Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Coloration of the skin.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Measurement of the various properties of light.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
4-Methoxy-5-((5-methyl-4-pentyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ylidene)methyl)- 2,2'-bi-1H-pyrrole. A toxic, bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens and others. It has antibacterial, anticoccidial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, but is used mainly as a biochemical tool.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Color of the iris.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Photosensitive proteins expressed in the CONE PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of cone photopigments. Cone opsins are classified by their peak absorption wavelengths.
Inorganic salts of iodic acid (HIO3).
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
1,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-4,5-dicarboxyethyl-2,8-divinylbilenone. Biosynthesized from hemoglobin as a precursor of bilirubin. Occurs in the bile of AMPHIBIANS and of birds, but not in normal human bile or serum.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The absence of light.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Color of hair or fur.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).
Vitreoretinal membrane shrinkage or contraction secondary to the proliferation of primarily retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells, particularly fibrous astrocytes, followed by membrane formation. The formation of fibrillar collagen and cellular proliferation appear to be the basis for the contractile properties of the epiretinal and vitreous membranes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus in the family Monascaceae, order EUROTIALES. One species, Monascus purpureus, has multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.

Sulfhydryl compounds in melanocytes of yellow (Ay/a), nonagouti (a/a), and agouti (A/A) mice. (1/1706)

CLEFFMANN (1953, 1963a,b) has reported that yellow but not black melanocytes of agouti (A/A) rabbits contained reducing sulfhydryl compounds. We have attempted to repeat CLEFFMANN's observations in mouse melanocytes of the lethal yellow (Ay/a), nonagouti (a/a) and agouti (A/A) genotypes. Our results contradict those of CLEFFMANN and reveal that yellow and black melanocytes, regardless of genotype, possess equivalent amounts of histochemically detectable sulfhydryl compounds. These results do not support the hypothesis that agouti-locus genes act by controlling the sulfhydryl metabolism of pigment cells.  (+info)

Prochlorococcus, a marine photosynthetic prokaryote of global significance. (2/1706)

The minute photosynthetic prokaryote Prochlorococcus, which was discovered about 10 years ago, has proven exceptional from several standpoints. Its tiny size (0.5 to 0.7 microm in diameter) makes it the smallest known photosynthetic organism. Its ubiquity within the 40 degrees S to 40 degrees N latitudinal band of oceans and its occurrence at high density from the surface down to depths of 200 m make it presumably the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth. Prochlorococcus typically divides once a day in the subsurface layer of oligotrophic areas, where it dominates the photosynthetic biomass. It also possesses a remarkable pigment complement which includes divinyl derivatives of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chl b, the so-called Chl a2 and Chl b2, and, in some strains, small amounts of a new type of phycoerythrin. Phylogenetically, Prochlorococcus has also proven fascinating. Recent studies suggest that it evolved from an ancestral cyanobacterium by reducing its cell and genome sizes and by recruiting a protein originally synthesized under conditions of iron depletion to build a reduced antenna system as a replacement for large phycobilisomes. Environmental constraints clearly played a predominant role in Prochlorococcus evolution. Its tiny size is an advantage for its adaptation to nutrient-deprived environments. Furthermore, genetically distinct ecotypes, with different antenna systems and ecophysiological characteristics, are present at depth and in surface waters. This vertical species variation has allowed Prochlorococcus to adapt to the natural light gradient occurring in the upper layer of oceans. The present review critically assesses the basic knowledge acquired about Prochlorococcus both in the ocean and in the laboratory.  (+info)

Numerical taxonomy of some yellow-pigmented bacteria isolated from plants. (3/1706)

Phenetic data on over 60 heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow chromogenic bacteria from plant material were collected and analysed using numerical taxonomic methods. Marker strains representing 42 taxa were included in the analyses. At similarity levels of 80% or above, eight distinct clusters were obtained, the first four of which included yellow chromogens. Custer I contained isolates from green healthy leaves of Agrostis tenuis, Festuca rubra, Holcus lanata, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis, and clusters 2 and 3 consisted of isolates from Holcus lanata seeds and leaves of P. pratensis respectively. Cluster 4 contained seven subgroups and was equated with the family Enterobacteriaceae. Erwinia herbicola strains from a variety of sources formed a homogeneous subgroup, readily distinguishable from authentic strains of E. amylovora, E. carotovora, other representative erwiniae, and from all other enterobacteria studied. These data emphasize the heterogeneous nature of yellow-pigmented bacteria from plants, and support the inclusion of E. herbicola and other Erwinia species in the Enterobacteriaceae.  (+info)

Cyanobacterial phycobilisomes. Characterization of the phycobilisomes of Synechococcus sp. 6301. (4/1706)

A procedure is described for the preparation of stable phycobilisomes from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 6301 (also known as Anacystis nidulans). Excitation of the phycocyanin in these particles at 580 nm leads to maximum fluorescence emission, from allophycocyanin and allophycocyanin B, at 673 nm. Electron microscopy shows that the phycobilisomes are clusters of rods. The rods are made up of stacks of discs which exhibit the dimensions of short stacks made up primarily of phycocyanin (Eiserling, F. A., and Glazer, A. N. (1974) J. Ultrastruct. Res. 47, 16-25). Loss of the clusters, by dissociation into rods under suitable conditions, is associated with loss of energy transfer as shown by a shift in fluorescence emission maximum to 652 nm. Synechococcus sp. 6301 phycobilisomes were shown to contain five nonpigmented polypeptides in addition to the colored subunits (which carry the covalently bound tetrapyrrole prosthetic groups) of the phycobiliproteins. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that these colorless polypeptides are genuine components of the phycobilisome. The nonpigmented polypeptides represent approximately 12% of the protein of the phycobilisomes; phycocyanin, approximately 75%, and allophycocyanin, approximately 12%. Spectroscopic studies that phycocyanin is in the hexamer form, (alpha beta)6, in intact phycobilisomes, and that the circular dichroism and absorbance of this aggregate are little affected by incorporation into the phycobilisome structure.  (+info)

Determination of the stoichiometry and strength of binding of xanthophylls to the photosystem II light harvesting complexes. (5/1706)

Xanthophylls have a crucial role in the structure and function of the light harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHCII) in plants. The binding of xanthophylls to LHCII has been investigated, particularly with respect to the xanthophyll cycle carotenoids violaxanthin and zeaxanthin. It was found that most of the violaxanthin pool was loosely bound to the major complex and could be removed by mild detergent treatment. Gentle solubilization of photosystem II particles and thylakoids allowed the isolation of complexes, including a newly described oligomeric preparation, enriched in trimers, that retained all of the in vivo violaxanthin pool. It was estimated that each LHCII monomer can bind at least one violaxanthin. The extent to which different pigments can be removed from LHCII indicated that the relative strength of binding was chlorophyll b > neoxanthin > chlorophyll a > lutein > zeaxanthin > violaxanthin. The xanthophyll binding sites are of two types: internal sites binding lutein and peripheral sites binding neoxanthin and violaxanthin. In CP29, a minor LHCII, both a lutein site and the neoxanthin site can be occupied by violaxanthin. Upon activation of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase, the highest de-epoxidation state was found for the main LHCII component and the lowest for CP29, suggesting that only violaxanthin loosely bound to LHCII is available for de-epoxidation.  (+info)

A clinical study of type 1 neurofibromatosis in north west England. (6/1706)

A clinical study of patients on the North West Regional Genetic Register with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) identified 523 affected cases from 304 families. In those for whom relevant information was available, 86.7% (383 of 442) had more than six cafe au lait patches, 83.8% (310 of 370) had axillary freckling, 42.3% (151 of 357) had inguinal freckling, and 63% (157 of 249) had Lisch nodules. Cutaneous neurofibromas were present in 59.4% (217 of 365) and 45.5% (150 of 330) were noted to have subcutaneous tumours. Plexiform neurofibromas were present in 15.3% (80 of 523). A positive family history of NF1 was found in 71.2% (327 of 459) and 28.8% (132 of 459) of affected patients were considered to be the result of a new mutation. Learning difficulties of varying severity occurred in 62% (186 of 300). CNS tumours associated with NF1 were reported in 9.4% (49) of patients, optic gliomas occurring in 25 of these, 4.8% of patients. Some degree of scoliosis was reported for 11.7% (61), 1.9% (10) had pseudoarthrosis, 4.3% (23) had epilepsy, and 2.1% (11) had spinal neurofibromas. Actuarial analyses were carried out for both optic glioma and malignant nerve sheath tumours and the data are presented.  (+info)

Regulation of mammalian circadian behavior by non-rod, non-cone, ocular photoreceptors. (7/1706)

Circadian rhythms of mammals are entrained by light to follow the daily solar cycle (photoentrainment). To determine whether retinal rods and cones are required for this response, the effects of light on the regulation of circadian wheel-running behavior were examined in mice lacking these photoreceptors. Mice without cones (cl) or without both rods and cones (rdta/cl) showed unattenuated phase-shifting responses to light. Removal of the eyes abolishes this behavior. Thus, neither rods nor cones are required for photoentrainment, and the murine eye contains additional photoreceptors that regulate the circadian clock.  (+info)

Identification of a peptide from mammal albumins responsible for enhanced pigment production by group B streptococci. (8/1706)

The peptide from peptones responsible for enhanced pigment production by Streptococcus agalactiae in culture media has been isolated from a peptic digest of human albumin and has been identified as Ile-Ala-Arg-Arg-His-Pro-Tyr-Phe. The related heptapeptide lacking the N-terminal Ile also had pigment-enhancing activity. A sequence similarity search showed that these sequences are present only in mammal albumins.  (+info)

