The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.
The educational process of instructing.
An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.
Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.
Instructional materials used in teaching.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Sexual activities of animals.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The physical measurements of a body.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.

Can gender differences during exercise-heat stress be assessed by the physiological strain index? (1/798)

A physiological strain index (PSI) based on rectal temperature (Tre) and heart rate (HR) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PSI for gender differences under various combinations of exercise intensity and climate. Two groups of eight men each were formed according to maximal rate of O2 consumption (VO2 max). The first group of men (M) was matched to a group of nine women (W) with similar (P > 0.001) VO2 max (46.1 +/- 2.0 and 43.6 +/- 2.9 ml. kg-1. min-1, respectively). The second group of men (MF) was significantly (P < 0. 001) more fit than M or W with VO2 max of 59.1 +/- 1.8 ml. kg-1. min-1. Subjects completed a matrix of nine experimental combinations consisting of three different exercise intensities for 60 min [low, moderate, and high (300, 500, and 650 W, respectively)] each at three climates (comfortable, hot wet, and hot dry [20 degrees C 50% relative humidity (RH), 35 degrees C 70% RH, and 40 degrees C 35% RH, respectively]). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found between matched genders (M and W) at the same exposure for sweat rate, relative VO2 max (%VO2 max), and PSI. However, MF had significantly (P < 0.05) lower strain than M and W as reflected by %VO2 max and PSI. In summary, PSI applicability was extended for exercise-heat stress and gender. This index continues to show potential for wide acceptance and application.  (+info)

Remembrance of things past and concerns for the future. (2/798)

Stanley G. Schultz received the seventh annual Arthur C. Guyton Physiology Teacher of the Year Award. The following is a speech he delivered as he was presented the award at Experimental Biology '99 in Washington, DC, in April 1999.  (+info)

Learning physiology through service. (3/798)

A service-learning component has been successfully incorporated into an introductory physiology course at Wheaton College. In addition to regular course work, each of the 24 students spent 12 hours shadowing and assisting staff at Sturdy Memorial Hospital, Attleboro, MA, with 4 hours in the emergency room and 8 hours in two other departments. Every student kept a log of his or her observations, reactions, and learning in the field and wrote a paper on a pathophysiological condition encountered in the hospital. To compare and contrast the real hospital experience with a fictional one, the students also studied patients from the television show ER. Each week in lab, two students showed a short videotape of one particular patient and discussed the diagnosis, symptoms, treatments, and surgical procedures involved. Questionnaire evaluations indicated that this program is effective in helping students learn more physiology and exposing them to community service. Health workers and patients also agreed that providing social support to patients while shadowing and assisting hospital staff was a valuable service.  (+info)

Predictors of success in undergraduate human physiology. (4/798)

This study tested the hypothesis that measurable attributes in students' backgrounds are related to their successful completion of an undergraduate human physiology course. Demographic, general academic performance, and science achievement data were obtained from student records for students enrolled during the 1995-1996 academic year, and additional demographic data were obtained from students enrolled during the 1996-1998 academic years. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis explored the relationship fo these variables to the percentage of students passing the human physiology course. Predicted passing versus failing showed a sensitivity of 85.5% and specificity of 69.7%. Two independent validations of the logistical regression equation correctly predicted the performance of subsequent groups of students 75.9% and 77.6% of the time.  (+info)

Undergraduate students' misconceptions about respiratory physiology. (5/798)

Approximately 700 undergraduates studying physiology at community colleges, a liberal arts college, and universities were surveyed to determine the prevalence of our misconceptions about respiratory phenomena. A misconception about the changes in breathing frequency and tidal volume (physiological variables whose changes can be directly sensed) that result in increased minute ventilation was found to be present in this population with comparable prevalence (approximately 60%) to that seen in a previous study. Three other misconceptions involving phenomena that cannot be experienced directly and therefore were most likely learned in some educational setting were found to be of varying prevalence. Nearly 90% of the students exhibited a misconception about the relationship between arterial oxygen partial pressure and hemoglobin saturation. Sixty-six percent of the students believed that increasing alveolar oxygen partial pressure leads to a decrease in alveolar carbon dioxide partial pressure. Nearly 33% of the population misunderstood the relationship between metabolism and ventilation. The possible origins of these respiratory misconceptions are discussed and suggestions for how to prevent and/or remediate them are proposed.  (+info)

Basis for presentation of acid-base in two dimensions. (6/798)

