A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta, known for the various conifers.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE which should not be confused with other cedar and cypress trees of THUJA or CUPRESSUS genera.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A group of cells at the base of a leaf in certain plants that, by rapidly losing water, brings about changes in the position of the leaves. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.
A group of EUKARYOTES that are parasites of plants. Life cycle stages include zoospores and plasmodia.
A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. Members include hardwood trees of eastern North America with distinct large tuliplike flowers.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.
The Christmas Mistletoe plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are parasitic primarily on coniferous trees forming a drooping evergreen bush of leathery leaves on tree branches. The berries are sticky and toxic.
Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.

Xylem water content and wood density in spruce and oak trees detected by high-resolution computed tomography. (1/229)

Elucidation of the mechanisms involved in long-distance water transport in trees requires knowledge of the water distribution within the sapwood and heartwood of the stem as well as of the earlywood and latewood of an annual ring. X-ray computed tomography is a powerful tool for measuring density distributions and water contents in the xylem with high spatial resolution. Ten- to 20-year-old spruce (Picea abies L. KARST.) and oak (Quercus robur) trees grown in the field were used throughout the experiments. Stem and branch discs were collected from different tree heights, immediately deep frozen, and used for the tomographic determinations of spatial water distributions. Results are presented for single-tree individuals, demonstrating heartwood and sapwood distribution throughout their entire length as well as the water relations in single annual rings of both types of wood. Tree rings of the sapwood show steep water gradients from latewood to earlywood, whereas those of the heartwood reflect water deficiency in both species. Although only the latest two annual rings of the ringporous species are generally assumed to transport water, we found similar amounts of water and no tyloses in all rings of the oak sapwood, which indicates that at least water storage is important in the whole sapwood.  (+info)

An improved procedure for production of white spruce (Picea glauca) transgenic plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (2/229)

An efficient and reproducible procedure for the transformation of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) embryogenic tissues was developed using A. tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. Rapidly dividing white spruce embryogenic tissues were co-cultivated with disarmed A. tumefaciens strains containing additional copies of the virulence regions from plasmid PToK47. The plasmid pBi121, containing the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene providing kanamycin resistance as a selectable marker and the beta-glucuronidase (uidA) reporter gene, was used as binary vector. The highest frequency of transformation (15 transformed tissues g(-1) FW of treated embryogenic tissue) was obtained with 5-d-old tissues grown in liquid medium and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 2 d in the same medium but containing 50 microM acetosyringone. Recovery of kanamycin-resistant tissues was improved when tissues were first grown for 10 d on a timentin-containing medium (400 mg l(-1)), to prevent bacterial overgrowth, before application of the selection pressure. After 6 weeks on kanamycin-selection medium, resistant tissues were obtained and showed stable uidA expression. The presence of the transgenes was demonstrated by PCR analysis and their integration into the genome was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Transgenic plants were regenerated from transformed tissues within 4 months after co-culture.  (+info)

Analysis of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and cellular contents of sugars and proteins during spruce somatic embryogenesis suggests a regulatory role of exogenous sucrose in embryo development. (3/229)

Carbohydrate metabolism was investigated during spruce somatic embryogenesis. During the period of maintenance corresponding to the active phase of embryogenic tissue growth, activities of soluble acid invertase and alkaline invertase increased together with cellular glucose and fructose levels. During the same time, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity increased while sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity stayed constant together with the cellular sucrose level. Therefore, during maintenance, invertases were thought to generate the hexoses necessary for embryogenic tissue growth while SuSy and SPS would allow cellular sucrose to be kept at a constant level. During maturation on sucrose-containing medium, SuSy and SPS activities stayed constant whereas invertase activities were high during the early stage of maturation before declining markedly from the second to the fifth week. This decrease of invertase activities resulted in a decreased hexose:sucrose ratio accompanied by starch and protein deposition. Additionally, carbohydrate metabolism was strongly modified when sucrose in the maturation medium was replaced by equimolar concentrations of glucose and fructose. Essentially, during the first 2 weeks, invertase activities were low in tissues growing on hexose-containing medium while cellular glucose and fructose levels increased. During the same period, SuSy activity increased while the SPS activity stayed constant together with the cellular sucrose level. This metabolism reorganization on hexose-containing medium affected cellular protein and starch levels resulting in a decrease of embryo number and quality. These results provide new knowledge on carbohydrate metabolism during spruce somatic embryogenesis and suggest a regulatory role of exogenous sucrose in embryo development.  (+info)

Endogenous Nod-factor-like signal molecules promote early somatic embryo development in Norway spruce. (4/229)

Embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies) are composed of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs) and somatic embryos of various developmental stages. Auxin is important for PEM formation and proliferation. In this report we show that depletion of auxin blocks PEM development and causes large-scale cell death. Extracts of the media conditioned by embryogenic cultures stimulate development of PEM aggregates in auxin-deficient cultures. Partial characterization of the conditioning factor shows that it is a lipophilic, low-molecular-weight molecule, which is sensitive to chitinase and contains GlcNAc residues. On the basis of this information, we propose that the factor is a lipophilic chitin oligosaccharide (LCO). The amount of LCO correlates to the developmental stages of PEMs and embryos, with the highest level in the media conditioned by developmentally blocked cultures. LCO is not present in nonembryogenic cultures. Cell death, induced by withdrawal of auxin, is suppressed by extra supply of endogenous LCO or Nod factor from Rhizobium sp. NGR234. The effect can be mimicked by a chitotetraose or chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. Taken together, our data suggest that endogenous LCO acts as a signal molecule stimulating PEM and early embryo development in Norway spruce.  (+info)

Identification of a hydrophobin gene that is developmentally regulated in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma terreum. (5/229)

The symbiosis between ectomycorrhizal fungi and trees is an essential part of forest ecology and depends entirely on the communication between the two partners for establishing and maintaining the relationship. The identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes is a step to identifying such signals and to understanding the regulation of this process. We determined the role of hydrophobins produced by Tricholoma terreum in mycorrhiza formation and hyphal development. A hydrophobin was purified from culture supernatant, and the corresponding gene was identified. The gene is expressed in aerial mycelium and in mycorrhiza. By using a heterologous antiserum directed against a hydrophobin found in the aerial mycelium of Schizophyllum commune, we detected a hydrophobin in the symbiosis between T. terreum and its native pine host Pinus sylvestris. The hydrophobin was found in aerial mycelium of the hyphal mantle and also in the Hartig net hyphae, which form the interface between both partners. Interestingly, this was not the case in the interaction of T. terreum with a host of low compatibility, the spruce Picea abies. The differential expression with respect to host was verified at the transcriptional level by competitive PCR. The differential protein accumulation pattern with respect to host compatibility seen by immunofluorescence staining can thus be attributed at least in part to transcriptional control of the hyd1 gene.  (+info)