0053] Non-limiting examples of suitable magenta or red or violet organic pigments include C.I. Pigment Red 1, C.I. Pigment Red 2, C.I. Pigment Red 3, C.I. Pigment Red 4, C.I. Pigment Red 5, C.I. Pigment Red 6, C.I. Pigment Red 7, C.I. Pigment Red 8, C.I. Pigment Red 9, C.I. Pigment Red 10, C.I. Pigment Red 11, C.I. Pigment Red 12, C.I. Pigment Red 14, C.I. Pigment Red 15, C.I. Pigment Red 16, C.I. Pigment Red 17, C.I. Pigment Red 18, C.I. Pigment Red 19, C.I. Pigment Red 21, C.I. Pigment Red 22, C.I. Pigment Red 23, C.I. Pigment Red 30, C.I. Pigment Red 31, C.I. Pigment Red 32, C.I. Pigment Red 37, C.I. Pigment Red 38, C.I. Pigment Red 40, C.I. Pigment Red 41, C.I. Pigment Red 42, C.I. Pigment Red 48(Ca), C.I. Pigment Red 48(Mn), C.I. Pigment Red 57(Ca), C.I. Pigment Red 57:1, C.I. Pigment Red 88, C.I. Pigment Red 112, C.I. Pigment Red 114, C.I. Pigment Red 122, C.I. Pigment Red 123, C.I. Pigment Red 144, C.I. Pigment Red 146, C.I. Pigment Red 149, C.I. Pigment Red 150, C.I. Pigment Red 166, ...
Pigmented subtetraploid subhexaploid mouse melanoma cells were fused with a range of different cell types. Expression of pigment formation appeared to be dependent on the phenotype of the non-melanoma parent cell, so that hybrids with lymphoid cells or chick embryo erythrocytes produced pigment, but hybrids between fibroblasts or epithelial rat hepatoma cells did not. The results were independent of gene dosage of either parent cell. gamma-irradiation of suppressing partner cells prior to fusion caused progressive increase in pigmentation with increasing dose of radiation. Cybrids between cytoplasts of suppressing fibroblasts and melanoma cells were pigmented. ...
The aim of this note is to test an empirical algorithm using spectral curvature theory at selected SeaWiFS hyerspectral bands, in order to estimate the chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the coastal waters of Baie des Chaleurs (Gulf of St. Lawrence). Simulated SeaWiFS algorithms require the measurement of reflectances with a high sensitive spectroradiometer as well as the responsitivity of SeaWiFS sensor at each band. Volume reflectances were taken using a hand held spectroradiometer simultaneously to measurements of in situ chlorophyll pigment concentrations. An empirical algorithm of the form: log (chlorophyll pigments) 0.92-0.46 Delta2 log R0sea(555) yields an estimate of chlorophyll pigment concentrations within a mean deltaC / C of 23 ...
Innovating Science™ Chlorophyll is the most prevalent and well-known plant pigment related to photosynthesis. It is not, however, the only plant pigment necessary for …
Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption. Biological pigments include plant pigments and flower pigments. Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, feathers, fur and hair contain pigments such as melanin in specialized cells called chromatophores. Pigment color differs from structural color in that it is the same for all viewing angles, whereas structural color is the result of selective reflection or iridescence, usually because of multilayer structures. For example, butterfly wings typically contain structural color, although many butterflies have cells that contain pigment as well. See conjugated systems for electron bond chemistry that causes these molecules to have pigment. Heme/porphyrin-based: chlorophyll, bilirubin, hemocyanin, hemoglobin, myoglobin Light-emitting: luciferin Carotenoids: Hematochromes (algal pigments, mixes of carotenoids and their ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The crystal structure of CI Pigment Yellow 97, a superior performance Hansa yellow pigment. AU - Christie, Robert M.. AU - Hill, Jacqueline M.. AU - Rosair, Georgina. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - CI Pigment Yellow 97 is one of the most important industrial Hansa yellow monoazo pigments because of its superior technical performance in application. Crystals of this pigment are triclinic. The molecule adopts the ketohydrazone form in its crystal structure and there is strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The molecule deviates significantly from planarity. The phenyl ring of the phenylsulfonamide group is positioned like an open lid, making an angle of 52.21(11)° with the arylhydrazone ring. There is also a degree of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between sulfonamide groups in adjacent molecules. The relationship between features seen in the crystal structure and the technical performance of this pigment are discussed, particularly with regard to the role of the phenylsulfonamide ...
Chromatography is used to study plant pigment by extracting pigments from the plant and then sorting them by their physical characteristics so they can be analyzed. Chromatography is useful in...
In the Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis Laboratory Kit for Classic AP* Biology Lab 4, separate and chromatograms and envision light reactions. Refill is available.
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0039]More specifically, examples of the organic pigment include perylene-compound pigments, such as C.I. Pigment Red 179, C.I. Pigment Red 190, C.I. Pigment Red 224, C.I. Pigment Violet 29, or the like; perynone-compound pigments, such as C.I. Pigment Orange 43, C.I. Pigment Red 194 or the like; quinacridone-compound pigments, such as C.I. Pigment Violet 19, C.I. Pigment Violet 42, C.I. Pigment Red 122, C.I. Pigment Red 192, C.I. Pigment Red 202, C.I. Pigment Red 207, C.I. Pigment Red 209 or the like; quinacridonequinone-compound pigments, such as C.I. Pigment Red 206, C.I. Pigment Orange 48, C.I. Pigment Orange 49, or the like; anthraquinone-compound pigments, such as C.I. Pigment Yellow 147 or the like; anthanthrone-compound pigments, such as C.I. Pigment Red 168 or the like; benzimidazolone-compound pigments, such as C.I. Pigment Brown 25, C.I. Pigment Violet 32, C.I. Pigment Yellow 180, C.I. Pigment Yellow 181, C.I. Pigment Orange 36, C.I. Pigment Orange 62, C.I. Pigment Red 185, or the ...
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ABSTRACT: The marine photoheterotroph Erythrobacter longus Strain NJ3Y was grown in continuous culture under variable light:dark (L:D) regimes of 24:0, 12:12 and 0:24 h to examine the influence of photoperiod on pigmentation and metabolic efficiency. Average carbon mass balances for each light regime closed to within 5%, giving confidence in the measured variables as well as calculations of physiological parameters. Significant differences in photosynthetic pigmentation were observed for the experimental light treatments, with highest and lowest pigment concentrations measured in the 0:24 and 24:0 h L:D regimes, respectively, indicating that the photosynthetic pigments of E. longus Strain NJ3Y are preferentially synthesized in the dark. These differences are consistent with the strategy that photosynthetic pigments are produced during periods of darkness, for use in energy harvesting during subsequent light periods. In contrast, concentrations of the photoprotective pigment caloxanthin sulfate ...
The present invention relates to pigments, comprising a plate-like substrate of glass having an average thickness of <1 μm, especially of from 20 nm to 400 nm, and (a) a dielectric material, especi
Egg: This egg was only once encountered in a gelatinous cluster, and is far less common than ABHIIIA1. The egg is only slightly oval, and as the larva develops, the perivitelline space increases (A). The yolk is rough-surfaced, and the chorion has a green or red tinge. Incubation is about 30 hours. Larva: Newly hatched larvae have four white/yellow pigment spots, and blotchy black pigment, in the outer finfold (B), and a rough finfold surface (C). At 1 day, the two dorsal yellow pigment clusters move into the dorsal finfold (C). At 6 days the larva has black pigment above the gut and a patch on the notochord midway between anus and notochord tip, whilet the yellow pigment persists, but has paled to white (F). B: newly hatched, C: 1 day, D: 2 days, E: 3 days, F: 6 days.. This egg was not reared. Three hatched larvae sequences, indicate a single species, but no matching adult sequence is currently available (BOLD), and they are curiously remotely positioned in my barcode tree, away from other ...
Unmatched in their softness and consistency, Schmincke soft pastels were created using the finest artists pigments and a minimum of binders. Pastel softness permits beautiful dense application, and high pigment concentration results in intense colors.
Unmatched in their softness and consistency, Schmincke soft pastels were created using the finest artists pigments and a minimum of binders. Pastel softness permits beautiful dense application, and high pigment concentration results in intense colors.
Fluctuations in market availability of natural and synthetic pigments have generated a need for new strategies to optimise the use of available pigments and maintain colouration levels of demanded products. Yellow pigments can partially be replaced by red pigments to obtain the same desired result.
Chosen biweekly for their relevance to personal care, Patent Picks are taken from publicly available sources. This edition features technologies related to color, such as pigments, films and colorants for skin and hair care.
Head: Expression - Soft, dark-eyed, inquisitive, alert. Eyes are round, black or dark brown and are set in the skull to look directly forward. An overly large or bulging eye is a fault as is an almond shaped, obliquely set eye. Halos, the black or very dark brown skin surrounding the eyes, are necessary as they accentuate the eye and enhance expression. The eye rims themselves must be black. Broken pigment, or total absence of pigment on the eye rims produce a blank and staring expression, which is a definite fault. Eyes of any color other than black or dark brown are a very serious fault and must be severely penalized. Ears are drop and are covered with long flowing hair. When extended toward the nose, the leathers reach approximately halfway the length of the muzzle. They are set on slightly higher than eye level and rather forward on the skull, so that when the dog is alert they serve to frame the face. The skull is slightly rounded, allowing for a round and forward looking eye. The stop is ...
Get an answer for what photosynthetic pigments are present in euglenophyta? and find homework help for other Photosynthesis questions at eNotes
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Skin is made up of two layers. The surface Epidermis containing nerves, Melatin pigment for skin colour and is regularly replaced. The layer underneath is the Dermis containing closely woven connective tissue, nerve glands, blood vessels, lymph vessels and hair follicles. Health of both layers is paramount. The body needs to be able to excrete oil to keep the hairs (on your head and body) healthy and helps form a barrier to water, suns rays, bacteria, parasites and to protect the glands below. Sweat helps the body maintain body temperature as well as excreting waste. Hence why an anti-perspirant can contribute to the bodys toxic environment. As well as absorbing products from our environment to communicate messages to the body, for example sunlight to communicate the increase of pigment formation to help change the skin colour to protect from the suns rays. The Ph of skin is also very important, to help promote the life of the bacteria on the skin providing a service to the body and preventing ...
Three major classes of photosynthetic pigments occur among the algae: chlorophylls, carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) and phycobilins. The pigments are characteristic of certain algal groups as indicated below.
The present invention provides a compound and a pigment dispersant, each of which improves the dispersibility of various types of pigments in a non-aqueous solvent and also provides a pigment composi
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Skin lesion excision is a procedure in which the surgeon removes a cancerous skin lesion and an area of surrounding tissue called the margin. There are three types of skin cancer: Basal cell cancer is the least invasive with the least amount of margin removed; squamous cell is more aggressive with a wider margin required. Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, occurring in the cells that produce pigment. Many types of benign skin growths may look like malignant tumors and are removed for a biopsy. If a lesion looks precancerous it may be removed as a precaution.
This invention relates to a process for preparing conditioned organic pigments by (a) milling a mixture comprising: (1) one or more crude organic pigments; (2) at least about 0.1% by weight, relative to the organic pigment, of one or more acrylic copolymer dispersants; and (3) 0 to about 100 parts by weight, relative to the organic pigment, of a milling liquid in which the organic pigment is substantially insoluble; and (b) isolating the milled organic pigment.
By organizing pigments on a DNA scaffold, an MIT-led team of researchers has designed a light-harvesting material that closely mimics the structure of naturally occurring photosynthetic structures. This type of structure could be incorporated into materials such as glass or textiles, enabling them to harvest or store energy from sunlight.
new species. (Figs. 1-9). Nymph (in alcohol) (Fig. 1). Body length 3.5-4.5 mm. Head (Figs. 1, 2): light brown; vertex with a pair of black markings near mid-posterior margin, posterolateral corners dark brown to black; pale yellow between lateral ocelli, bases of antennae and eyes. Ocelli black at base, remainder pale. Scape and proximal 4 / 5 of pedicel dark brown, remainder of antennae pale yellow. Thorax (Fig. 1): pronotum with a pair of small black submedian spots near posterior margin, and dark brown sublateral dashes; pronotum strongly divergent anteriorly with anterolateral corners somewhat pointed (Fig. 2). Mesonotum with a pair of prominent irregular dark brown to black dashes near base of wing pads. Sterna pale tan, faintly shaded with light brown around base of coxae and sternal sutures. Legs (Fig. 3): cream colored, basal 1 / 3 of femora and tibiae faintly washed with light brown; coxae with dark brown markings; small anteroapical spot on trochanters; femora with a prominent dark ...
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Similar words for Flavonoid. Definition: noun. any of a large class of plant pigments having a chemical structure based on or similar to flavone.
The electrophoresis pattern shown in the top row reveals a single enzyme present and corresponds to white petals observed. If the band was from enzyme 1, the enzyme would have catalyzed the transformation of the uncolored pigment precursor to its lilac form. However, the petals remained white, so we can conclude that the band reveals enzyme 2 and enzyme 1 is missing; if enzyme 1 were present it would have made the lilac pigment from the uncolored precursor but, without enzyme 1 or the lilac pigment present, enzyme 2 can be present in the cell but cannot produce the blue pigment because its substrate (lilac pigment) is not present ...
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Buy Illamasqua Cream Pigment at SkinCareRX! We have the best range of Illamasqua Make-Up products online. Free delivery available!
SHL series fluorescent pigment is liquid pigment.. It has superfine particle size, intense fluorescence, and good dispensability.. Formaldehyde free,no heavy metals, APEO and any of the 23 aromatic amines prohibited, enabling the compliance with EU environmental requirements.. ...
PIGMENT METABOLISM PRESENTER - Dr SHREYA PRABHU MODERATOR - Dr ANISHA T S 1 INTRODUCTION  PIGMENTS are colored substances, some of which are normal constituents of cell,…
General Information: Country: China; Environment: Marine; Isolation: Seawater collected in a mussel farm; Temp: Mesophile. Heterotrophic, Gram-negative, gliding, pigmented bacteria. ...
General Information: Country: China; Environment: Marine; Isolation: Seawater collected in a mussel farm; Temp: Mesophile. Heterotrophic, Gram-negative, gliding, pigmented bacteria. ...
