior brain. It is directly below the ...
This article is an overview about the functions of the pituitary gland in humans. Learn the functions of the pituitary gland. ... The pituitary gland in humans is located at the base... ... How to Study the Functions of the Pituitary Gland in Humans. ... The pituitary gland is considered the master gland of the body because of its role in giving orders to other endocrine glands ... Learn about the other hormones of the pituitary gland. Many other hormones that are secreted by the pituitary gland have also ...
Neuroendocrinology and The Pituitary Gland - 6th Edition. Print Book. ISBN 9780323240628 ... Endocrinology Adult and Pediatric: Neuroendocrinology and The Pituitary Gland 6th Edition. Authors: Shlomo Melmed J. Larry ... Stay abreast of the newest knowledge in neuroendocrinology and the pituitary gland, including… ... Apply the latest advances in management of neuroendocrine and pituitary disorders with the Neuroendocrinology & The Pituitary ...
... The pituitary gland is a small gland located beneath the brain. The pituitary gland produces substances ( ...
Find treatment reviews for Pituitary gland removal from other patients. Learn from their experiences about effectiveness, side ...
Drouins team studies the pituitary gland, which is the master gland located at the base of the skull that secretes hormones to ... Within the pituitary gland, each hormone is produced by cells of a different lineage. Unique cell identities are created by ... Reprogramming cell identity in the pituitary gland. 17.10.2012. A discovery by IRCM researchers could lead to new treatments ... Cushings disease is caused by small tumours of the pituitary gland that produce excessive amounts of hormones. For patients ...
The pituitary gland is divided into two distinct regions, the anterior and the posterior pituitary. The posterior pituitary is ... The Pituitary Gland is a structure in the endocrine system. Often called the Master gland, this small region regulates the ... Pituitary Gland. Intro , Amygdala , Brainstem , Cerebellum , Cerebrum , Corpus Callosum , Reticular Formation , Hippocampus , ... The pituitary gland is attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus via a stalk that contains blood vessels and neurons. These ...
The pituitary is a gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that govern the onset of puberty, sexual ... The pituitary is a gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that govern the onset of puberty, sexual ...
... vision problems and pituitary hormone deficiency, states the University of Virginia Health System. A... ... Although the majority of pituitary gland cysts are asymptomatic, some cysts can cause headaches, ... How Do Doctors Treat the Symptoms of Pituitary Gland Problems?. A: Doctors treat the symptoms of pituitary gland problems by ... Although the majority of pituitary gland cysts are asymptomatic, some cysts can cause headaches, vision problems and pituitary ...
Learn how the hormones secreted by the master gland affect your body. Learn what the functions of these hormones are. ... Posterior Pituitary Hormones: How Does the Pituitary Gland Affect You?. Medical Science / By danxtptrnrth / Anatomy & ... The "master gland", the pituitary, controls the function of all other glands, though, it itself is under the control of the ... though they are stored and secreted by the pituitary gland. The hormones are transported through the pituitary stalk and, ...
However, once a pituitary problem is suspected, an MRI of the pituitary and pituitary hormonal blood levels will usually reveal ... The pituitary is a small bean-shaped gland that sits at the base of the skull, below the brain and behind the nasal sinuses. It ... Pituitary hormonal levels are also closely monitored to determine if the pituitary has recovered or whether hormonal ... and pituitary failure. With loss of pituitary hormone production a person may experience decreased sex drive, infertility, ...
... and the part of the pituitary in which the cysts occur should be indicated in the diagnosis (e.g., Pituitary Gland, Pars ... Pituitary Gland - Cyst in a male F344/n rat from a chronic study. The cysts in the pars distalis are lined by ciliated cuboidal ... Pituitary Gland - Cyst, multiple in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Multiple cysts are present in the pars nervosa ( ... Pituitary Gland - Cyst, multiple in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Higher magnification of Figure 4 shows the cysts ...
Notes can be found in imueos.blogspot.com under the label: pituitary gland. ... This is a quiz on the pituitary gland lectures in Week 1 endocrine. ... This is a quiz on the pituitary gland lectures in Week 1 endocrine. Notes can be found in imueos. Blogspot. Com under the label ... This is a histologic image of the pituitary gland. The basophils are bluish in colour and the acidophils pinkish. What are ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, ... Pituitary gland. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and ... These hormones are affected by a feedback mechanism from the pituitary ... What will happen is that the pituitary gland will ... in the ovaries and adrenal glands for women. The control of its production is signaled by the pituitary gland in the brain. ...
... is there anyone here who got pituitary gland tumor surgery by Malaysian doctor, Parthiban Navoo, in Malakas Mahkota Medical ... Communities>Brain/Pituitary Tumors>Pituitary Gland Tumour Surgery By Doctor Partiban Navoo ... from what source you get the info that doctor Parthiban Navoo does more than 50 pituitary gland tumor surgery per year and more ... Hi Guys, is there anyone here who got pituitary gland tumor surgery by Malaysian doctor, Parthiban Navoo, in Malakas Mahkota ...
Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. The pars distalis (asterisk) is reduced ... Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Higher magnification of Figure 1 shows ... Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Higher magnification of Figure 2 shows ... Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. Higher magnification of Figure 3 shows ...
In order to clarify the environmental factors which are involved in the development of the primordium of the pituitary gland ... The development and morphogenesis of the human pituitary gland Anat Embryol (Berl). 1988;178(4):327-36. doi: 10.1007/BF00698663 ... In order to clarify the environmental factors which are involved in the development of the primordium of the pituitary gland ... of the epithelium of Rathkes pouch is thought to be heavily involved in the growth of the primordium of the pituitary gland in ...
... an endocrine gland at the base of a vertebrate brain, showing a region that contains fewer acidophils (red), cells that stain ... Light micrograph at 700x magnification of the interior lobe of a human pituitary gland, ... Light micrograph at 700x magnification of the interior lobe of a human pituitary gland, an endocrine gland at the base of a ...
Complete medical information regarding pituitary tumors, including a description, treatment, symptoms, prognosis, and current ... What are the Pituitary Tumors? Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths found in the pituitary gland, a small organ--about the ... A pituitary tumor may make the pituitary gland produce too many hormones, which can cause other problems in the body. Tumors ... What are the Pituitary Tumors? *Is there any treatment for pituitary tumors? *What is the prognosis for pituitary tumors? *What ...
The pituitary gland is a small gland (about the size of a pea) that is located at the base of the brain. ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that form in the pituitary gland. ... The pituitary gland is a small gland (about the size of a pea) ... The pituitary gland secretes hormones. Pituitary adenoma can often go undiagnosed. These tumors are classified based on plasma ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that form in the pituitary gland. ... Pituitary Adenoma. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor. Sex cord-stromal ...