High expression of putative aquaporin genes in cells with transporting and nutritive functions during seed development in Norway spruce (Picea abies). (6/229)

Aquaporins mediate the bidirectional passage of water over membranes and are present in tonoplasts (TIPs) and in plasma membranes (PIPs) of plant cells. Knowing their expression in different tissues is valuable when assessing their contribution to plant water relations. A TIP-gene has been cloned from developing female gametophytes of Picea abies, a conifer displaying an embryology different from the angiosperms. Probes were made from conserved regions of the TIP gene and used for in situ hybridization to examine the gene expression pattern in developing female reproductive structures. Early during development high transcript expression was found in the spongy tissue encasing the developing female gametophyte, in cells of the future seed coat of young ovules and in vascular tissue of the ovuliferous scale. At later stages a strong signal was seen in archegonia jacket cells surrounding egg cells and, still later, at the time of storage protein accumulation, in storage parenchyma cells of the gametophyte as well. These aquaporin-homologues probably participate in regulating water balance in the cells although they could also be permeable to other molecules than water.  (+info)

Methyl jasmonate induces traumatic resin ducts, terpenoid resin biosynthesis, and terpenoid accumulation in developing xylem of Norway spruce stems. (7/229)

Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens. Oleoresin accumulates constitutively in resin ducts in the cortex and phloem (bark) of Norway spruce stems. De novo formation of traumatic resin ducts (TDs) is observed in the developing secondary xylem (wood) after insect attack, fungal elicitation, and mechanical wounding. Here, we characterize the methyl jasmonate-induced formation of TDs in Norway spruce by microscopy, chemical analyses of resin composition, and assays of terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes. The response involves tissue-specific differentiation of TDs, terpenoid accumulation, and induction of enzyme activities of both prenyltransferases and terpene synthases in the developing xylem, a tissue that constitutively lacks axial resin ducts in spruce. The induction of a complex defense response in Norway spruce by methyl jasmonate application provides new avenues to evaluate the role of resin defenses for protection of conifers against destructive pests such as white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi), bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), and insect-associated tree pathogens.  (+info)

Molecular identification of ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soil horizons. (8/229)

Molecular identification techniques based on total DNA extraction provide a unique tool for identification of mycelium in soil. Using molecular identification techniques, the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal community under coniferous vegetation was analyzed. Soil samples were taken at different depths from four horizons of a podzol profile. A basidiomycete-specific primer pair (ITS1F-ITS4B) was used to amplify fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from total DNA extracts of the soil horizons. Amplified basidiomycete DNA was cloned and sequenced, and a selection of the obtained clones was analyzed phylogenetically. Based on sequence similarity, the fungal clone sequences were sorted into 25 different fungal groups, or operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Out of 25 basidiomycete OTUs, 7 OTUs showed high nucleotide homology (> or = 99%) with known EM fungal sequences and 16 were found exclusively in the mineral soil. The taxonomic positions of six OTUs remained unclear. OTU sequences were compared to sequences from morphotyped EM root tips collected from the same sites. Of the 25 OTUs, 10 OTUs had > or = 98% sequence similarity with these EM root tip sequences. The present study demonstrates the use of molecular techniques to identify EM hyphae in various soil types. This approach differs from the conventional method of EM root tip identification and provides a novel approach to examine EM fungal communities in soil.  (+info)

