Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
Coloration of the skin.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Color of hair or fur.
Color of the iris.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC
Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.
Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.
General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.
Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.
The yellowish discoloration of connective tissue due to deposition of HOMOGENTISIC ACID (a brown-black pigment). This is due to defects in the metabolism of PHENYLALANINE and TYROSINE. Ochronosis occurs in ALKAPTONURIA, but has also been associated with exposure to certain chemicals (e.g., PHENOL, trinitrophenol, BENZENE DERIVATIVES).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Syndrome characterized by the triad of oculocutaneous albinism (ALBINISM, OCULOCUTANEOUS); PLATELET STORAGE POOL DEFICIENCY; and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin.
A hereditary disease caused by autosomal dominant mutations involving CHROMOSOME 19. It is characterized by the presence of INTESTINAL POLYPS, consistently in the JEJUNUM, and mucocutaneous pigmentation with MELANIN spots of the lips, buccal MUCOSA, and digits.
Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC
4-Methoxy-5-((5-methyl-4-pentyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ylidene)methyl)- 2,2'-bi-1H-pyrrole. A toxic, bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens and others. It has antibacterial, anticoccidial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, but is used mainly as a biochemical tool.
A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A permanent ashen-gray discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva, and internal organs resulting from long-continued use of silver salts. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
An inborn error of amino acid metabolism resulting from a defect in the enzyme HOMOGENTISATE 1,2-DIOXYGENASE, an enzyme involved in the breakdown of PHENYLALANINE and TYROSINE. It is characterized by accumulation of HOMOGENTISIC ACID in the urine, OCHRONOSIS in various tissues, and ARTHRITIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains aquiledine, isoaquiledine and cycloartane-type glycosides.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)
Exposing oneself to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
An unpigmented malignant melanoma. It is an anaplastic melanoma consisting of cells derived from melanoblasts but not forming melanin. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Substances used to obtain a lighter skin complexion or to treat HYPERPIGMENTATION disorders.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Small circumscribed melanoses resembling, but differing histologically from, freckles. The concept includes senile lentigo ('liver spots') and nevoid lentigo (nevus spilus, lentigo simplex) and may also occur in association with multiple congenital defects or congenital syndromes (e.g., Peutz-Jeghers syndrome).
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
A circumscribed stable malformation of the skin and occasionally of the oral mucosa, which is not due to external causes and therefore presumed to be of hereditary origin.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
Autosomal dominant, congenital disorder characterized by localized hypomelanosis of the skin and hair. The most familiar feature is a white forelock presenting in 80 to 90 percent of the patients. The underlying defect is possibly related to the differentiation and migration of melanoblasts, as well as to defective development of the neural crest (neurocristopathy). Piebaldism may be closely related to WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.
Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.
Light brown pigmented macules associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS and Albright's syndrome (see FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
Rare, autosomal dominant disease with variable penetrance and several known clinical types. Characteristics may include depigmentation of the hair and skin, congenital deafness, heterochromia iridis, medial eyebrow hyperplasia, hypertrophy of the nasal root, and especially dystopia canthorum. The underlying cause may be defective development of the neural crest (neurocristopathy). Waardenburg's syndrome may be closely related to piebaldism. Klein-Waardenburg Syndrome refers to a disorder that also includes upper limb abnormalities.
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A nonspecific term used to denote any cutaneous lesion or group of lesions, or eruptions of any type on the leg. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A nevus containing melanin. The term is usually restricted to nevocytic nevi (round or oval collections of melanin-containing nevus cells occurring at the dermoepidermal junction of the skin or in the dermis proper) or moles, but may be applied to other pigmented nevi.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.
A benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue, consisting chiefly of polyhedral and stellate cells that are loosely embedded in a soft mucoid matrix, thereby resembling primitive mesenchymal tissue. It occurs frequently intramuscularly where it may be mistaken for a sarcoma. It appears also in the jaws and the skin. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Granulomatous uveitis which follows in one eye after a penetrating injury to the other eye; the secondarily affected eye is called the sympathizing eye, and the injured eye is called the exciting or activating eye.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the diagnosis of melanoma and for the detection of postoperative metastases. Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing cells.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Surgical excision of the gingiva at the level of its attachment, thus creating new marginal gingiva. This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A fat-soluble riminophenazine dye used for the treatment of leprosy. It has been used investigationally in combination with other antimycobacterial drugs to treat Mycobacterium avium infections in AIDS patients. Clofazimine also has a marked anti-inflammatory effect and is given to control the leprosy reaction, erythema nodosum leprosum. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p1619)
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CHRONOBACTER, found in the environment and in foods.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.

Effects of lithium on pigmentation in the embryonic zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). (1/1835)

Pigment cell precursors of the embryonic zebrafish give rise to melanophores, xanthophores and/or iridophores. Cell signaling mechanisms related to the development of pigmentation remain obscure. In order to examine the mechanisms involved in pigment cell signaling, we treated zebrafish embryos with various activators and inhibitors of signaling pathways. Among those chemicals tested, LiCl and LiCl/forskolin had a stimulatory effect on pigmentation, most notable in the melanophore population. We propose that the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway, is involved in pigment pattern formation in zebrafish through its involvement in the: (1) differentiation/proliferation of melanophores; (2) dispersion of melanosomes; and/or (3) synthesis/deposition of melanin. To discern at what level pigmentation was being effected we: (1) counted the number of melanophores in control and experimental animals 5 days after treatment; (2) measured tyrosinase activity and melanin content; and (3) employed immunoblotting techniques with anti-tyrosine-related protein-2 and anti-melanocyte-specific gene-1 as melanophore-specific markers. Although gross pigmentation increased dramatically in LiCl- and LiCl/forskolin treated embryos, the effect on pigmentation was not due to an increase in the proliferation of melanophores, but was possibly through an increase in melanin synthesis and/or deposition. Collectively, results from these studies suggest the involvement of an IP-signaling pathway in the stimulation of pigmentation in embryonic zebrafish through the synthesis/deposition of melanin within the neural crest-derived melanophores.  (+info)

Flavin nucleotides in human lens: regional distribution in brunescent cataracts. (2/1835)

The biochemical mechanism(s) underlying brunescent cataracts remain unclear. Oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species may have a role in the pigmentation process in eye lens. We have analysed human cataractous lenses for flavins by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), since flavins are light sensitive and act as endogenous sensitizers generating reactive oxygen species in the eye. The most significant observation in this study is that higher levels of flavin nucleotides occur in brown lens compared to yellow lens. The concentration of flavin nucleotides (flavin monouncleotide, FMN + flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD) was highest in the nuclear region of the lens followed by the cortical and capsule-epithelial regions. However, the ratio of FAD/FMN was lowest in the nuclear region of the lens followed by other regions. On the other hand, riboflavin was not detected in any of the lens (cataractous) regions. These results suggest that the observed increase in flavin nucleotides in the ocular tissue could contribute towards deepening of lens pigmentation.  (+info)

Stripe formation in juvenile Pomacanthus explained by a generalized turing mechanism with chemotaxis. (3/1835)

Current interest in pattern formation can be traced to a seminal paper by Turing, who demonstrated that a system of reacting and diffusing chemicals, called morphogens, can interact so as to produce stable nonuniform concentration patterns in space. Recently, a Turing model has been suggested to explain the development of pigmentation patterns on species of growing angelfish such as Pomacanthus semicirculatus, which exhibit readily observed changes in the number, size, and orientation of colored stripes during development of juvenile and adult stages, but the model fails to predict key features of the observations on stripe formation. Here we develop a generalized Turing model incorporating cell growth and movement, we analyze the effects of these processes on patterning, and we demonstrate that the model can explain important features of pattern formation in a growing system such as Pomacanthus. The applicability of classical Turing models to biological pattern formation is limited by virtue of the sensitivity of patterns to model parameters, but here we show that the incorporation of growth results in robustly generated patterns without strict parameter control. In the model, chemotaxis in response to gradients in a morphogen distribution leads to aggregation of one type of pigment cell into a striped spatial pattern.  (+info)

Down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling mediated by the amino terminus of Agouti protein in Xenopus melanophores. (4/1835)

Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) regulate pigmentation and body weight, respectively, by antagonizing melanocortin receptor signaling. A carboxyl-terminal fragment of Agouti protein, Ser73-Cys131, is sufficient for melanocortin receptor antagonism, but Western blot analysis of skin extracts reveals that the electrophoretic mobility of native Agouti protein corresponds to the mature full-length form, His23-Cys131. To investigate the potential role of the amino-terminal residues, we compared the function of full-length and carboxyl-terminal fragments of Agrp and Agouti protein in a sensitive bioassay based on pigment dispersion in Xenopus melanophores. We find that carboxyl-terminal Agouti protein, and all forms of Agrp tested, act solely by competitive antagonism of melanocortin action. However, full-length Agouti protein acts by an additional mechanism that is time- and temperature-dependent, depresses maximal levels of pigment dispersion, and is therefore likely to be mediated by receptor down-regulation. Apparent down-regulation is not observed for a mixture of amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal fragments. We propose that the phenotypic effects of Agouti in vivo represent a bipartite mechanism: competitive antagonism of agonist binding by the carboxyl-terminal portion of Agouti protein and down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling by an unknown mechanism that requires residues in the amino terminus of the Agouti protein.  (+info)

The permeability to cytochalasin B of the new unpigmented surface in the first cleavage furrow of the newt's egg. (5/1835)

Two of 10 mug/ml cytochalasin B (CB) caused retraction of the first cleavage furrow in Triturus eggs, a spreading of the unpigmented surface from the furrow region and a flattening of the whole egg. CB appears to act against the contractility of the microfilamentous band at mid-cleavage so as to relax the furrow and also to weaken unpigmented surface to allow the egg to flatten. Uncleaved eggs and the initial formation of the cleavage groove were unaffected by CB. A fully-retracted first cleavage furrow reformed itself on transfer of the egg to normal medium but only at the time of second cleavage. Initiation of second cleavage depended upon there being sufficient of the original pigmented surface on the animal hemisphere. Tritium-labelled CB of high specific activty was prepared and used to study its ability to penetrate the surface of newt eggs during cleavage. Scintillation couting of whole eggs showed that CB was not taken into the newt egg until mid-cleavage (about 17 min after the double stripe stage) when new surface began to spread in the cleavage furrow. Fixation in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide retained radioactivity in the egg, but more CB was retained after fixation in osmium tetroxide alone than after double fixation. Most of the retained radioactivity was in yolk platelets. Autoradiographs were prepared to sectioned eggs which had been fixed at late cleavage after [3H]CB had flattend the furrow. These showed that CB entered the egg through the unpigmented surface which formed in the furrow but it could not enter through the pigmented surface. The impermeability of the pigmented surface explains the observations that CB does not prevent initial furrowing at cleavage. Once inside the egg CB is transported slowly. CB penetrates to a limited extent beneath the pigmented surface from its border with the unpigmented surface in the first cleavage furrow and this seems insufficient in some circumstances to suppress the contractile phase of second cleavage.  (+info)

Deposition of [3H]cocaine, [3H]nicotine, and [3H]flunitrazepam in mouse hair melanosomes after systemic administration. (6/1835)

Microautoradiography was employed to show that association of drugs from the serum directly with forming hair pigment is a primary pathway of deposition into the hair. After systemic administration of [3H]flunitrazepam, [3H]nicotine, and [3H]cocaine, association of all three drugs with melanin in the forming hair was observed within minutes of dosage. Sebum was determined to be an insignificant deposition route for all three drugs. Pigmented mice had significantly higher concentrations of all three drugs than did nonpigmented mice. The results provide a better basis for ultimately using hair for reliable analysis of drug and environmental toxin exposure.  (+info)