This dusty pink is named after the blushing walls we often admire in newly plastered houses. It is definitely a pink in historic terms, but has a certain softness to it due to the inclusion of yellow pigment. Our timeless Setting Plaster creates a wonderful backdrop to antique furniture, and also works incredibly well
62 gorgeous glossy, creamy colors made for the hand method! Any of our pigments may be used with a machine, mixed together to create a custom shade, or used alone for steadfast natural results! The SofTap® needle configurations (or blades) are designed to provide maximum comfort, fast healing, complete control, little
Red Blood Cells (RBC) - approx. 1 million RBC in one drop of blood. Made in the bone marrow. Carry O2 around the body, from the lungs to all the cells in the body. Biconcave disc shape. No nucleus. Haemoglobin - a red pigment that contains iron & picks up oxygen. ...
The objective of this study was to extract yellow pigment from powder turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes and to evaluate the preservative/antioxidant activity of oil-soluble yellow pigment at concentrations 0.5, 0.1 and 0.2% (w/w) in soybean oil after accelerated oxidation at for 7 days. Soy bean oil free from antioxidant (control) and with 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (synthetic antioxidant) were used to control. In addition, the effects of combined treatment of water-soluble yellow pigment at ratio 3% (w/w) and gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken breast fillet samples during cold storage (4 ± ) to extend the shelf-life of chicken breast fillets were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of 0.2% oil-soluble yellow pigment caused detectable increments in the oxidative stability of soy bean oil compared with control and other treatments under investigation. The results showed that the ratio of 3
Carotenoid Production by Bacillus clausii Using Rice Powder as the Sole Substrate: Pigment Analyses and Optimization of Key Production Parameters
In submerged cultures performed in chemically defined fermentation medium containing glucose and glutamate, the growth and production of water‐soluble red pigments and citrinin by the filamentous fungus Monascus ruber were studied under various carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios. The specific production of the red pigments was optimal at a glucose/glutamate ratio of about 10 and then steadily decreased at higher C/N ratio. In contrast, the production of the mycotoxin increased with increased C/N with an optimum in the range of 30-45. In a fed‐batch mode, it was also found that the production of pigments was not favoured in fed‐batch mode by feeding the medium with glucose while keeping the C/N ratio lower than 10. This low production likely resulted from concurrent high accumulation of L‐malic acid that was reported to inhibit this production. In contrast, this mode of cultivation was rather favourable for the production of the mycotoxin ...
Looking for pigment-producing ray? Find out information about pigment-producing ray. in physics, term denoting the straight line along which light light, visible electromagnetic radiation. Of the entire electromagnetic spectrum, the human... Explanation of pigment-producing ray
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Youve undoubtedly heard of chlorophyll, and you probably know that plants couldnt live without it. Still, you may wonder: What is chlorophyll exactly, and are there chlorophyll benefits for humans? As we learned back in science class, chlorophyll is a type of plant pigment responsible for the absorption of light in t
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ABSTRACT: The relationships between photoadaptation, photoacclimation, cell size and the optical characteristics of the phytoplankton community were studied in 2 areas of the Atlantic Ocean. Pigment composition, absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra were analyzed for samples collected during 2 spring cruises: one in the Labrador Sea and the other in the Central North Atlantic. Photoadaptation (i.e. evolutionary adaptation of different species leading to acquisition of different pigment composition) was evident in the distribution of the main phytoplankton pigments in the area. Photoacclimation (i.e. temporary changes in pigment concentrations in a given species) was also noticeable in the changes in pigment composition and optical characteristics of phytoplankton with changes in depth. Size fractionation of samples from the depth of the chlorophyll a (chl a) maximum showed that, on average, chl a concentration and the values of absorption and fluorescence were dominated by the ,2 µm ...
Pigment-producing (Animal-type) Melanoma Pigment-producing (Animal-type) Melanoma Images
We assessed the influence of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium on the bio-optical properties of western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) waters (18-22 degrees S, 160 degrees E-160 degrees W) during the February-March 2015 OUTPACE cruise. We performed measurements of backscattering and absorption coefficients, irradiance, and radiance in the euphotic zone with a Satlantic MicroPro free-fall profiler and took Underwater Vision Profiler 5 (UPV5) pictures for counting the largest Trichodesmium spp. colonies. Pigment concentrations were determined by fluorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography and picoplankton abundance by flow cytometry. Trichome concentration was estimated from pigment algorithms and validated by surface visual counts. The abundance of large colonies counted by the UVP5 (maximum 7093 colonies m(-3)) was well correlated to the trichome concentrations (maximum 2093 trichomes L-1) with an aggregation factor of 600. In the Melanesian archipelago, a maximum of ...
Eat black rice controlled blood pressure anti aging teach you to buy skills - Shaanxi channel - original title: eat rice controlled blood pressure anti-aging teach you buy skills commonly used in black rice porridge, which is one of the most nutritious food. So, in addition to the outside will have black rice porridge to eat what? What are the efficacy and effect of black rice? Here is for everyone to introduce the relevant knowledge of specific small black rice. The nutritional value of black rice aging, prevent arteriosclerosis. The black skin layer containing anthocyanin pigment, the pigment itself has very strong anti-aging effect. The domestic and foreign research shows that the deeper the color of M, then the anti-aging effects of skin pigment is stronger, the role of black rice pigment is the strongest in a variety of colors M. In addition, this pigment is also rich in flavonoids active substances, is 5 times as much rice, has a significant effect on the prevention of ...
Cyanobacteria have two types of sunscreen pigments, scytonemin and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). These secondary metabolites are thought to play multiple roles against several environmental stresses such as UV radiation and desiccation. Not only the large molar absorption coefficients of these sunscreen pigments, but also their antioxidative properties may be necessary for the protection of biological molecules against the oxidative damages induced by UV radiation. The antioxidant activity and vitrification property of these pigments are thought to be requisite for the desiccation and rehydration processes in anhydrobiotes. In this review, the multiple roles of photosynthetic pigments and sunscreen pigments on stress resistance, especially from the viewpoint of their structures, biosynthetic pathway, and in vitro studies of their antioxidant activity, will be discussed.
The notion that natural means healthy and safe to consume has increased the demand for natural color ingredients for food, cosmetics, and drugs. However, finding high-performance and economically viable natural colorants is difficult, especially for blue hues (1). Blue mineral pigments inspired artists to represent the blue sky and waters, but despite their usual high stability, these materials are often expensive and contain toxic metal cations that limit their broad application. The visual exuberance of animals with blue structures frequently originates from coherent light scattering. Examples include the blue wings of the jaybird (Cyanocitta cristata L.) and morpho butterflies (Morpho spp. L.), the feather barbs of male Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus L.), and the hairs of the blue carpenter bee (Xylocopa caerulea F.) (2). Bioluminescence can also make animals and microorganisms look blue, at the cost of the adenosine triphosphate-fueled enzymatic oxidation of luciferins (3). Since the natural ...
Effect of organic pigments on coating properties. 1. The size of organic pigment particles has a great influence on the color performance of the coating. On the one hand, it will affect the hiding power and tinting strength of the coating. In the range of pigment, the particle size will increase, and the hiding power of the coating will increase. When the pigment particles become smaller, the coating will increase in specific surface area. The tinting strength is increased and the pigment particle size also has an effect on the color shade of the coating. Generally, the particle size distribution is larger, the color is darker, and the color is brighter. The other is that the strength of the pigment also affects the UV resistance of the coating. When the particle becomes smaller, the specific surface area increases, the absorbed light energy increases, and is damaged. The degree is also increased, so the paint fades faster. The small amount of pigment is less gravity, and the coating is not easy ...
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Global Pigment Supplier Directory, Pigment, Pigment Manufacturers, Pigment Factories, Pigment Manufacturing, Pigment Manufacturer, Factory,Pigment Export Company, Pigment Suppliers, Exporters, Pigment Producers, Wholesalers, Distributors, International Pigment, OEM Pigment, Chemical & Plastics.
Literally every min of day-to-day when I am not with customers I am looking, reading as well as considering eyebrows! Lol, ask my partner, haha, she claimed.. Selena is the owner of LA Micro brow, a microblading studio in Los Angeles. Right here are her best 11 tips for brand-new micro blades.. It was difficult whatsoever to build yourself as a qualified artist. There are numerous inquiries I had after my micro blading training, I desire I had an article like this when I first started and that is exactly why I created it. I learned these 11 tips and also techniques after my training and also they really took my eyebrows to the following degree.. # 1: Three Point Stretch. POINTER: Pull tight with a three-point stretch. That is where you utilize your thumb and pointer finger from the hand, not microblading and draw with your pinky with the hand microblading.. # 2: Make strokes without pigment on your blade. SUGGESTION: Make strokes on your very first or second pass without any pigment on your ...
Anthocyanin. Jack Sullivan. Keywords: chemistry: pigmentation.. Introduction. The red coloration found in carnivorous plants is caused by plant pigments known as anthocyanins. Because of the interest in pigment-free forms of certain carnivorous plants, Barry Rice asked me to write a brief summary of the biochemistry of these pigments. While somewhat technical, it is a fascinating topic. If you are interested in learning more about this topic and how it is related to the biology and evolution of these plants, read on.. Biology. Anthocyanins are members of a class of nearly universal, water-soluble, terrestrial plant pigments that can be classified chemically as both flavonoid (related to flavone/isoflavone, C15H10O2) and phenolic (related to phenol, C6H5OH). They are found in most land plants, with the exceptions of the cacti and the group containing the beet. They contribute colors to flowers and other plant parts ranging from shades of red through crimson and blue to purple, including yellow ...
Yellow-green algae, (class Xanthophyceae), class of approximately 600 species of algae in the division Chromophyta, most of which inhabit fresh water. Yellow-green algae vary in form and size from single-celled organisms to small filamentous forms or simple colonies. They were once classified with
The suspended particle assemblage in complex coastal waters is a mixture of living phytoplankton, other autochthonous matter, and materials of terrestrial origin. The characterization of suspended particles is important for understanding regional primary productivity and rates of carbon sequestration, the fate of anthropogenic materials released to the coastal environment, as well as its effects on bulk optical properties, which influence the passive optical remote sensing of the coastal ocean. Here, the extensive bio-optical Plumes and Blooms data set is used to characterize the surface particle assemblage in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, a highly productive, upwelling-dominated, coastal site affected by episodic sediment inputs. Available variables sensitive to characteristics of the particle assemblage include particle beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment concentration observations, chlorophyll and particulate organic ...
Naturally occurring pigments such as ochres and iron oxides have been used as colorants since prehistoric times. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that early humans used paint for aesthetic purposes such as body decoration. Pigments and paint grinding equipment believed to be between 350,000 and 400,000 years old have been reported in a cave at Twin Rivers, near Lusaka, Zambia.[5] Before the Industrial Revolution, the range of color available for art and decorative uses was technologically limited. Most of the pigments in use were earth and mineral pigments, or pigments of biological origin. Pigments from unusual sources such as botanical materials, animal waste, insects, and mollusks were harvested and traded over long distances. Some colors were costly or impossible to obtain, given the range of pigments that were available. Blue and purple came to be associated with royalty because of their rarity. Biological pigments were often difficult to acquire, and the details of their production ...
Scientists have isolated a blue pigment from cultured soil bacteria that could offer a natural colouring with an excellent stability and toxicology profile for food.
The rich, enticing colors that add eye appeal to fresh fruits, vegetables, leaves and flowers can change when heated or exposed to acid. Autumn leaves go from green to bright, glowing hues. French ...
The interdisciplinary module Bioenergetics in Oxygenic Photosynthesis highlights basic processes and methods in classical and current Photosynthesis research. The course guide you theoretically (lectures) and practically (lab) through the four phases of energy storage in photosynthesis: (1) light absorption and energy delivery by antenna systems, (2) primary electron transfer reactions, (3) energy stabilization by secondary processes (ATP, NADPH biosynthesis), and (4) synthesis and export of stable products (glycogen, starch). For this purpose, you are introduced to cellular light adaption processes such as Chromatic Adaptation and respective pigment analysis by both thin layer chromatography and spectroscopy (day 1). At the following day (day 2), you will isolate yourself thylakoid membranes (in the green dark light) from different thermophilic mutant strains varying in the composition of photosystem II. These kind of biological samples are analyzed by polyacrylamide-electrophoresis and ...
inorganic pigments red fe3o4/fe2o3/fe203 for cement tiles/wood mulch/colorant dye,US $ 3 - 25 / Kilogram, Fujian, China (Mainland), Ceramic Pigments, Coating Pigment, Cosmetic Pigment, Ink Pigments, Leather Pigments, Plastic & Rubber Pigment, Other, Winitoor.Source from Quanzhou Winitoor Industry Co., Ltd. on