The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajimas D and Fay and ...
A typical upland soil catena afforested with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) was chosen to examine the localised effect of trees on soil permeability. A borehole permeameter was used to measure soil permeability at 0.2 m and approximately 2 m distance from the stem of 20 trees at a fixed measurement depth of 0.25 to 0.45 m. In the case of the near-tree measurements, this corresponded to soil beneath the main root plate of each conifer. Two principal elements of the soil catena: the ferric podzol of the mid-slope and histosol soil of the foot-slope were investigated. The preliminary data set shows that within the ferric podzol element, the permeability of the soil beneath individual conifers was a factor of 5.4 less than that of the adjacent soil. In contrast, within the histosol sub-tree permeabilities could not be distinguished from those of soil 2 m away from each tree. The decrease in sub-tree permeability within the podzol may be caused by sensitivity of the Bsl horizon to ...
TSP9-like superfamily domain assignments in Picea sitchensis . Domain assignment details for each protein include region, Evalue and model. Alignments, domain architectures and domain combinations are provided for each group of proteins.
Current year needles from 5 yr-old Norway spruce trees, which had been exposed to either episodes of atmospheric O3, or periodic mistings with simulated acid rainwater throughout three summer periods, were-analyzed for changes in molar percentages and ratios of fatty acids isolated from different lipids at the time of maximum winter hardening. No significant changes due to acidic misting were detected but significant decreases in the degree of unsaturation off both C 16 and C18, fatty acids, the molar percentage of δ5,9,12,15, and the molar ratio δ5,918: 2 to δ9,1218:2 in monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) due to summer 03 exposures were found. Molar percentages and ratios of fatty acids did not change much in other lipids bur these changes in plastidie MGDG could be traced to a significant effect of summer O3 on the δ4- and δ12 -desaturases acting upon phosphatidyl choline (PC) in the endoplasmic reticulum. The replacement of the δ6-subset of C18 fatty acids by an equivalent δ5-series ...
In the Dinaric Mountains, the future of silver fir and Norway spruce appears to be uncertain, especially given the threat of climate change to both species and browsing pressure on fir. Stand developm
Variation of modulus of elasticity in the tangential direction with moisture content and temperature for Norway Spruce Picea abies. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Picea mariana can be recognized as a spruce by needles squarish in cross-section and attached to woody projections (sterigmata) of the twig. It can be distinguished from the other spruces in Wisconsin by the presence of short pubescence of the young twigs, and by the short cones that generally are less that 3 cm long. The other spruces have glabrous twigs and longer cones. It also tends to have the shortest leaves, usually 6-10 mm, while the leaves of other spruces are longer than 10 mm and often longer than 15 mm. The situation is not so clear in Door County, near Lake Michigan where some spruces, presumably P. glauca, have glabrous twigs but needles as short as P. mariana. Cones, if present, will distinguish these plants.. Picea mariana is the host for Arceuthobium pusillum, Wisconsins only species of mistletoe. A. pusillum is parasitic on the branches of P. mariana (and perhaps rarely P. glauca), and causes the profuse growth of branches known as a witchs broom.. The range of Picea ...
Conifer diterpene synthases (diTPSs) catalyze the multi-step cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, or copalyl diphosphate, to a variety of diterpenes in general (i.e., primary) and specialized (i.e., secondary) metabolism. Despite their functional diversity, the known conifer diTPSs are structurally closely related, with variations in three conserved domains, α, β and γ. The catalytic specificity of conifer class I and class I/II diTPSs is predominantly determined by the protein environment of the C-terminal class I active site through stabilization of common and unique carbocation intermediates. Using the crystal structure of Taxus brevifolia taxadiene synthase as template, comparative modeling and mutagenesis of the class I diTPS ent-kaurene synthase from Picea glauca (PgKS) was performed to elucidate the catalytic specificity of PgKS relative to spruce diTPSs of specialized metabolism. N-terminal truncations demonstrated a role for the βγ domain in class I enzyme activity for PgKS,
Tätä artikkelia/julkaisua ei ole tallennettu Jukuriin. Julkaisun tiedoissa voi kuitenkin olla linkki toisaalle tallennettuun artikkeliin/julkaisuun. ...
Knihu „Autovegetatívne rozmnožovanie smreka obyčajného (Picea abies L., Karst.) pochádzajúceho z rôznych imisných oblastí
Catalyzes the radical-mediated insertion of two sulfur atoms into the C-6 and C-8 positions of the octanoyl moiety bound to the lipoyl domains of lipoate-dependent enzymes, thereby converting the octanoylated domains into lipoylated derivatives.
ABSTRACT = { We examined the amount and nature of variation revealed by cDNA-based sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) using 39 pairs of heterologous primers that were based upon arbitrary genes in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.). A panel of 22 diverse Norway spruce genotypes was screened for variation that could be observed directly using standard agarose gel electrophoresis, without additional manipulation of amplification products. Examination of marker segregation among haploid megagametophytes revealed that nine markers behaved in a codominant manner, two markers had codominant length polymorphisms and null alleles, and four others had dominant length polymorphisms. DNA sequencing of codominant alleles at seven loci indicated that most insertions/deletions (indels) were in noncoding regions and that alleles often differed by the presence or absence of direct repeats that ranged in size from three to 23 bp. The nine markers that showed ...
Logging-related damage to forest regeneration is a problem during final cutting in the shelterwood system. In order to compare the effects of logging methods, damage to natural Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] regeneration caused by single- (SGH) and double-grip harvester (DGH) systems was studied in three shelterwoods (132-234 m3 ob ha-1) in Sweden. Between 38 and 65% of the original seedlings (6 400-25 400 ha-1) were dead, had disappeared or were damaged after the final cutting. Regarding the damaged seedlings, 6-25% were mildly, 17-27% moderately and 48-76% seriously damaged. There were no significant differences between the SGH and the DGH systems concerning the frequency, severity, type or cause of damage to the regeneration. The proportion of damaged seedlings increased with increasing stem volume of the shelterwoods. Hence, stem volume ha-1 might be more important than harvester system for the proportion of damaged seedlings. The main conclusion is that final cutting of shelterwood ...
Studies on allele length polymorphism designate several glacial refugia for Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the South Carpathian Mountains, but infer only limited expansion from these refugia after the last glaciation. To better understand the genetic dynamics of a South Carpathian spruce lineage, we compared ancient DNA from 10,700 and 11,000-year-old spruce pollen and macrofossils retrieved from Holocene lake sediment in the Retezat Mountains with DNA extracted from extant material from the same site. We used eight primer pairs that amplified short and variable regions of the spruce cpDNA. In addition, from the same lake sediment we obtained a 15,000-years-long pollen accumulation rate (PAR) record for spruce that helped us to infer changes in population size at this site. We obtained successful amplifications for Norway spruce from 17 out of 462 pollen grains tested, while the macrofossil material provided 22 DNA sequences. Two fossil sequences were found to be unique to the ancient material.
