Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Ticarcillin: An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.UreohydrolasesCephalosporinaseAzlocillin: A semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Aztreonam: A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.Ceftazidime: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Aza CompoundsMonobactams: Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.Enterobacter cloacae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.Dicloxacillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Mezlocillin: Semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin. It has been proposed for infections with certain anaerobes and may be useful in inner ear, bile, and CNS infections.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Ochrobactrum anthropi: A species of gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. Motility occurs by peritrichous flagella. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Cefoperazone: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Floxacillin: Antibiotic analog of CLOXACILLIN.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Colorectal Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Thermotoga neapolitana: A species of extremophilic bacteria in the family Thermotogaceae. Generally anaerobic but in the presence of OXYGEN, it can produce hydrogen gas as a byproduct of metabolism.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Klebsiella oxytoca: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Quinolines
... amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin, chloramphenicol, and sulfathiazole have been reported to be effective against the ... neutralize the negative charge of the phosphate groups necessary for the interaction with the positively charged amino acids of ...
... or piperacillin/tazobactam for high-risk patients and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin for low-risk patients. ... mild low-risk cases may be treated with a combination of oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin, while more severe ...
Fluoroquinolones Piperacillin/tazobactam Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid Antibiotics that cover vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ( ... "APO-Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid 500mg/125 mg Tablets" (PDF). Retrieved November 27, 2014. Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin ... "Amoxicillin-sulbactam versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of non-recurrent-acute otitis media in Argentinean ... Clindamycin Dalbavancin Daptomycin Fusidic acid Linezolid Mupirocin (topical) Oritavancin Tedizolid Telavancin Tigecycline ...
Amoxicillin Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid) Ampicillin Benzathine benzylpenicillin Benzylpenicillin ... Piperacillin/tazobactam Procaine benzylpenicillin Ceftazidimeα Meropenemα Aztreonamα Imipenem/cilastatinα Amikacin Azithromycin ... Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) Ibuprofen Paracetamol Propranolol Azathioprineα Ciclosporinα All-trans retinoic acid (tretinoin) ... Ferrous salt Ferrous salt/folic acid Folic acid Hydroxocobalamin Erythropoiesis-stimulating agentsα Enoxaparin Heparin sodium ...
... generally in the combination ticarcillin/clavulanic acid) Carbenicillin Mecillinam Pseudomonas aeruginosa § Treatment ... Ureidopenicillins Azlocillin Mezlocillin Piperacillin Carboxypenicillins Ticarcillin ( ...
Ampicillin Amoxicillin Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) Carbapenems (e.g. imipenem) Piperacillin/tazobactam Quinolones ( ...
... such as clavulanic acid. Single amino acid substitutions at positions 104, 164, 238, and 240 produce the ESBL phenotype, but ... Cefepime and piperacillin/tazobactam have been less successful. Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime have failed even more ... Although the inhibitor-resistant TEM variants are resistant to inhibition by clavulanic acid and sulbactam, thereby showing ... Although the inhibitor-resistant TEM variants are resistant to inhibition by clavulanic acid and sulbactam, thereby showing ...
Clavulanic acid or clavulanate, usually combined with amoxicillin (Augmentin) or ticarcillin (Timentin) Sulbactam, usually ... combined with ampicillin (Unasyn) or Cefoperazone (Sulperazon) Tazobactam, usually combined with piperacillin (Zosyn) (Tazocin ... Different boronic acid derivatives have to potential to be tailored to the many different isoforms of beta-lactamases, and ... Boronic acid derivatives are currently under vast and extensive research as novel active site inhibitors for beta-lactamases ...
... piperacillin 1981 - co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) 1981 - cefoperazone 1981 - cefotiam 1981 - cefsulodin 1981 - ... ticarcillin/clavulanic acid) 1987 - ampicillin/sulbactam 1987 - cefixime 1987 - roxithromycin 1987 - sultamicillin 1987 - ... nalidixic acid, the first quinolone 1968 - clindamycin, the second lincosamide 1970 - cefalexin 1971 - cefazolin 1971 - ... fusidic acid 1963 - fusafungine 1963 - lymecycline 1964 - gentamicin 1964 - cefalotin, the first cephalosporin 1966 - ...
... piperacillin) and a beta-lactamase inhibitor (i.e. clavulanic acid, sulbactam, tazobactam), and a carbapenem (imipenem, ... These include meropenem, imipenem-cilastatin, doripenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, or ceftazidime or cefepime in combination ... piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin in combination with metronidazole, or ceftazidime or cefepime in ... piperacillin-tazobactam or ticarcillin-clavulanate), or an advanced-generation cephalosporin (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ...
... or amoxicillin with clavulanic acid plus a macrolide has been suggested. In a hospital setting, injected (parenteral) ... cefepime, ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem or piperacillin-tazobactam; plus ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin, ... piperacillin/tazobactam) Mandell's Principles and Practices of Infection Diseases 6th Edition (2004) by Gerald L. Mandell MD, ...