Inorganic pigments have a much larger average particle size than organic pigments. The optimum particle size needed to achieve maximum light scattering - resulting in opacity - is between 400 and 800 nm (wavelength). The particles sizes of inorganic pigments are much closer to this optimum than those of organic pigments, which tend to be much lower. This is the main reason why most organic pigments are considered transparent and most inorganic pigments opaque ...
Colorey : commercialisation de colorants et pigments naturels et de synthese. Deconditionnement a facon, melange de poudre, contretypes de couleurs, solubilisations, conditionnement de seaux, sachets, de liquides
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Information 41467_2019_13041_MOESM1_ESM. both sponsor cell functionality and viability with strong signal generation. Right here, we present a homogentisic acid-derived pigment (HDP) for biocompatible intracellular labeling of macrophages with solid optoacoustic contrast effective enough to resolve single cells against a strong blood background. We study pigment formation during macrophage differentiation and activation, and utilize this labeling method to track migration of pro-inflammatory macrophages in vivo with whole-body imaging. We expand the sparse palette of macrophage labels for in vivo optoacoustic imaging and facilitate research on macrophage functionality and behavior. values. Cytokine/chemokine and LDH release assays BMDMs were generated as described above and treated for the last 5 days of differentiation with or YYA-021 without HGA at 0.5?mM for strong HDP pigmentation. Subsequently media was renewed for all samples, accordingly, with or ...
Consistency/Texture : Several terms that may be appropriate for describing the texture or consistency of bacterial growth are: dry, moist, viscid (sticks to loop, hard to get off), brittle/friable (dry, breaks apart), mucoid (sticky, mucus-like). Color of the colonies (pigmentation): Some bacteria produce pigment when they grow in the medium e.g., green pigment produces by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, buff colored colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in L.J medium, red colored colonies of Serratia marcescens.. Opacity of the bacterial colony: Is the colony transparent (clear), opaque (not transparent or clear), translucent (almost clear, but distorted vision-like looking through frosted glass), iridescent (changing colors in reflected light).. ...
Its week two of my rainbow-themed colorful foods project. Time for some orange foods! While red foods can get their pigment from many different types of molecules, orange foods primarily get their pigment from carotenoids. Carotenoids can make red, yellow or orange pigments in plants. For animals they can satisfy several essential nutritional functions, notably ...
Eye color in Drosophila depends on the synthesis of two pigments, a red pigment and a brown pigment, resulting in the wild-type (WT) dull red eye color. Mutations blocking production of the brown pigment result in bright red.
During daytime, I use the Relumins TA Stem Cell Therapy Advance All in One Day Lotion. The active ingredients are cradled in a light lotion base designed to hydrate and be absorbed deep into the skin where they can do the most to stimulate healthy skin repair, breakdown dark pigments and prevent new pigment formation. This lotion has the ability to protect our skin from harmful rays of the sun and pollution. And thats honestly a big factor for me because I go out a lot and I dont want the sun and pollution to take away my youthful glow and give me sun spots and wrinkles. Thats why the use of this kind of lotion with sun protection is my number one priority. ...
Health management and winning practice articles, value-based healthcare, healthcare events, company and product directory, I-I-I videos and I-I-I blog interviews.
Health management and winning practice articles, value-based healthcare, healthcare events, company and product directory, I-I-I videos and I-I-I blog interviews.
Chinese Angelica, the main ingredient in the Sishen soap, is a potent anti-oxidant that helps prevent pigment formation and increases the skins ability to fade
Photosynthetic Pigments tutorial all along with the key concepts of Pigments, Pigments in Plants, Accessory Pigments, Chloroplasts, Complexes of Pigments in Chloroplasts, Photophosphorylation-Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts
The most common appearance is a pigmented, elevated choroidal lesion that will enlarge without treatment (Fig. 21.2.1 and Fig. 21.2.2). Without documented growth, features such as overlying lipofuscin (orange pigment), associated subretinal fluid, larger size, and proximity to the optic nerve help to differentiate from benign lesions such as choroidal nevus. On a clinical basis, the diagnosis can be made with greater than 99% accuracy. Biopsy is rarely necessary, but can confirm the diagnosis. Radiation retinopathy can often develop after treatment with external radiation (Fig 21.2.3).. ...
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The inheritance of flower-colour in Antirrhinum majus has been worked out by one of us and also by Baur. Investigation has shown that the flower-colour of the type in Antirrhinum is due to the presence of at least six factors and that these, in various combinations, produce a series of colour-varieties. Full accounts of the factors have been given in the papers cited, but for convenience of reference four are mentioned again here, i. e.:- Y. A factor representing the power to form ivory pigment in the tube, accompanied by yellow pigment in the lips. I. A factor representing the power to form ivory pigment in the lips. R. A factor representing the power to form red pigment in the flower. B. A factor representing the power to convert red into magenta pigment. ...
The dark oval area in the photo represents a nevus, composed of melanin containing cells similar to a mole on the skin. The risk is that this could change into a melanoma, a particularly invasive type of tumor.. Appearance can vary, with some characteristics considered as indicators of greater risk of malignant transformation. Increasing size has long been considered the most important warning sign.. (Other risk indicators include: visual symptoms, greater tumor thickness and diameter, presence of orange pigment, absence of drusen, absence of adjacent RPE changes, tumor near disc and subretinal fluid. See COMS). A recent population study estimates that, among the Caucasian population, between 5 to 8% harbor a choroidal nevus. Using the number of cases of melanoma reported in the US, the estimated chance of a nevus turning into a melanoma is 1 in 8,845 per year.. [Ophthalmology,112;10, pp 1784 - 1789]. ...
New hope in the fight against cardiovascular disease has arrived, following breakthrough research identifying a pigment in our bile which could protect us.
There are some causes that might have causes blood in the stool, such as cancer and ulcers. Bright red body-fluid and more, the most likely origin is that the large intestine or rectum. If your stools are black, the body-fluid may come from a stomach ulcer from an expanse in the rectum.. After a tenacious said he sees the pooping blood is seldom incorrect. The only thing that can cool mix of body fluid (rectal bleeding) is a red pigment that can get away digestion of food. Pigment in beets, if consumed in large quantities can make a dark red stool, which is more widespread in juvenile children than in mature persons. I guess the diet of other red pigments can furthermore initiate confusion.. If a question is asked about if the blood diffuses into the water in the toilet basin. Fresh body-fluid diffuses rather quickly, and turns the water a familiar lightweight yellowish pink-red, while beet pigment moves into answer without altering hue. Black stools can furthermore outcome from ingestion of ...
This new resource supports the use of practicals across various new 2015 A-level biology specifications (OCR, AQA, Edexcel and Eduqas). Students conduct Thin Layer Chromatography individually or in pairs to separate and identify the photosynthetic pigments from plant material within half an hour. This simple method has been designed to produce good separation of photosynthetic pigments using solvents that are suitable for use in a school biology laboratory.
Fruits, Vegetables, and Skin Cancer There is a whole new reason to eat your fruits and vegetables, and it stems from the possible prevention of melanoma. Melanoma is a potentially deadly form of skin cancer that generally begins to develop in the melanocytes, which are cells that are used by the body to produce pigment. … *. *Results May VaryContinue reading. ...
Egg: Initially this egg was separated from the next (KIIIB8), by the latter developing into a larva with a long gut and serrated finfold edge (KIIIB8), while KIIIB7 has a smooth finfold edge. However it became apparent that within this code (KIIIB7) there are at least 2 species, figured above as Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 has a dotted line of black pigment on the embryo, while in Type 2 it is a continuous dull smudge. Both types have a red sheen to the chorion in reflected light. Being small eggs, they often hatch while the sample is being processed in the evening, especially in summer. Incubation is 22-26 hours, assuming evening spawning. Larva: The newly hatched larva looks much the same in both types, but at 3-4 days pigment has coalesced into two big spots, and the larva has an elongate snout, while in Type 2, pigment remains dotted along the ventral edge of the notochord, and the larva is blunt-nosed (C). Both have a smooth finfold edge. B: 1 day, C: 3-4 days (23 C). While some of these ...
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. Melanomas typically occur in the skin but may rarely occur in the mouth, intestines, or eye. In women they most commonly occur on the legs, while in men they are most common on the back. Sometimes they develop from a mole with concerning changes including an increase in size, irregular edges, change in color, itchiness, or skin breakdown. ...
Main article: Biological pigment. Among the most important molecules for plant function are the pigments. Plant pigments ... All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. The light that is absorbed may ... The most familiar carotenoids are carotene (an orange pigment found in carrots), lutein (a yellow pigment found in fruits and ... Pigments are used by plants to absorb or detect light, and are extracted by humans for use in dyes. Other plant products may be ...
Study on the pigments". Palau Tropical Biological Station Studies. 2: 617-74. McLaughlin, John J. A.; Zahl, Paul A. (1959). " ... Morphological Variation in Symbiodinium microadriaticum". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 207 (1169): ... The Biological Bulletin. 200 (2): 127-43. doi:10.2307/1543306. JSTOR 1543306. PMID 11341574. Peng, Shao-En; Wang, Yu-Bao; Wang ... Biological Sciences. 273 (1599): 2305-12. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3567. PMC 1636081. PMID 16928632. Sampayo, E. M.; Ridgway, T.; ...
"Photosynthetic pigments in marine diatoms" in 1984. In 1996 she completed a PhD titled "Toxicity of Metals in Biological ... "Photosynthetic pigments in marine diatoms". University of Sydney Library. Retrieved 12 March 2021. Stauber, Jennifer L. ( ... Jennifer Lee) (1996). "Toxicity of metals in biological systems". TROVE National Library of Australia. Retrieved 12 March 2021 ...
Sorensen R, Klinger J (1987). "Biological effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazine pigments". Basic Research and Clinical ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (24): 18286-18292. PMID 8349704. Hassett D, Woodruff W, Wozniak D, Vasil M, Cohen S, ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (11): 7689-7692. doi:10.1074/jbc.R100001200. PMID 11244086. Mahajan-Miklos S, Tan M, Rahme ...
Mutation of this gene results in deafness, bone loss, small eyes, and poorly pigmented eyes and skin. In human subjects, ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (3): 1838-50. doi:10.1074/jbc.M609517200. PMID 17085443. Dynek JN, Chan SM, Liu J, Zha ... Melanocytes are commonly known as cells that are responsible for producing the pigment melanin which gives coloration to the ... December 2008). "Novel MITF targets identified using a two-step DNA microarray strategy". Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. 21 ...
Biological pigments include plant pigments and flower pigments. Animals can appear coloured due to two mechanisms, pigments and ... Animals may have both biological pigments and structural colours, for example, some butterflies with white wings. Many animal ... Terms associated with this phenomenon are "hypochromia" and "albiflora". Biological pigments are substances produced by living ... For example, "Absence of the pigment melanin in the eyes, skin, hair, scales, or feathers." refers only to the pigment melanin ...
Its biological properties have also been investigated widely. Berneth, Horst (2008). "Methine Dyes and Pigments". Ullmann's ...
Watts, AR; Lennard, MS; Mason, SL; Tucker, GT; Woods, HF (1993). "Beeturia and the biological fate of beetroot pigments". ... The extent of excreted pigment depends on: The pigment content of the meal, including: The type of beetroot (for instance, the ... The pigments are absorbed in the colon. Betalains are oxidation-sensitive redox indicators that are decolorized by hydrochloric ... The pigment is sensitive to oxidative degradation under strongly acidic conditions. Therefore, the urine coloring depends on ...
Biological pigment Epstein, R.J. (2003). Human Molecular Biology: An Introduction to the Molecular Basis of Health and Disease ... Examples for photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobilins. These pigments enter a high-energy state ... Photopigments are unstable pigments that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light. The term is generally applied to the ... This can occur via light-driven pumping of ions across a biological membrane (e.g. in the case of the proton pump ...
1999). Alkaloids chemical and biological perspectives. Amsterdam: Pergamon. ISBN 0-08-052702-7. A. Gossauer (2003). Kirby, G.W ... 1989). Biotechnology of Vitamins, Pigments and Growth Factors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. ISBN 94-009-1111-4. Perlman, D ... Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, structure elucidation and biological properties". The Journal of Antibiotics. 46 (6): 892- ... Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, structure elucidation and biological properties". The Journal of Antibiotics. 46 (6): 892-9 ...
Jeffrey, S. W.; F. T. Haxo (1968). "Photosynthetic Pigments of Symbiotic Dinoflagellates (Zooxanthellae) from Corals and Clams ... Biological Bulletin. 170 (3): 393-408. doi:10.2307/1541850. JSTOR 1541850. Land M.F. (2002). "The spatial resolution of the ... The Biological Bulletin. 183 (3): 503-506. doi:10.2307/1542028. JSTOR 1542028. PMID 29300506. Klumpp, D.W.; Bayne, B.L. & ... ". Biological Bulletin. 135 (1): 149-65. doi:10.2307/1539622. JSTOR 1539622.[permanent dead link] Norton, J. H.; M. A. Shepherd ...
... is a carotenoid pigment. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of lycopene and a variety of bacterial ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 255 (6): 2427-32. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)85909-4. PMID 7358679. v t e. ...
Biological pigmentsEdit. Biological pigments are any coloured material in plant or animal cells. All biological pigments ... which uses the green pigment chlorophyll and several colorful pigments that absorb as much light energy as possible. ... Grotewold, E. (2006). "The Genetics and Biochemistry of Floral Pigments". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 57: 761-780. doi: ... Green algae and plants possess two forms of this pigment: chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Kelps, diatoms, and other ...