Natural copepods are superior to enriched artemia nauplii as feed for halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) in terms of survival, pigmentation and retinal morphology: relation to dietary essential fatty acids. (7/1835)

Replicate groups of halibut larvae were fed to d 71 post-first feeding (PFF) either the marine copepod, Eurytemora velox, or Artemia nauplii doubly enriched with the marine chromist or golden algae, Schizochytrium sp., (Algamac 2000) and a commercial oil emulsion (SuperSelco). The fatty acid compositions of eyes, brains and livers from larvae fed the two diets were measured, and indices of growth, eye migration and skin pigmentation were recorded along with histological examinations of eye and liver. The docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3); DHA]/eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3); EPA] ratios in Artemia nauplii enriched with the SuperSelco and Algamac 2000 were 0.4 and 1.0, respectively. The E. velox copepods were divided into two size ranges (125-250 and 250-400 microm) with the smaller size range containing the highest level of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). The DHA/EPA ratios for the two size ranges of copepods were 2.0 and 0.9, respectively. The total lipids of eyes, brains and livers of larvae fed copepods had higher levels of DHA and lower levels of EPA than those of larvae fed enriched Artemia. The percentage of survival of the halibut larvae was significantly higher when copepods rather than enriched Artemia nauplii were fed, but larval specific growth rates did not differ. The indices of eye migration were high and not significantly different in larvae fed the two diets, but the percentage of larvae undergoing successful metamorphosis (complete eye migration and dorsal pigmentation) was higher in larvae fed copepods (40%) than in larvae fed enriched Artemia (4%). The rod/cone ratios in histological sections of the retina were 2.5 +/- 0.7 in larvae fed copepods and 1.3 +/- 0.6 in larvae fed enriched Artemia (P < 0.01). Histological examination of the livers and intestines of the larvae were consistent with better assimilation of lipid from copepods than lipid from Artemia nauplii up to 46 d post-first feeding. Thus, marine copepods are superior to enriched Artemia as food for halibut larvae in terms of survival, eye development and pigmentation, and this superiority can be related to the level of DHA in the feed.  (+info)

Notch-mediated segmentation and growth control of the Drosophila leg. (8/1835)

The possession of segmented appendages is a defining characteristic of the arthropods. By analyzing both loss-of-function and ectopic expression experiments, we show that the Notch signaling pathway plays a fundamental role in the segmentation and growth of the Drosophila leg. Local activation of Notch is necessary and sufficient to promote the formation of joints between segments. This segmentation process requires the participation of the Notch ligands, Serrate and Delta, as well as Fringe. These three proteins are each expressed in the developing leg and antennal imaginal discs in a segmentally repeated pattern that is regulated downstream of the action of Wingless and Decapentaplegic. Our studies further show that Notch activation is both necessary and sufficient to promote leg growth. We also identify target genes regulated both positively and negatively downstream of Notch signaling that are required for normal leg development. Together, these observations outline a regulatory hierarchy for the segmentation and growth of the leg. The Notch pathway is also deployed for segmentation during vertebrate somitogenesis, which raises the possibility of a common origin for the segmentation of these distinct tissues.  (+info)