Clavulanic acid Tazobactam Sulbactam Avibactam. ... Azlocillin Mezlocillin Piperacillin Cefazolin Cephalexin ...
... amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) and a macrolide antibiotic, such as azithromycin or clarithromycin, for seven to ... Another is an IV antipseudomonal beta-lactam such as cefepime, imipenem, meropenem or piperacillin/tazobactam, plus an ... One regimen is an intravenous antipseudomonal beta-lactam such as cefepime, imipenem, meropenem or piperacillin/tazobactam, ...
... clavulanic acids MeSH D02.065.589.099.374.160 --- clavulanic acid MeSH D02.065.589.099.374.160.060 --- amoxicillin-potassium ... piperacillin MeSH D02.065.589.099.750.750.050.700 --- pivampicillin MeSH D02.065.589.099.750.750.050.900 --- talampicillin MeSH ... edetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.455 --- egtazic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581 --- iodoacetic acid MeSH D02.241.081.038.581.400 ... muramic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562 --- neuraminic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.562.668 --- sialic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844. ...
"Sensitivity of clinical isolates from German hospitals to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) compared with other ... piperacillin and cefotaxime". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 6: S15-26. doi:10.1016/S0924-8579(96)80003-3. PMID ... Oehlert, W; Klietmann, W (1967). "The inhibition of ribonucleic acid synthesis with actinomycin and its recovery in different ...
কো-এমোক্সিক্লাভ (এমোক্সিসিলিন+ক্লাভুলানিক এসিড) [Co-amoxiclav (Amoxicillin+Clavulanic Acid)]. অধিকতর বিস্তৃত পরিসর[সম্পাদনা]. * ... পাইপেরাসিলিন (Piperacillin). সেফালোস্পোরিন (সেফিম)[সম্পাদনা]. মূল নিবন্ধ: সেফালোস্পোরিন. প্রথম প্রজন্ম[সম্পাদনা]. সেফালেক্সিনএর ...
Co-amoxiclav (Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid)# • Imipenem/cilastatin# • Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin) • Piperacillin/ ... penam (Sulbactam, Tazobactam) • clavam (Clavulanic acid). Combinations. ...
Use of clavulanic acid or tazobactam, beta-lactamase inhibitors, alongside penicillin gives penicillin activity against beta- ... and piperacillin, useful for their activity against Gram-negative bacteria. However, the usefulness of the β-lactam ring was ... The first step is the condensation of three amino acids-L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine, L-valine into a tripeptide.[63][64][ ... α-ketoglutarate + AcCoA → homocitrate → L-α-aminoadipic acid → L-lysine + β-lactam. The by-product, .mw-parser-output span. ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ... Cefuroxime is not metabolized, Axetil is metabolized to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ... 5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ... Phenoxymethylpenicillin is more acid-stable than benzylpenicillin, which allows it to be given orally. ... 3,3-Dimethyl-7-oxo-6-(2-phenoxyacetamido)-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ... This binding of vancomycin to the D-Ala-D-Ala prevents cell wall synthesis of the long polymers of N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) ... Before vancomycin is assembled through NRPS, the amino acids are first modified. L-tyrosine is modified to become the β- ... Nonribosomal peptide synthesis occurs through distinct modules that can load and extend the protein by one amino acid through ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/sulbactam (Sultamicillin). * ... 7-[2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-acetyl]amino-8-oxo-3-prop-1-enyl-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid ...
Mennink-Kersten MA, Warris A, Verweij PE (2006). "1,3-β-D-Glucan in patients receiving intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid ... False positives may occur because of fungal contaminants in the antibiotics amoxicillin-clavulanate, and piperacillin/ ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid#. *Imipenem/cilastatin#. *Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam. *Ampicillin/flucloxacillin. *Ampicillin/ ... 2S,5R,6R)-3,3-Dimethyl-7-oxo-6-(2-phenylacetamido)-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid ... Quinolines (e.g., 4-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid, 5,7-CIQA, 7-CIQ, 7-TFQ, 7-TFQA) ...
Manufacturer & Supplier of Ticarcillin Clavulanic Acid Injection Ip Usp based in Bengaluru, India ... Piperacillin Tazobactum For Injection Usp. *Ticarcillin Clavulanic Acid Injection Ip Usp. *Tigecycline For Injection Usp ... Ticarcillin Clavulanic Acid Injection Ip Usp Ticarcillin: disrupts bacterial cell wall development by inhibiting peptidoglycan ... Clavulanic Acid: β-lactamase inhibitor; inactivates some β-lactamase enzymes commonly found in bacteria resistant to PCNs and ...
