Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Lateral Medullary Syndrome: INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)Mangifera: A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.Psychological Techniques: Methods used in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral, personality, and mental disorders.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Fenthion: Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Ageusia: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Bezoars: Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Lead PoisoningForeign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.Xanthones: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.ChileHair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
  • This video details the microsurgical clipping of a complex, partially calcified, unruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysm. (springer.com)
  • Pathological adhesions between hypoglossal rootlets and the PICA aneurysm wall could be a possible contributor in the development and progression of hypoglossal nerve palsy. (medworm.com)
  • MUSIC PLAYING] Here, we describe the microsurgical clipping of the complex PICA aneurysm. (springer.com)
  • On T2-weighted sagittal images, a flow void of 8 mm size in the PICA territory was noticed (Figures 1A, 1B), which lead to further diagnostic work-up for presumed incidental PICA aneurysm. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pica can also occur during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Iron-deficiency anemia and malnutrition are two of the most common causes of pica, followed by pregnancy. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
  • Pica in pregnancy is rare, but it has the potential to be very harmful. (surebaby.com)
  • The exact causes of pica syndrome remain the subject of debate within the medical community, though it is theorized that specific nutritional deficiencies which can result from pregnancy trigger an overwhelming urge to replace deficient nutrients by unusual means. (surebaby.com)
  • In most cases, treating pica in pregnancy is accomplished through a combination of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) and intensive counseling. (surebaby.com)
  • However, in cases where the pica syndrome continues after the pregnancy is over, medications may be used to bring the condition under control. (surebaby.com)
  • Pica is a symptom associated with severe iron-deficiency anemia ( low blood iron ) and may also sometimes be present in pregnancy. (healthhype.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the pica and its association with biochemical profiles of pregnant women and its relation to pregnancy outcome. (scirp.org)
  • Maternal biochemical profiles (hemoglobin and ferritin) during pregnancy, mean gestational age and pregnancy outcome namely height, weight, and head circumferences of neonates were compared to pregnant women who reported pica (pica group) and women who did not (without pica group). (scirp.org)
  • Women in pica group had lower hemoglobin levels during the three trimesters of pregnancy than without pica group. (scirp.org)
  • The findings suggest that the pica practices during pregnancy are associated with lower maternal hemoglobin during the pregnancy periods, and also significantly lower head circumferences of neonates. (scirp.org)
  • This study therefore sought to determine the pica and its association with biochemical profiles of pregnant women and its relation to pregnancy outcome. (scirp.org)
  • Diagnosing pica should be accompanied by tests for anemia, potential intestinal blockages, and toxic side effects of substances consumed (i.e., lead in paint, bacteria or parasites from dirt). (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
  • Endoscopic examination may facilitate visualizing what has been ingested, removing it if its presence is causing associated clinical signs, or diagnosing an underlying diseases that causes pica (like inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal lymphosarcoma). (petplace.com)
  • Pica can lead to serious medical and surgical problems including gastrointestinal parasites, lead toxicity, nutritional deficiencies, choking, poisoning, intestinal obstruction or perforation resulting in surgery, and even a blood infection, which can be life-threatening. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, pica disorder can result in serious medical conditions, such as anemia, intestinal blockages, and other life-threatening issues. (newportacademy.com)
  • Pica can be life-threatening as the item, such as a rubber band, stones, articles of clothing, string, can cause intestinal blockages. (thepetwiki.com)
  • The clinical presentation of pica is highly variable and is associated with the specific nature of the resulting medical conditions and the ingested substances. (medscape.com)
  • Toddlers over the age of two who eat non-food substances on a consistent basis may be considered to have pica. (kingcounty.gov)
  • Pica is defined as the eating of one or more substances that are not made to be eaten. (infobarrel.com)
  • In these cases, the eating of these substances still needs to be addressed by a professional and then the diagnosis of Pica is given to treat the disorder. (infobarrel.com)
  • Ten expert panelists reviewed and discussed the state of the science on soil-pica behavior--an issue that is relevant to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's (ATSDR) ongoing work at sites with human exposures to contaminated soils. (cdc.gov)
  • Pica involves an individual persistently and compulsively eating nonfood substances that are nonnutritious. (theravive.com)
  • Children who eat sand and other unusual substances may not be doing so due to pica but rather this may be a way of exploring their surroundings with their different senses. (healthhype.com)
  • Pica in cats is a potentially serious condition where they have an abnormal compulsion to eat non-food substances such as clothing, plastic, wool etc. (cat-world.com)
  • For further validation, we used the well established kaolin intake model to assess pica with the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as a positive control. (nih.gov)
  • a, oxycodone-induced pica manifests as increased kaolin intake in female rats ( n = 4-6). (nih.gov)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of simulated emesis was used to observe that cisplatin significantly increased kaolin consumption (or pica). (isharonline.org)
  • Considering the unusual items that might be consumed, it is no surprise that PICA is viewed as an extremely dangerous behavior. (eatingdisorderhope.com)
  • Some children who have pica have low iron levels in their body, and all children who eat unusual things should be tested to see if they lack iron. (cyh.com.au)