Studies on allele length polymorphism designate several glacial refugia for Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the South Carpathian Mountains, but infer only limited expansion from these refugia after the last glaciation. To better understand the genetic dynamics of a South Carpathian spruce lineage, we compared ancient DNA from 10,700 and 11,000-year-old spruce pollen and macrofossils retrieved from Holocene lake sediment in the Retezat Mountains with DNA extracted from extant material from the same site. We used eight primer pairs that amplified short and variable regions of the spruce cpDNA. In addition, from the same lake sediment we obtained a 15,000-years-long pollen accumulation rate (PAR) record for spruce that helped us to infer changes in population size at this site. We obtained successful amplifications for Norway spruce from 17 out of 462 pollen grains tested, while the macrofossil material provided 22 DNA sequences. Two fossil sequences were found to be unique to the ancient material.
Drooping Norway spruce. Synonyms: Abies excelsa var. inversa Gordon, Pinetum, Suppl.: 4 (1862), Picea excelsa var. inversa (Gordon) Carrière, Traité Gén. Conif., ed. 2: 335 (1867), Picea excelsa f. inversa (Gordon) Beissn., Handb. Nadelholzk.: 361 (1891), Pinus abies f. inversa (Gordon) Voss in K.Putlitz & L.Meyer, Landlexikon 4: 770 (1913), Picea abies var. inversa (Gordon) Nash, J. New York Bot. Gard. 18: 89 (1917), Picea abies f. inversa (Gordon) Rehder, Bibl. Cult. Trees: 21 (1959)
Planted forests of Sitka spruce, a non-native species from north-west America, are the major forest type in Great Britain and Ireland. Standard management involves even-aged stands, rotations of 40-50 years and a patch clear-felling system with artificial regeneration. However, forest policies support managing these forests for multifunctional objectives with increased diversity of species composition and stand structure. Continuous cover forestry (CCF) is an alternative silvicultural approach used to provide such diversity, but the amount of CCF forest is under 10% of the forest area, and less in Sitka spruce forests; This paper reviews research carried out in the last two decades to support the implementation of CCF in Sitka spruce planted forests; Stand structures and microclimate favouring natural regeneration are understood. Harvesting systems have been adapted for use in CCF stands, a single-tree growth model has been calibrated, comparative costs and revenues have been determined, and
Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle -fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red ...
I am a student of environmental sciences at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. I am working on a small project on sustainable use of the Norway spruce (Picea abies=Picea excelsa) for the production of firewood. To estimate the available wood in a stand I am lookin for a biomass table or a formula like y=b0 + b1*dbh^2 where y is the biomass of the tree and dbh is the diameter at breast height. I could find the information for Picea engelmanii but not for Picea abies. Thanks in advance Mathias Tobler ...
Valerian sitchensis, 90 Vegi caps Each 425 mg. capsule contains 100% Fresh Freeze-Dried Wildcrafted Valeriana sitchensis rhizome & root.
Genetic variation in wood density, microfibril angle (MFA), wood stiffness (MOE), height, diameter and volume was investigated in a 26-year-old Norway spruce [(Picea abies (L.) Karst.] clonal trial in southern Sweden. Wood quality measurements were performed on 10 mm increment cores using SilviScan. For MFA, mean values of annual rings showed the highest value (30°) at ring 2 counting from the pith, followed by a steep decrease and a gradual stabilization around ring 12 at approximately 14°. MOE showed a monotonic increase from 5 GPa to 14 GPa when moving from pith to bark. High broad-sense heritability values were found for wood density (0.48), MFA (0.41) and MOE (0.50). All growth traits displayed heritability values of similar magnitudes as reported in earlier studies. The generally high age-age correlations between different sections of the wood cores suggested that early selection for wood quality traits would be successful. Owing to unfavorable genetic correlations between volume and ...
Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is an economically important, but relatively drought-sensitive tree species that might suffer from increasing drought intensities and frequencies, which are predicted to occur in parts of central Europe under future climatic change. In a throughfall exclusion experiment using sub-canopy roofs, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced drought leads to an increase in fine root mortality, and also to a higher, subsequent fine root growth. Fine root production and mortality were assessed using two independent approaches, sequential soil coring (organic layer) and direct observations in minirhizotrons (organic layer plus upper mineral soil). Six weeks of throughfall exclusion resulted in mild drought stress, i.e. a reduction in average soil moisture from 20 to 12 vol.% during the treatment. Based on the sequential coring data, experimental drought did not result in significant changes in fine root biomass during the 6-week treatment period, but caused an increase ...
In this study a process-based growth model for even-aged Norway Spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) is coupled with economics and optimization to analyze optimal management and cost of carbon sequestration. We extend earlier literature by including detailed timber quality features and optimized thinning. Our results show that tree diameter has a major role in defining the optimal timing of harvests especially with higher interest rates. Optimal management with carbon sequestration mainly postpones thinnings, lengthens rotations, and increases sawlog yield. Economic cost of carbon storage is presented for two different sites and two different interest rates. These costs are compared to CO2 abatement costs in other sectors on a national level. This study suggests it would be economically optimal to use carbon sequestration in order to fulfil national commitment to the EU, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Niinimäki, S.; Tahvonen, O.; Mäkelä, O.; Linkosalo, T.
The bark is thin and scaly, flaking off in small, circular plates 5-20 cm (2.0-7.9 in) across. The crown is broad conic in young trees, becoming cylindric in older trees; old trees may not have branches lower than 30-40 m (98-131 ft). The shoots are very pale buff-brown, almost white, and glabrous (hairless), but with prominent pulvini. The leaves are stiff, sharp, and needle-like, 15-25 mm long, flattened in cross-section, dark glaucous blue-green above with two or three thin lines of stomata, and blue-white below with two dense bands of stomata. The cones are pendulous, slender cylindrical, 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) long [5] and 2 cm broad when closed, opening to 3 cm broad. They have thin, flexible scales 15-20 mm long; the bracts just above the scales are the longest of any spruce, occasionally just exserted and visible on the closed cones. They are green or reddish, maturing pale brown 5-7 months after pollination. The seeds are black, 3 mm long, with a slender, 7-9 mm long pale brown wing. ...
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Flora of North America Association, New York, NY, US and Oxford, UK ...
