Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena
Respiratory Physiological Phenomena
Digestive System Physiological Phenomena
Education, Medical, Undergraduate
Molecular Sequence Data
Gene Expression Regulation
Intensive Care Units
Gene Expression Profiling
Reproductive Physiological Phenomena
Amino Acid Sequence
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Nervous System Physiological Phenomena
Respiratory Physiological Processes
Disease Models, Animal
Cardiovascular Physiological Processes
ARNTL Transcription Factors
Analysis of Variance
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Body Temperature Regulation
Period Circadian Proteins
Animals, Genetically Modified
Plant Physiological Phenomena
Allergy and Immunology
Heart Defects, Congenital
Reproducibility of Results
Bone and Bones
Textbooks as Topic
Severity of Illness Index
Can gender differences during exercise-heat stress be assessed by the physiological strain index? (1/798)A physiological strain index (PSI) based on rectal temperature (Tre) and heart rate (HR) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PSI for gender differences under various combinations of exercise intensity and climate. Two groups of eight men each were formed according to maximal rate of O2 consumption (VO2 max). The first group of men (M) was matched to a group of nine women (W) with similar (P > 0.001) VO2 max (46.1 +/- 2.0 and 43.6 +/- 2.9 ml. kg-1. min-1, respectively). The second group of men (MF) was significantly (P < 0. 001) more fit than M or W with VO2 max of 59.1 +/- 1.8 ml. kg-1. min-1. Subjects completed a matrix of nine experimental combinations consisting of three different exercise intensities for 60 min [low, moderate, and high (300, 500, and 650 W, respectively)] each at three climates (comfortable, hot wet, and hot dry [20 degrees C 50% relative humidity (RH), 35 degrees C 70% RH, and 40 degrees C 35% RH, respectively]). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found between matched genders (M and W) at the same exposure for sweat rate, relative VO2 max (%VO2 max), and PSI. However, MF had significantly (P < 0.05) lower strain than M and W as reflected by %VO2 max and PSI. In summary, PSI applicability was extended for exercise-heat stress and gender. This index continues to show potential for wide acceptance and application. (+info)
Remembrance of things past and concerns for the future. (2/798)Stanley G. Schultz received the seventh annual Arthur C. Guyton Physiology Teacher of the Year Award. The following is a speech he delivered as he was presented the award at Experimental Biology '99 in Washington, DC, in April 1999. (+info)
Learning physiology through service. (3/798)A service-learning component has been successfully incorporated into an introductory physiology course at Wheaton College. In addition to regular course work, each of the 24 students spent 12 hours shadowing and assisting staff at Sturdy Memorial Hospital, Attleboro, MA, with 4 hours in the emergency room and 8 hours in two other departments. Every student kept a log of his or her observations, reactions, and learning in the field and wrote a paper on a pathophysiological condition encountered in the hospital. To compare and contrast the real hospital experience with a fictional one, the students also studied patients from the television show ER. Each week in lab, two students showed a short videotape of one particular patient and discussed the diagnosis, symptoms, treatments, and surgical procedures involved. Questionnaire evaluations indicated that this program is effective in helping students learn more physiology and exposing them to community service. Health workers and patients also agreed that providing social support to patients while shadowing and assisting hospital staff was a valuable service. (+info)
Predictors of success in undergraduate human physiology. (4/798)This study tested the hypothesis that measurable attributes in students' backgrounds are related to their successful completion of an undergraduate human physiology course. Demographic, general academic performance, and science achievement data were obtained from student records for students enrolled during the 1995-1996 academic year, and additional demographic data were obtained from students enrolled during the 1996-1998 academic years. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis explored the relationship fo these variables to the percentage of students passing the human physiology course. Predicted passing versus failing showed a sensitivity of 85.5% and specificity of 69.7%. Two independent validations of the logistical regression equation correctly predicted the performance of subsequent groups of students 75.9% and 77.6% of the time. (+info)
Undergraduate students' misconceptions about respiratory physiology. (5/798)Approximately 700 undergraduates studying physiology at community colleges, a liberal arts college, and universities were surveyed to determine the prevalence of our misconceptions about respiratory phenomena. A misconception about the changes in breathing frequency and tidal volume (physiological variables whose changes can be directly sensed) that result in increased minute ventilation was found to be present in this population with comparable prevalence (approximately 60%) to that seen in a previous study. Three other misconceptions involving phenomena that cannot be experienced directly and therefore were most likely learned in some educational setting were found to be of varying prevalence. Nearly 90% of the students exhibited a misconception about the relationship between arterial oxygen partial pressure and hemoglobin saturation. Sixty-six percent of the students believed that increasing alveolar oxygen partial pressure leads to a decrease in alveolar carbon dioxide partial pressure. Nearly 33% of the population misunderstood the relationship between metabolism and ventilation. The possible origins of these respiratory misconceptions are discussed and suggestions for how to prevent and/or remediate them are proposed. (+info)