"Pigment epithelium-derived factor binds to hyaluronan. Mapping of a hyaluronan binding site". The Journal of Biological ... Putting the clamps on proteolysis in diverse biological systems". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (32): 24299-305. doi ... Cloning and characterization of five major molecular forms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (43): 33272-9. doi: ... Evolution, mechanism of inhibition, novel functions, and a revised nomenclature". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (36 ...
Besides chlorophyll a, there are other pigments, called accessory pigments, which occur in these pigment-protein antenna ... Biological Bulletin. 136 (1): 54-62. doi:10.2307/1539668. JSTOR 1539668. Gilpin L (21 March 2001). "Methods for analysis of ... Once extracted from the protein into a solvent (such as acetone or methanol), these chlorophyll pigments can be separated into ... The electron flow produced by the reaction center chlorophyll pigments is used to pump H+ ions across the thylakoid membrane, ...
Columbia University Biological Series. 7. New York: The MacMillan Company. Agata K, Saito Y, Nakajima E (February 2007). " ... Skinner DM (1985). "Molting and Regneration". In Bliss DE, Mantel LH (eds.). Integument, Pigments, and Hormonal Processes. 9. ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 359 (1445): 809-22. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1471. PMC 1693364. PMID 15293809. Fernando WA, ... "Robust G2 pausing of adult stem cells in Hydra". Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity. 87 (1-2): 83-99. doi: ...
... a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium". Proceedings of the ... Biological Sciences. 279 (1726): 3-14. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1819. PMC 3223661. PMID 22012981. Delroisse J, Ullrich-Lüter E, ... Peropsin, a visual pigment-like receptor, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RRH gene. Neuropsins are sensitive to ... Koyanagi M, Kawano E, Kinugawa Y, Oishi T, Shichida Y, Tamotsu S, Terakita A (April 2004). "Bistable UV pigment in the lamprey ...
Biological pigments are any coloured material in plant or animal cells. All biological pigments selectively absorb certain ... The primary function of pigments in plants is photosynthesis, which uses the green pigment chlorophyll and several colorful ... Chlorophyll is the primary pigment in plants; it is a chlorin that absorbs yellow and blue wavelengths of light while ... Green algae and plants possess two forms of this pigment: chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Kelps, diatoms, and other ...
Pigments in Pathology, Academic Press, New York, NY. 1969 A histochemical method for the differential staining of acidic tissue ... 1971 Biological peroxidation of lipids and membranes, Israel J Med Sci. 1975 An experiment in teaching histology and cell ... 1989 Lipid pigments, Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany. 1993 Doctors' Errors and Mistakes of Medicine: Must Health Care Deteriorate ... Pigments in Pathology by Moshe Wolman (Hardcover - Jan 1, 1969) Histochemistry of lipids in pathology (Handbuch der Histochemie ...
2008). "Novel MITF targets identified using a two-step DNA microarray strategy". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 21 (6): 665-76. doi ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. doi:10.1038/nature04727 ...
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (7): 4834-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.7.4834. PMID 10671518. Merdes A, Heald R, Samejima K ... Pigment Cell Research. 13 (6): 449-57. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0749.2000.130607.x. PMID 11153697. Hoogenraad CC, Akhmanova A, Howell ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (31): 23948-56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001845200. PMID 10827182. Maruyama K, Sugano S ( ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (31): 23948-56. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001845200. PMID 10827182. Vancoillie G, Lambert J, ...
Each gene is related to different protein having a role in pigment production. People with Chédiak-Higashi syndrome have a ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (45): 28052-6. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.45.28052. PMID 8910416. Abdel-Malek Z, Scott MC, ... Through a process called melanogenesis, melanocytes produce melanin, which is a pigment found in the skin, eyes, hair, nasal ... The difference in skin color between lightly and darkly pigmented individuals is due not to the number (quantity) of ...
Jablonski, Nina G. (2012). Living Color : the Biological and Social Meaning of Skin Color. Berkeley: University of California ... 2010). "Keratinocytes in culture accumulate phagocytosed melanosomes in the perinuclear area". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 23 (1 ... ISBN 978-3-030-11711-5. OCLC 1090865917.CS1 maint: others (link) Jablonski, Nina G. (2012). Living Color : the Biological and ... Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 24 (4): 673-9. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2011.00878.x. PMID 21689385. S2CID 44353799. ...
This fish has a dark-coloured back and silvery sides, with darker pigment along the lateral line. The scales have a tendency to ... Muntz, W.R.A. (1976). "On yellow lenses in mesopelagic animals". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United ... It is not clear what precise function is served by the pigments, but with some of the incident illumination being absorbed, the ... The lenses of the eyes of A. affinis contains yellow pigments that absorb short-wave radiation; the proportions of the two ...
"Photoprotection enhanced by red cell wall pigments in three East Antarctic mosses". Biological Research. 51 (1): 49. doi: ... Various pigments and compounds can be employed by plants as a form of UV photoprotection as well. Pigmentation is one method ... When photosynthetic antenna pigments such as chlorophyll are excited by light absorption, unproductive reactions may occur by ... It was found that mosses with higher concentrations of red pigments and UVACs located in the cell walls, rather than ...
... biological control, morphology, and function". Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. 22 (5): 563-79. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X. ... Melanins are a family of dark-pigmented substances found in a wide range of organisms. Chemically they are closely related to ... Dopamine-derived melanin probably appears in at least some other biological systems as well. Some of the dopamine in plants is ... "Dopamine: Biological activity". IUPHAR/BPS guide to pharmacology. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
... a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium". Proceedings of the ... Biological Sciences. 279 (1726): 3-14. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1819. PMC 3223661. PMID 22012981. Liegertová M, Pergner J, ... Peropsin, a visual pigment-like receptor, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RRH gene. Peropsin is an opsin and so ... "Entrez Gene: RRH retinal pigment epithelium-derived rhodopsin homolog". Porter ML, Blasic JR, Bok MJ, Cameron EG, Pringle T, ...
Manning WM, Strain HH (November 1943). "Chlorophyll d, a green pigment of red algae" (PDF). Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... "Photosynthetic Pigments". University of California Museum of Paleontology. "Scientists discover first new chlorophyll in 60 ...
Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein, also known as retinoid isomerohydrolase, is an enzyme of the vertebrate ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (32): 23035-42. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)50052-1. PMID 1331074. Hamel CP, Tsilou E, ... RPE65 is a critical enzyme in the vertebrate visual cycle found in the retinal pigmented epithelium. It is also found in rods ... Jin M, Li S, Moghrabi WN, Sun H, Travis GH (Aug 2005). "Rpe65 is the retinoid isomerase in bovine retinal pigment epithelium". ...
Becerra, S. Patricia; Sagasti, Alessandra; Spinella, Patricia; Notario, Vicente (October 1995). "Pigment Epithelium-derived ... Factor Behaves Like a Noninhibitory Serpin". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (43): 25992-25999. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.43. ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1654): 121-127. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0858. PMC 2614250. PMID ... Red anthocyanin pigments are now thought to be produced in the leaf as it dies, possibly to mask the yellow hue left when the ... In cold autumns, they sometimes change color, and turn yellow, bright-orange, or red, as various accessory pigments ( ...
... traces of the pigment ochre from late Lower Paleolithic Acheulean archaeological sites suggests that Acheulean societies, like ... "Cooking as a biological trait" (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol Integr Physiol. 136 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03) ...
The Biological Bulletin. 197 (1): 26-39. doi:10.2307/1542994. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2011.. ... The pupil can be adjusted in size and a retinal pigment screens incident light in bright conditions.[22] ... Chromatophores contain yellow, orange, red, brown, or black pigments; most species have three of these colours, while some have ... Octopuses offer many possibilities in biological research, including their ability to regenerate limbs, change the colour of ...
When light hits a photoreceptive pigment within the photoreceptor cell, the pigment changes shape. The pigment, called iodopsin ... Freeman, Scott (2002). Biological Science (2nd Edition). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. pp. 835-837. ISBN 0-13-140941-7. ... Have more pigment than cones, so can detect lower light levels Have less pigment than rods, require more light to detect images ... One type of photosensitive pigment Three types of photosensitive pigment in humans ...
"Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 27 October 2006. Main. Retrieved 6 June 2012. ... because cyanide was first isolated by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele from the pigment "Prussian blue".[14] By the ...
... activated carbon is allowed for use as a processing agent to adsorb brown color pigments from white grape concentrates.[16] It ... Biological warfare. *Carcinogen. *Food safety. *Hazard symbol. *List of extremely hazardous substances ...
Sonar interferes with the basic biological functions of whales-such as feeding and mating-by impacting their ability to ... Whales do, however, lack short wavelength sensitive visual pigments in their cone cells indicating a more limited capacity for ... This functions as an upward biological pump, reversing an earlier presumption that whales accelerate the loss of nutrients to ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 271 (1540): 705-714. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2635. PMC 1691650 ... Because tyrosine is used by the body to make melanin (a component of the pigment found in the hair and skin), failure to ...
Dill, K.; Hui Liu, R.; Grodzinski, P. (2008). Microarrays: Preparation, Microfluidics, Detection Methods, and Biological ... pigment Hemosiderin. Lipochrome/Lipofuscin. Melanin. Steatosis. Anatomical pathology. *Surgical pathology. *Cytopathology. * ... FISH can also be used to compare the genomes of two biological species, to deduce evolutionary relationships. A similar ...
Each different pigment is especially sensitive to a certain wavelength of light (that is, the pigment is most likely to produce ... Further biological and behavioural tests may verify if trichromacy is a common characteristic of marsupials.[2] ... In fish and birds, for example, four pigments are used for vision. These extra cone receptor visual pigments detect energy of ... Each of the three types of cones in the retina of the eye contains a different type of photosensitive pigment, which is ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1636): 759-65. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1370. PMC 2596898. PMID ... Evolution of Visual and Non-visual Pigments. Springer. pp. 165-. ISBN 978-1-4614-4355-1. . Archived from the original on 18 ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1781): 20132689. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2689. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1740): 3035-3040. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0558. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC ...
An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane. All ... As an example of the relationship between the IMP (in this case the bacterial phototrapping pigment, bacteriorhodopsin) and the ... The most common type of IMP is the transmembrane protein (TM), which spans the entire biological membrane. Single-pass membrane ...
Dixit A, Dhaked RK, Alam SI, Singh L (2005). "Military potential of biological neurotoxins". Informa Healthcare. 24 (2): 175- ... cyanobacteria are photosynthetic and contain photosynthetic pigments, which is why they are usually green or blue. ... There is also an interest in the military potential of biological neurotoxins such as cyanotoxins, which "have gained ...
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially سبزینه"[۲۰] ۱۹۱۸ فریتس هابر[۱] آلمان "for the synthesis of ammonia from its ... "for their discoveries relating to the هورمونs of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[۴۹] ... "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of آران‌ای and دی‌ان‌ای"[۵۳] ... "for his discoveries concerning reversible پروتئین فسفرگیری as a biological regulatory mechanism"[۷۲] ...
The vision of a pigmented rat is poor, around 20/600, while a non-pigmented (albino) with no melanin in its eyes has both ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 283 (1841): 20161762. doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.1762. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC ... psychological and other biological experiments, and constitute an important model organism. This is because they grow quickly ... rats used as model organisms in biological research. ...
"Composition of lipids and biological activity of lipids and photosynthetic pigments from algae of the families Laminariaceae ...
Nilsson et al. (1970). "Studies into the pigments in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. rubra L.)" ... "Potential nitrosamine formation and its prevention during biological denitrification of red beet juice". Food and Chemical ...
It is a deeply colored pigment that is not soluble in basic water. The free porphyrin is encountered in nature in the form of ... In the biosynthesis of biological cofactors, PPIX is metalated by the action of chelatases. Ferrochelatase converts PPIX into ... A. R. Battersby; C. J. R. Fookes; G. W. J. Matcham; E. McDonald (1980). "Biosynthesis of the pigments of life: formation of the ...
Mongol scribes in the 14th century used a mixture of resin and vegetable pigments as a primitive form of correction fluid;[118] ... they decided to use the infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the ... "Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (9): 971-975. doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536. ISSN ...
Chronic overdose also causes an increased lability of biological membranes and of the outer layer of the skin to peel.[12] ... The major source of retinoids from the diet are plant pigments such as carotenes and retinyl esters derived from animal sources ...
PigmentsEdit. Mulberry fruit color derives from anthocyanins,[3] which have unknown effects in humans.[22] Anthocyanins are ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1774): 20132582. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2582. ISSN 0962- ...
... pigmented villonodular synovitis, and prevention of keloid scar growth, vascular restenosis, and heterotopic ossification. The ... Biological dose units and quantities. *Wireless electronic devices and health. *Radiation Heat-transfer ...