Buffering of "metabolic" acid in tissues other than blood correlates closely with a change in extracellular bicarbonate concentration rather than with a change in extracellular pH. Of particular importance is the evidence for an absence of relation to change in pH. Questions are raised with respect to buffering mechanism, but simplification is offered for diagnosis. A clearer focus can be given to the guidepost changes in PCO2 and bicarbonate concentration. Basic relationships of buffering in the whole body are reviewed, and a modified diagnostic rationale is offered, based on a two-rather than a three-dimensional analysis.  (+info)

Challenges of teaching physiology in a PBL school. (7/798)

A problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum was introduced at McMaster University more than three decades ago. Not many schools have adopted the system despite its distinct advantages. The present paper examines the challenges of teaching physiology in a PBL curriculum and gleans through the literature supporting PBL. It appears that one of the reasons why PBL is not becoming readily acceptable is the lack of concrete reports evaluating the curricular outcomes. The suggestion (R.E. Thomas. Med Educ. 31:320-329, 1997) to standardize and internationalize all components of validated PBL curricula is quite valid. A database needs to be generated that can be easily accessed by traditional institutions to see the rationality and easy implementation of the PBL curriculum.  (+info)

Refresher course for teaching cardiovascular physiology. (8/798)

This report presents highlights of a refresher course presented at Experimental Biology '99 on Saturday, April 17, 1999, in Washington, District of Columbia.  (+info)

Some common examples of critical illnesses include:

1. Sepsis: a systemic inflammatory response to an infection that can lead to organ failure and death.
2. Cardiogenic shock: a condition where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to serious complications such as heart failure and death.
3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a condition where the lungs are severely inflamed and unable to provide sufficient oxygen to the body.
4. Multi-system organ failure: a condition where multiple organs in the body fail simultaneously, leading to serious complications and death.
5. Trauma: severe physical injuries sustained in an accident or other traumatic event.
6. Stroke: a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain that can lead to permanent brain damage and death.
7. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a blockage of coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to damage or death of heart muscle cells.
8. Pulmonary embolism: a blockage of the pulmonary artery, which can lead to respiratory failure and death.
9. Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to severe abdominal pain, bleeding, and organ failure.
10. Hypovolemic shock: a condition where there is a severe loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to hypotension, organ failure, and death.

The diagnosis and treatment of critical illnesses require specialized knowledge and skills, and are typically handled by intensive care unit (ICU) teams consisting of critical care physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The goal of critical care is to provide life-sustaining interventions and support to patients who are critically ill until they recover or until their condition stabilizes.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Types of congenital heart defects include:

1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.

Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

These diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms such as fatigue, weight changes, and poor wound healing. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.

There are many different types of diseases, ranging from acute and short-term conditions such as the common cold or flu, to chronic and long-term conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Some diseases are infectious, meaning they can be transmitted from one person to another through contact with a contaminated surface or exchange of bodily fluids. Other diseases are non-infectious, meaning they are not transmitted from person to person and are typically caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

The diagnosis and treatment of disease is the focus of the medical field, and doctors and other healthcare professionals use a variety of tools and techniques to identify and manage diseases. These may include physical exams, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and medications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat a disease.

Some common examples of diseases include:

1. Heart disease: A condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, often caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoking.
2. Diabetes: A condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels, often caused by genetics or obesity.
3. Cancer: A condition in which abnormal cells grow and multiply, often causing damage to surrounding tissues.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, where the body's immune system causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
5. Neurological diseases: Conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Infectious diseases: Conditions caused by the presence of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, including the common cold, flu, and tuberculosis.
7. Genetic diseases: Conditions that are caused by changes in DNA, such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis.
8. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions where the body's immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
9. Pulmonary diseases: Conditions that affect the lungs, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer.
10. Gastrointestinal diseases: Conditions that affect the digestive system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

These are just a few examples of the many different types of diseases that exist. Diseases can be caused by a wide range of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. Understanding the causes and symptoms of different diseases is important for developing effective treatments and improving patient outcomes.

There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:

* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Infections
* Poor sleep

To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.

Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.

Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:

* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.

In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): an opening in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, which allows oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood.
2. Pulmonary stenosis: a narrowing of the pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery, which restricts blood flow to the lungs.
3. Overriding aorta: an aorta that grows over the ventricular septal defect, blocking the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.
4. Right ventricular hypertrophy: enlargement of the right ventricle due to increased pressure caused by the backflow of blood through the VSD.

These abnormalities combine to reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues, leading to cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin) and fatigue. Tetralogy of Fallot is usually diagnosed at birth or soon after, and treatment typically involves a combination of medications, surgery, and other interventions to repair the defects and improve blood flow to the body.