Basis for presentation of acid-base in two dimensions. (6/798)Buffering of "metabolic" acid in tissues other than blood correlates closely with a change in extracellular bicarbonate concentration rather than with a change in extracellular pH. Of particular importance is the evidence for an absence of relation to change in pH. Questions are raised with respect to buffering mechanism, but simplification is offered for diagnosis. A clearer focus can be given to the guidepost changes in PCO2 and bicarbonate concentration. Basic relationships of buffering in the whole body are reviewed, and a modified diagnostic rationale is offered, based on a two-rather than a three-dimensional analysis. (+info)
Challenges of teaching physiology in a PBL school. (7/798)A problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum was introduced at McMaster University more than three decades ago. Not many schools have adopted the system despite its distinct advantages. The present paper examines the challenges of teaching physiology in a PBL curriculum and gleans through the literature supporting PBL. It appears that one of the reasons why PBL is not becoming readily acceptable is the lack of concrete reports evaluating the curricular outcomes. The suggestion (R.E. Thomas. Med Educ. 31:320-329, 1997) to standardize and internationalize all components of validated PBL curricula is quite valid. A database needs to be generated that can be easily accessed by traditional institutions to see the rationality and easy implementation of the PBL curriculum. (+info)
Refresher course for teaching cardiovascular physiology. (8/798)This report presents highlights of a refresher course presented at Experimental Biology '99 on Saturday, April 17, 1999, in Washington, District of Columbia. (+info)
Some common examples of critical illnesses include:
1. Sepsis: a systemic inflammatory response to an infection that can lead to organ failure and death.
2. Cardiogenic shock: a condition where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to serious complications such as heart failure and death.
3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a condition where the lungs are severely inflamed and unable to provide sufficient oxygen to the body.
4. Multi-system organ failure: a condition where multiple organs in the body fail simultaneously, leading to serious complications and death.
5. Trauma: severe physical injuries sustained in an accident or other traumatic event.
6. Stroke: a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain that can lead to permanent brain damage and death.
7. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a blockage of coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to damage or death of heart muscle cells.
8. Pulmonary embolism: a blockage of the pulmonary artery, which can lead to respiratory failure and death.
9. Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to severe abdominal pain, bleeding, and organ failure.
10. Hypovolemic shock: a condition where there is a severe loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to hypotension, organ failure, and death.
The diagnosis and treatment of critical illnesses require specialized knowledge and skills, and are typically handled by intensive care unit (ICU) teams consisting of critical care physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The goal of critical care is to provide life-sustaining interventions and support to patients who are critically ill until they recover or until their condition stabilizes.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Types of congenital heart defects include:
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.
Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
These diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms such as fatigue, weight changes, and poor wound healing. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.
There are many different types of diseases, ranging from acute and short-term conditions such as the common cold or flu, to chronic and long-term conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Some diseases are infectious, meaning they can be transmitted from one person to another through contact with a contaminated surface or exchange of bodily fluids. Other diseases are non-infectious, meaning they are not transmitted from person to person and are typically caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.
The diagnosis and treatment of disease is the focus of the medical field, and doctors and other healthcare professionals use a variety of tools and techniques to identify and manage diseases. These may include physical exams, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and medications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat a disease.
Some common examples of diseases include:
1. Heart disease: A condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, often caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoking.