Theory predicts that sexually dimorphic traits under strong sexual selection, particularly those involved with intersexual signaling, can accelerate speciation and produce bursts of diversification. Sexual dichromatism (sexual dimorphism in color) is widely used as a proxy for sexual selection and is associated with rapid diversification in several animal groups, yet studies using phylogenetic comparative methods to explicitly test for an association between sexual dichromatism and diversification have produced conflicting results. Sexual dichromatism is rare in frogs, but it is both striking and prevalent in African reed frogs, a major component of the diverse frog radiation termed Afrobatrachia. In contrast to most other vertebrates, reed frogs display female-biased dichromatism in which females undergo color transformation, often resulting in more ornate coloration in females than in males. We produce a robust phylogeny of Afrobatrachia to investigate the evolutionary origins of sexual ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence that MIF plays a role in the development of pigmentation patterns in the frog. AU - Fukuzawa, Toshihiko. AU - Samaraweera, Preminda. AU - Mangano, Francesco T.. AU - Law, John H.. AU - Bagnara, Joseph T.. PY - 1995/1. Y1 - 1995/1. N2 - A ventrally localized melanization-inhibiting factor (MIF) may play an important role in the expression of dorsal-ventral pigment patternsof amphibians. In efforts to purify this putativeMIF, ventral skin conditioned medium (VCM) from Rana forreri was partially fractionated and used to immunize mice. A monoclonal antibody that has the ability to block the activity of MIF was isolated, and an immunoaffinity matrix was prepared bycross-linking the antibody to protein G-Sepharose. The fraction of VCM that bound to the affinity matrix decreased the number of melanized cells inthe Xenopus laevis neural tube explant assay, butdid not reduce significantly the number of cells that emigrated. The monoclonal antibody was used for immunohistochemical ...
The diversity and beauty of the pigmentation patterns on the shells of snails and bivalved molluscs invites us to construct models to understand their formation. The similarity of patterns in...
An 83-year-old woman presented with abrupt-onset asymptomatic green pigmented lesions on her sole. She had had progressive jaundice and was recently diagnosed with advanced cholangiocarcinoma. The patient had no fever. Physical examination revealed generalized marked jaundice and multiple, round, discrete, deep green, 1- to 2-mm flat areas of pigmentation on the right sole (figure 1A). Close examination showed a linear distribution on the crista cutis (figure 1B). Dermascopic investigation revealed [...]. ...
I am suffering from dark pigmentation on my neck for many yrs. Now am very awkward that I cant able to show. Please give some cream names or remedies for qu...
Question - Noticed pigmentation on roots of the hair on back and shoulders. What is the disease called?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Amyloidosis, Ask a Dermatologist
Question - Have pigmentation on neck and is spreading. What is the cure for this?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Erythema, Ask a Dermatologist
Of the bacteria offered, Kocuria rhizophilia (formerly Micrococcus luteus) yellow pigmentation is due to carotenoids the function of which here is not real obvious. Carotenoids do confer some degee of photoresistance and can function in photosynthesis. Pseudomonas chlororaphis greenish pigmentation is due to pyoverdin, a compound that helps the bug acquire iron. Im not so familiar with B. cereus pigmentation. Ive seen some vague brown, yellowish stuff and it does produce characteristic pigmentation on special media ...
Radiance Medispas offers Skin Pigmentation treatment, face pigmentation, treatment for skin pigmentation, skin discoloration from experienced dermatologist in B, Beauty Parlours Bangalore
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phylogenetic analysis of the cardini group of Drosophila with respect to changes in pigmentation. AU - Brisson, Jennifer A.. AU - Wilder, Jason A. AU - Hollocher, Hope. PY - 2006/6. Y1 - 2006/6. N2 - Phenotypic variability is the engine that drives future diversification with the expectation that polymorphic ancestors give rise to descendants harboring a subset of the ancestral variation. Here we examine evolutionary transitions from polymorphism to monomorphism in a visually striking New World radiation of fruit flies, the Drosophila cardini group. This group is distributed across the Americas and the Caribbean islands and exhibits a wide spectrum of abdominal pigmentation variation. Specifically, the D. dunni subgroup consists of Caribbean island endemics, each of which is monomorphic for its pigmentation pattern, with an interspecific cline of pigmentation across the islands. The D. cardini subgroup consists of American continental species with wide-ranging distributions and ...
Skin pigmentation is a common skin problem worldwide. The phrase pigmentation describes discolouration of your skin, and it is very likel...
Pigmentation, hyper pigmentation, uneven sun tan and patchy dark spots are some of the common skin concerns faced by women in the tropical zone. If youre one of them, then we have the perfect skin care routine to treat pigmentation and get rid of a sun tan instantly with the help of useful tips, medication and treatments thatll redress this distressing problem effectively.. It also happens at water parks and beaches. These tips are useful to prevent that temporary pigmentation and tanning too.. Dermatologist, Dr. Bindu Sthalekar cracks the code in our Treat Your Pigmentation series that lists down everything you need to know right from all the causes and types to the apt treatments that actually work and precautionary measures one must take in order to speed up the process of pigmentation removal.. This series kickstarts with Causes & Types followed by Treatments & Remedies and Dos & Donts - now thats one power packed plan that is sure to show its effectiveness faster than you can ...
Definition of pigmentation in the online dictionary, Lexipedia. The meaning of pigmentation. What does pigmentation mean? pigmentation synonyms, pigmentation antonyms. Information about pigmentation in the free online dictionary and thesaurus.
Read Polymorphism of pigmentation genes (OCA2 and ASIP) in some populations of Russia, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
This similarity is, I believe, no coincidence. A mollusc shell, like a one-dimensional cellular automaton, in effect grows one... - from A New Kind of Science
It is said that skin pigmentation more commonly occurs among women because of the changes that female sex hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone bring about in the production of melanin when the skin comes in prolonged contact with sun rays.
Are you unsatisfied with your tattoo? Do you have skin pigmentation problems; perhaps caused by ageing skin or the sun? Previously, removal of these skin issues was painful; but new laser methods offer the opportunity to clear your skin safely and pain-free.
Read Testing the potential mechanisms for the maintenance of a genetic color polymorphism in bluefin killifish populations, Current Zoology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Pigmentation on the skin can make a person feel very ugly, and have a huge effect on their self confidence. One of the problems as far as pigmentation is concerned is that it can be seen on your skin from afar. It is not a surprise then to see that anyone suffering from skin pigmentation
Maybe you can try the PCA Pigment BAr. I use it on my body cum face. Face, I can see whitening in just 1 week. On body, you need way longer time cos body skin is thicker ...
28 yrs old Male asked about Pigmenation on my face, 1 doctor answered this and 45 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
Pigmentation & Sun Spot Removal. Pigmentation is a condition that causes an individuals skin to darken. Small dark patches may cover large areas of the persons body or entirely. Pigmentation is typically not harmful, but it can be a sign of other medical conditions. A sun spot is a flat brown spot that develops on areas of your skin that have been exposed to the sun. Although they are also known as liver spots, they have nothing to do with your liver. Sun spots are also harmless and are not noncancerous. They do not pose any risk to your health. Many individuals choose to remove them for cosmetic reasons. Thats where pigmentation & sun spot removal comes in ...
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Pigmentation can come in many forms including brown spots, age spots, liver spots. Simply put, pigmentation refers to the small, freckle-like marks that are caused by excessive sun exposure. They commonly appear on the face, chest, shoulders and arms because those areas of the body get the most sunshine. Ultraviolet (UV rays) accelerate the production of melanin, which gives skin its brown pigmentation. Brown spots result from overactive pigment cells and melanin being grouped together in higher concentrations. Melanin tends to develop in small circles in a concentrated area.. These spots are mostly harmless and are usually addressed for cosmetic reasons. If you do notice an unusual brown spot on your skin, be sure to monitor its size and color. Schedule an appointment with your doctor if the spot does change.. ...
You might have heard the term pigmentation several times by names. You might have noticed some people have some differently-colored patches on the skin than its usual skin color. Thats pigmentation. It means coloring of the skin due to a disorder that triggers the health of a skin cell which ultimately affects its melanin production. Skinaa clinic is the best pigmentation treatment clinic in Jaipur and staffs some of the highly-renowned pigmentation specialists.. ...
Newlook Laser Clinic over the years has a technology that helps to treat the skin to remove skin pigmentation and stop the process. Using a medical grade laser
Struggling with Pigmentation? Follow our Skin Care Expert Recommended FDA Certified Pigmentation Repair Plan and begin to see Visible Results soon: Everyday Pigmentation & Scar Repair Homecare AM - Morning Routine STEP 1 CLEANSING with FDA Certified ZOOTOX Vita-C Anti-Pigmentation Cleanser with Vitamin C and Sili
Equally, in the event of being pregnant, the ladies pigmentation marks after pregnancy of a lot care and precise therapy. At the moment its easy for the media to drive a wedge. Luckily, with every assessment we do on this website, we are going to present an Amazon link in an effort to look at the product your self and purchase it if you want. Occasional recognizing can be considered regular, but it might even be a sign of a miscarriage. Aftre you need speedy help from other ladies going through this proper now, be part of our personal pigmentation marks after pregnancy on Fb Your family and friends cannot see your posts. Even leaving my pigmenattion that first morning, pigmentation marks after pregnancy head was high again: as a result of she had taken management of her fears and asked for assist. When shopping round mafks pillows preserve these in thoughts examine pillows against one another. Your physique is producing more blood, your coronary heart is working tougher and the way in which you ...
Pigmentation Blur contains 5 potent actives that are clinically proven to reduce and prevent pigmentation by targeting the three key causes; inflammation, sun exposure and hormonal activity. This powerful and natural formula helps reduce post inflammatory pigmentation, while papain enzymes gently exfoliate to brighten
Interestingly, 11 of the TFs tested [atonal (ato), Boundary element-associated factor of 32kD (BEAF-32), dsx, Ecdysone-induced protein 78C (Eip78C), Hormone receptor 3 (Hr46), Hr78, jing (jing), Methoprene-tolerant (Met), pointed (pnt), Su(z)12 (Su(z)12), and u-shaped (ush)] had opposite effects on pigmentation in different segments of the abdomen or in different sexes when knocked down with RNAi (Figure 7, Table S4, and File S5). Consequently, they are listed in more than one category in Figure 7. For example, knockdowns of ato, Eip78C, Hr46, Hr78, Met, and ush increased dark pigmentation in female abdominal segments A3, A4, and A5, and male abdominal segments A3 and A4 (also A2 in the case of ush) (Figure 7E), but reduced or eliminated dark pigmentation in female abdominal segment A6 (Figure 7B). Reducing activity of Su(z)12 resulted in broader midline peaks in female abdominal segments A3, A4, and A5, and male abdominal segments A3 and A4 (Figure 7E), but less dark pigmentation in female ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Similarly, the most significant SNPs in the bab region also correspond to previously described regulatory regions. The bab locus consists of two paralogous genes, bab1 and bab2, both affecting abdominal pigmentation, with the segment scored here (A7) affected primarily by bab1 activity [17], [32]. The significant SNP in bab1 maps to the dimorphic regulatory element in the first intron of this gene, which upregulates bab1 in females, and represses it in males ([17]; Figure 2B, middle). The remaining highly ranked, but non-significant bab SNPs fall into regions that are plausibly also regulatory-a second region within the first intron of bab1 (downstream of the dimorphic element), and a third region near the promoter region of bab1-though they have not been validated with functional genetic studies. Finally, the highest ranked SNP outside of the tan and bab regions lies in the male repressor module of ebony, which affects pigmentation in males ([23]; Figure 2B, right), though this SNP was also ...
Recently our advice lines and show team have received a huge amount of calls and visits from customers asking how can I improve my dogs coat and pigmentation?. With winter just around the corner now is often the time coat condition suffers due to the weather and pigmentation can also reduce due to the lack of sunlight. Here are some tips and ideas on how we can help improve these problems naturally.. Coat Growth and Condition. There are a number of products to improve coat condition, depending on what is required and the type of coat the breed may have.. Keepers Mix® is always our first recommendation as its an all-round supplement that when given daily maintains a strong healthy thick coat and is particularly popular for gundogs and rough coated terriers, but can also improve any type of coat. Consisting of just 8 different herbs and nothing else added, this combination makes sure your dog is getting everything he needs! Click here to find out more about our all round everyday health ...
One primary agenda of the developmental evolution field is to elucidate molecular mechanisms governing differences in animal form. While mounting evidence has established an important role for mutations in transcription controlling cis-regulatory elements (CREs), the underlying mechanisms that translate these alterations into differences in gene expression are poorly understood. Emerging studies focused on pigmentation differences…
Facial pigmentation may be due to a generalised process but most often is localised to the face. Melasma and actinic damage pigmentation are common and tend to be bilaterally distributed and slowly progressive. Irregularly shaped isolated lesions should be viewed with more caution, and biopsy may be required. Treatments include topical and oral medications, peels, intense pulsed light therapy and laser treatment.. ...