... ticarcillin-clavulanic acid; Tmp, trimethoprim; Tob, tobramycin; Tzp, tazobactam-piperacillin; B, Timelines for hospital stays ... ticarcillin-clavulanic acid; Tmp, trimethoprim; Tob, tobramycin; Tzp, tazobactam-piperacillin. ... ticarcillin-clavulanic acid; Tmp, trimethoprim; Tob, tobramycin; Tzp, tazobactam-piperacillin. ... Amc, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; Ami, amikacin; Amp, ampicillin; Caz, ceftazidime; Cip, ciprofloxacin; Cro, ceftriaxone; Fep, ...
... piperacillin; TIC, ticarcillin; AMX, amoxicillin; ETP, ertapenem; TCC, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid; CAZ, ceftazidime; CF, ... amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; CTX, cefotaxime; CXM, cefuroxime; MEM, meropenem; ATM, aztreonam; FEP, cefepime; CIP, ... and reduced susceptibility to piperacillin and cefalotin (data not shown).TZP, piperacillin/tazobactam; PIP, ...
Piperacillin. Clavulanic Acid. Imipenem. Ceftazidime. Ertapenem. Ampicillin. Cefuroxime. Cefepime. Piperacillin, Tazobactam ...
... meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam with and without clavulanic acid. David Raveh, Amos M Yinnon, Ellen Broide, Bernard ... Piperacillin-tazobactam appeared to be a poor choice, as our isolates produce ESBLs which are not successfully inhibited by ... Piperacillin-tazobactam was ineffective in a large percentage of isolates. The presence of clavulanate resulted in a 5-fold ... In vitro and in vivo activities of piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem at different inoculum sizes of ESBL-producing ...
The resistance of new ESBL isolates to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam decreased significantly in the ... piperacillin/tazobactam, and clarithromycin were undertaken over a 2-year period in the intervention hospital. We used ... intervention hospital; however, resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam increased after a return to the standard policy. The ... The resistance of new ESBL isolates to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam decreased significantly in the ...
... piperacillin; TIC, ticarcillin; AMX, amoxicillin; ETP, ertapenem; TCC, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid; CAZ, ceftazidime; CF, ... amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; CTX, cefotaxime; CXM, cefuroxime; MEM, meropenem; ATM, aztreonam; FEP, cefepime; CIP, ... and reduced susceptibility to piperacillin and cefalotin (data not shown).TZP, piperacillin/tazobactam; PIP, ...
... amoxillin-clavulanic acid, 24 percent; cefuroxime, 36.5 percent; ciprofloxacin, 45.1 percent; trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, ... 57.8 percent; nitrofurantoin, 4.8 percent; piperacillin-tazobactam, 4.8 percent; ceftriaxone, 34.4 percent; ertapenem, 0.9 ...
amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Piperacillin/tazobactamd Urinary infection. Uncomplicated: ciprofloxacin Uncomplicated: ... or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Pneumonia. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or ceftriaxine+macrolide, levofloxacin or moxifloxacin. ... bile acids, ammonia, aromatic amino acids, benzodiazepines, fatty acids, copper, urea, creatinine and lactate; (b) improves ... A carbapenem or piperacillin tazobactam is recommended in nosocomial infections in areas of high and low prevalence of ...
Ampicillinsulbactam Piperacillin-tazobactam Amoxycillin-clavulanate (clavulanic acid). Glycopeptides. Vancomycin, teicoplanin ... Augmentin is made of amoxicillin, a -lactam antibiotic, and clavulanic acid, a -lactamase inhibitor. The clavulanic acid is ... clavulanic acid (a -lactamase inhibitor). = Co-amoxiclav (Augmentin). Ampicillin (-lactam antibiotic) + sulbactam (a -lactamase ... 1) Clavulanic acid 2) Sulbactam. Cell wall inhibitors. 1. -lactam antibiotics. Penicillins Cephalosporins Carbapenems ...
... clavulanic acid constant 2; TET, Tetracycline; MIN, Minocycline; SXT, Trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole; PIP, Piperacillin; \ GEN ... piperacillin/ tazobactam constant 4, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid constant 2); cephalosporins (cefazolin, ceftazidime, ... piperacillin); β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (ampicillin/sulbactam 2:1 ratio, ...
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid * Ampicillin/sulbactam * Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid * Piperacillin/tazobactam Other Penicillins. * ... 4-Thia-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-6-((phenylacetyl)amino)- (2S-(2α,5α,6β))- ... They hoped to find a molecule that could compete with penicillin for the organic acid transporter responsible for secretion ... The line of true penicillins were the antipseudomonal penicillins, such as ticarcillin and piperacillin, useful for their ...