en] The effects of the application of dolomite lime (5 t ha-1) on soil algal communities were investigated in sessile oak (Quercus petraea (MATT.) LIEB.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) KARST.) plots situated in the Belgian Ardenne. Chlorophyta (60 taxa) were by far the most diverse group, followed by Xanthophyceae (10 taxa), Bacillariophyceae (3 taxa), Cyanophyceae (2 taxa) and Euglenophyceae (1 taxon). In both forest types, liming lead to a significant increase in soil pH, exchangeable magnesium and calcium. In the limed Quercus plots available phosphorus and soil solution nitrate concentrations were also increased. The soil algal diversity was similar in oak and spruce control plots and in limed spruce plots. However, in the limed oak plots a significantly higher algal diversity was observed. On the basis of a CCA analysis, three clusters of plots could be distinguished: a) Picea control plots, b) limed Picea and control Quercus plots, c) limed Quercus plots. Both soil pH and nutrient ...
Spruce needle stomata. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of two stomata (pores) on the surface of a needle of a sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). The stomata are in sunken pits. Each stoma can be opened and closed by the two guard cells (light green) on either side of it. This allows the exchange of gases between the plant and the air to be controlled. The sunken stomata and the layer of wax (pale green) covering the surface of the needle minimise water loss from the tree. This conifer is native to North America, being most common in the north-west. Magnification: x670 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image B745/0399
Abstract: The aim of this work was to identify whether the Ascocalyx abietina culture filtrate has the ability to induce changes in the contents of phenolic substances that might be indicative for the disease response of Norway spruce (Picea abies). We focused on the accumulation of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics, stilbenes as well as extracellular peroxidase activities elicited in the embryogenic cell cultures of Norway spruce by A. abietina culture filtrate. Treatment of spruce cells with fungal culture filtrate (5 and 20% v/v concentrations) evoked an increase in the total contents of phenolic acids (represented by the sum of free, methanol soluble ester- and glycoside- bound phenolics and methanol insoluble cell-wall bound phenolic esters). The challenge with filtrate was in particular manifested in the increase (compared with the control) in the contents of cell wall-bound phenolic acids (by about 100 and 130% in 5 and 20% filtrate, respectively) and soluble phenolic glycosides (by ...
Ecosystem-based management aims to maintain the natural proportion of native species over a given landscape. White spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) is a species sensitive to environmental conditions; it is especially demanding in terms of nutrients and its regeneration is negatively affected by clearcut harvesting. Its proportion is now significantly lower than what it was in the preindustrial forests of Québec (Canada). As a native species in boreal Québec, efforts to maintain its proportion in the landscape are undertaken for white spruce, but little is known about the best practices to maximize establishment success of seedlings planted in the balsam fir (Abies balsamea)-white birch (Betula papyrifera) bioclimatic domain. Our general objective was to identify planting practices as related to microsite treatment that favour white spruce sapling survival and size after 11 growing seasons following enrichment planting of sites harvested by mechanized careful logging in an ecosystem-based ...
- COSTEL MOLDOVEANU, VIOLETA VASILACHE, IOAN-MARIAN RISCA Biological Effects of Some New Imidazole Derivatives on Spruce (Picea Abies) Germination
This study aimed to find associations between lower susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. in Norway spruce and changes in the transcriptome and chemical profiles among host genotypes challenged with the fungus. We used unique clone material derived from fully-grown Norway spruce trees with either high or low susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. as measured in a field trial [7]. We selected four genotypes at a site in central Sweden, two highly susceptible and two with lower susceptibility for these comparisons. It is well established that in the interaction between Heterobasidion spp. and conifers, lesion length correlates to the fungal extension but not to the host resistance measured as sapwood growth or rot extension in the wood [6, 8, 38]. Consequently one cannot expect a lesion extension proportional to the fungal extension under field conditions. Although, we could not detect any significant differences in lesion length between genotypes at 44 dpi, we found significantly longer lesions in ...
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Outbreaks of spruce budworm (SBW, Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) cause major recurrent damage in boreal conifers such as white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) and large losses of forest biomass in North America. Although defensive phenolic compounds have recently been linked to chemical resistance against SBW, their genetic basis remains poorly understood in forest trees, especially in conifers. Here, we used diverse association genetics approaches to discover genes and their variants that may control the accumulation of acetophenones, and dissect the genetic architecture of these defence compounds against SBW in white spruce mature trees. Out of 4747 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 2312 genes genotyped in a population of 211 unrelated individuals, genetic association analyses identified 35 SNPs in 33 different genes that were significantly associated with the defence traits by using single-locus, multi-locus and multi-trait approaches. The multi-locus approach was particularly
The invention relates to agriculture, comes to herbal remedies for the destruction of shellfish - intermediate hosts of the pathogen trematodozov animals and fish and can be used in the system protivopostavleny activities for desinvasion pastures and destruction of freshwater mollusc intermediate hosts of Fasciola ordinary.. The number of known synthetic molluscicides and vegetable origin, differing in structure and mechanisms of action.. From herbal preparations studied molluscicide properties of drugs of oak Quercus robur L./1/, Norway spruce Picea abies L./2/, bergenia tolstolistnogo Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch/3/. Known herbal medicines are effective against the mollusc Lymnaea goupili, L.subangulata, L.truncatula, L.ovata, L.peregra, L.stagnalis, L.palustus, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbarius corneus and L. auricularia, are environmentally clean and low and very slightly toxic to relatively mammals, fish, amphibians, aquatic organisms and vegetation.. With the aim of expanding ...
The objective of this thesis is to determine possible causes of the darkening of hydrogen peroxide bleached mechanical pulp over the visible spectrum and their relative contributions. It focuses on both process conditions and the composition of the pulp and the dilution water, including additions or losses of material along the process line from the bleach tower to the paper machine.. A mapping of the optical properties of the pulp along the process showed that the fine fraction of the pulp darkened more than the long fibre fraction. Simulation of retention times of different fractions showed that the main part of the fine material is retained in the paper within a few hours, a small part might circulate for considerably longer time and may therefore be strongly coloured.. Storage trials were mainly performed using a hydrogen peroxide bleached mechanical pulp intended for SC paper made of Norway spruce (Picea abies), sampled on one occasion and stored in a freezer. Unwashed or well-washed pulp ...