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Pigmentation Home Treatment Pigmentation can occur on any part of the skin. It can also affect any gender male or female of any age. It has however been found
What causes pigmentation? Areas with uneven pigmentation are caused by sun exposure, in particular UVA rays that penetrate deep into the skin and cause aging
hiya does any1 out there no about pigmentation in chihuahuas jacob recently won at his show after the judge came to say he was perfect but his pigmentation...
Pigmentation is an all too common skin condition, especially in Australia. Come into AASC to find out what we can do for your pigmentation.
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Im thinking about signing up to Dermatica to get my pigmentation on the top of my cheeks sorted.Has anyone else used them for this and if so has it
Hereditary absence of otoliths was discovered by Lyon (1951) in mice homozygous for the mutant pallid. In transverse sections of 4-week-old mice the ears appeared normal except for the lack of otoliths.. The pallid mutant had been known previously for its effect on pigmentation: the coat colour is reduced to pale grey, and the eyes are pink. All animals homozygous for the mutant gene regularly show these pigment defects, but not all lack otoliths, and those that do show all grades of defect. Usually any particular otolith is either normal or completely absent, but occasionally otolith granules are present though fewer and larger than normal.. The present paper describes an investigation of the development of this otolith abnormality. It was hoped that such a study would provide some clue about the cause of the irregular manifestation of the defect, and of its association with reduced pigmentation.. ...
Tawny owls defend their territories very actively. You might like to read all these tawny owl facts that includes owls diet, habitat, behavior, and reproduction.
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External and application type Ayurvedic home remedies for hyper pigmentation are as under: Pigmentation on Face: Apply mixture of lemon juice and honey on your face, which acts as bleach and helps to remove skin pigmentation. Hyper pigmentation can result from many things, like prolonged exposure to the Suns UV rays and toxins, genetics, wounds, cosmetic products, inflammation, and even pills. Crush a handful of fenugreek leaves into a fine paste and apply it onto your skin. 1. Its generally mild for most skin types and unlike lemon which is drying, aloe vera provides moisturisation. It can be triggered by other skin inflammations like acne or could be caused by some internal as well as external factors. Get Ayurvedic skin pigmentation products to help fight with Blemishes and Dark Spots naturally. Heres what to to: squeeze the juice out of half a lemon and dilute it with a little water. It uses broad-spectrum light, coming from a handheld flashgun, to target melanin. How to get rid of ...
Identification of Atg2 and ArfGAP1 as Candidate Genetic Modifiers of the Eye Pigmentation Phenotype of Adaptor Protein-3 AP-3 Mutants in Drosophila melanogaster. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A new species of the ant genus Cardiocondyla Emery, 1869 – Cardiocondyla pirata sp. n. – is described from the Philippines. The species belongs to an Indo-Malayan group of six species that is characterized by workersa strongly bilobate postpetiolar sternite and a thickset mesosoma with strongly convex dorsal profile as well as wingless, ergatoid males with sickle-shaped mandibles. The female castes show a pigmentation pattern not known from any ant worldwide. Ifany adaptive value, a possible function of this structure is supposed to be visual dissolution of body shape in order to irritate predators.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contrasting modes of natural selection acting on pigmentation genes in the Drosophila dunni subgroup. AU - Wilder, J. A.. AU - Dyreson, E. G.. AU - ONeill, R. J.. AU - Spangler, M. L.. AU - Gupta, R.. AU - Wilder, A. S.. AU - Hollocher, H.. PY - 2004/9/15. Y1 - 2004/9/15. N2 - Genes that encode for divergent adaptive traits may have genealogies that contrast with those from loci that are not functionally involved in differentiation. Here, we examine DNA sequence variation among the species of the eastern Caribbean Drosophila dunni subgroup at two loci, yellow and dopa decaboxylase (Ddc), which both play integral roles in pigmentation patterning of adult Drosophila. Phylogenetic analyses of these loci produce gene genealogies with topologies that mirror those described for other nuclear genes: the six morphologically distinct species within the subgroup are divided into only three lineages, with one lineage containing four species that share extensive ancestral polymorphism. At ...
article{b8e636d5-178c-4203-b889-eae504eb21be, abstract = {A repeated pattern of background colour matching in animals is an indication that pigmentation may be cryptic. Here, we examine the relationship between pigmentation of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus and background darkness in 29 lakes, wetlands and ponds in Southern Sweden. The results show that Asellus pigmentation was correlated with substrate darkness across all localities. In seven localities, in which two contrasting substrate types were noted, Asellus populations were differentiated with respect to pigmentation. These findings thus provide phenomenological support for cryptic pigmentation in Asellus. Pigmentation generally increased with body size, but the relationship between pigmentation and size differed among localities, possibly as a result of differences in correlational selection on pigmentation and size. Selection thus appears to have resulted in local differentiation over a small spatial scale, even within lakes ...
Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly ...
Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly ...
Pigmentation is commonly known as dark spots. It is very common in women, it happens due to stress, environmental factors and also during pregnancy. Men also suffer from pigmentation or darkening of skin. Asian skin is especially susceptible to hyper- pigmentation.. Cause. People with a family history of pigmentation are more prone to the problem. Medication such as birth control pills also causes pigmentation. However, it is excess exposure to sunlight that is considered to be the most important factor. Ultraviolet rays from the sun or even strong light from light bulbs can stimulate pigment producing cells. Any irritation of the skin may cause increase pigmentation in individuals with dark complexion.. Pigmentation can also occur by certain conditions such as long term illness, hormonal problems or changes, vitamin B12 deficiency, liver diseases, mal-absorption and nutritional deficiency.. Treatment. All factors which aggravate pigmentation should be prevented. For example dry and chapped skin ...
Melasma is blotchy areas of brown skin pigmentation on the face.Individual results may vary. Melasma, (also known as chloasma), appears as blotchy pale brownish pigmentation on the face, especially forehead, cheek and upper lip. It is more common on darker skin types. It is especially common in women aged 20-40 and is associated with pregnancy or taking the contraceptive pill or injection. It also happens in healthy, non pregnant woman taking no medications and men using aftershave.. Sun exposure following some cosmetics can cause a phototoxic reaction where the chemical substance absorbs UV light. The resulting pigmentation extends where sun and cosmetic use have coincided, for example down the neck, often more on the right side in countries that drive on the left.. Melasma is more stubborn and unpredictable to treat than freckles or age spots because the melanocytes have become sensitized and continue to produce extra pigment with even the slightest hint of sun. Sun protection is an essential ...
The identification of the specific molecular changes underlying adaptive variation in quantitative traits in wild populations is of prime interest (1, 2). Pigmentation phenotypes are particularly amenable to genetic dissection because of their high heritability and our knowledge of the underlying developmental pathway (3). In a series of classic natural history studies (4, 5), Sumner documented pigment variation in Peromyscus polionotus, including eight extremely light-colored beach mouse subspecies, which inhabit the primary dunes and barrier islands of Floridas Gulf and Atlantic coasts (6). This light color pattern is driven by selection for camouflage (7, 8) as major predators of P. polionotus include visual hunters (9). Because the barrier islands on the Gulf Coast are ,6000 years old (10), this adaptive color variation may have evolved rapidly.. We examined the contribution of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r) to this adaptive color patterning. MC1R, a G protein-coupled receptor, ...
Aug. 16, 1966 N. s. KAPANY 3,267,233 COLOR DISPLAY APPARATUS FOR IM S PRODUCED IN NGES DIFFERENT FREQUENCY 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 4, 1964 NARINDER S. KAPANY ATTORNEYS CABZI CAB Aug. 16, 1966 N. s. KAPANY 3,267,283 COLOR DISPLAY APPARATUS FOR IMAGES PRODUCED IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY RANGES Filed June 4, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 4 4o FIG.6 48 DEFLECTION CIRCUITS COLOR CONTROL CIRCUITS INVENTOR NARINDER S. KAPANY ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,267,283 I COLOR DISPLAY APPARATUS FOR IMAGES PRO- DUCED IN DIFFERENT FREQUENCY RANGES Narinder S. Kapany, Woodside, Calif., assignor to Optics Technology, Inc., Belmont, Calif., a corporation of California Filed June 4, 1964, Ser. No. 372,589 Claims. (Cl. 250- 71) This invention relates to a method and apparatus for irradiating an object with radiation having components I in various energy or frequency ranges, so that the object sensitivity to either reflection or transmission of radiation in the various ranges can be simultaneously or sequentially ...
Species that exhibit genetic colour polymorphism are ideal for studying the micro-evolutionary forces that maintain genetic variation in nature. One very intriguing polymorphism is the coexistence of several discrete morphs within only one sex, with one morph often resembling the opposite sex in colour and sometimes behaviour. In males, this resemblance often allows access to receptive females, while in females the polymorphism appears related to avoiding excessive male sexual harassment. One might wonder why natural selection does not simply give rise to a single best male and female type for each species. The phenomenon of sex-limited polymorphisms provides an important opportunity to test contemporary ideas relating to sexual selection and sexual conflict, and the diversity of polymorphisms that have arisen in odonates clearly offers one of the best natural systems for among species and population comparative research.
Plumage (Latin: plūma feather) refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers. The pattern and colours of plumage differ between species and subspecies, and may vary with age classes. Within species there can be different colour morphs. The placement of feathers on a bird are not haphazzard, but rather emerge in organized, overlapping rows and groups, and these feather tracts are known by standardized names. Most birds moult, usually before and after breeding, resulting in a breeding or nuptial plumage and a basic plumage. Many ducks and some other species such as the red junglefowl have males wearing a bright nuptial plumage while breeding and a drab eclipse plumage for some months afterwards. The painted buntings juveniles have two inserted moults in their first autumn, each yielding plumage like an adult females. The first starts a few days after fledging replacing the juvenile plumage with an auxiliary formative plumage; ...
Heliconius butterflies are widely distributed across the Neotropics and have evolved a stunning array of wing color patterns that mediate Müllerian mimicry and mating behavior. Their rapid radiation has been strongly influenced by hybridization, which has created new species and allowed sharing of color patterning alleles between mimetic species pairs. While these processes have frequently been observed in widespread species with contiguous distributions, many Heliconius species inhabit patchy or rare habitats that may strongly influence the origin and spread of species and color patterns. Here, we assess the effects of historical population fragmentation and unique biology on the origins, genetic health, and color pattern evolution of two rare and sparsely distributed Brazilian butterflies, Heliconius hermathena and Heliconius nattereri. We assembled genomes and re-sequenced whole genomes of eight H. nattereri and 71 H. hermathena individuals. These species harbor little genetic diversity, skewed site
In fruit flies, the allele for ebony body color is recessive to the allele for brown body color. In a generation of fruit flies with 103 offspring,...
In soybean, dominant alleles of the I locus inhibit pigmentation of the seed coat while the homozygous recessive i allele results in fully pigmented seed. Previous work showed that dominant alleles correspond to duplications ...
NCKX5 is an ion exchanger expressed mostly in pigment cells; however, the functional role for this protein in melanogenesis is not clear. A variant allele of SLC24A5, the gene encoding NCKX5, has been shown to correlate with lighter skin pigmentation in humans, indicating a key role for SLC24A5 in determining human skin colour. SLC24A5 expression has been found to be elevated in melanoma. Knockdown analyses have shown SLC24A5 to be important for pigmentation, but to date the function of this ion exchanger in melanogenesis has not been fully established. Our data suggest NCKX5 may have an alternative activity that is key to its role in the regulation of pigmentation. Here Xenopus laevis is employed as an in vivo model system to further investigate the function of NCKX5 in pigmentation. SLC24A5 is expressed in the melanophores as they differentiate from the neural crest and develop in the RPE of the eye. Morpholino knockdown and rescue experiments were designed to elucidate key residues and regions of the
Skin colour is perhaps the most decisive and abused physical characteristic of humankind. This book presents a multidisciplinary overview of how and why human populations vary so markedly in their skin colour. The biological aspects of the pigment cell and its production of melanin are reviewed. The functions of melanin in the skin, brain, eye and ear are considered, and the common clinical abnormalities of pigmentation, such as albinism, are described and illustrated. Detailed reflectance data from worldwide surveys of skin colour are also presented. The historical and contemporary background of the phenomenon is explored in relation to the so-called colour problem in society. Finally, the possible evolutionary forces which shape human pigmentation are assessed. This fascinating account will be of interest to graduate students and researchers of biological anthropology, anatomy, physiology and dermatology, as well as medical practitioners ...
Forster, J. D., Noh, H., Liew, S. F., Saranathan, V., Schreck, C. F., Yang, L., Park, J.-G., Prum, R. O., Mochrie, S. G. J., OHern, C. S., Cao, H. and Dufresne, E. R. (2010), Biomimetic Isotropic Nanostructures for Structural Coloration. Adv. Mater., 22: 2939-2944. doi: 10.1002/adma.200903693 ...