  • The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum). (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] In all animals, the fleshy, glandular anterior pituitary is distinct from the neural composition of the posterior pituitary , which is an extension of the hypothalamus . (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland is connected to a part of the brain called the hypothalamus . (cancer.ca)
  • pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. (healthline.com)
  • The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus of the brain by the infundibulum and is covered by the sellar diaphragm fold. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The anterior pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus via the hypophyseal-portal vascular connection in the pituitary stalk. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Through this vascular connection, the hypothalamus integrates stimulatory and inhibitory central and peripheral signals to the five phenotypically distinct pituitary cell types. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland in humans is located at the base of the brain immediately below the hypothalamus. (wikihow.com)
  • All the hormones of the pituitary gland are regulated by releasing hormones that are secreted by the hypothalamus. (wikihow.com)
  • The hormones of the pituitary gland are all under positive feedback control by regulating hormones in the hypothalamus except for the hormone prolactin which is regulated by a negative feedback from the hormone dopamine. (wikihow.com)
  • The pituitary gland is attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus via a stalk that contains blood vessels and neurons. (athabascau.ca)
  • These connections allow the hypothalamus to control the release of substances from the pituitary. (athabascau.ca)
  • The posterior pituitary is composed of neural tissue and considered an extension of the hypothalamus. (athabascau.ca)
  • The "master gland", the pituitary, controls the function of all other glands, though, it itself is under the control of the hypothalamus. (brighthub.com)
  • The entire structure is pea sized and hangs from the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk-a short length of neural axons. (brighthub.com)
  • The posterior pituitary hormones are, however, produced in the hypothalamus, though they are stored and secreted by the pituitary gland. (brighthub.com)
  • Functional and pathologic interrelationships of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. (nih.gov)
  • The posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized by cell bodies in the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The magnocellular neurosecretory cells, of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei located in the hypothalamus, project axons down the infundibulum to terminals in the posterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • This simple arrangement differs sharply from that of the adjacent anterior pituitary, which does not develop from the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The release of pituitary hormones by both the anterior and posterior lobes is under the control of the hypothalamus, albeit in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Which of the parts of the posterior pituitary is the connection to the hypothalamus? (proprofs.com)
  • The Pituitary Gland is influenced both neurally and hormonally by the Hypothalamus. (antidepressantsfacts.com)
  • Pituitary tumours may compress adjacent structures, including the hypothalamus, several cranial nerves, and the optic chiasm. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • The hypothalamus resides right above the pituitary gland, sending signals and messages in the form of hormones via our blood and nerves. (thecoastnews.com)
  • The pituitary gland is situated in your brain, between the pineal gland and hypothalamus. (ageforce.com)
  • The master gland receives orders from the hypothalamus to effectively communicate with the body. (ageforce.com)
  • The hypothalamus sends signals through hormones to the master gland that informs it on the number of hormones required to the other glands in your body. (ageforce.com)
  • The posterior lobe produces hormones in the hypothalamus and stores them in the posterior pituitary awaiting release into body parts. (ageforce.com)
  • Reproduction, growth and metabolic activities are regulated by the pituitary gland through communication with the hypothalamus and organs in the body. (vanderbilthealth.com)
  • Diagram of the connection between the brain (hypothalamus) and the pituitary gland. (vanderbilthealth.com)
  • The pituitary gland (or hypophysis cerebri ), together with its connections to the hypothalamus , acts as the main endocrine interface between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland sits atop the base of the skull in a concavity within the sphenoid bone called the sella turcica ( pituitary fossa ), immediately below the hypothalamus and optic chiasm . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The posterior pituitary (aka neurohypophysis) is a direct extension from the hypothalamus , connected to it via the infundibular stalk, which is also considered part of the neurohypophysis. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone are synthesized in the hypothalamus and travel down the stalk to be released in the posterior pituitary. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland is very important as it takes messages from the brain (via a gland called the hypothalamus) and uses these messages to produce hormones that affect many parts of the body, including stimulating all the other hormone-producing glands to produce their own hormones. (pituitarysociety.org)
  • Your hypothalamus is essential for functions such as wakefulness, hunger and control of body temperature: it also sends hormone and electrical signals to the pituitary, controlling pituitary hormone production. (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • Even though the pituitary is just a tiny little pea-sized nubbin dangling beneath your brain, he is known as the master gland because he controls all of the other endocrine glands (however, it is controlled, in turn, by the hypothalamus). (outerlayer.com)
  • The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus and secretes nine hormones that regulate body homeostasis. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The anterior pituitary receives signalling molecules from the hypothalamus, and in response, synthesizes and secretes seven hormones. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The pituitary is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by a small tube called the infundibular stem, or, pituitary stalk. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The anterior pituitary receives signaling molecules from the hypothalamus, and in response, synthesizes and secretes seven important hormones including thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The posterior pituitary does not produce any hormones of its own, rather, it stores and secretes two hormones made in the hypothalamus- oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone. (lumenlearning.com)
  • While the pituitary gland is known as the master endocrine gland, both of its lobes are under the control of the hypothalamus: the anterior pituitary receives its signals from the parvocellular neurons, and the posterior pituitary receives its signals from the magnocellular neurons. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The pituitary gland is connected by a system of blood vessels to the hypothalamus. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The system of blood vessels that link the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary in the brain. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The pituitary gland consists of two components: the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary, and is functionally linked to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk (also named the infundibular stem, or simply the infundibulum). (lumenlearning.com)
  • The anterior lobe of the pituitary receives hypothalamic-releasing hormones from the hypothalamus that bind with receptors on endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary that regulate the release of adrenal hormones into the circulatory system. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Hormones from the hypothalamus are rapidly degraded in the anterior pituitary, which prevents them from entering the circulatory system. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The pituitary receives its blood supply through the hypothalamus, the stalk of the brain which is also part of the glandular system. (webnat.com)
  • The release of these pituitary hormones is mediated by hypothalamic neurohormones that are secreted from the median eminence (a site where axon terminals originate from the hypothalamus) and that reach the adenohypophysis through a portal venous system. (collinsbooks.com.au)
  • Situated above the pituitary gland is the hypothalamus. (collinsbooks.com.au)