Comparative genomics can inform us about the processes of mutation and selection across diverse taxa. Among seed plants, gymnosperms have been lacking in genomic comparisons. Recent EST and full-length cDNA collections for two conifers, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), together with full genome sequences for two angiosperms, Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar (Populus trichocarpa), offer an opportunity to infer the evolutionary processes underlying thousands of orthologous protein-coding genes in gymnosperms compared with an angiosperm orthologue set. Based upon pairwise comparisons of 3,723 spruce and pine orthologues, we found an average synonymous genetic distance (dS) of 0.191, and an average dN/dS ratio of 0.314. Using a fossil-established divergence time of 140 million years between spruce and pine, we extrapolated a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.68 × 10-9 synonymous substitutions per site per year. When compared to angiosperms, this indicates a dramatically
The growth and N status of Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) are enhanced in the presence of larch ( Larixspp.) on deep peat sites where available N levels are low. Field and laboratory incubations...
For gene-enzyme systems in forest trees it is unclear how much structural genetic diversity as compared to diversity of the genetic background contributes to phenotypic variability. The gene-enzyme-system of PEPC-A, phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase (PEPCase, EC 4.1.1.3 I), of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) was chosen as an example to investigate the relative importance of the following sources of phenotypic variation in enzyme activity: (1) Variation at the structural PEPC-A-locus with three genotypes, (2) Variation in the genetic background, (3) Variation in growth temperature. The amount, specific activity and catalytic efficiency of PEPCase in crude needle extracts were assessed as quantitative traits. According to our ANOVA results, variation in the genetic background, i.e. epistasis in the general sense, is the most important source of variation compared to variation at the levels of both PEPC-A-genotype or growth temperature. Moreover, evaluation of the kinship partition of the ...
Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in
The Canadian Forest Service promotes the sustainable development of Canadas forests and the competitiveness of the Canadian forest sector
Since childhood I have been interested in the world of natural aromatics. This interest gradually developed into our home business White Lotus Aromatics. Keypoints along this aromatic journey were: 1) living on a small farm in India where many tropical fragrant plants were to be found 2) a career in horticulture, highlighted by working on a formal garden estate, Filoli 3) many journeys throughout the length and breadth of India to explore Indias ancient and modern aromatic traditions. Please note that I have an interest in the wonderful world of natural aromatics, but have no therapeutic expertise. Any mention of ayurveda or other traditional healing systems in strictly for cultural interest ...
Purchase this Dwarf Norway Spruce Bonsai Tree For Sale (picea abies pygmaea) for sale online. Item will be shipped to you within the week.
Picea breweriana, known as Brewer spruce,[2][3] Brewers weeping spruce, or weeping spruce, is a species of spruce native to western North America, where it is one of the rarest on the continent, endemic to the Klamath Mountains of southwest Oregon and northwest California. The specific epithet breweriana is in honor of the American botanist William Henry Brewer.[4][5] DNA analyses[6][7] have shown that Picea breweriana has a basal position in the Picea clade,[6] suggesting that Picea originated in North America. It grows at moderately high altitudes, from 1000-2700 m.[8][9][10][11][12] It is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 20-40 m tall, exceptionally 54 m, and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 m. The bark is thin and scaly, and purple-gray in color. The crown is very distinct, distinguished by level branches with vertically pendulous branchlets, each branch forming a curtain of foliage. The pendulous foliage only develops when the tree grows to about 1.5-2 m tall; young trees ...
Maxwell Norway spruce. Synonyms: Picea excelsa var. Maxwellii, Maxwell, Cat. 1873: ? (1873), Abies excelsa var. Maxwelii, (Maxwell) auct., Garden (London 1871-1927) 5: 231 (1874), Picea abies f. maxwellii, (Maxwell) Rehder, Bibl. Cult. Trees: 23 (1949). Selection: 1860 by Thompson C. Maxwell (1822-1908), T.C. Maxwell & Brothers Nursery in Geneva, United States. Publication: T.C. Maxwell & Brothers Nursery Catalog (1873)
Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), Northern BC, British Columbia, Canada - Moss Covered Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis) Trees in Temperate Rainforest on Graham Island
Dwarf conifers-and especially miniature ones-also make excellent container garden subjects for decks, balconies or rooftop gardens. When he first tried to enlist in the army, he wore shoes sized US 10 (EU 43). Shop for Conifers. For small gardens and intimate corners, therefore, prefer miniature or dwarf conifers. Dwarf conifers can add verticality. If the fall is dry, though, water them until the ground freezes, otherwise their needles may dry out and burn during the winter. It isnt that hard to do, but youll have to keep up with it, until the Moringa tree realizes that it is not going to be 30 or 40 feet tall. Defining Dwarf While dwarf is usually defined by its mature size, the term often applies to rate of growth as well. Prune it out or it will take over the plant. Growth characteristics: How big do any conifers you are considering grow (both height and width), and how quickly. Few conifers tolerate salt spray (white spruce [Picea glauca] and blue spruce [Picea pungens] are among ...
Norway spruce (Picea abies) responds to stress by biosynthesis of chemical substances, which can deter invading insects or pathogens. Some of these substances are volatile and can be emitted to the surroundings while others are accumulated within the tree. Information about the susceptibility of individual plants to infestation, their volatile emissions and chemical defence is of interest, for example, in selecting plants for tree breeding programs.. The first part of this research focused on volatiles emitted by Norway spruce plants. Collection of headspace volatiles by SPME and subsequent separation and identification with GC-MS was used to investigate Norway spruce plants of different ages and stress conditions as well as trapping semiochemicals like nepetalactone emitted by the spruce shoot aphids. It was even possible to analyse the emission of single needles in vivo and obtain spatial localisation of the stress reaction to methyl jasmonate or spruce spinning mites. Seedlings of different ...
A major environmental concern with respect to hydrocarbon emissions is the formation of phytotoxic photooxidants. The work reported in this thesis focusses on the poorly studied anthropogenic terpene emissions from the industrial use of softwood. The advanced analytical determinations were made by adsorption sampling followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography in the laboratory. Monoterpenes from forestry were analyzed for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Near to a harvester, the total monoterpene concentrations reached ~1000 mg/m3, whereas the background level was ~1 mg/m3. Prominent monoterpenes were a-pinene, b-pinene, 3-carene, camphene, limonene, b-phellandrene, myrcene and terpinolene. Local formation of phytotoxic photooxidants may occur because of the short lifetimes of terpenes in air. Terpenes in process emissions and plumes from kraft pulp industries were found to have a uniform composition similar to that of pulpwood and of recovered sulphate
A golden-yellow spruce that was found growing in the wild by Mike & Cheryl Davison. It grows in a pyramid shape with a growth rate slightly slower than the species.
Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies) is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the