  • We believe pica is an important sign of iron deficiency that should never be ignored, and the craving for any unusual substance should compel clinicians to search for occult blood loss with secondary iron deficiency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wool sucking is a form of pica with a higher incidence in the Siamese, Burmese and outcrosses. (cat-world.com)
  • Wool-sucking, however, is a compulsive, misdirected form of nursing behavior and technically should be distinguished from true cases of pica. (manhattancats.com)
  • An example of pica linked to OCD is a pregnant woman with obsessive-compulsive disorder whose sole manifestation was pica. (theravive.com)
  • But see below for a discussion of why we might include grass eating as an example of pica. (patriciamcconnell.com)
  • Africa has a higher incidence of pica than western countries, for example. (theravive.com)
  • however, we observed that the incidence of pica behavior in ICR strain mice varied markedly. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated the susceptibility of four strains of mice (ICR, BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2) to the development of pica behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Some evidence suggests that drugs that enhance dopaminergic functioning (eg, olanzapine) may provide treatment alternatives in individuals with pica that is refractory to behavioral intervention. (medscape.com)
  • Like those with OCD, individuals with pica are conscious of their behavior even though it is unhealthy and illogical behavior. (theravive.com)
  • As noted, there is a strong association between pica and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (theravive.com)
  • Administer psychoactive drugs recommended by your veterinarian if it is felt that pica is related to a behavioral disorder. (petplace.com)
  • Thus you can see that diagnosing pica is a bit squishy, but if a dog has a belly full of plastic because she will move heaven and earth to ingest it, it clearly needs to be addressed. (patriciamcconnell.com)
  • Nicole Lay (nee Picas) Biokineticist: What is Biokinetics? (blogspot.com)
  • In fact, geophagia (deliberate consumption of earth, soil or clay) is common pica among many tribe-oriented societies. (newportacademy.com)
  • Our results show that individuals previously identified as non-locals, based on long-term food consumption, had in reality abandoned their original dietary habits typical of distant regions many months before death, and hence had presumably relocated to the locality of Pica. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Pica is the consumption of nonedible items. (healthline.com)
  • La investigación, soportada por el instituto nacional de la red de la investigación del dermatitis atópico de la alergia y de las enfermedades infecciosas, apareció en la aplicación del 22 de febrero de 2018 el discernimiento del gorrón JCI . (news-medical.net)
  • Mora, Alice and Pacheco, Aryel and Roberts, Charlotte and Smith, Colin (2018) 'Pica 8 : refining dietary reconstruction through amino acid δ 13 C analysis of tendon collagen and hair keratin. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Everyone has eaten something that is nonnutritive but for the classification of Pica to be considered this must be on a persistent basis for at least one month. (infobarrel.com)
  • Pica is sometimes linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder and impulse disorder because of the persistent dieting on non-nutritious food. (theravive.com)
  • Prolonged unexplained iron deficiency anaemia should prompt clinicians to remember and inquire about pica. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results indicate that cisplatin-induced pica behavior in mice is likely to be influenced by the genotype, and that DBA/2 mice are useful to analyze the emetogenic or anti-emetic potential of drugs in preclinical studies. (nih.gov)
  • Involvement of substance P in the development of cisplatin-induced acute and delayed pica in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Many young children have pica at some point during their childhood. (kingcounty.gov)
  • In order to exclude developmentally normal mouthing, children under two years of age should not be diagnosed with pica. (nationaleatingdisorders.org)
  • Groups at risk of soil-pica behavior include children aged 6 years and younger and individuals who are developmentally delayed. (cdc.gov)
  • Physical Education for Young Children: Movement ABCs for the Little Ones author Rae Pica is constantly asked by elementary physical education teachers, "What am I supposed to do with the little ones? (google.com)
  • Most college preparatory programs don't address the issue, either, but Pica takes it on in Physical Education for Young Children: Movement ABCs for the Little Ones, coming to the aid of teachers who are stumped when it comes to the developmental needs and abilities of young children. (google.com)
  • She is author of the blog The Pica Perspective, in which she shares her thoughts on matters related to children and physical activity, and is the host and cocreator of Body, Mind and Child, a series of podcasts that help parents prepare their children's minds and bodies for life. (google.com)
  • Pica in children over five years of age can be a sign of age-inappropriate behavior. (theravive.com)
  • Culture as a risk factor is evident in several African countries where Pica is most common among African women and children. (theravive.com)
  • In comparison, less than 4% of children in the general population had pica. (cdc.gov)
  • These children will most benefit from careful monitoring and safety precautions to prevent pica. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, small children represent 25 to 33 percent of all pica cases . (newportacademy.com)
  • But doctors don't diagnose pica in children younger than two years old. (newportacademy.com)
  • neglect or abuse - pica can sometimes happen when children are not being properly cared for. (cyh.com.au)
  • Some children with pica have low zinc levels in their bodies too. (cyh.com.au)
  • ABSTRACT The aim of this case-control study was to determine the frequency of pica and its relationship with iron deficiency in children in Zanjan. (who.int)
  • We selected 872 children and determined the frequency of pica. (who.int)
  • Pica is often demonstrated in autistic children,' she says. (chowchow.org)
  • Lasky D, Bernbassat M, Rescala E, Cervantes F, Greenspun M. Tr car de Lasky para cierre de puertos en cirug a laparosc pica. (medigraphic.com)
  • However, it is sometimes unclear from anecdotal accounts whether the behavior reported was soil-pica or geophagy. (cdc.gov)