Send your enquires to [email protected], Jovees Essence of Nutmeg Anti Blemish-Pigmentation Face Mask. Previous page of related Sponsored Products. Use Jovees Anti Blemish Pigmentation Face Mask once a week. Please try your search again later. Online herbal shop. Grind the dried orange peel in a blender. Gently apply the paste to your face. Below is a detailed nutritional profile of nutmeg. This face pack lightens the pigmentation, restores skins balance and clears blemishes while keeping the skin fresh and youthful. One of the biggest benefits of nutmeg for skin is that it can help even out pigmentation, according to Ross. The mixture has to form a paste, so do not add too much milk. Natural Skin Moisturizer; The vitamin C benefits found in nutmeg will optimize the production of collagen. Theres a problem loading this menu right now. The lignan found in nutmeg evens the pigmentation in the skin by inhibiting melanin production. This face mask will remove tan and will also prevent oil ...
The mapping resolution of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is limited by historic recombination events and effects are often assigned to haplotype blocks rather than individual SNPs. It is not clear how many of the SNPs in the block, and which ones, are causative. Drosophila pigmentation is a powerful model to dissect the genetic basis of intra-specific and inter-specific phenotypic variation. Three tightly linked SNPs in the t-MSE enhancer have been identified in three D. melanogaster populations as major contributors to female abdominal pigmentation. This enhancer controls the expression of the pigmentation gene tan (t) in the abdominal epidermis. Two of the three SNPs were confirmed in an independent study using the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel established from a North American population. We determined the functional impact of SNP1, SNP2, and SNP3 using transgenic lines to test all possible haplotypes in vivo. We show that all three candidate SNPs contribute to female Drosophila
Sometimes called liver spots, brown age spots are dark skin areas that often look like large dark freckles. They are normally caused by long term sun damage but occasionally can be caused by bruising that leaves behind pigment from the blood. Most age spots appear on hands, but they can appear on any part of the body exposed to the sun, such as the face, neck, arms, and back. Pigmentation is the darkening of an area of skin. Causes of pigmentation can range from sun damage caused by UV exposure, hormone fluctuations due to pregnancy or menopause, and skin injuries such as acne scarring. Certain skin types can also be more susceptible to pigmentation. Recommended Services A combination of Vibraderm™ and LimeLight™ IPL treatments will successfully treat age spots and pigmentation problems. . ...
Pigmentation - Face (135 KB) The Scar Treatment Serum for pigmented and scarred skin, is a natural topical treatment, formulated to assist in helping to improve the appearance of pigmentation no matter what the cause. It is beneficial in assisting with the reduction of pigmentation, premature ageing, dehydration and uneven skin tone. You can get notable results from using the Scar Treatment Serum by itself. Greater results and healthier skin is achievable by adding the partnering products as per the attached skin guide. Use for a minimum of 3 months. Continuous use will help achieve the best results. Avoid sun exposure when using this product. Always wear adequate sun protection. The sun will further damage the skin and cause additional pigmentation ...
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The available data demonstrate that even in universal metabolic pathways, some species-specific regulatory features of structural genes are present. For instance, in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (ABP), genes may be regulated by ABP-specific regulatory factors, and their expression levels may be strongly associated with anthocyanin pigmentation, or they may be expressed independently of pigmentation. A dataset of orthologous ABP genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, F3h, Dfr, Ans) from monocot and dicot plant species that have distinct gene regulation patterns and different types of pollination was constructed to test whether these factors affect the evolution of the genes. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we demonstrated that although the whole set of the ABP genes is under purifying selection, with greater selection acting on the upstream genes than on the downstream genes, genes from distinct groups of plant species experienced different strengths of selective pressure. The selective pressure on the
Learning is important to consider in all manner of species interactions, including mutualism, competition, predation, and parasitism. In all cases, learning by one species in the interaction has the potential to shape the evolution of traits in the other species. For example, learning by predator species is thought to have played a role in the evolution of warning coloration in potential prey species. Warning coloration is coloration that serves to advertise the noxiousness of potential prey, to the mutual benefit of both prey and predator. It is typically highly conspicuous. One advantage of conspicuous coloration is that it is easier for the predator to detect from a distance. However, conspicuous coloration has two additional advantages. It is learned faster by predators and remembered longer, effects which should favor the evolution of conspicuous coloration.. A preys conspicuous coloration and a predators propensity to learn conspicuous colors could evolve in tandem, a prediction that ...
This list is for the discussion of colour mutations and genetics in all species of parrots on a mainly technical level. Basic knowledge of genetics is essential as well as familiarity with the common Parrot colour morphs. The aim is to bring together breeders from different areas of the world so we can gain better understanding of colour mutations.
pFake Designer Bags E (extended black) is the most dominant allele of an autosomic locus which controls the extension of black to different parts of the plumage. These allele allows the extension of black pigment to the feathers of the whole plumage, producing solid black plumage. It is present not only in most solid black plumage breeds, but also in black barred breeds, such as Barred Rocks, in mottled breeds such as Ancona and some white breeds such as White Leghorns.[8] This mutation is epistatic to many other color patterns based on the recessive alleles of the locus E: Most crossings between solid black plumage fowls and fowls exhibiting other plumage patterns, give a solid black plumage offspring.[1] But E is also hypostatic to a type of white: Crossings between Black Australorps and White Leghorns, which are so popular in many countries to produce egg layers, give an offspring of nearly white plumage.. Fake Designer ...
Laser and IPL treatments are non-invasive procedures that are almost entirely pain free. Facial treatments can take as little as 30 minutes. Speaking with one of our consultants at Collins Cosmetic Clinic can tailor your treatment to suit your needs.. An IPL treatment typically involves lying prostrate on a bed while one of our physicians controls the light technology - used in a series of pulses - with a computer-controlled handpiece that they direct in and around the affected areas of the skin.. Intense Pulsed Light treatments can drastically reduce skin pigmentations within a matter of 3-6 clinical procedures, depending on the severity of the pigmentations.. The treatment, once completed, allows you to return to your everyday activities, making it an effortless procedure to have during the week, even while you are at work.. Following treatments you will see a noticeable change with your skin pigmentations, as they fade and disappear. Most IPL treatments have a high success rate, with 7 in 10 ...
Pigment patterns of Danio fishes are a tractable system for assessing the developmental genetic bases for the evolution of adult form in vertebrates. These pigment patterns include multiple horizontal melanophore stripes in the zebrafish D. rerio, a complete absence of stripes in D. albolineatus, a …
Darker spots on the skin can add years to your appearance. Hyperpigmentation can occur when the skin cells responsible for giving skin its colour (melanocytes) are damaged. This creates sun spots, age spots, freckles, melasma (see below) and pigmented acne scarring.. The cause of pigmentation changes may be from sun exposure, acne, injury, smoking, and as part of cell changes during the natural ageing process. It may also be hormonal. Up to 90% of pregnant women may experience pigmentation changes called melasma that affects their nose, cheekbones, upper lip and forehead, creating blotches of darker skin that can give them the appearance of wearing a mask.. We see and treat many men and women that feel self-conscious and vulnerable about the appearance of their patchy skin, especially as its often not as easy as simply applying concealer to the affected areas. We have a number of treatments that can help reduce the appearance of pigmentation, including:. ...
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While demographic processes affect all regions of the genome in a similar manner, selection should preferentially affect levels of diversity and the site frequency spectrum (SFS) in genic regions relative to neutral regions. Here we compare patterns of variation in ten pigmentation candidate loci to a neutral dataset comprised of 61 loci located in regions of high recombination and far from genes. Both the genic and neutral loci were sequenced in the same panel of 72 African (Biaka, Mandenka, and San) and 80 Non-African (Han Chinese, French Basque, and PNG Highlander) chromosomes. As expected, mean levels of diversity are significantly lower in genic relative to neutral regions (?genic = 0.00072; ?neutral = 0.00113; p < 0.01). Because it is often assumed that pigmentation loci have been affected by purifying selection within Africa and by positive directional selection outside of Africa, we compared the SFS of pigmentation and neutral loci in these regions. We observe a trend towards an excess ...
4 images of grouped pigmentation: bear tracks, polar bear tracks (2), Gardner syndrome - multiple spots of RPE pigmentation resembling grouped pigmentation Ophthalmology Case Reports and Grand Rounds from the University of Iowa Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences
Treatment for Pigmentation in Nulife Hospital, Mumbai. Find Doctors Near You, Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Address, Phone Numbers and Reviews. Doctors for Pigmentation in Nulife Hospital, Mumbai | Lybrate
Objective: The orange-red spectrum of the skin of electric yellow (Labidochromis caeruleus) is one of the idealistic and necessary schemas sought by aquarists and commercial producers. In this study, the effect of live foods meal on the skin coloration of juvenile electric yellow was examined. Methods: 270 fish with an average living body weight was 0.42 ± 0.11 g, and average total length was 3.3 ± 0.35 cm. Their sex was not taken into consideration. . The fish were fed twice in the morning and afternoon by 3-5 percent of the biomass for 8 weeks. The six different treatments (three replicates/treatment) used in the experiment were used. Skin color was measured in below the dorsal fin of all fish. Measurements were recorded at the end of the feeding trial using a Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CR400. Results: At the end of the trial, the carotenoid supplemented diets significantly increased the values of redness (a*), yellowness (b*), and chroma (C*), and decreased the values of
For genes on autosomes, all of us have actually two copies-one from each moms and dad. The 2 copies could be the same, or they might differ. Different variations of the identical gene are known as alleles (uh-LEELZ). Genes rule for proteins, and proteins make faculties.* Significantly, it is the 2 alleles working together that affect everything we see-also called a phenotype.. Feminine pigeons (ZW) have actually just one single Z chromosome, and for that reason just one single allele for every single regarding the genes positioned there. One gene in the Z chromosome affects feather color; three various alleles make feathers blue, ash-red, or brown. In a bird that is femaleZW), her single color allele determines her feather color. However in men (ZZ), two alleles come together to ascertain feather color according with their dominance. This is certainly, ash-red is principal to blue, which can be principal to brown.. Having two copies of the gene could be essential whenever one copy is ...
The animal/vegetal (A/V) polarity of the typical amphibian egg is immediately recognizable by the distinct pigmentation differences between the darkly pigmented (animal) and lightly pigmented (vegetal) hemispheres. That polarity arises early in oogenesis. Prior to the vitellogenic period during which yolk platelets accumulate and the original (uniform) pigmentation pattern changes, a polarized distribution of several internal components can be detected. Ribosomal DNA accumulates within a localized area in the nucleus (Brachet, 1977). The Balbiani body (containing large numbers of mitochondria) is located outside and to one side of the nucleus, while the nucleoli are later segregated within the nucleus on the opposite side (Billett & Adam, 1976). By the end of the previtellogenic period the Balbiani body (mitochondrial cloud) has moved to the periphery, marking the future vegetal pole (Heasman, Quarmby & Wylie, 1984). During early vitellogenesis the distribution of yolk in an animal/vegetal ...
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Readers Question. Ive pigmentation on my face. May i know what the best treatment for pigmentation.. Ziwa. .. Dr. Irwins Answer. How I wish there was a simple answer to this question and I know you and millions of other women would like one too. To answer, please remember that there are many different causes of pigment on the face and you must know the cause (your diagnosis) because its the only way that treatment will be effective. So…….. do you have melasma (more horrnonal and pregnancy), sun damage spots (lentingines) or blotches, more raised brown growths (seborrheic keratoses), certain medications or spots that are post acne or after other rashes/ irritations?? And then there are some rarer internal causes like adrenal gland problems. Some women have 2 or 3 of these problems together. Most causes of pigmentation are light/sun activated. Notice I didnt say just sun - but natural LIGHT!!. Once you know what you have, then its easier for you and your dermatologist to figure out ...
[toc]Freckles are melanin pigmentations on the skin. These brown spots may appear due to excessive sun exposure. Genetic factors also play a role in the
Genomic Hotspots for Adaptation: The Population Genetics of Mullerian Mimicry in Heliconius erato: Wing pattern evolution in Heliconius butterflies provides som
Open-pollinated. Frank Morton selected well-mixed breeding pools for disease resistance and particularly for pink and purple pigmentations on the midribs. Lots of variation remains in leaf color (from light green to green with purple edges), in indentations of the leaf edges and some in midrib coloration. Morton continues to select from the pool for specific types and you can, too. He is particularly interested in creating more color for baby cut salad mixes. Commercial operations will find a wealth of good cutting, home gardeners terrific salad fixings, mild but with just enough tang to keep you interested. Survived Robertas overwintering trial. Tested negative for BL. OSSI. Cold-hardy. Independent Breeder.