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  • I am working on a small project on sustainable use of the Norway spruce (Picea abies=Picea excelsa) for the production of firewood. (bio.net)
  • I could find the information for Picea engelmanii but not for Picea abies. (bio.net)
  • Winter Stress And Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Norway Spruce (Picea abies, L., Karst. (springer.com)
  • Bolhàr-Nordenkampf H.R., Lechner E. (1988) Winter Stress And Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Norway Spruce (Picea abies, L., Karst. (springer.com)
  • Picea abies, the Norway spruce, is a species of spruce native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. (helios.co.uk)
  • Damage to Picea abies Regeneration After Final Cutting of Shelter. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In order to compare the effects of logging methods, damage to natural Norway spruce [ Picea abies (L.) Karst. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Picea abies (Linnaeus) H. Karsten subsp. (efloras.org)
  • Picea abies , commonly called Norway spruce, is a large pyramidal evergreen conifer that is native to the mountains of northern and central Europe east to the Urals. (missouribotanicalgarden.org)
  • Combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial markers provide new insight into the genetic structure of North European Picea abies. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 55,078,846 nucleotide sequence reads were obtained for the embryogenic and non-embryogenic tissues of P. balfouriana , and 49.56% of them uniquely matched 22,295 (84.3%) of the 26,437 genes in the Picea abies genome database (Nature 497: 579-584, 2013). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce ( Picea abies ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) phloem, axial parenchyma forms distinctive, continuous tangential sheets across conducting (i.e. noncollapsed) and nonconducting (i.e. collapsed) tissue. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The diameter and wall thickness of tracheids produced after indoleacetic acid treatment were not significantly different from those of the intact controls, for the first few weeks after treatment of disbudded shoots of Picea abies Karst. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). (nih.gov)
  • Common spruce ( Picea abies L.) is a fast-growing coniferous tree, widely used in several countries for the production of sawn wood, timber and pulp. (mdpi.com)
  • Picea abies (L.) Karst, (common spruce or Norway spruce) is a large evergreen coniferous species native to Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. (mdpi.com)
  • My personal search for The Truth About Spruce has been ongoing for many years, but took a turn when someone insisted that Picea abies and Picea excels a were two names for the same species. (lutherie.net)
  • The map below shows the three current European ranges of Picea abies , a tree commonly known as Norway spruce in the US and Canada, epic a commun in France, pinette de Norv ge in Qu bec, gemeinefichte or rotefichte in German, and jel europeiskaya in Russia. (lutherie.net)
  • Many sources still refer to that as a species, while some refer to it as the German botanical designation for Picea abies . (lutherie.net)
  • In any case, Picea excelsa has now been folded together with Picea abies as a single species. (lutherie.net)
  • The trees in the lower range are also still classified by some botanists as a subspecies called Picea abies v.excelsa . (lutherie.net)
  • The middle light-green range on the north slope of the Alps and across southern Germany and east into Poland and Czechoslovakia contains Picea abies , most of which has been reintroduced since 1800 . (lutherie.net)
  • Ironically, the seed stock for the reintroduced Picea abies came from the relatively unscathed Scandinavian range ( gray-green ) at the top of the map, which had re-established itself from that southern reservoir after the last Ice Age. (lutherie.net)
  • Today, Picea abies comprises 35% of the tree cover in Germany, and most of that is in managed forests. (lutherie.net)
  • A previous genetic study indicated that the resistance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to Heterobasidion annosum s.l., a pathogenic basidiomycete species complex, is linked to a quantitative trait loci that associates with differences in fungal growth in sapwood (FGS) that includes a gene, PaLAR3, which encodes a leucoanthocyanidin reductase. (nih.gov)
  • Objective - To develop a fast and environmentally sustainable extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from bark of spruce ( Picea abies ) and also to identify the extracted antioxidants that are abundant in spruce bark. (diva-portal.org)
  • Apart from betulin, stilbene glucosides such as astringin, isorhapontin and picied were also extracted from spruce ( Picea abies ) using PFE. (diva-portal.org)
  • Seasonal variation in formation, structure, and chemical properties of phloem in Picea abies as studied by novel microtechniques. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To gain new insights into phloem formation in Norway spruce (Picea abies), we monitored phloem cell production and seasonal variation in the primary and secondary metabolites of inner bark (non-structural carbohydrates and phenolic stilbene glucosides) during the 2012 growing season in southern and northern Finland. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In keeping with our previous studies, we concentrated primarily on how UV-B radiation affects Norway spruce [ Picea abies (L.) Karst. (frontiersin.org)
  • On sources of variation in expression of phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst. (diva-portal.org)
  • The gene-enzyme-system of PEPC-A, phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase (PEPCase, EC 4.1.1.3 I), of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst. (diva-portal.org)
  • Modeling Density and Mechanical Properties in Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst. (bibsys.no)
  • Density, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) were measured on 1206 boards from 205 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst. (bibsys.no)
  • Picea abies 'Cupressina' is a fast growing, narrow columnar tree form of Norway spruce with reasonably dense, fastigiate branching holding attractive dark green needles that assume a bluish cast in winter in colder climates. (conifersociety.org)
  • We have previously cloned a functional cdc2 gene from Picea abies and found it to be part of a family of related sequences, largely consisting of pseudogenes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thirteen primer pairs generating intraspecific length and/or presence-absence polymorphism in Picea abies have been obtained from a P. abies mtDNA library, using different methodologies (agarose gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), single-strand conformation (SSCP). (wallonie.be)
  • Polymorphism tests were extended successfully to other Picea species (P. omorika, P. engelmanii and P. glauca) and species belonging to other conifer genera (Abies alba, Larix laricina and Pinus pinaster). (wallonie.be)
  • Picea abies 'Swanson's Unknown' is a a flat, spreading form of Norway spruce with uniform, layered branches and medium green needles. (conifersociety.org)
  • It is similar in structure to Picea abies 'Pumila' but has much lighter green needles and a tendency to mound up in the center with age. (conifersociety.org)
  • Conifers normally go through a long juvenile period, for Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) around 20 to 25 years, before developing male and female cones. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Paprastoji eglė (Picea abies (L.) Karst) yra viena svarbiausių miško medžių Europoje tiek ekonominiu, tiek ekologiniu požiūriu. (vdu.lt)
  • Picea abies (L.) Karst is one of the most important forest trees in Europe, both economically and ecologically. (vdu.lt)
  • Also, there are not enough data on the biological activity of Picea abies (L.) Karst seeds, therefore they were selected as the object of the research. (vdu.lt)
  • There are no data of Picea abies (L.) Karst seeds in the scientific literature. (vdu.lt)
  • Impacts of Norway spruce (Picea abies L., H. Karst. (sisef.it)
  • Above ground biomass and nutrient distribution in a limed an fertilized Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation. (usda.gov)
  • Lateglacial and Holocene pollen accumulation rates (PAR) of Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) from Tăul dintre Brazi in the Retezat Mountains . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Four experiments on the simulation of a persistent drought period were carried out with cloned Picea abies (L.) Karst. (oup.com)
  • Microtubule organization in germinated pollen of the conifer Picea abies (Norway spruce, Pinaceae). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Characterization of variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce ( Picea abies L. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Natural populations of Picea abies L. (Norway spruce) are found from north-western Europe outside permafrost areas down to northern Greece, westwards to the Massif Central (France) and east to the Ural Mountains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Picea abies is growing above 400-500 m and ascends close to 2000 m in the Alps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies on genetic variation based on allozymes have shown that Picea abies genetic differentiation among populations is rather low over its whole distribution range [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Picea breweriana , known as Brewer spruce , [2] [3] Brewer's weeping spruce , or weeping spruce , is a species of spruce native to western North America, where it is one of the rarest on the continent, endemic to the Klamath Mountains of southwest Oregon and northwest California. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brewer spruce grows adjacent to Engelmann spruce ( Picea engelmannii ),but no hybridization between the two has been observed (Thornburgh, 1990). (iucnredlist.org)
  • Picea koraiensis, the Korean spruce, is a species of spruce. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is closely related to Koyama's spruce (Picea koyamae), and treated as synonymous with it by some botanists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picea sitchensis , the Sitka spruce , is a large, coniferous , evergreen tree growing to almost 100 m (330 ft) tall, [2] with a trunk diameter at breast height that can exceed 5 m (16 ft). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA analysis [8] [9] has shown that only Picea breweriana has a more basal position than Sitka spruce to the rest of the spruce. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other 33 species of spruce are more derived , which suggests that Picea originated in North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picea glauca , the white spruce , [3] is a species of spruce native to the northern temperate and boreal forests in North America. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spruce (Picea) is an outdoor tree, which should be placed at a bright spot and outside year round. (bonsaiempire.com)