Tricuspid atresia is a rare congenital heart defect that occurs when the tricuspid valve, which separates the right atrium and ventricle, does not develop properly and is absent or very small. This results in poor blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle, leading to inadequate oxygenation of the body.


Children with tricuspid atresia may experience symptoms such as:

* Blue tinge to the skin (cyanosis)
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Poor feeding and growth
* Rapid breathing
* Pallor (pale skin)


Tricuspid atresia is diagnosed through a series of tests, including:

* Physical examination
* Chest X-ray
* Echocardiogram (echo)
* Electrocardiogram (ECG)
* Cardiac catheterization


The treatment for tricuspid atresia usually involves a series of surgeries and catheterizations to improve blood flow and oxygenation to the body. These may include:

* Balloon atrial septostomy: A procedure in which a balloon is inserted through a catheter into the atrial septum to create a hole between the atria to improve blood flow.
* Tricuspid valve replacement: A surgical procedure to replace the tricuspid valve with an artificial valve.
* Intracardiac repair: A surgical procedure to repair any other defects in the heart.


The prognosis for children with tricuspid atresia varies depending on the severity of the defect and the presence of other congenital heart defects. With appropriate treatment, many children with tricuspid atresia can lead active and healthy lives. However, some may experience ongoing health problems and may require long-term monitoring and care.

Chronobiology disorders can result when the body's natural circadian rhythm is disrupted or altered, leading to problems with sleep timing, duration, and quality, as well as other physiological and behavioral issues. Examples of chronobiology disorders include:

1. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: These are conditions that affect the body's natural sleep-wake cycle, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD).
2. Jet lag: This occurs when traveling across time zones, causing a mismatch between the body's internal clock and the local environment.
3. Shift work sleep disorder: This affects people who work outside of traditional daytime hours and experience difficulty adjusting to irregular sleep schedules.
4. Irregular sleep-wake patterns: This can be caused by factors such as working night shifts, rotating shifts, or having an irregular sleep schedule.
5. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder in which a person's breathing is interrupted during sleep, often causing them to wake up frequently throughout the night.
6. Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, often caused by stress, anxiety, or other factors that disrupt the body's natural sleep-wake cycle.
7. Depression: A mood disorder that can affect the body's circadian rhythm, leading to changes in sleep patterns and other physiological functions.
8. Bipolar disorder: A mood disorder that can cause changes in sleep patterns, energy levels, and other physiological functions.
9. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): A type of depression that occurs during the winter months when there is less sunlight.
10. Hypersomnia: Excessive sleepiness or prolonged periods of sleep, often caused by factors such as medication side effects, sleep disorders, or other medical conditions.

It's important to note that these are just a few examples of the many potential causes of irregular sleep patterns, and there may be other underlying factors that contribute to this symptom. If you are experiencing persistent changes in your sleep patterns, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional to determine the cause and find appropriate treatment.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Here are some key points to define sepsis:

1. Inflammatory response: Sepsis is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response to an infection. This can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.
2. Systemic symptoms: Patients with sepsis often have systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion. They may also experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Organ dysfunction: Sepsis can cause dysfunction in multiple organs, including the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This can lead to organ failure and death if not treated promptly.
4. Infection source: Sepsis is usually caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. The infection can be localized or widespread, and it can affect different parts of the body.
5. Severe sepsis: Severe sepsis is a more severe form of sepsis that is characterized by severe organ dysfunction and a higher risk of death. Patients with severe sepsis may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation.
6. Septic shock: Septic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is severe circulatory dysfunction due to sepsis. It is characterized by hypotension, vasopressor use, and organ failure.

Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are critical to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes. The Sepsis-3 definition is widely used in clinical practice to diagnose sepsis and severe sepsis.