For each biological trait, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent. These alleles may be the same or different. ... Polygenic means "many genes." For example, at least three genes are involved in making the reddish-brown pigment in the eyes of ... Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 ... This third phenotype results from flowers of the heterzygote having less red pigment than the red homozygotes. Cases in which ...
In Bagnara, J T (Ed) Progress in Clinical and Biological Research, Vol 256 Advances in Pigment Cell Research; Thirteenth ... Pigment Cell Research. vol 9, no 2. p. 96-104.. *Johnson RR & Roer B. (1968). Changing Status of the Bronzed Cowbird in Arizona ... 1988). Cytology and Pigments of Non-Melanophore Chromatophores in the Avian Iris. ... International Pigment Cell Conference, Tucson, Arizona, USA, October 5-9, 1986 Xxv+637p Alan R Liss, Inc: New York, New York, ...
The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1999, kd 274, nr 22, lk 15345-15349. Resümee. ... Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the landscape of pigments. - Annu. Rev. Genet., 2004, kd 38, nr 1, lk 119-173. Resümee. Resümee. ... Lükopeen ehk lükopiin on karotenoidide hulka kuuluv pigment, mida leidub rohkesti küpsetes tomatites ja mis on nende punase ... Carotenoids 2: Genetics and molecular biology of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis. - FASEB J., 1996, kd 10, nr 2, lk 228-237. ...
"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"[70] ... "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[15] 1916 نہیں دیا گيا ... "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[39] ... "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development ...
Hair coloring is the process of adding pigment to or removing pigment from the hair shaft. Hair coloring processes may be ... Damage or changes made to the visible hair shaft cannot be repaired by a biological process, though much can be done to manage ... After the hair processing, the cuticle may not fully close, which results in coarse hair or an accelerated loss of pigment. ... Temporary hair tints simply coat the shaft with pigments which later wash off. ...
Biological process. • stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. • cellular response to peptide. • daunorubicin ... Sato S, Lin LR, Reddy VN, Kador PF (August 1993). "Aldose reductase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells". Experimental ... Site-directed mutagenesis of Asp-43, Tyr-48, Lys-77, and His-110". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (34): 25687-93. ... cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (16 ...
"Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (23): 15781-93. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.002618. PMC 2708875. PMID 19366683.. ... Opsins are proteins and the retinal-binding visual pigments found in the photoreceptor cells in the retinas of eyes. An opsin ... "Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (29): 20915-20924. doi:10.1074/jbc.M701432200. PMC 2747659. PMID 17504753.. ... Steps 3,4,5,6 occur in rod cell outer segments; Steps 1, 2, and 7 occur in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. ...
... is the process by which biological fuels are oxidised in the presence of a high-energy inorganic electron ... pigments Hemes Cobalamins (vitamin B12) Various. vitamin Bs Calciferols. (vitamin D) ...
Media in category "Biological pigments". The following 17 files are in this category, out of 17 total. ... Retrieved from "" ...
... a dark biological pigment (biochrome) found in skin, hair, feathers, scales, eyes, and some internal membranes; it is also ... Melanin, a dark biological pigment (biochrome) found in skin, hair, feathers, scales, eyes, and some internal membranes; it is ... These pigments produce buff, red-brown, brown, and black colours. Melanins occur widely in the feathers of birds; in hair, eyes ... These pigments produce buff, red-brown, brown, and black colours. Melanins occur widely in the feathers of birds; in hair,… ...
Biological pigments include plant pigments and flower pigments. Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, feathers, fur ... Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color ... Skin pigments such as melanin may protect tissues from sunburn by ultraviolet radiation. However, some biological pigments in ... Plant pigments include many molecules, such as porphyrins, carotenoids, anthocyanins and betalains. All biological pigments ...
Methotrexate is indicated in the treatment of gestational choriocarcinoma, chorioadenoma destruens and hydatidiform mole. In acute lymphocytic leukemia, methotrexate is indicated in the prophylaxis of meningeal leukemia and is used in maintenance therapy in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Methotrexate is also indicated in the treatment of meningeal leukemia. Methotrexate is used alone or in combination with other anticancer agents in the treatment of breast cancer, epidermoid cancers of the head and neck, advanced mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T cell lymphoma), and lung cancer, particularly squamous cell and small cell types. Methotrexate is also used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of advanced stage non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Methotrexate is indicated in the symptomatic control of severe, recalcitrant, disabling psoriasis. Methotrexate is indicated in the management of selected adults with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis (ACR criteria), or ...
The bR is similar to the light-sensitive pigment rhodopsin in the rod cells of human eyes. When excited by light, the bR ... In summary, we designed photosensors based on the bR pigment found in the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarum and showed ... Figure 1. A micromouse robot with two biophotosensors (dotted circle) based on the bacteriorhodopsin (bR) pigment found in ... Our biophotosensor is based on the purplish bacteriorhodopsin (bR) pigment found in the cell membrane of Halobacterium ...
Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, fur and hair contain pigments (such as melanin) in specialized cells called ... Biological pigments *Heme/porphyrin-based: chlorophyll, bilirubin, hemocyanin, hemoglobin, myoglobin. *Light-emitting: ... All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. The light that is absorbed may ... Pigments in animals may serve to protect tissues from ultraviolet radition, such as melanin in the skin. Pigments may also aid ...
a) Interactions between disordered nanostructures and pigments. Pigments in natural materials are by necessity encased in some ... b) Interactions between ordered nanostructures and pigments. This coupling of pigments and nanostructures is even more apparent ... Perhaps the most straightforward mechanism of colour production is deposition of pigments. Pigments selectively absorb some ... Some of these latter interactions, including white structure-pigment and macrostructure-pigment, suggest that classification of ...
... synthesis in primary human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Primary cultured human RPE cells were exposed to 2, 4, 8, ...
Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences web site. ... Preservation of hypericin and related polycyclic quinone pigments in fossil crinoids Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... The fringelite pigments, a group of phenanthroperylene quinones discovered in purple coloured specimens of the Upper Jurassic ... Preservation of hypericin and related polycyclic quinone pigments in fossil crinoids. Klaus Wolkenstein, Jürgen H Gross, Heinz ...
Juxtanodin in retinal pigment epithelial cells: Expression and biological activities in regulating cell morphology and actin ...
Biological pigments[edit]. Main article: Biological pigment. In biology, a pigment is any colored material of plant or animal ... Most of the pigments in use were earth and mineral pigments, or pigments of biological origin. Pigments from unusual sources ... The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment. The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of ... Ultramarine pigments: ultramarine, ultramarine green shade. Biological and organic[edit]. *Biological origins: alizarin ( ...
Each pigmented bacterium depicts a different color so identification is easy. Each culture is shipped in an individually ... Carolinas Biological Media. Overview. Introduce your students to 4 different colored bacterial cultures. Each pigmented ... Biological Media & Supplies. Vast selection of ready to use biological media to meet diverse needs. In stock and ready to ship! ... Carolinas Biological Media. No Backorders Here-Get the Media You Need Now.. Select quality media products for the application ...
2002-2012 MDI Biological Laboratory. All rights reserved.. © 2012-2018 MDI Biological Laboratory & NC State University. All ...
Biological" by people in this website by year, and whether "Pigments, Biological" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Pigments, Biological" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Pigments, Biological" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Pigments, Biological". ...
The unique characteristics of parapinopsin as an evolutionary intermediate between bistable and bleaching pigments provide ... The unique characteristics of parapinopsin as an evolutionary intermediate between bistable and bleaching pigments provide ... parapinopsins are bleach-resistant bistable pigments, which photo-convert to stable photoproducts that revert to their original ... insight into the evolutionary transition between signaling molecules that interact with two types of opsin-based pigments. ...
CRZ had no effect on heart activity, blood glucose levels, lipid mobilization or pigment distribution in chromatophores, a ... CRZ had no effect on heart activity, blood glucose levels, lipid mobilization or pigment distribution in chromatophores, a ... and red-pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the crab, Carcinus maenas. Using ... and red-pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the crab, Carcinus maenas. Using ...
Food, cosmetic and biological applications of characterized DOPA-melanin from Vibrio alginolyticus strain BTKKS3 *Noble K. ... Pigment Cell Res. 16, 606-618 (2003).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*2.. Liu, Y. et al. Comparisons of the structural and ... Molecular preservation of the pigment melanin in fossil melanosomes. *Johan Lindgren1. *, Per Uvdal2, 3. *, Peter Sjövall4. *, ... Pigment Cell Res. 19, 572-594 (2006).. **CAS*PubMed*Article*Google Scholar*25.. Perna, G., Palazzo, G., Mallardi, A. & Capozzi ...
Analysis of biological pigments. *Analysis of pigments by HPLC - separation and quantification of chlorophylls and other ... Analysis of Biological Pigments, Photosynthesis and Cyanobacteria. Centre Algatech - CyanoGroup. ... Purification of pigments by preparative HPLC - mg quantities, characterization by high-resolution mass-spectrometry ... The key topics covered are the biogenesis of photosynthetic apparatus, metabolism of photosynthetic pigments and structure and ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, ... Biological pigments include plant pigments and flower pigments. Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, feathers, fur ... Biological pigment. Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes are substances produced by living ... Biological pigments See Conjugated Systems for electron bond chemistry that causes these molecules to have pigment ...
Radiofungi: Biological Pigments for Radioprotection. A major concern for manned missions is space radiation. Ionizing radiation ... Pigments and Lumens. This pedagogy of experiments seeks to accurately model and manufacture a new form of lighting fixtures and ... Biological Carbon Pump (BCP), which refers to the transport of particulate organic carbon (POC) from the oceans surface to the ... My research reduces dependence on specialized medical imaging devices, biological and chemical processes and creates new ...
The quincyte pigments - potential biological markers? / Prowse, WG; Maxwell, JR.. Unknown. 1991. p. 478 - 480.. Research output ... Prowse, WG & Maxwell, JR 1991, The quincyte pigments - potential biological markers? in Unknown. pp. 478 - 480. ... The quincyte pigments - potential biological markers? In Unknown. 1991. p. 478 - 480 ... 1991). The quincyte pigments - potential biological markers? In Unknown (pp. 478 - 480) ...
Dyestuff and Pigment Suppliers, Dyestuff and Pigment Manufacturers, Min.Order and FOB Price at ... Shaanxi WuZhiYuan Biological Technology Co.,Ltd China (Mainland). , Contact Details *Business Type:Other ... Home > Products , Dyestuff and Pigment , Dyestuff and Pigment. : 952 Products found Products Categories. *Adhesive and Sealant ... Ultramarine is a kind of inorganic pigment, no other combination of pigments could be found to create the same blue color. ...
Biological effect of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy with stepping sources if short half-times of repair are present in tissues. ... Unbalanced vitreous levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in diabetic retinopathy. ... Biological context of PDR. *PURPOSE: To explore the possible increase of radiation effect in tissues irradiated by pulsed ...
Pioneering researchers provided proof of an odorant receptor in pigment-producing cells in the human skin, so-called ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. Funder. German Research Foundation, Vogelsang Foundation. Keywords. *BIOLOGY ... Researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum were the first ones to prove the existence of an olfactory receptor in pigment-producing ... Olfactory receptor discovered in pigment cells of the skin. Ruhr-University Bochum ...
Fourteen cultivars of cherry tomatoes and four cultivars of high-pigment tomato hybrids were cultivated in southern Italy, and ... Pigments, Biological / analysis* * Species Specificity * alpha-Tocopherol / analysis * beta Carotene / analysis Substances * ... Antioxidant composition in cherry and high-pigment tomato cultivars J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Apr 5;54(7):2606-13. doi: 10.1021/ ... Fourteen cultivars of cherry tomatoes and four cultivars of high-pigment tomato hybrids were cultivated in southern Italy, and ...
Biological: PF-05206388 PF-05206388 will be provided as a Retinal Pigment Epithelium living tissue equivalent for intraocular ... A Study Of Implantation Of Retinal Pigment Epithelium In Subjects With Acute Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration. The safety ... PF-05206388 Retinal Pigment Epithelium living tissue equivalent for intraocular use in the form of a monolayer of Retinal ... Phase 1 trial of retinal pigment epithelium replacement in subjects with wet age-related macular degeneration in whom there is ...
Biological: MA09-hRPE Phase 1 Phase 2 Detailed Description:. This study is a Phase I/II, open-label, non randomized, sequential ... Safety and Tolerability of Sub-retinal Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Retinal Pigmented Epithelial (hESC- ... Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmology. ... Human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium in patients with age-related macular degeneration and Stargardts ...
Biological pigmentsEdit. Biological pigments are any coloured material in plant or animal cells. All biological pigments ... which uses the green pigment chlorophyll and several colorful pigments that absorb as much light energy as possible. ... Grotewold, E. (2006). "The Genetics and Biochemistry of Floral Pigments". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 57: 761-780. doi: ... Green algae and plants possess two forms of this pigment: chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Kelps, diatoms, and other ...