2. Diabetes: A condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels, often caused by genetics or obesity.
3. Cancer: A condition in which abnormal cells grow and multiply, often causing damage to surrounding tissues.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, where the body's immune system causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
5. Neurological diseases: Conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Infectious diseases: Conditions caused by the presence of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, including the common cold, flu, and tuberculosis.
7. Genetic diseases: Conditions that are caused by changes in DNA, such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis.
8. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions where the body's immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
9. Pulmonary diseases: Conditions that affect the lungs, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer.
10. Gastrointestinal diseases: Conditions that affect the digestive system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
These are just a few examples of the many different types of diseases that exist. Diseases can be caused by a wide range of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. Understanding the causes and symptoms of different diseases is important for developing effective treatments and improving patient outcomes.
There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:
* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Poor sleep
To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.
Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.
Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:
* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.
In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are different types of anoxia, including:
1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.
Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.
Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.
In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): an opening in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, which allows oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood.
2. Pulmonary stenosis: a narrowing of the pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery, which restricts blood flow to the lungs.
3. Overriding aorta: an aorta that grows over the ventricular septal defect, blocking the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.
4. Right ventricular hypertrophy: enlargement of the right ventricle due to increased pressure caused by the backflow of blood through the VSD.
These abnormalities combine to reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues, leading to cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin) and fatigue. Tetralogy of Fallot is usually diagnosed at birth or soon after, and treatment typically involves a combination of medications, surgery, and other interventions to repair the defects and improve blood flow to the body.
Tricuspid atresia is a rare congenital heart defect that occurs when the tricuspid valve, which separates the right atrium and ventricle, does not develop properly and is absent or very small. This results in poor blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle, leading to inadequate oxygenation of the body.
Children with tricuspid atresia may experience symptoms such as:
* Blue tinge to the skin (cyanosis)
* Shortness of breath
* Poor feeding and growth
* Rapid breathing
* Pallor (pale skin)
Tricuspid atresia is diagnosed through a series of tests, including:
* Physical examination
* Chest X-ray
* Echocardiogram (echo)
* Electrocardiogram (ECG)
* Cardiac catheterization
The treatment for tricuspid atresia usually involves a series of surgeries and catheterizations to improve blood flow and oxygenation to the body. These may include:
* Balloon atrial septostomy: A procedure in which a balloon is inserted through a catheter into the atrial septum to create a hole between the atria to improve blood flow.
* Tricuspid valve replacement: A surgical procedure to replace the tricuspid valve with an artificial valve.
* Intracardiac repair: A surgical procedure to repair any other defects in the heart.
The prognosis for children with tricuspid atresia varies depending on the severity of the defect and the presence of other congenital heart defects. With appropriate treatment, many children with tricuspid atresia can lead active and healthy lives. However, some may experience ongoing health problems and may require long-term monitoring and care.
Chronobiology disorders can result when the body's natural circadian rhythm is disrupted or altered, leading to problems with sleep timing, duration, and quality, as well as other physiological and behavioral issues. Examples of chronobiology disorders include:
1. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: These are conditions that affect the body's natural sleep-wake cycle, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD).
2. Jet lag: This occurs when traveling across time zones, causing a mismatch between the body's internal clock and the local environment.
3. Shift work sleep disorder: This affects people who work outside of traditional daytime hours and experience difficulty adjusting to irregular sleep schedules.
4. Irregular sleep-wake patterns: This can be caused by factors such as working night shifts, rotating shifts, or having an irregular sleep schedule.
5. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder in which a person's breathing is interrupted during sleep, often causing them to wake up frequently throughout the night.
6. Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, often caused by stress, anxiety, or other factors that disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle.
7. Depression: A mood disorder that can affect the body's circadian rhythm, leading to changes in sleep patterns and other physiological functions.
8. Bipolar disorder: A mood disorder that can cause changes in sleep patterns, energy levels, and other physiological functions.
9. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): A type of depression that occurs during the winter months when there is less sunlight.
10. Hypersomnia: Excessive sleepiness or prolonged periods of sleep, often caused by factors such as medication side effects, sleep disorders, or other medical conditions.
It's important to note that these are just a few examples of the many potential causes of irregular sleep patterns, and there may be other underlying factors that contribute to this symptom. If you are experiencing persistent changes in your sleep patterns, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional to determine the cause and find appropriate treatment.