The present invention provides a single-panel field-sequential full color display systems that are less complex, smaller in size and less costly than prior additive split-path color systems, while exhibiting higher light output, greater flexibility and greater reliability than prior single-panel field-sequential systems. In the first preferred embodiment, the display system includes a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic Testing and the Future of Equine Genomics. AU - Bannasch, Danika L. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Genetic tests are now available for most coat color traits and many simple Mendelian diseases in the horse. The horse genome sequence was completed in 2006, with sequence available online to researchers in June of that year. This wealth of new data has already been exploited to provide some very powerful tools that can be used to define more simply inherited diseases in horses at the molecular level, as well as potentially more complex diseases. With the continued availability of genetic testing in horses, veterinarians, and particularly reproduction experts, need to have a good basic understanding of these tests to assist their clients in making informed breeding decisions.. AB - Genetic tests are now available for most coat color traits and many simple Mendelian diseases in the horse. The horse genome sequence was completed in 2006, with sequence available online to ...
This activity introduces the way that eye color is inherited and explains why it isnt as simple as brown eyes being dominant to blue. The pigmentation patterns seen in brown, blue, green, and hazel eyes are examined. Punnett Square and inheritance pattern knowledge would probably be required for th...
The invention relates to a color display tube comprising a shadow mask (12) placed in front of the display screen (8). The shadow mask (12), at least on the side remote from the display screen, is coated with a glass layer (14) comprising a heavy metal. The object of such a layer is to reflect electrons incident on it so as to reduce local or overall heating. By means of the glass layer it is achieved that it crumbles away less easily, which inter alia is in favor of the picture quality, and that the shadow mask is more rigid.
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Pigmentation[edit]. After an inflamed nodular acne lesion resolves, it is common for the skin to darken in that area, which is ... and decreased pigmentation of the skin.[32] Dermabrasion has fallen out of favor with the introduction of laser resurfacing.[32 ... changes in the affected person's skin pigmentation, and a cyclic worsening of the affected person's anxiety about their ... the epidermal layer of the skin and can be useful in the treatment of superficial acne scars as well as skin pigmentation ...
Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are ... potatoes have also been bioengineered specifically for these pigmentation traits.[42] ...
Pigmentation and structural colouration[edit]. Industrial melanism exists within the species, meaning the moths evolved during ...
Pigmentation conditions[edit]. *Albinism, the lack of melanin pigmentation. *Leucism, a condition similar to albinism in ... Xanthochromism, unusually yellow pigmentation. *Ino budgerigar mutation, the occurrence of this mutation in captive-bred ... A fourth kind of albinism severely reduce pigmentation in the eyes, but only dilutes the pigment in the plumage.[18] ... Melanism (or melanosis), unusually dark melanin pigmentation. * ... animals, characterized by reduced pigmentation in general. * ...
Pigmentation genetics[edit]. MC1R gene expression is regulated by the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF).[28 ... pigmentation. • positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling ... Logan DW, Burn SF, Jackson IJ (June 2006). "Regulation of pigmentation in zebrafish melanophores". Pigment Cell Research. 19 (3 ... Robbins LS, Nadeau JH, Johnson KR, Kelly MA, Roselli-Rehfuss L, Baack E, Mountjoy KG, Cone RD (March 1993). "Pigmentation ...
... suggesting that carotenoid pigmentation is an indicator of an individual's immunological state.[17] Blue feet also indicate the ...
Skin pigmentation[edit]. Melanin is a pigment in the epidermis that functions to protect keratinocytes from the damage caused ... Pigmented: Show pigmentation in the basal layer of the epidermis, similar to a solar lentigo.[33] ... or hyper pigmentation; and destruction of healthy tissue.[57] ... hormone significantly increased pigmentation and decreased UV ...
Porcelain tile pigmentation[edit]. Porcelain tiles are often produced with many different colours and pigmentations. The usual ... Natural chromite allows for an inexpensive and inorganic pigmentation alternative to the expensive (Fe,Cr)2O3 and allows for ...
Skin pigmentation[edit]. Dark-skinned people living in temperate climates have been shown to have low vitamin D levels but the ...
Effects on human pigmentation and health[edit]. When ingested for the purpose of simulating a tan, its deposition in the ...
Pigmentation disorders}}. Medicine. Pigmentation disorders/Dyschromia (L80-L81, 709.0). Integumentary disease and disorder ...
Skin pigmentation. Rs1042602 (C;C) ABO Blood Group. Likely O or B. Rs8176719 (T;T) ...
However, some people with vitiligo may not see any changes to skin or re-pigmentation occurring. A serious potential side ... The loss of skin pigmentation is particularly noticeable around body orifices, such as the mouth, eyes, nostrils, genitalia and ... James, William Daniel; Berger, Timothy G.; Elston, Dirk M. (2015). "Disturbances of Pigmentation". Andrews' Diseases of the ... and changes to pigmentation of the skin. Classification attempts to quantify vitiligo have been analyzed as being somewhat ...
Solomon, S.E. (1987). "Egg shell pigmentation". In Egg Quality : Current Problems and Recent Advances (eds R.G. Wells & C.G. ... To understand the functional significance of eggshell spotting (or maculation) it is important to quantify this pigmentation ... suggesting the gene responsible for pigmentation is on the female-specific W chromosome (female birds are WZ, males are ZZ). ...
Solomon, S.E. (1987). Egg shell pigmentation. In Egg Quality: Current Problems and Recent Advances (eds R.G. Wells & C.G. ... suggesting that the gene responsible for pigmentation is on the sex-determining W chromosome (female birds are WZ, males ZZ). ...
Winner of a top award in pigmentation sciences awarded by Asian Society for Pigmentation Research (John Pawelek Lecturership) ... Tobin, D. J. (2009). "Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System". International Journal of Trichology. 1 (2): 83-93. doi: ... These latter findings were translated in product development for pigmentation spots and potentially also melasma. Via ... Hair follicle pigmentation. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 124(1):13-21 Böhm M, Luger T, Tobin DJ, García-Borrón JC (2006 ...
"Common pigmentation disorders". American Family Physician. 79 (2): 109-16. PMID 19178061. coast of Maine spots - General ...
lack of pigmentation. *neck long or too short. *prominent dewlap on the neck ...
Transparency and pigmentation: LSR possesses a natural transparency, this attribute makes it possible to produce, colorful, ...
"Pigmentation of Skin". Retrieved 3 June 2019.. *^ Webb, A.R. (2006). "Who, what, where, and when: influences on ... In humans, skin pigmentation varies among populations, and skin type can range from dry to non-dry and from oily to non-oily.[7 ... Human skin pigmentation varies among populations in a striking manner. This has led to the classification of people(s) on the ... Skin pigmentation in humans evolved to primarily regulate the amount of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) penetrating the skin, ...
"Disturbances of Pigmentation". [978-0-323-31967-6 Andrews' diseases of the skin : clinical dermatology] Check ,url=. value ( ... However, some vitiligo patients may not see any changes to skin or re-pigmentation occurring. A serious potential side effect ... The loss of skin pigmentation is particularly noticeable around body orifices, such as the mouth, eyes, nostrils, genitalia and ... has been constitutively reported that a combination of UVB phototherapy with other topical treatments improves re-pigmentation ...
No distinct pigmentation pattern. Prostomium anterior margin comprising a pair of acute anterior projections. Lateral antennae ...
No distinct pigmentation pattern. Anterior margin of prostomium with an acute anterior projection. Lateral antennae inserted ...
Elytra 15 pairs (presumably). No distinct pigmentation pattern. Anterior margin of prostomium rounded. Lateral antennae ...
Signs include: abnormal behaviour like lethargy, anorexia, spiral swimming; and change in pigmentation. Mortalities of affected ...
They are 1-2 millimeters in length, have dispersed pigmentation, shortened limbs, and a reduced number of ocelli. Euedaphic ... They are smaller than hemiedaphic species; have soft, elongated bodies; lack pigmentation and ocelli; and have reduced or ...
The Fitzpatrick scale remains a recognized tool for dermatological research into human skin pigmentation. The following list ... "Sunlight and melanin pigmentation". In Smith, K. C. (ed.): Photochemical and photobiological reviews, Plenum Press, New York, ...
No distinct pigmentation pattern. prostomium anterior margin comprising two rounded lobes. Lateral antennae inserted ventrally ...
No distinct pigmentation pattern. Anterior margin of prostomium rounded. Lateral antennae inserted ventrally (beneath ...
They show grey pigmentation. They are suggested for use in studies where FVB genetic background is desired, but the animals ...
Gene plays a role in lighter skin pigmentation. Individuals who carry two copies of the lighter pigmentation gene are 14 ... the first case of pigmentation adaptation from migration in humans," the paper concludes. Explore further: Skin pigmentation is ... Skin pigmentation is far more genetically complex than previously thought. November 30, 2017 Many studies have suggested that ... The DNA and pigmentation sampling took place in the Northern Cape of South Africa in the southern Kalahari Desert and ...
Over the history of this weblog I have blogged about pigmentation a fair amount. The major reason is that thats where the ... Richard Sturm in Human Molecular Genetics has a really good review of the current state of pigmentation genetics, with a human ... In the aughts the elucidation of human pigmentation genetics was of one the major successes of omic techniques. The fact that ... This chart (from Signatures of Positive Selection in Genes Associated with Human Skin Pigmentation as Revealed from Analyses of ...
Cirroctopus glacialis Pigmentation. Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione Click on an image to view larger version & data in a ... Page: Tree of Life Cirroctopus glacialis Pigmentation Authored by Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione. The TEXT of this page ...
Pigmentation Adaptation in Animals The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. ...
Read about skin pigmentation disorders, which affect the color of your skin. It could be too light or too dark, in certain ... Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment ... The primary NIH organization for research on Skin Pigmentation Disorders is the National Institute of Arthritis and ... Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. Others affect your entire body. ...
Sometimes there is increased facial pigmentation resulting from exposure to sunlight. This is called melasma or chloasma and it ... Pigmentation during pregnancy. Sometimes there is increased facial pigmentation resulting from exposure to sunlight. This is ... Very noticeable pigmentation has developed on my face since my first pregnancy. It has never faded and becomes worse in the sun ... Pigmentation will usually fade over a period of time but sometimes it does remain, as you have found. It will probably continue ...
Pigmentation of Jejunal Muscle. Br Med J 1960; 1 doi: (Published 23 January 1960) Cite ...
Skin Pigmentation News and Research. RSS The color of the human skin is due to a brown pigment called melanin. Pigmentation or ... a relatively common autoimmune disease that causes loss of skin pigmentation. ...
Laser pigmentation removal is a widely used method for treating skin pigmentation disorders in Singapore. For this procedure, ... Best Skin Pigmentation Removal Clinics in Singapore. If you wish to clear pigmentation spots or patches on any part of your ... Factors that May Affect the Effectiveness of Laser Pigmentation Removal. In our years of experience treating skin pigmentation ... The Pigmentation Removal Technology. The latest pigmentation removal technologies are useful for this procedure that they dont ...
Skin Pigmentation News and Research. RSS The color of the human skin is due to a brown pigment called melanin. Pigmentation or ... Findings provide new insight on skin pigmentation The skins pigment cells can be formed from completely different cells than ... Knowing that melanocytes (the cells that give rise to hair, skin and eye pigmentation) are dramatically affected by the effects ... The program, however, had no effect on self-reported hat use at home or on measures of skin pigmentation. ...
TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely ... Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye ... melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. Here we identify two-pore channel 2 ( ... TPC2 has been implicated in pigmentation as a determinant of human hair color12, a regulator of pigmentation in Xenopus oocytes ...
2017 Latina Media Ventures LLC. All rights reserved. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except as expressly permitted in writing by Latina Media Ventures LLC. Latina is strictly editorial. Read our Privacy Policy and Terms and Conditions.. ...
... is a chapter in the book, Dermatology, containing the following 11 pages: Skin Discoloration, ...
blue sclera or pigmentation? julita85 hello few moths ago I noticed a grey irregular patches on my (then)5,5 year old ... 2 ophtalmologist tol me that it can be a thinning of the sclera or blue sclera.An optician told me it is pigmentation.... but ... Hi, she has Axenfield Spots or Axenfield Nerve Loops...normal pigmentation around the veins on the white of her eyes. If she ...
Oral pigmentation is a relatively common condition that may involve any portion of the oral cavity. Multiple causes are known, ... Iatrogenic oral pigmentation. Most iatrogenic pigmented lesions in the oral cavity are benign and their pigmentation is due to ... The range of color pigmentation varies from gray to brown to black to dark blue. The closer the pigmentation to the surface, ... oral pigmentation due to intrinsic processes (eg, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome), oral pigmentation due to extrinsic processes (eg, ...
Bio-pigmentation and Biotechnological Implementations. Singh, Om V. (ed.). 1. Edition July 2017. 312 Pages, Hardcover. Wiley & ... Covers the basic science behind bio-pigmentation as well as the latest advances in the field. * Describes detection strategies ... Bio-pigmentation and Biotechnological Implementations is required reading for professionals and post-doctoral students of ... This groundbreaking book reviews the current state of the science of bio-pigmentation, providing important insights into the ...
Eye colour: portals into pigmentation genes and ancestry.. Sturm RA1, Frudakis TN. ... testing of pigmentation candidate gene polymorphisms and the genome wide analysis of SNP markers that are informative for ...