  • The hypothalamus makes the decisions which hormones the pituitary should secrete by sending it either hormonal or electrical messages. (collinsbooks.com.au)
  • The highlighted area (centre) shows the pituitary gland attached to the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. (yourhormones.info)
  • There are also some hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and then stored in the posterior pituitary gland prior to being released into the bloodstream. (yourhormones.info)
  • Usually there is one type of cell for each major hormone formed in anterior pituitary . (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland makes growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) tells the adrenal glands to make cortisol and other steroid hormones. (cancer.ca)
  • The most common cause is a pituitary adenoma, a noncancerous tumor that makes growth hormone from your pituitary gland. (webmd.com)
  • intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland releases a hormone that stimulates the melanocytes, cells which control pigmentation - like skin color - through the production of melanin. (healthline.com)
  • What Hormone Does the Thymus Gland Produce? (reference.com)
  • An example is the regulator hormone of the thyroid gland that is called thyroid stimulating hormone. (wikihow.com)
  • This hormone is responsible for the stimulation of the secretion of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. (wikihow.com)
  • For example the hormone cortisol is regulated by the hormone corticotropin releasing hormone of the anterior pituitary gland. (wikihow.com)
  • High cortisol level in the blood exerts a strong negative feedback effect on the hormone of the pituitary gland which causes its diminished secretion into the blood circulation. (wikihow.com)
  • Within the pituitary gland, each hormone is produced by cells of a different lineage. (innovations-report.com)
  • The anterior pituitary is composed of glandular tissue and produces its own hormones, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and somatotropin or growth hormone (GH). (athabascau.ca)
  • Although the majority of pituitary gland cysts are asymptomatic, some cysts can cause headaches, vision problems and pituitary hormone deficiency, states the University of Virginia Health System. (reference.com)
  • Large cysts can also cause pituitary hormone deficiency, which affects women's menstrual cycles and lowers men's sex drive, reports the University of Virginia Health System. (reference.com)
  • Non-hormone secreting pituitary adenomas are typically diagnosed because they grow so large they cause headaches, visual loss, and pituitary failure. (emaxhealth.com)
  • With loss of pituitary hormone production a person may experience decreased sex drive, infertility, fatigue, weight gain, low exercise capacity and low thyroid (hypothyroidism). (emaxhealth.com)
  • Macimorelin stimulates the secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland into the circulatory system. (wn.com)
  • This gland is responsible for controlling all of the other hormone -producing endocrine glands of the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • The human growth hormone, also known as HGH , is produced by the pituitary gland from the time of birth. (wisegeek.com)
  • Immunohistochemically, that portion of the pituitary primordium which has a close relationship with the diencephalon, later to become the pars intermedia, showed an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactivity later than that of the pars anterior. (nih.gov)
  • One of the symptoms of pituitary adenoma is hyperpituitarism, which means there is too much hormone secretion. (knowcancer.com)
  • The patient's hormone levels are also tested and they are given CT scans and MRIs to examine the pituitary gland and confirm the diagnosis. (knowcancer.com)
  • A pituitary tumor causing Cushing's disease ultimately elevates the stress hormone, cortisol, which leads to a variety of symptoms that include excessive weight gain, easy bruising, fatigue, diabetes, elevated blood pressure, osteoporosis and decreased fertility. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • The hormonal disorder acromegaly results from excess growth hormone production from a pituitary tumor. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • Colour enhanced transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a hormone-secreting cell from pituitary gland. (sciencephoto.com)
  • A pituitary gland adenoma composed of acidophilic cells that produce both growth hormone and prolactin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There is evidence that hypothalamic hormones can regulate hormone secretion by pituitary adenomas. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pituitary tumors are not cancerous, but some of them can cause harm because they compress and damage normal pituitary tissue, interfering with hormone production. (mountsinai.org)
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone- (ACTH) producing tumors cause the pituitary gland to secrete increased amounts of ACTH, which then causes the adrenal glands to produce excess cortisol. (mountsinai.org)
  • About one in five pituitary adenomas are growth hormone tumors, according to the American Brain Tumor Association . (mountsinai.org)
  • These large growth hormone tumors trigger a loss of peripheral vision and reduced levels of the normal pituitary hormones. (mountsinai.org)
  • The hormone production of the pituitary gland is interfered. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • Pituitary cells have a secretory cycle and enter an actively synthesizing phase in response to increased demand for a particular hormone. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • For most pituitary trophic hormones, negative feedback control is accomplished by a feedback loop involving the blood concentration of the hormone produced by the target endocrine gland (eg, thyroid gland, adrenal cortex, ovary, or testis). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The pituitary gland is a pea-sized endocrine gland at the base of the brain and secretes different hormones including Human Growth Hormone , or HGH and thyroid-stimulating hormone , or TSH. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Inadequate release of certain hormones by the pituitary gland can lead to various hormone disorders. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers then transplanted the tissue into mice that had pituitary problems and the hormone levels soon returned to normal. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This Napoleonian, pea-sized, gland is dictator to several hormone regulations in our bodies. (thecoastnews.com)
  • The anterior pituitary gland produces cortisol (stress hormone), the growth hormone (regulates our growth, metabolism, and body composition), the sex hormones called luteinising and follicle (in charge or egg and sperm maturity), and most notably stimulates the thyroid gland. (thecoastnews.com)
  • 3] Then, the pituitary gland secretes hormones to signal to other glands on how much hormone they ought to secrete. (ageforce.com)
  • It is the only plant source of thyroid hormone, a vital component of pituitary hormones. (ageforce.com)
  • The pituitary gland regulates many hormone systems in the body. (vanderbilthealth.com)
  • Prolactin, growth hormone (GH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicule stimulating hormone (FSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. (vanderbilthealth.com)
  • The pituitary gland controls the activities of a number of other hormone-producing glands. (ndtv.com)
  • The anterior pituitary is by far the largest part of the gland and is responsible for synthesis and release of most pituitary hormones (with the exception of oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which are released by the posterior pituitary). (radiopaedia.org)
  • The pituitary is an endocrine (hormone-producing) gland that sits just beneath the base of the brain, behind the bridge of the nose. (pituitarysociety.org)
  • Hormones further down the chain of command feed back information to the pituitary, telling it to change its hormone production-just as reconnaissance troops gather intelligence and bring it back to their superior. (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • One example is oestrogen from the ovary, caused to be produced by pituitary hormones and then travelling back to the pituitary to increase or decrease its hormone production. (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • When you've drunk too much, alcohol can cause the pituitary to produce less of a hormone that reduces urine production at the kidneys. (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • If your pituitary needs removing, you may need to take hormone tablets and injections to replace the hormones that your body no longer makes. (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • Pituitary adenomas can be functional (i.e., associated with hormone excess and clinical manifestations thereof) or silent (i.e., immunohistochemical and/or ultrastructural demonstration of hormone production at the tissue level only, without clinical manifestations of hormone excess). (slideserve.com)
