Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Corylus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE known for the edible nuts.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Lotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.CeruloplasminPhosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Kell Blood-Group System: Multiple erythrocytic antigens that comprise at least three pairs of alternates and amorphs, determined by one complex gene or possibly several genes at closely linked loci. The system is important in transfusion reactions. Its expression involves the X-chromosome.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Regulation of chicken erythrocyte AMP deaminase by phytic acid. (1/617)

AMP deaminase [EC] purified from chicken erythrocytes was inhibited by phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate), which is the principal organic phosphate in chicken red cells. Kinetic analysis has indicated that this inhibition is of an allosteric type. The estimated Ki value was within the normal range of phytic acid concentration, suggesting that this compound acts as a physiological effector. Divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ were shown to affect AMP deaminase by potentiating inhibition by lower concentrations of phytic acid, and by relieving the inhibition at higher concentrations of phytic acid. These results suggests that Ca2+ and Mg2+ can modify the inhibition of AMP deaminase by phytic acid in chicken red cells.  (+info)

Reactivity of cyanate with valine-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin. A probe of conformational change and anion binding. (2/617)

The 3-fold increase in the carbamylation rate of Val-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin upon deoxygenation described earlier is now shown to be a sensitive probe of conformational change. Thus, whereas this residue in methemoglobin A is carbamylated at the same rate as in liganded hemoglobin, upon addition of inositol hexaphosphate its carbamylation rate is enhanced 30% as much as the total change in the rate between the CO and deoxy states. For CO-hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of the organic phosphate, the relative increase in the carbamylation rate of this residue is about 50%. These results indicate that methemoglobin A and hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of inositol hexaphosphate do not assume a conformation identical with deoxyhemoglobin but rather form either a mixture of R and T states or an intermediate conformation in the region around Val-1 (alpha). Studies on the mechanism for the rate enhancement in deoxyhemoglobin suggest that the cyanate anion binds to groups in the vicinity of Val-1 (alpha) prior to proton transfer and carbamylation of this NH2-terminal residue. Thus, specific removal with carboxypeptidase B of Arg-141 (alpha), which is close to Val-1 (alpha) in deoxyhemoglobin, abolishes the enhancement in carbamylation. Chloride, which has the same valency as cyanate, is a better competitive inhibitor of the carbamylation of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 50 mM) compared with liganded hemoglobin. Nitrate and iodide are also effective inhibitors of the carbamylation of Val-1 (alpha) of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 35 mM); inorganic phosphate, sulfate, and fluoride are poor competitive inhibitors. The change in pKa of Val-1 (alpha) upon deoxygenation may be due to its differential interaction with chloride.  (+info)

Heterotropic effectors exert more significant strain on monoligated than on unligated hemoglobin. (3/617)

The effect of allosteric effectors, such as inositol hexakisphosphate and/or bezafibrate, has been investigated on the unliganded human adult hemoglobin both spectroscopically (employing electronic absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopies) and functionally (following the kinetics of the first CO binding step up to a final 4% ligand saturation degree). All data indicate that the unliganded T-state is not perturbed by the interaction with either one or both effectors, suggesting that their functional influence is only exerted when a ligand molecule is bound to the heme. This is confirmed by the observation that CO dissociation from partially liganded hemoglobin ( +info)

Coupling of the oxygen-linked interaction energy for inositol hexakisphosphate and bezafibrate binding to human HbA0. (4/617)

The energetics of signal propagation between different functional domains (i.e. the binding sites for O2, inositol hexakisphospate (IHP), and bezafibrate (BZF)) of human HbA0 was analyzed at different heme ligation states and through the use of a stable, partially heme ligated intermediate. Present data allow three main conclusions to be drawn, and namely: (i) IHP and BZF enhance each others binding as the oxygenation proceeds, the coupling free energy going from close to zero in the deoxy state to -3.4 kJ/mol in the oxygenated form; (ii) the simultaneous presence of IHP and BZF stabilizes the hemoglobin T quaternary structure at very low O2 pressures, but as oxygenation proceeds it does not impair the transition toward the R structure, which indeed occurs also under these conditions; (iii) under room air pressure (i.e. pO2 = 150 torr), IHP and BZF together induce the formation of an asymmetric dioxygenated hemoglobin tetramer, whose features appear reminiscent of those suggested for transition state species (i.e. T- and R-like tertiary conformation(s) within a quaternary R-like structure).  (+info)

Effect of reducing the phytate content and of partially hydrolyzing the protein in soy formula on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys and rat pups. (5/617)

BACKGROUND: Although soy formulas have been designed to meet the nutrient requirements of human infants, they also contain phytate, which may negatively affect trace element absorption. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of removing phytate on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys and suckling rat pups and evaluated differences between intact and partially hydrolyzed soy protein. DESIGN: In monkeys, regular and low-phytate soy formulas were fed exclusively for 4 mo and whole-body absorption and retention of 65Zn, 67Cu, 59Fe, 54Mn, and 47Ca were determined at different time points with a whole-body counter. Subsequently, zinc and copper absorption from several human infant formulas and the effect of phytate concentration were evaluated in suckling rat pups by using 65Zn and 64Cu. Finally, infant rhesus monkeys were fed low-phytate formulas with intact or hydrolyzed soy protein for 4 mo and plasma zinc and copper were measured monthly. RESULTS: In the first monkey study, zinc absorption at 1 mo was higher from low-phytate soy formula (36%) than from regular soy formula (22%), whereas there was no significant difference between groups in the absorption of other minerals. Plasma copper was significantly lower in monkeys fed low-phytate soy formula from 2 to 4 mo. In rat pups, zinc absorption was significantly higher from low-phytate soy formula (78%) than from regular soy formula (51%) and hydrolysis of the protein had no significant effect. Phytate content or protein hydrolysis did not significantly affect copper absorption. In the second monkey study, plasma copper concentrations were highest in monkeys fed the low-phytate, hydrolyzed-protein soy formula. CONCLUSION: Reducing the phytate content and partially hydrolyzing the protein in soy formula had a beneficial effect on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys.  (+info)