Fundus Pigmentation in Retinopathy of Prematurity Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from American Academy of ... Fundus Pigmentation in Retinopathy of Prematurity. Tova Monos, Shirley D. Rosen, Michael Karplus and Yuval Yassur ... Results. Infants with dark fundus pigmentation were found to be at half the risk of developing ROP as compared with the infants ... Objective. A prospective study design was used to investigate the association between different degrees of fundus pigmentation ...
amalgam pigmentation synonyms, amalgam pigmentation pronunciation, amalgam pigmentation translation, English dictionary ... definition of amalgam pigmentation. n. 1. Any of various alloys of mercury with other metals, especially: a. An alloy of ... redirected from amalgam pigmentation). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. a·mal·gam. (ə-măl′gəm). n.. 1. Any of ... Amalgam pigmentation - definition of amalgam pigmentation by The Free Dictionary ...
... pigmentation with M&S skin care. Get smooth plump skin with anti ageing cream from Bliss to Ren, Murad, Stila, Nuxe & more. Buy ... Even out skin tone and target pigmentation with these treatment products for dark spots, offering a smoother, clearer ...
Face Pigmentation Treatment Creams Products from Global Face Pigmentation Treatment Creams Suppliers and Face Pigmentation ... Face Pigmentation Treatment Creams, Wholesale Various High Quality ... Tags: Pigmentation Removal Cream , Pigmentation Treatment Cream , Skin Pigmentation Reducing Cream , View larger image ... Tags: Pigmentation Lightening Cream , Royal Pigmentation Lightening Face Cream , Effective Kojic Acid Skin Lightening Face ...
Upper lip pigmentation has multiple causes. Sometimes it is caused by bruising from plucking hair out with tweezers. This is ... Upper lip pigmentation has multiple causes. Sometimes it is caused by bruising from plucking hair out with tweezers. This is ... If you use this method and find you need to remove pigmentation, a homemade remedy is best. Use lemon or cucumber juice; wipe ... It is caused by the hormone oestrogen which triggers the development of pigmentation when exposed to the sun. Dermatologists ...
... reduces the appearance of over-pigmentation and skin inflammation. Pycnogenol® assists in giving skin a healthier, vibrant glow ...
Nipple pigmentation or areolar pigmentation is pigmentation (darkening) of the nipple or areola. It is dose-dependently induced ...
Oral pigmentation affects about 3% of the population and is most likely seen in those with dark skin; however people with light ... The patterns of pigmentation are very similar to those with Addisons. The management of these depend on the severity and can ... Oral pigmentation is asymptomatic and does not usually cause any alteration to the texture or thickness of the affected area. ... Oral pigmentation is found in the following places: Lower vermillion border (the exposed pink or reddish margin of a lip) ...
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When we making Muscadine grape red wine, the pigment(anthocyanins) is not as stable as Vitiss grape, it will change to very dull color ...
The genetic basis of epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation. J Uttam, E Hutton, P A Coulombe, I Anton- ... The genetic basis of epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation. J Uttam, E Hutton, P A Coulombe, I Anton- ... The genetic basis of epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation. J Uttam, E Hutton, P A Coulombe, I Anton- ... The genetic basis of epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Well share 10 at-home treatments you can try to remove unwanted skin pigmentation, such as sun spots. ... What causes skin pigmentation. Sun damage is the most common cause of skin pigmentation and usually affects the parts of the ... Pigmentation refers to the coloring of the skin. Skin pigmentation disorders cause changes to the color of your skin. Melanin ... Pigmentation treatment at home. There are several ways that you can treat hyperpigmentation at home. While several of the ...
  • In the aughts the elucidation of human pigmentation genetics was of one the major successes of 'omic' techniques. (
  • TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely unknown. (
  • They chose to examine a cell-signaling pathway, called the cAMP pathway, that is known contribute to the regulation of human pigmentation and mediate the production of melanin. (
  • Graf J, Hodgson R, van Daal A (2005) Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MATP gene are associated with normal human pigmentation variation. (
  • Finally, it's possible that people with discoloured upper lip pigmentation have a condition called "Melasma" which needs professional treatment. (
  • 5) Other factors such as heredity and hormonal changes can also lead to abnormal melanin output as we age, resulting in pigmentation disorders like melasma. (
  • Melasma is a difficult-to-treat pigmentation disorder that predominantly affects women.1415 In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Rumex occidentalis extract was found to be as effective as the gold-standard skin-lightener hydroquinone in the treatment of melasma. (
  • Melasma is a common skin condition consisting of brown and blotchy pigmentation that appears on the face. (
  • Some of the most common are pigmented birthmarks, macular stains, hemangiomas, port wine stains, while disorders include albinism, melasma, vitiligo and pigmentation loss due to skin damage. (
  • Pigmentation changes may also take place in those who have darker skin, as dark skin tends to have more melanin, which makes one more susceptible to a condition known as melasma. (
  • For years, hydroquinone has been considered by many to be the gold standard for treating pigmentation issues and is a key ingredient in our Obagi Nu-Derm ® System ,* which is ideal for treating age spots, dark spots, and melasma. (
  • Melasma is the catchall term given to hormone-induced excess pigmentation. (
  • Pigmentation problems such as melasma, sun spots or age spots can also resolved. (
  • From melasma to moustaches: Every single question you've ever had about your pigmentation, answered. (
  • It's for this reason we asked some skin experts to give us the rundown on pigmentation, from melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, to which pigmentation treatments are good and which ones will make it worse. (
  • Melasma = pregnancy pigmentation that pops up when you're trying to grow a small human in your belly. (
  • Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. (
  • Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. (
  • Laser pigmentation removal is a widely used method for treating skin pigmentation disorders in Singapore. (
  • In our years of experience treating skin pigmentation disorders in Singapore, our skincare clinics have successfully treated different skin pigmentation types and one of the procedures that have stood out is the laser pigmentation removal. (
  • Defects in PI(3,5)P 2 metabolism result in neurodegenerative disorders and are associated with pigmentation defects. (
  • Skin pigmentation disorders cause changes to the color of your skin. (
  • In this article, you'll learn about three compounds that successfully interfere with multiple stages of melanin synthesis to inhibit or reverse common pigmentation disorders. (
  • Skin pigmentation disorders occur when the body produces either too much or too little melanin, a natural pigment that produces hair, skin and eye colour.Melanin is nature's way of protecting the body from ultraviolet light. (
  • Birthmarks and other pigmentation disorders affect many people. (
  • To study the relationship between visual function and ocular (iris, retina/choroidal) pigmentation in patients with albinism and other hypomelanotic disorders. (
  • Visual function and ocular pigmentation are being studied in patients with albinism and other disorders associated with hypopigmentation. (
  • Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin, which is why we often complain about dark patches or an area of 'burnt looking' skin. (
  • The most common form of pigmentation is hyperpigmentation, where the body produces too much melanin, causing the skin to become darker than usual and therefore uneven in tone. (
  • If someone experiences an illness or injury, their skin's pigmentation may be affected and become lighter (hypopigmentation) or darker (hyperpigmentation). (
  • Additionally, changes in pigmentation may also be attributed to post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). (
  • Excess skin pigmentation or hyperpigmentation is usually caused by an overwhelming of the melanin-protective system. (
  • The stages of this type of pigmentation start from an early patch stage, to become plaque-like which then develop into larger nodules- known as the tumour stage. (
  • Visit the skin experts at Skin Renewal branches to identify your type of pigmentation and familiarise yourself with your treatment options both in clinic and at home. (
  • The mode of treatment used will be dependent on the type of pigmentation, patient preference, and patient risk tolerance. (
  • The researchers theorize that a shift from consuming vitamin D-rich marine animals to consuming pasture animals, or a reduction in exposure to ultraviolent rays, might have changed skin pigmentation over time. (
  • Sometimes there is increased facial pigmentation resulting from exposure to sunlight. (
  • Whether the cause is genetic or from too much sun exposure, pigmentation and uneven skin tone need special attention. (
  • Surprisingly, 90% of what we perceive as aging is actually caused by factors that you can control, the main one being the amount of time your skin spends exposed to the sun. 2 Excessive sun exposure may be responsible for structural changes in the skin that will not be seen for years, and can also cause drastic changes to your skin's pigmentation. (
  • The good news is that you can manage pigmentation changes to your skin by limiting your exposure to the sun and avoiding unnecessary trauma to your skin. (
  • Researchers have identified a protein that plays an important, early role in the increase of protective skin pigmentation after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (
  • The most novel part of this study was the fact that we identified a new transcription factor that may be the earliest responder to stimulation of pigmentation such as seen in the tanning reaction following UV exposure," said Vincent Hearing, Ph.D., chief of the NCI's Center for Cancer Research's (CCR) Pigment Cell Biology Section and senior author of the study. (
  • It's these ageing dark spots of bother that is known as pigmentation, caused by sun exposure and specifically the UVA rays which penetrate deep into your skin and cause ageing. (
  • The brown marks are also known as pigmentation that often appear because of hormonal changes during pregnancy and excessive sun exposure over time. (
  • This is being done as part of a study assessing the contribution of skin pigmentation, sun exposure, and diet to the level of vitamin D in a person's body. (
  • Hyper pigmentation from Bergamot! (
  • There are certain ingredients, products and skincare regimes which can really help tackle the annoyance of skin pigmentation and hyper-pigmentation. (
  • It's worth bearing in mind that discoloration is actually present in dead surface cells, so it is imperative to exfoliate regularly to slough off the build-up, which will help minimize hyper-pigmentation and lighten up the appearance. (
  • PIH - post inflammatory hyper-pigmentation is seen after acne resolves. (
  • This is hyper-pigmentation. (
  • Hyper-pigmentation that I desperately want to get rid of! (
  • In the USA, hydroquinone 3% solution is used in combination with topical tretinoin ( Retinova ) to treat pigmentation. (
  • A nationwide phase II clinical trial, coordinated out of Tufts Medical Center in Boston, has found that a topical cream was extremely effective in reversing the effects of vitiligo, a relatively common autoimmune disease that causes loss of skin pigmentation. (
  • Hypopigmentation is the loss of skin pigmentation. (
  • Listed below are some combinations of symptoms associated with Skin pigmentation, as listed in our database. (
  • Clinical treatments, continuance of skin lighteners and daily protection of SPF must become a lifestyle to manage these challenging pigmentation conditions. (
  • PCA Skin's range of pigmentation treatments will help brighten your skin. (
  • Multiple applications of DHA have been shown to induce pigmentation that is suffi cient to protect uninvolved skin during psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis, which allows higher UVA doses to be used resulting in fewer treatments than standard PUVA regimens. (
  • Review further information on Skin pigmentation Treatments . (
  • How to Remove Upper Lip Pigmentation" last modified May 13, 2017. (
  • People with the skin pigmentation disorder vitiligo may have less risk of developing life-threatening malignant melanoma, according to new research. (
  • Here we show that a rare subtype, referred to as EBS with mottled pigmentation (MP), is also a disorder of these keratins. (
  • A lot of what clients want to repair, whether it's veins, pigmentation, blotchiness, lines or wrinkles, can be down to sun damage, as UV breaks down your collagen and creates DNA damage within the skin cells," Debbie adds. (
  • Choose from Glycolic to retexture and brighten, Retinol to minimise wrinkles and pigmentation, Collagen to decrease the appearance of wrinkles, or the Soft Focus Glow Drops - a makeup/skincare hybrid that hydrates and illuminates the complexion. (
  • It is mainly used to treat fine surface wrinkles, superficial blemishes and blotchy pigmentation. (
  • Over 20 years experience in reducing enlarges pores, uneven skin tone, removal of freckles + pigmentation. (
  • This is ideal to treat uneven pigmentation and acne. (
  • The treatment acts within the cells responsible for skin pigmentation, inhibiting the cycle of melanogenesis, or the production of melanin, which causes the deposit of pigment in the skin. (
  • Allies of Skin added multiple peptides that work synergistically to inhibit the production of melanin while fading stubborn pigmentation, so skin is trained to look significantly brighter over time. (
  • There are however, more risks with the use of lasers as opposed to lightening agents, and these risks include worsening of the pigmentation, loss of normal skin pigmentation (hypopigmentation) or scarring of the skin (rare). (
  • For this article, let us focus on the skin benefits that can be harnessed from onions and how an onion facial can be the ultimate to all skin problems, from acne to pigmentation to dull skin! (
  • Though genetics of skin pigmentation has shown recent advancements in the last decade, studies involving populations of South Asia, one of the major hot spots of pigmentation diversity, is still in its infancy. (
  • This leads to excess production and clumping of melanin, and the appearance of brown or darker spots of pigmentation in the skin. (
  • The key to treating all of these types of pigmentation mentioned above is early intervention. (
  • Are there different types of pigmentation? (
  • Tricyclic antidepressants are unlikely to cause isolated areas of pigmentation in the eyes. (
  • They use IPL (Intense Pulsed Light), which doesn't require medication, breaks up areas of pigmentation allowing the body to remove it naturally and doesn't damage the surrounding tissue. (