  • Both functional and silent pituitary adenomas are usually composed of a single cell type and produce a single predominant hormone, although exceptions are known to occur. (slideserve.com)
  • Pituitary adenomas may also be hormone negative, based on absence of immunohistochemical reactivity and ultrastructural demonstration of lineage-specific differentiation. (slideserve.com)
  • *For each of the pituitary cell types, the adenoma may be functional (producing symptoms of hormone excess) or silent. (slideserve.com)
  • Where can one go to get an MRI of the pituitary gland when all pituitary hormone tests are normal but symptoms exist? (empowher.com)
  • However, hormone tests are normal so endocrinologist feels pituitary gland ok. (empowher.com)
  • Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. (springer.com)
  • When the tumor is big enough, it may cause headaches and vision problems or crush normal pituitary cells, which can lead to decreased hormone production. (uhhospitals.org)
  • ACTH tumors (adrenocorticotropic hormone) stimulate the adrenal gland to make glucocorticoids-steroids that affect metabolism. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Pituitary tumors are sometimes diagnosed in people where the tumor is not creating any symptoms and in whom hormone functions are completely intact. (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • Follow-up care for a pituitary gland tumor may include tests to measure hormone levels and MRI scans to learn how the tumor responded to treatment. (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • The pituitary gland controls these glands and organs by producing its own hormones, including prolactin, growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone, or TSH. (sfgate.com)
  • Acromegaly is a very rare disorder caused, in most cases, by a tumor of the pituitary gland that produces too much growth hormone (GH) . (pituitarysociety.org)
  • Abnormally short height in childhood may be due to the pituitary gland not functioning correctly, resulting in underproduction of growth hormone. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Normal puberty may or may not occur depending on the degree of pituitary insufficiency that is present, which is the inability of the pituitary to produce adequate hormone levels other than growth hormone. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • 28.docx - 11 Which anterior pituitary hormone does NOT. (coursehero.com)
  • c) During emergency conditions, when a person is excited or frightened, adrenal gland secretes adrenaline hormone in large amounts which prepares our body for action. (topperlearning.com)
  • The effects of oestradiol-17beta (E2) or progesterone (P4) implants for 8 days, acting as ovarian feedback hormone, on basal FSH and LH secretion and on pituitary responsiveness to LHRH were also determined. (kuleuven.be)
  • Can growth hormone affect pituitary gland? (healthcaremagic.com)
  • hormone and the cyclic are both affecting the pituitary gland for growth? (healthcaremagic.com)
  • It is referred to as the body's 'master gland' because it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands. (yourhormones.info)
  • thyroid stimulating hormone, which stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones. (yourhormones.info)
  • Each of these hormones is made by a separate type of cell within the pituitary gland, except for follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone , which are made together by the same cell. (yourhormones.info)
  • This means that the symptoms experienced when the pituitary gland stops working correctly can be varied, depending on which hormone is affected. (yourhormones.info)
  • Conditions that cause the pituitary gland to produce too much of one or more hormone(s). (yourhormones.info)
  • The diagnosis of empty sella syndrome, done via examination (and test), may be linked to early onset of puberty, growth hormone deficiency, or pituitary gland dysfunction (at an early age). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is sometimes called the master gland of the body because all the other endocrine glands depend on its secretions for stimulation (see endocrine system ). (infoplease.com)
  • As part of the endocrine system, the pituitary gland makes many different hormones that travel throughout the body. (cancer.ca)
  • The most complex organ of the endocrine system, both functionally and structurally, is the pituitary gland. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland is an organ that is part of the endocrine system. (reference.com)
  • Dr. Drouin's team studies the pituitary gland, which is the master gland located at the base of the skull that secretes hormones to control all other glands of the endocrine system. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Pituitary Gland is a structure in the endocrine system. (athabascau.ca)
  • The endocrine system consists of several parts, including the pituitary gland. (ageforce.com)
  • The primary function of the pituitary gland in the endocrine system is to secrete hormones into the bloodstream. (ageforce.com)
  • If the endocrine system , or ductless glandular system can be compared to an orchestra, then the pituitary, as one source describes it, plays first violin. (webnat.com)
  • For this reason, the term pituitary adenoma is slowly being changed to PitNET. (cancer.ca)
  • Pituitary adenoma can often go undiagnosed. (knowcancer.com)
  • Pituitary adenoma may sometimes reveal themselves during pregnancy due to the elevated progesterone levels in a woman's body during that time. (knowcancer.com)
  • Physicians will look at the combination of symptoms mentioned above in order to begin diagnosis of a pituitary adenoma. (knowcancer.com)
  • Treatment for pituitary adenoma depends largely on the type and size of the tumor. (knowcancer.com)
  • Prognosis for pituitary adenoma depends on many factors. (knowcancer.com)
  • The size and type of tumor, whether or not it is producing hormones and if it is causing vision problems are all factors that physicians assess when diagnosing and treating pituitary adenoma. (knowcancer.com)
  • Mammosomatotroph adenoma of the pituitary associated with gigantism and hyperprolactinemia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The pituitary gland volume changes depending on hormonal status, most dramatically during pregnancy when it can be markedly enlarged, sometimes mistaken for an adenoma. (radiopaedia.org)
  • In fact, the most recent data using high-resolution computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging suggest that approximately 20% of 'normal' adult pituitary glands harbor an incidental lesion measuring 3 mm or more in diameter, usually a silent adenoma. (slideserve.com)
  • Enlargement of one side of pituitary gland plus deviation of stalk and presence of symptoms indicate possible presence of adenoma. (empowher.com)
  • Ectopic pituitary adenoma in the sphenoid causing Nelson's syndrome. (ajnr.org)
  • What is a pituitary adenoma? (brainscape.com)
  • Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. (nih.gov)
  • I have a nonfunctioning benign pituitary tumor called an adenoma. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • The pituitary is a gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that govern the onset of puberty, sexual development and reproductive function. (uclahealth.org)
  • The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland secretes hormones. (knowcancer.com)
  • Called the master gland, the Pituitary Gland secretes hormones that control the activity of other Endocrine Organs/Glands and regulate various biological processes. (antidepressantsfacts.com)
  • The posterior pituitary gland is actually part of the brain and it secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream under the command of the brain. (yourhormones.info)
  • The pituitary gland also secretes hormones that act on the adrenal glands , thyroid gland , ovaries and testes , which in turn produce other hormones. (yourhormones.info)
  • PitNETs have been called non-cancerous (benign) pituitary adenomas, but this term does not describe them very well. (cancer.ca)
  • This discovery could ultimately lead to the development of such treatment, based on tumour growth inhibition by hormones, similarly to what is already done for other pituitary tumours like lactotrope adenomas. (innovations-report.com)
  • Pituitary tumors (adenomas) are relatively common and account for 15 to 20% of all brain tumors care for by neurosurgeons. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Patients are followed for many years after surgery because pituitary adenomas may recur. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Pituitary adenomas are tumors that form in the pituitary gland. (knowcancer.com)
  • The role of hypothalamic hormones in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prolactin-producing tumors (prolactinomas) account for about half of pituitary adenomas. (mountsinai.org)