In silico modelling of the evolutionary capabilities and constraints of pigment pattern formation in the diverse teleost genus ... How good is research at University of Bath in Biological Sciences. Project Description. The University of Bath is inviting ... How are such rapid changes in morphology achieved? Pigment patterns are biologically vital for both camouflage and sexual ... Quigley, I.K., et al., (2004) Pigment pattern evolution by differential deployment of neural crest and post-embryonic ...
  • This can become problematic in pigmented tissues, such as the retina, where brown pigment of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells can be easily confounded with brown substrate. (
  • We compared brown (DAB) and purple (VIP) substrates in enzyme immunohistochemistry experiments using human retina (paraffin sections) and monkey retinal pigmented epithelial cells (frozen sections), both containing brown pigmented cells. (
  • A side-by-side comparison between DAB and VIP immunohistochemistry showed excellent contrast between pigmented cells and the purple VIP substrate in both human retinal tissue and monkey pigmented epithelial cells for all of the markers tested. (
  • The age lipid A2E and mitochondrial dysfunction synergistically impair phagocytosis by retinal pigment epithelial cells. (
  • Accumulation of indigestible lipofuscin and decreased mitochondrial energy production are characteristic age-related changes of post-mitotic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in the human eye. (
  • Human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells labeled for clathrin-coated pits (green), focal adhesions (red) and nuclei (blue). (
  • The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line ARPE-19, displays significant functional differentiation that mimics native RPE. (
  • Abstract Problem: Non-invasive diagnostic techniques to facilitate diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions (PSL) are being developed. (
  • article{6779d372-6f1f-462a-98fb-c8d347f7751c, abstract = {The maximum efficiency of an optically thin photosynthetic system in converting solar radiation into chemical energy is theoretically considered as a function of the absorption spectrum of the photon-collecting pigment. (
  • All land plants and green algae possess two forms of this pigment: chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. (
  • Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. (
  • In photosynthesis chlorophyll and other pigments involved in light-gathering are not chemically changed (except that some of the chlorophyll or phaeophytin molecules are oxidized and immediately reduced again). (
  • Variations in chlorophyll a/b and chlorophyll/carotenoid ratios are indicators of senescence, stress or damage to the photosynthetic apparatus and affect the normal course of plant biological processes. (
  • The aim of this work was to investigate the chlorophyll ( a and b ) and carotenoid content and ratios in the leaves of four Vitis vinifera L. table grape cultivars in the main phenophases of the annual biological cycle. (
  • Yellow pigments associated with chlorophyll. (
  • Of the more than five classes of pigments identified in animals, the most common are melanins and carotenoids [ 8 , 10 ]. (
  • Subsequent studies of the S. aureus pigment have unraveled an elaborate biosynthetic pathway that produces a series of carotenoids ( 3 ). (
  • 2 3 Although the role of the macular pigment remains uncertain, several functions have been hypothesised and these include reduction of the effects of light scatter and chromatic aberration on visual performance, 4 5 limitation of the damaging photo-oxidative effects of blue light through its absorption, 6-8 and protection against the adverse effects of photochemical reactions because of the antioxidant properties of the carotenoids. (
  • In this article we review the current literature germane to macular pigment and AMD, and examine the evidence that retinal carotenoids are protective against AMD. (
  • Carotenoids are very long-chain water-repelling pigments that are synthesized in the plastids of plant cells. (
  • The bR is similar to the light-sensitive pigment rhodopsin in the rod cells of human eyes. (
  • Mutation screening of the peropsin gene, a retinal pigment epithelium specific rhodopsin homolog, in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and allied diseases. (
  • In human vision the rhodopsin and other visual pigments undergo a reaction cycle induced by photon absorption. (
  • Rhodopsin pigments of halobacteria produce chemical energy without CO2 by capturing light energy and using it to pump protons out of the cell, setting up a proton gradient used to generate ATP. (
  • See conjugated systems for electron bond chemistry that causes these molecules to have pigment. (
  • In this review, we highlight our current understanding of the interactions between pigments and structural integumentary tissues and molecules. (
  • These colours are produced by a variety of pigment molecules, nanostructures or a combination of both [ 3 ]. (
  • For example, in pigment/binder mixtures, individual rays of light may not encounter pigment molecules and may be reflected unchanged. (
  • The unique characteristics of parapinopsin as an evolutionary intermediate between bistable and bleaching pigments provide insight into the evolutionary transition between signaling molecules that interact with two types of opsin-based pigments. (
  • This result was obtained by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)-a powerful technique capable of simultaneous identification and mapping of molecules and chemical structures in biological samples at high spatial resolution 21 -combined with infrared (IR) microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (
  • Based on the results of chemical screening, the pigment was tentatively identified as group of sugar containing molecules. (
  • Plants make an amazing variety of pigment molecules, far more than animals. (
  • There are three types of pigments present in the leaves of plants, and their retention or production determines the colors of leaves before they fall from , molecules, beyond the simple chemical formulas that describe the numbers of atoms of different elements making up the molecule. (
  • The chemist examined the role of activated oxygen molecules in biological processes. (
  • During the process of photosynthesis, they have functions in light-harvesting (as accessory pigments), in photoprotection (energy dissipation via non-photochemical quenching as well as singlet oxygen scavenging for prevention of photooxidative damage), and also serve as protein structural elements. (
  • Photosynthesis requires a large array of pigments , enzymes , and other compounds to function. (
  • For example, the diversity of light harvesting pigments allows efficient photosynthesis at different depths in the seawater column. (
  • The chlorophylls, a and b, are the pigments of photosynthesis. (
  • This short review focuses on the role of the pigment granules in RPE. (
  • Although the biology of the pigment granules has been neglected in the past, they do seem to be involved in many important functions, such as protection from oxidative stress, detoxification of peroxides, and binding of zinc and drugs, and, therefore, serve as a versatile partner of the RPE cell. (
  • Pigment granules in the photoreceptor cells move behind the tapetum in the dark-adapted state. (
  • In her review of insect ocelli, Goodman (1981) stated: 'The presence of pigment granules within the retinal cells is not compatible with the use of a reflecting tapetal layer, and the two are not found in association. (
  • The xanthopterin resides in tightly packed yellow pigment granules, which may serve to increase the effective surface area available for light absorption…allow absorption in the UV wavelengths while allowing an increase in the reflectance of higher wavelengths. (
  • Scanning electron microscopy showed that the orange barbs contain small pigment granules. (
  • Pteridines, melanins, and ommins were not detected as eye pigments in T. infestans . (
  • Here, we sought to identify the mutated loci and determine how the affected proteins contribute to normal pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). (
  • Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. (
  • The fringelite pigments, a group of phenanthroperylene quinones discovered in purple coloured specimens of the Upper Jurassic crinoid Liliocrinus , demonstrate exceptional preservation of organic compounds in macrofossils. (
  • In 2006, around 7.4 million tons of inorganic , organic and special pigments were marketed worldwide. (
  • Organic pigments such as diazo or phthalocyanine compounds feature conjugated systems of double bonds . (
  • Here we demonstrate that the organic content of melanosome-like microbodies isolated from a fossil fish eye is dominated by the pigment melanin. (
  • 2. The pigment of claim 1 wherein the liquid matrix comprises of an organic fluid. (
  • Since specific organic pigments are often associated with tattoo side effects, their identification in tattoo inks as well as in biological samples is of great importance. (
  • Particularly, poorly soluble organic pigments are challenging to detect. (
  • In the past, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was reported as a promising tool for organic pigment identification. (
  • The characteristic that distinguishes pigments from soluble organic dyes is their low solubility in solvents and binders. (
  • Some compounds may be named "C.I. Solvent XY xy" due to their migration tendency in polymer application, although in water or organic solvents these compounds may fulfill the insolubility criteria for pigments, according to DIN 55943 and DIN 55945. (
  • Pumps and selective uptake devices need fuel - biological energy - and halobacteria, unlike Dunaliella , are not able to photosynthesise energy-yielding organic matter from carbon dioxide. (
  • Colours can be produced by selective absorption of light by skin pigments, through light scattering by structured or unstructured tissues, or by a combination of pigments and nanostructures. (
  • Melanin is the most widespread colour-producing pigment in animals and creates a broad range of black, brown and grey colours ( figure 1 a , figure 2 II) through broadband light absorption across the visible spectrum [ 10 ]. (
  • It is a plant pigment resposible for the colours of the plants of the genera Viola and Delphinium . (
  • Orange colours are generally caused by pigments that selectively absorb short-wavelength light. (
  • Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cuboidal cells that is strategically placed between the rod and cone photoreceptors and the vascular bed of the choriocapillaris. (
  • Pfeffer BA (1990) Improved methodology for cell culture of human and monkey retinal pigment epithelium. (
  • Pfeffer BA, Becerra SP, Borst DE, and Wong P (2004) Expression of transthyretin and retinol binding protein mRNAs and secretion of transthyretin by cultured monkey retinal pigment epithelium. (
  • Becerra SP, Fariss RN, Wu YQ, Montuenga LM, Wong P, and Pfeffer BA (2004) Pigment epithelium-derived factor in the monkey retinal pigment epithelium and interphotoreceptor space: apical secretion and distribution. (
  • Ford KM, D'Amore PA (2012) Molecular regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the retinal pigment epithelium. (
  • Peropsin, a novel visual pigment-like protein located in the apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium. (
  • Retinal function is supported by underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid. (
  • CIL:34538, Homo sapiens, retinal pigment epithelium. (
  • Movie showing motility and morphology of cultured hTERT-RPE1 cells (telomerase immortalized human retinal pigment epithelium) arrested in G1 using 0.08 uM nocodazole (Uetake and Sluder 2010, Curr Biol 20:1666-1671). (
  • Drusen are yellowish extracellular deposits beneath retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) found in aging eyes and considered as a biomarker of AMD. (
  • To determine the transcriptional proximity of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells grown under different culture conditions and native RPE. (
  • 21 Dry AMD refers to geographic atrophy, and wet AMD is characterised by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), subretinal haemorrhage, or retinal scarring. (
  • In the eye, albinism affects the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a layer of pigmented cells closely apposed to the photoreceptors at the back of the retina. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the temperature dependence of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and in vitro angiogenesis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). (
  • We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). (
  • All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. (
  • Pigments selectively absorb some wavelengths of light while allowing others to be reflected, and their absorption profile depends on their underlying chemistry [ 8 ]. (
  • Pigments appear colored because they selectively reflect and absorb certain wavelengths of visible light . (
  • Melanism can also occur pathologically, as in a malignant melanoma , a cancerous tumour composed of melanin-pigmented cells. (
  • Many biological structures, such as skin, eyes, feathers, fur and hair contain pigments such as melanin in specialized cells called chromatophores. (
  • For example, butterfly wings typically contain structural color, although many butterflies have cells that contain pigment as well. (
  • In biology , a pigment or biochrome is any material resulting in color of plant or animal cells, which is the result of selective color absorption . (
  • Chromatophores or pigment cells are color changing cells used most notably by Cephalopods such as squid and octopuses. (
  • In animal photoreception, opsin-based pigments, which are composed of a protein moiety opsin and chromophore retinal, serve as light sensors to capture light and initiate G protein-mediated phototransduction cascades in photoreceptor cells. (
  • Researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum were the first ones to prove the existence of an olfactory receptor in pigment-producing cells in human skin, the so-called melanocytes. (
  • Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). (
  • However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. (
  • Secondly, plant physiology includes the study of biological and chemical processes of individual plant cells . (
  • This was a marked improvement over DAB staining in pigmented cells and tissues. (
  • Although widely used, none have succeeded in destroying the abnormal pigmented cells alone without damaging adjacent structures and producing adverse effects like hypopigmentation. (
  • However, there has generally been damage to both pigmented and nonpigmented cells. (
  • Suleyman Allakhverdiev, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor from the Department of Plant Physiology at the Faculty of Biology of the Lomonosov Moscow State University and one of the article authors explain: "To understand processes occurring in the solar cells, investigations characterizing the efficiency and stability with regard to environmental factors are also required. (
  • Micro- and nanoscale technologies are emerging as powerful tools for controlling the interaction between cells and their surroundings for biological studies, tissue engineering, and cell-based. (
  • Preferably, the selective binding process is applied to biological cells containing RNA of interest. (
  • 7. A process as claimed in claims 1-4, wherein said biologically active RNA is isolated from biological cells as the source of said RNA. (
  • Its hormonal product, pigment dispersing hormone (PDH), was named for the diurnal pigment movement effect it has in crustacean retinal cells upon its initial discovery in the central nervous system of arthropods. (
  • The movement and aggregation of pigments in retina cells and extra-retinal cells is hypothesized to be under a split hormonal control mechanism. (
  • Bilirubin, for example, the brownish yellow pigment that gives feces its characteristic colour, is the end product of the breakdown of heme from destroyed red blood cells. (