Systemic ciprofloxacin; ticarcillin + clavulanic acid; azlocillin; piperacillin. Anaerobic infection. Systemic metronidazole ( ... Flucloxacillin + fusidic acid (clindamycin if penicillin-sensitive). Vancomycin if MRSA+ve or Staphylococcus epidermidis -+ve. ... Systemic flucloxacillin; fusidic acid (erythromycin if penicillin-sensitive). Streptococcus species. Systemic penicillin, ... It was reported that the antimycotic effect of propionic acid is enhanced as pH declines (Woolford, 1975).. Effect of microbial ...
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid R. Piperacillin/Sulbactam R. Piperacillin/Tazobactam R*. Cefuroxim R ...
ticarcillin (+/-clavulanic acid). piperacillin (+/- tazobactam) 29 Therapeutic use of anti-pseudomonal penicillins ...
piperacillin plus tazobactam (brand name Tazocin). *temocillin (brand name Negaban). *ticarcillin plus clavulanic acid (brand ... co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, a non-antibiotic that enhances the action of penicillins, brand names include ... Penicillins that are combined with clavulanic acid should not be used during pregnancy and breastfeeding unless absolutely ...
Systemic ciprofloxacin; ticarcillin + clavulanic acid; azlocillin; piperacillin. Anaerobic infection. Systemic metronidazole ( ... Flucloxacillin + fusidic acid (clindamycin if penicillin-sensitive). Vancomycin if MRSA+ve or Staphylococcus epidermidis -+ve. ... peptic ulcer an ulceration of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum, due to action of the acid gastric ... Systemic flucloxacillin; fusidic acid (erythromycin if penicillin-sensitive). Streptococcus species. Systemic penicillin, ...
amoxicillin / clavulanic acid. • piperacillin-sulbactam. • piperacillin-tazobactam. In addition, this O104 strain posses an ...
Such antibiotics include piperacillin/tazobactam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, or meropenem. ... Monotherapy with moxifloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are appropriate for outpatient treatment of uncomplicated ... However, for patients with more extensive contamination, a single-drug regimen (with either imipenem/cilastin or piperacillin/ ... appropriate initial empiric antibiotic regimen must include either single-agent therapy with imipenem/cilastin or piperacillin/ ...
... amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC; 30 μg), ampicillin-sulbactam (SAM; 20 μg), piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP; 110 μg), cephalothin ... a cell-permeating green fluorescent marker of the nucleic acids of cells. The plate was then incubated in the dark at 30°C for ... nalidixic acid (NA; 30 μg), ciprofloxacin (CIP; 5 μg), enrofloxacin (ENR; 5 μg), tetracycline (TE; 30 μg), phosphomycin (FOS; ... especially nalidixic acid) showing the greatest increases in resistance. The reduced susceptibility to antibiotics as a result ...
... cefotaxime-clavulanic acid, 0.03; cefotaxime-sulbactam, 4; ceftazidime, 0.5; ciprofloxacin, 0.5; imipenem, 0.25; gentamicin, 64 ... piperacillin 256; and piperacillin-tazobactam, 0.5. Mating experiments with Escherichia coli J53 Azir (10) as the recipient ... Amino acid substitutions in a variant of IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:2023-2027. ... Sequences of β-lactamase genes encoding CTX-M-1 (MEN-1) and CTX-M-2 and relationship of their amino acid sequences with those ...
amoxicillin / clavulanic acid. piperacillin-sulbactam. piperacillin-tazobactam. In addition, this O104 strain posses an ability ...
What do piperacillin and ticarcillin need to be used with? B-lactamase inhibitor (tazobactam or clavulanic acid) ... Best initial-CXR; sputum stain and culture for acid-fast bacilli must be done 3 times to fully exclude TB!. Most accurate- ... 2) Antipseudomonal penicillin: Piperacillin/tazobactam OR. 3) Carbapenems: Imipenem, meropenem, or doripenem ... 1) Antipseudomonal beta-lactam (cephalosporin (ceftazidime or cefepime) OR penicillin (piperacillin/tazobactam) OR carbapenem ( ...
  • Background & objectives: Extended spectrum [beta]-lactamases (ESBLs) are often plasmid mediated derived from mutations in the classic TEM and SHV genes by one or more amino acid substitution around the active site. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A spontaneous mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 resistant to nalidixic acid and rifampin ( E. coli Rif r Nal r ) was used as the recipient in a transfer experiment and as the source of TEM-2 encoded by plasmid RP4. (asm.org)
  • The inactive ingredients are sodium chloride, USP, Water for Injection, USP, and may include hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. (rxlist.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed identity between the bla TEM gene of Kox 443 and the bla TEM-2 gene, except for a single A-to-G change at position 590, leading to the amino acid change from Ser-130 Gly. (asm.org)
  • En comparaison avec d'autres études, la prévalence de P. Aeruginosa dans les piscines était relativement faible, et le profil d'antibiorésistance de ces isolats communautaires était peu élevé. (who.int)