  • They are called the adenomas which do not spread to other areas or regions from the pituitary gland in which they are originated. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • rarely, pituitary adenomas are plurihormonal. (slideserve.com)
  • Clinically diagnosed pituitary adenomas are responsible for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. (slideserve.com)
  • Pituitary adenomas are usually found in adults, with a peak incidence from the 30s to the 50s. (slideserve.com)
  • Most pituitary adenomas occur as isolated lesions. (slideserve.com)
  • The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. (springer.com)
  • The most common tumor of the pituitary gland, nonfunctional adenomas create hormones of their own and typically do not produce pituitary gland tumor symptoms until they reach a certain size. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Pituitary tumors expressed chromogranin A and closely resembled human pituitary adenomas. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • How do NONfunctional pituitary adenomas present? (brainscape.com)
  • How do FUNCTIONAL pituitary adenomas present? (brainscape.com)
  • What are some other FUNCTIONAL pituitary adenomas? (brainscape.com)
  • What genetic components lead to pituitary adenomas? (brainscape.com)
  • What genetic products are associated with familial pituitary adenomas? (brainscape.com)
  • Most pituitary tumors are benign and less than a 1 CM (called micro adenomas). (healthtap.com)
  • The pituitary gland is sometimes called the "master gland" of the body, since all other secretions from endocrine glands depend on stimulation by the pituitary gland. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland is considered the master gland of the body because of its role in giving orders to other endocrine glands in the body. (wikihow.com)
  • Often called the 'Master' gland, this small region regulates the release of hormones from all other glands in this system. (athabascau.ca)
  • It is often called the "master gland" because it controls the functions of all the other endocrine glands overseeing growth and development, sex drive and reproductive functions, thyroid function, metabolism, water balance and the stress response. (emaxhealth.com)
  • It is known as the master gland because the hormones it produces affect the production of many other hormones and functions in the body. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The pituitary is a master gland controlling thyroid function, adrenal function, ovarian and testicular function, growth, milk production and urine volume. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • Pituitary: The Master Gland (There are three divisions) Located in the base of the brain. (biology-online.org)
  • Nerve cell projections and thin stem of blood vessels attach the master gland to the brain. (ageforce.com)
  • The master gland releases hormones every two or three hours, and the secretion is top during the daytime. (ageforce.com)
  • Herbs offer a natural way of keeping the master gland healthy and functional. (ageforce.com)
  • Here are the two crucial features of the master gland and their primary functions. (ageforce.com)
  • Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is only the size of a pea, but it is often called "the master gland of the body" due to its reach and ability to impact overall health. (uhhospitals.org)
  • The pituitary is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls the secretion of hormones from many other endocrine glands and organs such as the thyroid, adrenals, gonads, mammary glands, liver and kidneys. (sfgate.com)
  • Because most pituitary hormones are made in the anterior lobe, the anterior pituitary is often called the "master" gland of the body. (britannica.com)
  • Food for the Master Gland to do its job properly, the pituitary needs nutrients. (webnat.com)
  • The pituitary gland is often indicated as the 'master gland' of the body, since it controls many activities of other endocrine glands. (collinsbooks.com.au)
  • i. (a) Pituitary gland is often termed as master gland because it controls the secretion of all other endocrine glands. (topperlearning.com)
  • The pituitary gland is called the 'master gland' as the hormones it produces control so many different processes in the body. (yourhormones.info)
  • The hormones are transported through the pituitary stalk and, following secretion, travel freely in the blood. (brighthub.com)
  • Pituitary disease -- such as tumor formation -- can also affect the adrenal glands and result in abnormal secretion of hormones called corticosteroids. (sfgate.com)
  • decreased secretion of pituitary hormones. (brainscape.com)
  • The possible role of sex steroid hormones in regulating in vitro secretion of gonadotropins and pituitary sensitivity to exogenous GnRH is discussed. (eurekamag.com)
  • Effects on structure and secretion of pituitary gland in rats after electromagnetic pulse exposure]. (emf-portal.org)
  • [2] The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation ). (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe o the gland that regulates several physiological processes (includin stress, growthe, reproduction, an lactation). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is composed of the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe) and the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) is a major centre for systemic hormones. (medicalxpress.com)
  • AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). (springer.com)
  • The adenohypophysis or anterior pituitary functions as an important center of production of hormones. (scienceknowledge.org)
  • The adenohypophysis comprises roughly 80% of the pituitary and produces an array of peptide hormones. (collinsbooks.com.au)
  • Although patients with prolactinomas can typically be treated with a medicine (cabergoline) to lower prolactin levels and shrink the tumor, other pituitary tumor types typically require surgical removal. (emaxhealth.com)
  • For example, prolactin affects primarily the mammary gland, and GH has its principal effect on the liver-both nonendocrine tissues. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • DNA complementary to the prolactin mRNA from human pituitary was obtained and cloned. (eurekamag.com)
  • For example, the pituitary gland produces prolactin , which acts on the breasts to induce milk production. (yourhormones.info)
  • Light micrograph at 700x magnification of the interior lobe of a human pituitary gland, an endocrine gland at the base of a vertebrate brain, showing a region that contains fewer acidophils (red), cells that stain easily with acid dyes, than basophils (purple), cells that stain easily with basic dyes. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The pituitary gland plays a vital role in controlling the adrenal gland, testicles, thyroid gland, and ovaries. (ageforce.com)
  • The minerals and iodine assist in the production of T3 and T4 hormones by the thyroid gland. (ageforce.com)
  • Another growth disorder disease is Cretinism which is a result of a disease of the thyroid gland it is the cause of most dwarfism in Europe, Canada, and the United States. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Age related signal changes of the pituitary stalk on thin-slice magnetic resonance imaging in infants. (annals.org)
  • This pea-sized gland is so important to the body that it is nested in a tiny cavity at the base of the skull in the sphenoid bone, and attached to the brain by a stalk of tissue. (webnat.com)
  • with the pituitary stalk. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors? (medlineplus.gov)
  • They are usually macrotumours and can cause symptoms by pressing on the pituitary gland and nearby tissues such as nerves. (cancer.ca)
  • What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Gland Cysts? (reference.com)
  • How Do Doctors Treat the Symptoms of Pituitary Gland Problems? (reference.com)
  • Doctors treat the symptoms of pituitary gland problems by prescribing medications such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin analogues or pegvisomant, says th. (reference.com)
  • Pituitary tumors may be difficult to diagnose since they can produce a vast array of relatively common symptoms. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Symptoms of pituitary tumors may include headaches, vision problems, nausea and vomiting, or any of the problems caused by the production of too many hormones such as infertility or loss of menstrual periods in women, abnormal growth, high blood pressure , heat or cold intolerance, and other skin and body changes. (medicinenet.com)
  • Pituitary tumors can lead to an assortment of symptoms, symptoms based on the hormones they affect. (mountsinai.org)
  • The variety of symptoms makes it challenging to diagnose pituitary disease. (mountsinai.org)
  • Other symptoms can include fever, pituitary failure, loss of consciousness, hypothalamic failure and death. (cedars-sinai.org)