  • He mentioned a reflecting tapetum with red-brown pigment behind it, while Hanström (1940) found brown-black pigment within whole photoreceptor cells of Petrobius (Machilidae). (
  • in their case the pigments capture light energy and use it to generate a substance called ATP, which is the universal source of biological energy in cells … In the process of generating ATP, ions are swapped between the interior and exterior of the cell such that most of the sodium ends up outside and potassium is retained: light helps the ion pump work. (
  • A wide variety of wavelengths (colors) encounter a pigment. (
  • Pigments, unlike fluorescent or phosphorescent substances, can only subtract wavelengths from the source light, never add new ones. (
  • Previous studies reporting "successful" removal of pigmented lesions have relied on clinical assessment rather than on histology and have used widely divergent wavelengths, pulse durations, energy densities and spotsizes. (
  • Fluorescent pigments such as BV11:1 offer intense and brilliant effects because they absorb ultraviolet light and re-emit light at longer wavelengths. (
  • These pigments primarily absorb in the blue wavelengths, allowing the longer wavelengths to be scattered and producing the yellow color. (
  • Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption. (
  • The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. (
  • Other properties of a color, such as its saturation or lightness, may be determined by the other substances that accompany pigments. (
  • From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. (
  • Anthocyanins (literally "flower blue") are water-soluble flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. (
  • This class of pigments is found only in the Caryophyllales (including cactus and amaranth), and never co-occur in plants with anthocyanins. (
  • Plants with abnormally high anthocyanin quantities are popular as ornamental plants - here, a selected purple-leaf cultivar of European Beech Anthocyanins (from Greek: (anthos) = flower + (kyanos) = blue) are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. (
  • Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers), are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. (
  • The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. (
  • The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(-)-epicatechin/acetaldehyde), and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. (
  • Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins. (
  • Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. (
  • Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. (
  • Anthocyanins are naturally occuring pigments belonging to the group of flavonoids, a subclass of the polyphenol family. (
  • Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments produced via the flavonoid pathway in the cytoplasm of the colored plant cell. (
  • 1. A method of treating melanin-based pigmented lesions in human skin comprising irradiating an epidermis with laser radiation of wavelength between 345 and 600 nm, fluence of 1 to 10 J/cm 2 and pulse duration of less than 1 μsec. (
  • Superficial benign cutaneous pigmented lesions such as lentigines, cafe' au lait and nevus spilus are commonly seen in dermatologic practice. (
  • Over the last two decades, there have been several reports describing the removal of these pigmented lesions by a variety of lasers such as the excimer (351 nm), argon (488,514 nm), ruby (694 nm), Nd:YAG (1060 nm), and CO 2 (10,600 nm) lasers. (
  • Pigmented lesions treated by laser have included lentigines, nevi, melanomas, oral hypermelanosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, the nevus of Ota, and a lentigo maligns. (
  • The pigment depth of these laser-treated lesions has also varied significantly, from superficial lentigines in the epidermis to lesions lying deep in the reticular dermis like the nevus of Ota. (
  • There has been no effort to define laser parameters necessary for optimal removal of pigmented lesions. (
  • In routine histopathology there are diagnostic difficulties in the analysis of pigmented lesions. (
  • and Î»Ï Î³Î¿Ï , logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. (
  • The key topics covered are the biogenesis of photosynthetic apparatus, metabolism of photosynthetic pigments and structure and toxicity of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites. (
  • On exposure to sunlight, for example, the human epidermis undergoes gradual tanning as a result of an increase in melanin pigment. (
  • Deficit of melanin pigment is associated with age-related macula degeneration, the leading cause of blindness. (
  • As taught therein, precipitation of iron hydroxide from an aqueous solution of a Fe(II) salt in the presence of an oxidizing agent capable of oxidizing the Fe-l-lpresent in.the solution does not yield pigments having the improved properties of the pigments produced in that process, which oxidizes the precipitated iron hydroxide after the mica flakes are coated. (
  • Crude pigment was produced from strain D10 by solid state fermentation using wheat bran medium followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. (
  • The antimicrobial activity of the crude pigment was evaluated against drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended spectrum b-lactamase producing cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp. (
  • About 420 mg of crude pigment was produced per 10 g of wheat bran medium. (
  • The crude pigment was partially purified using thin layer chromatography with the solvent system chloroform:methanol (30:70) and the Rf value was calculated as 0.768. (
  • X-hitting was found to be a good tool in the rapid screening of crude pigment extracts. (
  • Luciferin is a generic name for light-emitting pigments found in organisms capable of bioluminescence, like fireflies, deep-sea fish and microbes. (
  • Biological pigments include plant pigments and flower pigments. (
  • A member of the Faculty of Biology of the Lomonosov Moscow State University in cooperation with his colleagues has optimized and characterized TiO₂-based solar cell design using diverse plant pigments. (
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences web site. (
  • How good is research at University of Bath in Biological Sciences? (
  • The project has been done in cooperation with the scientists from the K.A. Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology (RAS), Institute of Basic Biological Problems (RAS), University of Tennessee (USA) and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnologies of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences. (
  • Rhodamine dyes are often used for microscopy in the biological sciences. (
  • Rhodamine B, discovered in 1887, is used as a staining fluorescent dye in the biological sciences, for microscopy. (
  • University of Cape Town ,Faculty of Science ,Department of Biological Sciences. (
  • In order to create a solar cell, the scientists have used methods of immobilization of various biological pigment-protein complexes on the surface of nanostructured titanium dioxide. (
  • It is known that nacreous pigments are obtained by coating mica flakes with titanium dioxide or zirconium dioxide and/or iron oxides. (
  • Such pigments have not been produced heretofore, and their properties cannot be explained, either from the known properties of the mica flakes or those of mica flakes coated with titanium dioxide and/or zirconium dioxide, or from the conventional iron oxide and/or ferric hydroxide modifications thereof. (
  • The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment . (
  • Rhodamine 6G is toxic, however it can be biologically inactive and hence non-toxic in a lake pigment form. (
  • The common presence of a characteristic distribution pattern of the fossil pigments and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons further suggests that this assemblage is the result of a stepwise degradation of hypericin via a general diagenetic pathway. (
  • In 1945 Wald demonstrated that macular pigment exhibited a characteristic carotenoid absorption spectrum, and concluded that this pigment belonged to the xanthophyll families found in green leaves. (
  • ia do sold a darker book Chemical Processes with Participation of Biological and Related Compounds: Biophysical and Chemical Aspects of Porphyrins, for the user " with an birth for address. (
  • Why paused occasionally Confederate African Americans book Chemical Processes with Participation of Biological and Related Compounds: Biophysical and Chemical Aspects of Porphyrins, Pigments, Drugs, in the immediate database on the approval of the Union? (
  • There have Open books that could benefit this book Chemical Processes with Participation of Biological and Related Compounds: Biophysical and Chemical Aspects of Porphyrins, Pigments, having preserving a symbolic Collection or ET, a SQL F or 7th times. (
  • There 've Close textbooks that could remain this book Chemical Processes with Participation of Biological and Related Compounds: Biophysical and Chemical Aspects of Porphyrins, Looking walking a ResearchThe publisher or toxicology, a SQL g or professional slides. (
  • It has previously been shown that certain trace elements occur in fossils as organometallic compounds, and hence may be used as biomarkers for melanin pigments. (
  • Lutein is a yellow pigment found in fruits and vegetables and is the most abundant carotenoid in plants. (
  • Rhodamine 6G is a staining reddish-yellow pigment that has fluorescent properties. (
  • The brown and yellow colors of the oriental hornet not only serve to warn potential predators, but also contain pigments that harvest solar energy. (
  • Perhaps the most straightforward mechanism of colour production is deposition of pigments. (
  • The colour of A. atthis feathers has been attributed to spectrally selective pigment and to a spongy nanostructure in the barbs ( Finger, 1995 ). (
  • Parapinopsins are phylogenetically close to vertebrate visual opsins, which have bleaching properties, but interestingly, parapinopsins are bleach-resistant bistable pigments, which photo-convert to stable photoproducts that revert to their original dark state by subsequent light absorption, similar to invertebrate rhodopsins. (
  • We have developed a biologically realistic in silico representation of pigment stripe formation in the vertebrate developmental model zebrafish, Danio rerio. (
  • Pigment color differs from structural color in that it is the same for all viewing angles, whereas structural color is the result of selective reflection or iridescence, usually because of multilayer structures. (
  • A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength -selective absorption. (
  • Thus, function-based detectors are less specific or selective but have the potential for detecting the presence of unknown chemical and biological agents. (
  • Golden color imparted by carotenoid pigments is the eponymous feature of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus . (
  • We hypothesized that S. aureus could utilize its golden carotenoid pigment to resist oxidant-based clearance mechanisms of the host innate immune system. (
  • Genetic manipulation of S. aureus carotenoid pigment and its antioxidant function. (
  • black skin typically containing larger melanosomes than lightly pigmented, white skin. (
  • A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. (
  • Viewed under different lights, pigments will appear different colors. (
  • Guangzhou Stars Colors Biological Technology Co., Ltd. (
  • It has now been discovered that surprisingly it is possible to obtain vary lightfast and temperature-stable mica flake pigments, some with heretofore unattainable colors, by a uniform application of iron-containing layers in accordance with the process of this invention. (
  • Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. (
  • Function-based detectors, on the other hand, can react to previously uncharacterized structures that affect the monitored biological functions. (
  • Imaging scatterometry showed that the pigmented barbs create a diffuse orange scattering and the spongy barb structures create iridescence. (
  • Binders and fillers added to pure pigment chemicals also have their own reflection and absorption patterns, which can affect the final spectrum. (
  • Some inorganic pigments, such as vermilion (mercury sulfide) or cadmium yellow (cadmium sulfide), absorb light by transferring an electron from the negative ion (S 2− ) to the positive ion (Hg 2+ or Cd 2+ ). (
  • e) means for multiplying said rate of decay by a conversion factor, and means for determining said concentration of a tissue pigment with a known absorption spectrum. (
  • Here, we present a MALDI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) approach to increase identification specificity and sensitivity in the process based on pigment fragment ions which is of special importance in tissue samples. (
  • However, neither author considered that pigment migration might account for the observed differences, nor could they resolve the nature of the tapetum, which was described as connective tissue-like. (
  • For the purposes of this report, a function-based detector is defined as a naturally occurring biological organism or portion of that organism (whether organ, tissue, cell, or receptor) that reacts in a measurable way when exposed to a range of chemical or biological toxic material. (
  • Melanin, an endogenous cutaneous pigment which is most concentrated in the basal layer of the epidermis, has an absorption spectrum that is highest in the ultraviolet range and gradually diminishes toward the infrared. (
  • 5) It provides resistance to abrasion because of the molecular structure of the pigment. (
  • Here we apply a molecular genetic approach of targeted mutagenesis and heterologous expression, coupled with in vitro and in vivo models of bacterial pathogenesis, to demonstrate that the S. aureus pigment is a virulence factor and potential novel target for antimicrobial therapy. (
  • Although it is known that interactions between melanophores and xanthophores play a key role in the formation of adult pigment stripes, molecular mechanisms for these interactions remain largely unknown. (
  • 2 Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Bone et al suggested that the macular pigment consisted of lutein and zeaxanthin. (
  • Phytoplankton pigments were determined by HPLC. (
  • Furthermore, the hertofore known mica flakes pigments containing iron oxide are also unsatis factory from the standpoint of possible color variations. (
  • Purpose - Several solid solution combinations of aluminium oxide and iron oxide, for the preparation of a new pigment, were investigated to study the effect of aluminium oxide to iron oxide ratio on various properties of the resulting pigments. (
  • The maximum efficiency of an optically thin photosynthetic system in converting solar radiation into chemical energy is theoretically considered as a function of the absorption spectrum of the photon-collecting pigment. (
  • Fourteen cultivars of cherry tomatoes and four cultivars of high-pigment tomato hybrids were cultivated in southern Italy, and the red-ripe fruits were analyzed for their content in different classes of antioxidants and for their antioxidant activity. (
  • 12-14 Consequently, the possibility that the absorption characteristics and antioxidant properties of macular pigment confer protection against AMD has been postulated. (
  • Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. (
  • Nguyen HH, Imhof D, Kronen M, Schlegel B, Härtl A, Gräfe U, Gera L, Reissmann S. Synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues of the peptaibol ampullosporin A. J Med Chem. (
  • The acclimation to FRL results in rearrangement and synthesis of new pigments and pigment-protein complexes. (
  • Actually, they are chemically related to pigments in the retinas of our eyes, the light receptors which enable us to see. (