  • essentially we all have varying levels of pigmentation, based on how dark or light our complexion is. (
  • Any oral site may be involved, and the degree of pigmentation and oral involvement vary among affected individuals. (
  • The extent of oral involvement and degree of pigmentation varies between each individual case. (
  • I had a small amount of pigmentation coming up on my left cheek, over a decade ago. (
  • applying a light treatment to the area of tissue, based on the amount of light reflected from each of the plurality of different sub-areas, wherein the light treatment operates to reduce differences in the amount of pigmentation in different sub-areas of tissue. (
  • Your skin 's natural color is a result of melanin which is responsible for pigmentation. (
  • Even after a thorough analysis, sometimes the most seemingly innocent factor can be responsible for pigmentation. (
  • Face pigmentation often comes from the cosmetic we use as well as the UV rays we constantly absorb from the sun. (
  • A paste of mint leaves is extremely effective for face pigmentation, especially for acne and pimples. (
  • When removing face pigmentation it is important to protect your skin with sunscreen. (
  • I have some darker pigmentation around my bb's. (
  • I started to get this a few summers ago - also olive complexion and have always tanned easily but started to find that even being out in slightly sunny weather led to patches of darker pigmentation on my face with the worst being on my top lip. (
  • Pigmentary mosaicism, previously often referred to as hypomelanosis of Ito or incontinentia pigmenti achromians, describes abnormal pigmentation patterns in the skin secondary to genetic heterogeneity. (
  • Last year we reviewed some helpful ways to remove various types of skin pigmentation from birthmarks to skin discoloration and even dark circles under the eyes. (
  • Lemon juice is the best natural way to cure all types of skin discoloration and pigmentation. (
  • A dietary origin was attributed to the different discoloration of LNs between the carcasses of the two groups: such acquired pigmentation is relevant in the left sub-iliac LN, but the confocal laser microscopic test to elicit auto-fluorescence of polyphenolic compounds (biological markers) displayed a 76.9% specificity, despite a 100% of sensitivity for the univocal identification of the carcass from acorn-fed pigs. (
  • i am not far enough in my pregnancy to have darkened skin pigmentation but i do know that iit is extremely common in late pregnancy to get it any where on your body particularly the face and you may have noticed that your moles and freckles have darkened too. (
  • Are freckles and age spots the same as pigmentation? (
  • Our doctors do strong diagnoses to avoid possible risks of using wrong pigmentation treatment methods. (
  • You must adhere to the doctor's guidelines for the pigmentation treatment to be a success, or for the condition to improve after treatment. (
  • Failure to comply may lead to the pigmentation recurring or even getting worse after the treatment as the skin could now be even more sensitive to the sun. (
  • Even after successful treatment, facial pigmentation may re-appear and require you use skin-lightening creams again. (
  • That being said, the right home regimen can certainly improve matters - especially on more superficial pigmentation - and is key after treatment. (
  • How many times has a client exhibiting pigmentation morbidity had the misimpression that you can magically make it disappear with a treatment or two, or one product? (
  • Excessive skin pigmentation treatment at VCI is treated with a lasers, hormonal and other prescription medicines and chemical peels, depending on the case. (
  • This page will discuss skin pigmentation and its treatment. (
  • Some lasers can be used for the treatment of skin pigmentation and have minimal or no impact on normal skin. (
  • The skin is slightly red after the treatment, then the pigmentation slowly falls off. (
  • When it comes to find the best Pigmentation Treatment Centre in Singapore, name of Mirage Aesthetic comes on the top. (
  • Anyone can benefit from the Pigmentation Treatment offered by Mirage Aesthetic. (
  • There are a lot of ways you can get pigmentation treatment in Bangalore, right from highly skillful laser surgery to traditional home remedies. (
  • To the editor: We read with interest the brief report by Furth and Kazakis ( 1 ) on nail pigmentation changes associated with azidothymidine treatment (Retrovir, Burroughs Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) in two black patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after infection with human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • We report the case of a patient who had nail pigmentation and other side effects such as agitation, restlessness, and insomnia after treatment with azidothymidine (2). (
  • The pigmentation treatment involves chemical peels with 20%-50% salicylic acid concentrations, or trichloroacetic acid (TCA). (
  • The entire pigmentation treatment only takes 25 minutes. (
  • There are countless skincare products and ingredients which help with the myriad skin concerns out there, from acne and pigmentation to rosacea and acne scarring . (
  • Very noticeable pigmentation has developed on my face since my first pregnancy. (
  • Most women develop increased pigmentation as pregnancy progresses. (
  • Mum-of-two Mel thought the pigmentation that showed up during her first pregnancy would be there for the rest of her life. (
  • Pigmentation often fades on its own after pregnancy but sometimes it only fades a little bit and you're left with brown splotches that you didn't have prior to your pregnancy. (
  • Pregnancy had left a lot of pigmentation on Mel's face, especially on her cheeks. (
  • I've always had pigmentation, but pregnancy really set that baby a light (the pigmentation I mean, not the baby. (
  • Many studies have suggested that the genetics of skin pigmentation are simple. (
  • Richard Sturm in Human Molecular Genetics has a really good review of the current state of pigmentation genetics, with a human centric focus: The genetic basis underlying normal variation in the pigmentary traits of skin, hair and eye colour has been the subject of intense research directed at understanding the diversity seen both between and within human populations. (
  • Caused by age, sun damage, hormones and genetics, pigmentation is one of the most common skin complaints. (
  • Post-Inflammatory Pigmentation (PIH) can arise if your skin is chronically inflamed - it can be common in people who battle with dermatitis/eczema, acne and Addison's disease. (
  • Pigmentation will usually fade over a period of time but sometimes it does remain, as you have found. (
  • Fade unsightly skin pigmentation. (
  • Have you tried the varied and different Fade Creams and Serums there are many available I am covered in age spots and some pigmentation on the back of my legs. (
  • Topical lightening agents usually only fade pigmentation rather than remove it completely. (
  • I thought it was just for hair removal, but turns out it's also a brilliant non-invasive way to restore your complexion, fade pigmentation, reduce redness, create a more even skin tone and improve overall skin texture. (
  • Over time pigmentation will slowly fade away leaving behind beautiful natural skin. (
  • However, it can be said that the most common cause of eye pigmentation, in the white of the eye, is a freckle or mole. (
  • Freckle / Skin Pigmentation Removal IPL RF Beauty Equipment Systems Durable I Theory: Advanced technologies, bipolar radio frequency + IPL , can be used together or separately. (
  • This list contains additional strategies for removing pimples, blemishes and all types of skin pigmentation. (
  • Due to this, dark pigmentation may be visible on the oral mucosa or skin. (
  • Amalgam pigmentation (amalgam tattoo) of the oral mucosa. (
  • Does Laser Pigmentation Removal Really Work? (
  • When and Where Should You Go for Laser Pigmentation Removal in Singapore? (
  • there are instances when your doctor may not recommend laser pigmentation removal or not. (
  • Besides, the pigmentation removal option that the doctor will choose will depend on the specific skin pigmentation condition to be treated. (
  • After diagnosis and the doctor have ascertained that laser pigmentation removal is right for you, they will give you guidelines to stick to in preparation for the procedure and after the process. (
  • The latest pigmentation removal technologies are useful for this procedure that they don't guarantee you quality work. (
  • DHA-induced pigmentation forms in the stratum corneum, rather than in deeper epidermal layers, as demonstrated by removal of the pigmented layer by tape stripping.6 The chemistry leading to DHA pigments is believed to be similar to that established for reaction of other sugars with compounds containing amino groups (Maillard reaction). (
  • Patients with oral malignant melanoma often recall having an existing oral pigmentation months to years before diagnosis, and the condition may even have elicited prior comment from physicians or dentists. (
  • Four different types of oral pigmentation are described in detail to illustrate the 4 major mechanisms leading to increased oral pigmentation: oral pigmentation due to intrinsic processes (eg, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome), oral pigmentation due to extrinsic processes (eg, amalgam tattoo), oral pigmentation due to hyperplastic or neoplastic processes (eg, melanoma), and iatrogenic oral pigmentation (eg, smoker melanosis). (
  • Increased pigmentation of the skin from UV is thought to help minimize the damage from UV," said NCI Director John E. Niederhuber, M.D. "This research on SOX9 not only gives us important insights into the intricate mechanism our body uses to protect itself from ultraviolet rays, but also into cellular pathways that might contribute to the origins and spread of melanoma. (
  • That is, we know roughly the number and nature of the genes which control much of the between population variation in pigmentation. (
  • Today we can say with reasonable certainty that about half a dozen genes account for almost all the between population variation in pigmentation. (
  • Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. (
  • Although a number of genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transport proteins are essential for pigmentation, ionic signaling in melanosomes remains poorly understood 1 . (
  • Eye colour: portals into pigmentation genes and ancestry. (
  • The two genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 were recently identified as major determinants of pigmentation in humans and in other vertebrates. (
  • These findings uncover a new developmental role for T-box genes and new aspects of hair follicle biology and pigmentation. (
  • The paraxial location of congenital lenticular pigmentation is unusual. (
  • Previously described cases of congenital pigmentation showed a radial distribution of the pigmentation in the mid and peripheral portions of the anterior lens capsule. (
  • 3 These must be differentiated from congenital lenticular pigmentation as seen in this case. (
  • Other genetic or congenital conditions can present with pigmentation abnormalities as well. (
  • A combination of at-home therapies can be used to remove facial pigmentation. (
  • Removing facial pigmentation may take several months. (
  • This project will study how feed composition affects physiological mechanisms that control the pigmentation of salmon muscle and contribute to the development of a feed that secure good and predictable pigmentation of farmed salmon. (
  • Lamason RL, Mohideen MA, Mest JR et al (2005) SLC24A5, a putative cation exchanger, affects pigmentation in zebrafish and humans. (
  • The evolutionary pressures and gene associations linked to the human distinctive global pigmentation phenotype. (
  • However, niacinamide gave 35-68% inhibition of melanosome transfer in the coculture model and reduced cutaneous pigmentation in the PREP model. (
  • Various cutaneous fungal infections, such as tinea versicolor and pityriasis alba, can give the appearance of segmental differences in pigmentation. (
  • Scalp pigmentation is the process of tattooing hair follicle like dotting to emulate the appearance of stubble, or a short "shaved look. (
  • Even a light peel, like Dr Dennis Gross Alpha Beta Universal Daily Peel pads, makes a difference, as you don't have to make the skin visibly shed to treat more superficial pigmentation. (
  • Pigmentation can be classified into epidermal (superficial), dermal (deep), and mixed. (
  • And the pigmentation of the skin is almost exclusively performed by the most superficial layer of skin, which is the epidermis, which is the topmost layer. (
  • Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. (
  • Defects in melanin synthesis and storage result in reduced pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes, leading to decreased protection against ultraviolet radiation, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. (
  • What Does Your Skin's Pigmentation Say About Your Health? (
  • The gene SLC24A5 plays a key role in the genetic basis of light skin pigmentation. (
  • unlike height, let alone intelligence, the genetic architecture and evolutionary history of pigmentation has been elucidated with relative clarity. (
  • Several recent papers have tried to address the genetic determination of eye colour via microsatellite linkage, testing of pigmentation candidate gene polymorphisms and the genome wide analysis of SNP markers that are informative for ancestry. (
  • Perhaps second only to clogged pores , pigmentation is one of the most frequently discussed topics in Mamamia's You Beauty Facebook group . (
  • We found that TPC2 serves as a negative regulator of pigmentation by increasing melanosomal membrane potential and acidity to decrease cellular melanin content. (
  • The degree of ocular pigmentation is assessed clinically by estimating the melanin content of the iris, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid. (
  • If you think you have one of these pigmentation abnormalities, be sure to see a physician or dermatologist to receive an official diagnosis. (
  • In previous work , the researchers looked at pigmentation variation in two KhoeSan populations from South Africa by performing a genome-wide association analysis in about 450 individuals. (
  • Here we characterize the nature of this clinal variation by developing a quantitative measure to assess variation in abdominal pigmentation within and between the D. dunni subgroup species. (
  • DHA preparations have been used for more than 50 years and are currently popular for producing a temporary pigmentation resembling an ultraviolet-induced tan. (
  • Investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) have developed a way of increasing pigmentation in human skin without the damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. (
  • Knowing that melanocytes (the cells that give rise to hair, skin and eye pigmentation) are dramatically affected by the effects of copper deficiency, Elizabeth Patton from the University of Edinburgh, UK, and other colleagues from UK and US based labs decided to find out how melanocytes metabolise copper. (
  • Excessive skin pigmentation is a result of abnormal production and deposition of melanin by the melanocytes. (
  • Apple cider vinegar contains acetic acid, which research shows may lighten pigmentation. (