  • Diagnosis is very difficult because the symptoms can be so varied (owing to the many hormones produced by the pituitary). (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • Pituitary gland tumors often go undiagnosed due to lack of symptoms. (uhhospitals.org)
  • While most pituitary tumors are not cancerous, pituitary tumor symptoms can wreak havoc on the body by causing hormones to be over-produced or under-produced. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Other causes of dwarfism are Down\'s syndrome, a congenital condition with symptoms similar to those of cretinism, achondroplasia, a disease characterized by short extremities resulting from absorption of cartilaginous tissue during the fetal stage, spinal tuberculosis, and deficiency of the secretions of the pituitary gland or of the ovary. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • This case illustrates that metastatic pituitary lesions can mimic typical symptoms and signs of pituitary macroadenoma. (ufrgs.br)
  • Additional symptoms are as follows:[citation needed] Abnormality (middle ear ossicles) Cryptorchidism Dolichocephaly Arnold-Chiari type I malformation Meningocele Patent ductus arteriosus Muscular hypotonia Platybasia The cause of this condition is divided into primary and secondary, as follows: The cause of this condition in terms of secondary empty sella syndrome happens when a tumor or surgery damages the gland, this is an acquired manner of the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with secondary empty sella syndrome due to destruction of the pituitary gland have symptoms that reflect the loss of pituitary functions, such as intolerance to stress and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A specific population of endocrine cells in the pars distalis (and in the pars intermedia for ACTH in dogs) synthesizes and secretes each of the pituitary trophic hormones. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • A pituitary neuroendocrine tumour (PitNET) develops from the gland cells of the pituitary gland. (cancer.ca)
  • It is the most common type of pituitary gland tumour. (cancer.ca)
  • Pituitary carcinoma is a cancerous (malignant) tumour of the pituitary gland that can spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, spinal cord or outside of the skull. (cancer.ca)
  • Until this morning I thought they would just be taking a tiny tumour off the pituitary gland but it seems they take out the whole thing. (felinediabetes.com)
  • Magnetic resonance image (MRI) showing pituitary tumour. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • She has undergone a surgery for removal of tumour (not malignant) from the pituitary 9 years ago and subsequent radiation for about one month. (ndtv.com)
  • Should the function of these glands be disturbed by the tumour of the pituitary gland or the consequences of surgery, they could produce the findings noted currently in your mother. (ndtv.com)
  • Sometimes the pituitary overproduces or underproduces its hormones-perhaps as a result of a head injury or a pituitary tumour, but often for no known reason. (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • Its likely to be a tumour and if not, what are the effects of a bulky pituiary gland . (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Is surgery needed for tumour in pituitary gland? (healthcaremagic.com)
  • i am a pilot and there has been an incidental find of tumour in my pitutary gland . (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Located at the base of the brain , the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • pituitary gland, small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain . (infoplease.com)
  • Your pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland at the base of your brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized gland found inside the skull and below the brain. (cancer.ca)
  • The pituitary gland is in the skull, just below the brain. (webmd.com)
  • The pituitary gland , or hypophysis , is an endocrine gland located near the base of vertebrate brain , and that produces secretions that stimulate activities in other endocrine glands, impacting metabolism , growth, and other physiological processes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hormones produced in this gland at the base of the brain travel to other parts of the body, impacting particular targeted cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In humans , the pituitary gland is about the size of a bean and sits at the base of the brain . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Almost all tumours of the pituitary gland do not spread to other parts of the body (metastasize), but they can grow into (invade) and destroy nearby areas such as bone, the brain, nerves that connect the eyes to the brain (optic nerves) and nasal sinuses . (cancer.ca)
  • The pituitary gland is a small structure that is located at the base of the posterior brain. (reference.com)
  • This anatomical structure in the brain is an important endocrine gland which is the main regulator of all other endocrine glands that are spread in the various parts of the body. (wikihow.com)
  • The pituitary gland is a small gland located beneath the brain. (cardiosmart.org)
  • The pituitary is a small bean-shaped gland that sits at the base of the skull, below the brain and behind the nasal sinuses . (emaxhealth.com)
  • In the great majority of cases, a minimally invasive endonasal transsphenoidal approach provides a safe and effective route to these tumors as well as many other brain tumors that arise near the pituitary. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland found at the base of the brain . (wisegeek.com)
  • Exercise stimulates the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths found in the pituitary gland, a small organ--about the size of a dime and located in the center of the brain--which makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • The NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders) supports and conducts a broad range of biomedical research on brain tumors, including pituitary tumors. (medicinenet.com)
  • The pituitary gland is a small gland (about the size of a pea) that is located at the base of the brain. (knowcancer.com)
  • I am inquiring for a friend who used to dive but had a transsphenoidal surgery (through the nose/sinus to get to the brain for the non medics) to remove a pituitary gland growth. (rebreatherworld.com)
  • Locatit at the base o the brain , the pituitary gland is pertectit bi a bany structur cried the sella turcica o the sphenoid bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gland is located at the base of the brain. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • The pituitary tumor treatment totally depends on type of tumor whether functional or nonfunctional, its size and to what extent the tumor has spread in the brain. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • When the pituitary gland grows in the embryo, it is made from two different tissue types in the brain. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Hypopituitarism occurs when your pituitary gland in your brain is not releasing one or more of the eight hormones it should be releasing. (aarpmedicareplans.com)
  • Right at the base of the brain, behind the bridge of the nose, sits the throne of the pituitary gland. (thecoastnews.com)
  • Finally, surgery on the pituitary gland may, at times, be followed by the development of hydrocephalus - abnormal collection of water in the cavities of the brain. (ndtv.com)
  • What's the strange pea-like gland hanging below your brain? (readersdigest.co.uk)
  • Now day's most advanced brain tumor treatment facilities are available in India along with the presence of most experienced brain tumor surgeons for performing safe and successful pituitary gland tumor surgery in India . (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • Because of the fact that in underdeveloped countries like Nigeria, Kenya there is absence of best medical treatment facilities including good brain tumor surgeons also in other countries like America and Canada the cost for pituitary gland tumor surgery is very high. (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • The pituitary gland is an important gland in the brain, and is often referred to as the "master endocrine gland" because it secretes a variety of hormones that affect many bodily functions. (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • any patients from other developed countries like America, U.S., U.K. and Europe are now days opting for a low cost pituitary gland tumor surgery in India at modern and surgically advanced brain tumor surgery hospitals of Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai. (forerunnershealthcare.com)
  • The pituitary gland resides in your brain and is responsible for regulating metabolism, among many other functions. (sfgate.com)
  • The pituitary gland sits at the base of your brain within the sphenoid bone. (sfgate.com)
  • The pituitary gland is a small, oval structure under the brain. (britannica.com)
  • Although located at the base of the brain and often considered to be part of the brain, the pituitary gland is in fact a separate organ, and is not part of the brain. (lumenlearning.com)