There are several key features of inflammation:
1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.
There are several types of inflammation, including:
1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.
There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:
1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.
It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:
3. Heart disease
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.
Here are some key points to define sepsis:
1. Inflammatory response: Sepsis is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response to an infection. This can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.
2. Systemic symptoms: Patients with sepsis often have systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion. They may also experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Organ dysfunction: Sepsis can cause dysfunction in multiple organs, including the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This can lead to organ failure and death if not treated promptly.
4. Infection source: Sepsis is usually caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. The infection can be localized or widespread, and it can affect different parts of the body.
5. Severe sepsis: Severe sepsis is a more severe form of sepsis that is characterized by severe organ dysfunction and a higher risk of death. Patients with severe sepsis may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation.
6. Septic shock: Septic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is severe circulatory dysfunction due to sepsis. It is characterized by hypotension, vasopressor use, and organ failure.
Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are critical to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes. The Sepsis-3 definition is widely used in clinical practice to diagnose sepsis and severe sepsis.
Physiology & Behavior
Reflex | physiology | Britannica
Ankle Anatomy and Physiology | Encyclopedia.com
Dr. Richard B. (Dick) Stein | Physiology
Physiology, Neurotransmitters - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf
Anatomy and Physiology: Here, There, Everywhere
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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Overview, Hyperbaric Physics and Physiology, Contraindications
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Anatomy and Physiology Seminar April 26 features Yunjeong Kim
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- Yunjeong Kim, associate professor of anatomy and physiology, will present the next Anatomy and Physiology Seminar at 4 p.m. Tuesday, April 26, in the Mara Conference Center, 407 Trotter Hall. (k-state.edu)
- Exam addresses topics related to the fundamentals of human body structure and function based on curriculum of 6-credits of post-secondary anatomy and physiology course (s). (bcit.ca)
- Exam is designed for Bachelor of Science Nursing, Cardiovascular Perfusion, Electoneurophysiology and Prosthetics and Orthotics applicants that have taken a 6 credit Anatomy and Physiology course and received a minimum C+ (67%) but do not meet the three (3) year recency requirement. (bcit.ca)
- a knowledge of the anatomy, physiology and pathologies involving the OMN is of fundamental importance. (bvsalud.org)
- Figure modified with permission from: Guyton AC, Hall JE: Textbook of Medical Physiology (2006) Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia. (cdc.gov)
- Advanced critical appraisal of research in applied exercise physiology. (ucalgary.ca)
- For those interested in learning about the molecular physiology of nicotinic receptors, the subject is discussed as optional reading below. (cdc.gov)
- The Jacob-Henle Medal, introduced in 1988, recognizes high-impact scientific achievements in physiology and medicine. (mdanderson.org)
- Fascinated by health and human physiology and have a passion for fitness? (mtu.edu)
- She heads the Reproductive Physiology and Pathophysiology Group and holds a secondary appointment in NIEHS Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory . (nih.gov)
- The Reproductive Physiology and Pathophysiology Group studies the mechanisms involved in the integrated control of the reproductive system in women and its disruption in reproductive disorders. (nih.gov)
- In addition, it may result in pre-term births and preclampsia in women and interfere with normal reproductive physiology in both men and women. (cdc.gov)
- The Section on Sensory Physiology and Biophysics focuses on the relationship between the mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channel complex and sensory inner ear hair cell physiology. (nih.gov)
- The Aging Physiology Branch focuses on age-related changes affecting tissue and organ function. (nih.gov)
- The Muscle Development and Physiology Program research portfolio focuses on development, growth, and maintenance of skeletal muscle tissue. (nih.gov)
- Our experiments are performed on several unique genetically modified mouse lines that display altered photoresponses and signaling properties, as well as other species whose variations in retinal anatomy and physiology can further inform these questions. (nih.gov)
- A major theme for the Aging Physiology Branch is inter-organ communication which is a topic connecting all programs in this branch. (nih.gov)
- The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to National Institutes of Health grantees Bruce A. Beutler, M.D., of The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif. (nih.gov)
- The focus of the integrative physiology program is the understanding of the regulatory network in the heart that controls the flow of energy. (nih.gov)