  • A number of insects feed on the foliage, bore through bark, or suck plant juices from Norway Spruce and other spruce trees ( Picea spp. (illinoiswildflowers.info)
  • It is very closely related to the Siberian spruce (Picea obovata), which replaces it east of the Ural Mountains, and with which it hybridises freely. (helios.co.uk)
  • Picea mariana can be recognized as a spruce by needles squarish in cross-section and attached to woody projections (sterigmata) of the twig. (uwgb.edu)
  • The dynamics of the fatty acid (FA) composition of total lipids in needles of Siberian spruce ( Picea obovata L.) during the first half (March-July) of the 2010 vegetation season has been studied. (springer.com)
  • It was grown for timber from the 1800s, although Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) is now more commonly used for this purpose. (woodlandtrust.org.uk)
  • Work from the 1970s indicated that, relative to either parent species, crosses between red spruce ( Picea rubens Sarg. (usda.gov)
  • and black spruce ( Picea mariana (Mill. (usda.gov)
  • The SE system for most spruce ( Picea spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • European spruce ranges, and commentary on Picea spp. (lutherie.net)
  • Linear regressions were used to predict whole-tree, breast height and mature tracheid length and diameter in white spruce ( Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and the WBE model was used to predict the variation of tracheid diameter. (brill.com)
  • Variation in mitochondrial DNA reveals multiple distant glacial refugia in black spruce (Picea mariana), a transcontinental North American conifer. (gc.ca)
  • Range-wide genetic variation of black spruce ( Picea mariana ) was studied using polymerase chain reaction-random fragment length polymorphism markers of the mitochondrial genome. (gc.ca)
  • In this study, two traits with diverse heritabilities [tree height (HT) and wood density (WD)] were assessed at various levels of family genotyping efforts (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) from a population of white spruce ( Picea glauca ) consisting of 1694 trees from 214 open-pollinated families, representing 43 provenances in Québec, Canada. (g3journal.org)
  • Picea pungens (Colorado spruce) will reach a height of 15m and a spread of 5m after 20-50 years. (shootgardening.co.uk)
  • Localised impact of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • A typical upland soil catena afforested with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Effects of some of these treatments on soil moisture, soil temperature, rates of nitrogen mineralization, and the establishment of Picea glauca x engelmannii seedlings were examined on fresh, moist, and wet sites in the moist cold subzone of the Sub-boreal Spruce Zone in west-central British Columbia. (oregonstate.edu)
  • To test the validity of this assumption, we combined physiological data for black spruce, Picea mariana, growing near the treeline in subarctic Quebec with a model of the biophysical and biochemical effects of temperature on photosynthesis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Spruce ( Picea ) genomics work is quite challenging, mainly because of extremely large size and highly repetitive nature of its genome, unsequenced and poorly understood genome, and the general lack of advanced-generation pedigrees. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our goal was to construct a high-density genetic linkage map of black spruce ( Picea mariana , 2n = 24), which is a predominant, transcontinental species of the North American boreal and temperate forests, with high ecological and economic importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Picea (spruce) is the second largest genus after Pinus (pine) in the family Pinaceae of conifers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the first genetic linkage map in conifers was constructed for a single white spruce ( Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) tree in 1992 from the analysis of haploid megagametophytes [ 5 ], the progress in the spruce genome mapping has been rather slow, particularly compared with the genus Pinus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study deals with one of such promising specie, Picea smithiana (aka West Himalayan spruce) which belongs to the family Pinaceae. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Effects of nutrient loading in Lutz spruce seedlings (Picea x lutzii Littl. (slu.se)
  • Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii Littl. (slu.se)
  • Picea glauca was originally native from central Alaska all through the east, across southern/central Canada to the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The range of Picea mariana is similar to that of P. glauca , but P. mariana prefers a much wetter habitat in Wisconsin. (uwgb.edu)
  • Bark gray to reddish brown, thin and scaly (with thin plates), sometimes with resin blisters (especially in Picea engelmannii and P . glauca ), becoming relatively thick and furrowed with age. (swbiodiversity.org)
  • Picea glauca - (Moench. (pfaf.org)
  • Picea glauca is an evergreen Tree growing to 15 m (49ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate. (pfaf.org)
  • Among the other major conifers in German forests are Picea glauca , an American import, and Douglas fir, another American import. (lutherie.net)
  • The new cultivar was discovered by the inventor in Siegerkreis, Germany, as a naturally-occurring mutation of the nonpatented Picea glauca cultivar `Conica` and was observed in a group of plants of the parent cultivar in 1984. (google.com)
  • Compared to plants of the parent cultivar, Picea glauca `Conica`, plants of the new cultivar are more compact, have blue needles and are slower growing. (google.com)
  • Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Picea (Pinaceae): Implications for phylogeographical studies using cytoplasmic haplotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Picea (family Pinaceae ). (theplantlist.org)
  • The genetic maps developed in our study can serve as a reference map for various genomics studies and applications in Picea a nd Pinaceae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Picea mariana - (Mill. (pfaf.org)
  • Picea mariana is an evergreen Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate. (pfaf.org)
  • Picea mariana is the host for Arceuthobium pusillum , Wisconsin's only species of mistletoe. (uwgb.edu)
  • In-situ Raman microprobe studies of plant cell walls: macromolecular organization and compositional variability in the secondary wall of Picea mariana (Mill. (usda.gov)
  • Picea mariana trees occurring on the edges of permafrost plateaus and in the interior of the plateau at the onset of active layer thaw. (actahort.org)
  • Air temperature, tree growth, and the northern and southern range limits to Picea mariana Bonan, Gordon B. (deepdyve.com)
  • 1. Picea engelmannii (n. (synonym.com)
  • What does picea engelmannii mean? (definitions.net)
  • Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word picea engelmannii . (definitions.net)
  • Are we missing a good definition for picea engelmannii ? (definitions.net)
  • What rhymes with picea engelmannii ? (definitions.net)
  • We now report on the isolation of partial cdc2 pseudogenes from Picea engelmannii and Picea sitchensis, as well as partial functional cdc2 sequences from P. engelmannii, P. sitchensis and Pinus contorta. (deepdyve.com)
  • Pterocerina picea is a species of ulidiid or picture-winged fly in the genus Pterocerina of the family Ulidiidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maternal, paternal, and consensus maps in our study consistently coalesced into 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number (1n = 1x = 12) of 12 in the genus Picea . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also, this is the first genetic map based on a three-generation outbred pedigree in the genus Picea . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genus Picea is a repertoire of phytochemicals like glycoside, lignans, flavonoids etc. [ 7 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Picea wilsonii is a species of plant in the family pines . (eol.org)
  • Picea purpurea is a species of plant in the family pines . (eol.org)
  • Picea balfouriana grows in a specific type of forest ecosystem in southwest China and is an eastern species on the Tibetan plateau. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Picea pungens 'Waldbrunn' 5L This is a less blue variety than some but still a good colour, more of a grey green with a silvery tone, forming a broad rounded bush as it matures. (bents.co.uk)
  • Picea pungens 'Thume' is a roughly ball-shaped silver/blue conifer, suitable for small gardens. (mailordertrees.co.uk)
  • I thought I would share an update on my picea pungens and at the same time ask for some ideas on the future pot. (forumotion.com)
  • Picea breweriana grows very slowly, typically less than 20 cm (8 in) per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picea breweriana , a gymnosperm, is a tree that is native to California and is found only slightly beyond California borders. (calflora.org)
  • Picea breweriana is an attractive large evergreen conifer with single, linear foliage that is spirally arranged. (jacksonsnurseries.co.uk)
  • Adelges laricis [primary host plant, forms cone-like galls on shoots] BE2013, Pineus floccus [alternates between Pinus strobus & Picea spp. (illinoiswildflowers.info)
  • found in NE USA, including New York & Virginia] BE2013, Pineus pinifoliae (Pine Leaf Adelgid) [alternates between Pinus strobus & Picea spp. (illinoiswildflowers.info)
  • Picea obovata Ledeb. (efloras.org)
  • The northern range extends off the map towards the Urals where it meets and hybridizes with Picea obovata . (lutherie.net)
  • To understand the morphological and physiological responses of leaves to changes in altitudinal gradients, we examined ten morphological and physiological characteristics in one-year-old needles of Picea schrenkiana var. (hindawi.com)
  • To investigate the functional impact of LysAc in the response of Picea asperata somatic embryos to PDT, we performed a global lysine acetylome analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The spruces of the lower range were, until recently, taxonomically classified as Picea excelsa . (lutherie.net)
  • If you see the term Picea excelsa , it'll be in or referenced to older literature. (lutherie.net)
  • Variations in Stable Carbon Isotope Composition and Leaf Traits of Picea schrenkiana var. (hindawi.com)
  • H. Zhang, J. Ma, W. Sun, and F. Chen, "Variations in stable carbon isotope composition and leaf traits of Picea schrenkiana var. (hindawi.com)
  • Hillier ex Slavin (also known as Picea balfouriana ) is an ecologically and economically important conifer that grows rapidly under optimum conditions and produces high-quality wood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another popular choice for trees for zone 6 is Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens) with its magnificent silvery needles. (websiteperu.com)

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