  • An endocrine gland, about the size of a pea, that sits in a small, bony cavity at the base of the brain whose secretions control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The location of pituitary gland in the human brain. (lumenlearning.com)
  • for instance, neurons that release neurotransmitters as hormones in the connective link between the pituitary and the brain. (lumenlearning.com)
  • It improves blood flow to the brain and pituitary. (webnat.com)
  • Maintaining good blood flow to the brain is also critical to the pituitary. (webnat.com)
  • Ginkgo Biloba can improve blood flow to the brain and pituitary. (webnat.com)
  • The Pituitary Gland is situated at the base of the brain and it produces hormones which control growth. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • The gland is attached to the part of the brain that controls its activity. (yourhormones.info)
  • The anterior part of the pituitary gland consists of gland cells, which are connected to the brain by very short blood vessels. (yourhormones.info)
  • It can be discovered as part of the diagnostic workup of pituitary disorders, or as an incidental finding when imaging the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrate anatomy , the pituitary gland , or hypophysis , is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland, about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrate anatomy , the pituitary gland , or hypophysis , is an endocrine gland aboot the size o a pea an weighin 0.5 gram (0.018 oz) in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea. (lumenlearning.com)
  • In this image, the pituitary gland is referred to by its other name, the hypophysis. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The fully developed pituitary gland or hypophysis is a pea-sized endocrine gland and weighs about 0.5 g. (collinsbooks.com.au)
  • The pituitary gland, in humans, is a pea-sized gland that sits in a protective bony enclosure called the sella turcica . (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland is surrounded by bone (sphenoid bone), and it sits in a pouch called the sella turcica. (cancer.ca)
  • The pituitary gland is enclosed by dura and locates within the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. (collinsbooks.com.au)
  • Empty sella syndrome is the condition when the pituitary gland shrinks or becomes flattened, filling the sella turcica with cerebrospinal fluid instead of the normal pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary empty sella syndrome occurs when a small anatomical defect above the pituitary gland increases pressure in the sella turcica and causes the gland to flatten out along the interior walls of the sella turcica cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other pituitary tumors can cause acromegaly, a condition in which the hands, feet and face are larger than normal. (medicinenet.com)
  • My Shmee has acromegaly and we will be traveling to the Animal Medical Center in NYC August 27th to have the pituitary gland removal surgery. (felinediabetes.com)
  • Over function of the anterior pituitary causes acromegaly in adults and gigantism in kids. (ageforce.com)
  • Nearly all pituitary tumors, including those that cause acromegaly, are benign, and not malignant. (pituitarysociety.org)
  • There are different medications or drugs available for different types of pituitary tumors. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • The anterior lobe of the pituitary can be divided into the pars tuberalis (pars glandularis) and pars distalis (pars glandularis) that constitutes ~80% of the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pituitary cysts in the pars distalis are frequent incidental findings in rats more than a year old and in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Pituitary Gland, Pars distalis - Atrophy in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Atrophy of the pars distalis can occur as a sequela of necrosis secondary to ischemia and/or from compression on the pituitary by a space occupying mass. (nih.gov)
  • The pars distalis is the largest part of the pituitary gland. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Most pituitary tumors are benign, which means they are non-cancerous, grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • Majority of the pituitary tumors are not malignant meaning they are noncancerous or benign. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • Prolactinomas are common benign tumors of the pituitary and many respond to medications. (healthtap.com)
  • Is mass on the pituitary gland benign? (healthcaremagic.com)
  • Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help in controlling growth , blood pressure , energy management, all functions of the sex organs , thyroid glands and metabolism as well as some aspects of pregnancy , childbirth , nursing , water/salt concentration at the kidneys , temperature regulation and pain relief. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disruption of pituitary functions has dire consequences on growth, reproduction and metabolism. (innovations-report.com)
  • growth , blood pressure , certain functions of the sex organs , thyroid glands and metabolism as well as some aspects of pregnancy , childbirth , nursing , water/salt concentration and the kidneys , temperature regulation and pain relief. (wn.com)
  • Due to its natural form, kelp helps the pituitary gland to regulate body temperature and metabolism rate. (ageforce.com)
  • A chronically sluggish metabolism -- which can occur with pituitary disease -- leads to increased risk of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and even heart disease, which collectively is referred to as "metabolic syndrome. (sfgate.com)
  • Although the anterior pituitary secretes three hormones that affect metabolism and body fat stores, a comprehensive analysis of pituitary gene expression associated with body fat has not been performed. (umd.edu)
  • Through production of its hormones, the pituitary gland controls metabolism , growth, sexual maturation, reproduction, blood pressure and many other vital physical functions and processes. (yourhormones.info)
  • The most common type of pituitary tumor produces hormones and disrupts the balance of hormones in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It produces its own hormones and stores other types of hormones that control other gland systems throughout the body. (reference.com)
  • Each section of the pituitary produces its own specific hormones. (reference.com)
  • The pituitary gland produces substances (hormones) that enter the bloodstream and help control many processes of the body. (cardiosmart.org)
  • The posterior pituitary gland produces vasopressin which maintains our water and blood pressure. (thecoastnews.com)
  • The anterior (or front) pituitary produces hormones that affect the breasts, adrenals, thyroid, ovaries and testes, as well as several other hormones. (pituitarysociety.org)
  • The pituitary gland produces a number of hormones. (pituitarysociety.org)
  • The pituitary gland is an important gland in the body and the hormones it produces carry out varied tasks and regulate the function of many other organs. (yourhormones.info)
  • Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The pituitary is the "master control gland" - it makes hormones that affect growth and the functions of other glands in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hormones produced by the anterior lobe regulate growth, and stimulate the adrenal and thyroid glands, as well as the ovaries and testes. (healthline.com)
  • Hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland affect adrenocortical function, sexual development, growth, pigmentation of the skin, and thyroid function. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • If the anterior pituitary under functions, it results in retarded growth and decreased function of all other glands controlled by this part of the pituitary gland except for the parathyroid glands. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The surface of the epithelium of Rathke's cavity continues to increase at least until the 21st fetal week, so the growth of the epithelium of Rathke's pouch is thought to be heavily involved in the growth of the primordium of the pituitary gland in the early stages of development. (nih.gov)
  • Decreased Pituitary Height and Stunted Linear Growth After Radiotherapy in Survivors of Childhood Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cases. (annals.org)
  • 70% of patients with Idiopathic intracranial hypertension will have empty sella on MRI The cause of primary empty sella syndrome is a congenital defect (diaphragma sellae) The normal mechanism of the pituitary gland sees that it controls the hormonal system, which therefore has an effect on growth, sexual development, and adrenocortical function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common type of pituitary gland cyst is the Rathke's cleft cyst, reports the University of Virginia Health System. (reference.com)