Cloning and functional expression of the cytoplasmic form of rat aminopeptidase P. (6/617)

A rat cytoplasmic aminopeptidase P was purified from liver cytosol with a procedure including an affinity elution step with 3 microM inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Proteolytic fragments were generated, sequenced and the enzyme was cloned from a rat liver cDNA library. The structure shows high (87.8% and 95.5%, respectively) sequence identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with the previously described human putative cytoplasmic aminopeptidase P. The cloned rat enzyme was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and also in COS-1 cells. Western blot analysis, using an antibody generated against the recombinant protein, and Northern blot hybridization showed ubiquitous expression of the protein in different tissues with the highest expression level in the testis.  (+info)

The effect of inositol hexaphosphate on the absorption spectra of alpha and beta chains in nitrosyl hemoglobin. (7/617)

The spectral changes of nitrosyl hemoglobin on addition of inositol hexaphosphate were studied in hybrid-heme hemoglobins. The results showed that the decrease in absorption in the Soret region was mainly due to a spectral change in alpha chains, and that the tension on heme in the quaternary T structure was much stronger in alpha than in beta chains.  (+info)

Expression of an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/617)

Phytase improves the bioavailability of phytate phosphorus in plant foods to humans and animals and reduces phosphorus pollution of animal waste. Our objectives were to express an Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to determine the effects of glycosylation on the phytase's activity and thermostability. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment containing the coding region of the phyA gene was inserted into the expression vector pYES2 and was expressed in S. cerevisiae as an active, extracellular phytase. The yield of total extracellular phytase activity was affected by the signal peptide and the medium composition. The expressed phytase had two pH optima (2 to 2.5 and 5 to 5.5) and a temperature optimum between 55 and 60 degrees C, and it cross-reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody against the wild-type enzyme. Due to the heavy glycosylation, the expressed phytase had a molecular size of approximately 120 kDa and appeared to be more thermostable than the commercial enzyme. Deglycosylation of the phytase resulted in losses of 9% of its activity and 40% of its thermostability. The recombinant phytase was effective in hydrolyzing phytate phosphorus from corn or soybean meal in vitro. In conclusion, the phyA gene was expressed as an active, extracellular phytase in S. cerevisiae, and its thermostability was affected by glycosylation.  (+info)

  • In people who regularly consume fruits and vegetables, the gut microbiota efficiently degrades phytic acid to myo-inositol phosphate products, therefore this diet could be proposed to patients with increased inositol needs, such as those suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome and in insulin resistance. (
  • [iii] I would guess that one reason this is true is because phytic acid also inhibits enzymes that we need to digest our food such as pepsin (which helps break down protein), amylases (convert starch into sugar for digestion) and trypsin (also used in protein digestion). (
  • Neuroprotective effect of the natural iron chelator, phytic acid in a cell culture model of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Because excessive iron can induce oxidative stress subsequently causing degradation of nigral dopaminergic neurons in PD, we determined the protective effect of a naturally occurring iron chelator, phytic acid (IP6), on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced cell death in immortalized rat mesencephalic/dopaminergic cells. (
  • Three different organic P substrates were used to measure enzyme activity in a wide range of pH (2.3 to 9) and temperatures (−10° to 70 °C): p-nitrophenyl-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and phytic acid. (
  • However, the phytic acid amount in mung beans suffices to bind all minerals into indigestible complexes. (
  • So, in some ways, the "anti-nutrient" label makes sense-phytic acid can literally physically stop your body from absorbing what it needs. (
  • Phytic acid is a powerful antioxidant and it has been hypothesised that it could have neuroprotective qualities for PD patients. (
  • Also know as phytic acid or IP6, inositol hexaphosphate is widely distributed as a dietary supplement with claimed cell support and antioxidant benefits. (
  • Phytic acid and phytates act as a storage mechanism of phosphorous in plants, but when consumed by humans they don't get broken down, instead they bind with other nutrients and neutralize them in the process. (
  • This study shows that it is possible to increase phytic acid intake, and consequently inositol availability, by means of an appropriate diet as a complementary treatment to dietary supplements. (
  • Xu et al tested the hypothesis that excess iron associated with cell death in PD could be reduced by the application of phytic acid. (
  • Phytic Acid Protects against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neuron Apoptosis in Normal and Iron Excess Conditions in a Cell Culture Model. (
  • Phytic acid suppresses 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced hydroxyl radical generation in rat striatum. (
  • This naturally derived material offers multiple benefits for skin , described next, and serves as an alternative to alpha hydroxyl acids (AHA), which can be irritating. (
  • [vii] Phytic acid will also be higher in foods grown using high-phosphate fertilizers in comparison to those grown in natural compost. (