  • Although prognosis depends on the type of pituitary tumor and the patient's age and general state of health, pituitary tumors are usually curable. (medicinenet.com)
  • The pituitary fossa is surrounded by a layer of dura, continuous with the diaphragma sellae above (the dural anatomy is discussed in more detail in the pituitary fossa article). (radiopaedia.org)
  • These hormones control certain body functions and tell other glands to make other hormones. (cancer.ca)
  • The hormones found in the pituitary gland also control many bodily functions. (reference.com)
  • This article is an overview about the functions of the pituitary gland in humans. (wikihow.com)
  • Learn the functions of the pituitary gland. (wikihow.com)
  • These pituitary tumors restrict the pituitary gland from producing the hormones which regulate various functions. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • The pituitary gland comprises of two primary parts, and each piece has its functions. (ageforce.com)
  • 1] In that case, it results in dwarfism and a reduction of all the other endocrine gland functions that are controlled by the pituitary gland. (ageforce.com)
  • The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland that plays a major role in regulating vital body functions and general wellbeing. (yourhormones.info)
  • Vasopressin and oxytocin are secreted from the posterior pituitary gland. (vanderbilthealth.com)
  • The posterior pituitary does not directly synthesize any hormones but rather releases oxytocin and ADH (vasopressin) which have traveled down the infundibulum in vesicles termed Herring bodies. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Diffusing out of the second capillary bed, the hypothalamic releasing hormones then bind to anterior pituitary endocrine cells, upregulating or downregulating their release of hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a pituitary tumor gets large enough, it can also result in neurologic problems including headaches, loss of vision, double vision, facial pain, and even seizures. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • My daughter had a tumor remover from her pituitary gland 2 years ago, since surgery she has headaches daily. (justanswer.com)
  • They can also compress the pituitary gland to the point where it cannot function properly, thereby reducing the amount of hormones produced (called hypopituitarism). (mountsinai.org)
  • Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. (aarpmedicareplans.com)
  • Hypopituitarism following extirpation of a pharyngeal pituitary. (ajnr.org)
  • How serious is a small tumor on the pituitary gland? (healthtap.com)
  • Hi, I was wondering if anyone could please explain to me the regulatory function of the pituitary gland and/or the mechanism of the regulation function? (biology-online.org)
  • Many disorders of the pituitary gland require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Does stimulation of the pituitary gland help for increasing height and at what age? (wisegeek.com)
  • Tumours can affect the pituitary gland. (cancer.ca)
  • What are the Best Tips to Stimulate the Pituitary Gland? (wisegeek.com)
  • An exercise regimen helps to stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • By finding ways to stimulate the pituitary gland, many of these health issues may be able to be lessened or even avoided. (wisegeek.com)
  • Exercise is one of the easiest and most natural ways to stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • A healthy diet, combined with exercise, is the best natural way to stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • Maintaining a proper body weight often helps to stimulate the pituitary gland and increase production of HGH. (wisegeek.com)
  • Increasing the amount of protein in the diet is believed to help stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • If natural methods are not successful, the healthcare provider may be able to prescribe medications that can be used to help stimulate the pituitary gland. (wisegeek.com)
  • Pressing the thumb against the roof of the mouth (the way a baby does when sucking his or her thumb) and using a pumping action will also stimulate the pituitary gland. (webnat.com)
  • Barberry root stimulates the pituitary gland, assisting in the balance of adrenals, pancreas, and thyroid. (ageforce.com)
  • Demonstrative of the adage "Good things come in small packages" the pituitary is divided into ante and posterior lobes, each of which secretes several hormones that control the function of other endocrine glands and organs throughout the body. (webnat.com)
  • It senses the body's needs and sends signals to different organs and glands throughout the body to regulate their function and maintain an appropriate environment. (yourhormones.info)
  • However, LSL-MYCN;hGFAP-Cre double transgenic mice did neither develop neural crest tumors nor tumors of the central nervous system, but presented with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and, less frequently, the pituitary gland. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In summary, we provide a novel mouse model for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and pituitary gland that is dependent on MYCN expression and that may help to evaluate MYCN-directed therapies. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Morphogenesis of craniopharyngeal derivatives in the neurohypophysis of Fisher 344 rats: Abnormally developed epithelial tissues including parotid glands derived from the stomatodeum. (nih.gov)
  • In order to clarify the environmental factors which are involved in the development of the primordium of the pituitary gland such as cell-cell interactions, a three-dimensional reconstruction of this organ and its surrounding tissues was carried out. (nih.gov)
  • How far the pituitary tumor surgery gives good results depends totally on the factors such the tumor type, its location, its size, and whether the tumor has spread to the nearby areas or tissues. (onlinecancerguide.com)
  • Where these two different tissues come together is where the pituitary gland forms. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This can happen because of severe bleeding or a loss of oxygen to the tissues of the pituitary gland causing tissue death. (cedars-sinai.org)
  • The control which the pituitary exercises over the tissues of mesenchymal origin is no less striking than that which the thyroid exercises over the ectoderm (1). (annals.org)
  • One of the most amazing facts about the pituitary gland is that the two lobes develop from completely different embryologic tissues and function in very different ways. (webnat.com)
  • In contrast, interruption of hypophyseal nerve fibers would likely result in atrophy of the posterior lobe of the pituitary. (nih.gov)
  • A neoplasm without metastatic potential arising from the anterior or the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (icd10data.com)
  • Coronal computed tomographic scans of the pituitary gland in 27 normal children, adolescents, and young adults (ages, 8-21 years) and in a comparison group of adults (ages, 24-91 years) were evaluated retrospectively to test the applicability of published criteria for size and configuration of normal adult pituitary glands to younger patients. (ajnr.org)
  • Fresh anterior pituitary glands from beef and pig were separated by differential centrifugation into subcellular fractions. (rupress.org)
  • Most pituitary tumours are functioning tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Most pituitary carcinomas are functioning tumours that make too many hormones. (cancer.ca)
  • When this happens, it is called metastatic cancer, or secondary pituitary gland tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • Cushing's disease is caused by small tumours of the pituitary gland that produce excessive amounts of hormones. (innovations-report.com)
  • Metastatic cancer in the pituitary gland is much more common than pituitary carcinoma. (cancer.ca)
  • Are most metastatic pituitary tumors symptomatic? (brainscape.com)
  • Tumors metastatic to the pituitary gland are an unusual complication of systemic cancer typically seen in elderly patients with diffuse malignant disease. (nih.gov)
  • Metastatic tumors involving the pituitary gland are an uncommon finding and occur in up to 1% of all pituitary tumor resections. (ufrgs.br)
  • Pituitary disease leading to inadequate production of cortisol negatively impacts blood sugar levels by retarding the process of gluconeogenesis, which involves breaking down sugars stored as triglycerides and glycogen. (sfgate.com)
  • The posterior pituitary, on the other hand, is an extension of neural tissue. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Baumgarten, H. G., Björklund, A., Holstein, A. F., Nobin, A.: Organization and ultrastructural identification of the catecholamine nerve terminals in the neural lobe and pars intermedia of the rat pituitary. (springer.com)
  • This pituitary gland took three weeks to grow and included all the cell types that are found in a normal pituitary gland . (medicalxpress.com)