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Tonic in physiology refers to a physiological response which is slow and may be graded. This term is typically used in ...
Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Physiology). ...
... under the names cardiac physiology and circulatory physiology. Although the different aspects of cardiovascular physiology are ... Cardiovascular physiology is the study of the cardiovascular system, specifically addressing the physiology of the heart (" ... Cardiovascular+physiology at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Cardiovascular Physiology ... Cardiovascular An iPhone app covering detailed cardiovascular physiology and anatomy Quantitative Cardiovascular Physiology and ...
Field, John, Handbook of Physiology: Renal physiology, page 598, American Physiological Society Koushanpour, Esmail; Kriz, ... In physiology, splay is the difference between urine threshold (the amount of a substance required in the kidneys before it ... USMLE Step 1 Physiology Lecture Notes. Kaplan, Inc. 2015. p. 213. ISBN 978-1625236920. Retrieved September 11, 2015. Costanzo, ... Linda S. (2013). Physiology. Elsevier. ISBN 978-1455728138. Retrieved September 11, 2015. Costanzo, Linda S. (2001). Physiology ...
... is the biological study of the activities that take place in a cell to keep it alive. The term physiology ... Landowne, David (2006). Cell Physiology. Lange Physiology Series. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0071464741. LCCN 2006282125. ... April 25, 2013). "3.5 Cell Growth and Division". Anatomy and Physiology. OpenStax. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-938168-13-0. Retrieved ...
... refers to the study of physiological systems using complexity science methods, such as chaos measure, ... Fractal dimension Entropy Complex system Bassingthwaighte, James B. (1994). Fractal physiology. New York: Published for the ... Physiology, All stub articles, Chaos theory stubs, Biology stubs). ...
... is the physiology of physical exercise. It is one of the allied health professions, and involves the study ... Hill and German physician Otto Meyerhof shared the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their independent work ...
In physiology, a stimulus is a detectable change in the physical or chemical structure of an organism's internal or external ... Renal Physiology. 280 (4): F551-61. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.2001.280.4.f551. PMID 11249846. Fluck, D C (1972). "Catecholamines". ... Anatomy and physiology". Physical Therapy. 62 (12): 1763-72. doi:10.1093/ptj/62.12.1763. PMID 6216490. Baylis, PH (1987). " ... Goligorsky, Michael S. (2001). "The concept of cellular 'fight-or-flight' reaction to stress". American Journal of Physiology. ...
... is a term used to refer to the symphony of body function (physiology) changes which occur in response to a ... See also General adaptation syndrome.) Stress : As it pertains to the term defense physiology, the term stress refers to a ... Threat : What constitutes a threat as it pertains to defense physiology? A threat may be consciously recognized or not. A ... Articles needing additional references from August 2022, All articles needing additional references, Physiology, Stress ( ...
In physiology, diastasis is the middle stage of diastole during the cycle of a heartbeat, where the initial passive filling of ... Compare diastasis (pathology) Khurana (2008-01-01). Essentials of Medical Physiology. Elsevier India. pp. 157-. ISBN 978-81-312 ...
Exercise physiology Human physiology Musculoskeletal+physiology at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ... Musculoskeletal physiology is the branch of physiology which addresses the processes of musculoskeletal system. In ... subclassifying musculoskeletal physiology, MeSH emphasizes the division between "phenomena" and "processes". It is also ...
Keener, James; Sneyd, James (27 Nov 2008) [1998]. Mathematical Physiology I: Cellular Physiology. Interdisciplinary Applied ... Mathematical Physiology II: Systems Physiology. Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics. Vol. 8/2 (2 ed.). New York: Springer. ... Mathematical physiology is an interdisciplinary science. Primarily, it investigates ways in which mathematics may be used to ... doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79388-7. ISBN 978-0-387-79387-0. v t e v t e (Mathematical and theoretical biology, Physiology, Systems ...
Physiology Journal of Applied Physiology Applied Physiology Applied Physiology Ltd European Journal of Applied Physiology v t e ... Applied Physiology is the study of biological systems and steps into practice. It involves the application of the knowledge of ...
Sterility is the physiological inability to effect sexual reproduction in a living thing, members of whose kind have been produced sexually. Sterility has a wide range of causes. It may be an inherited trait, as in the mule; or it may be acquired from the environment, for example through physical injury or disease, or by exposure to radiation. Sterility is the inability to produce a biological child, while infertility is the inability to conceive after a certain period. Sterility is rarely discussed in clinical literature and is often used synonymously with infertility. Infertility affects about 12-15% of couples globally. Still, the prevalence of sterility remains unknown. Sterility can be divided into three subtypes natural, clinical, and hardship. Natural sterility is the couple's physiological inability to conceive a child naturally. Clinical sterility is natural sterility for which treatment of the patient will not result in conception. Hardship sterility is the inability to take advantage ...
Flushing is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions. Flushing is generally distinguished, despite a close physiological relation between them, from blushing, which is milder, generally restricted to the face, cheeks or ears, and generally assumed to reflect emotional stress, such as embarrassment, anger, or romantic stimulation. Flushing is also a cardinal symptom of carcinoid syndrome-the syndrome that results from hormones (often serotonin or histamine) being secreted into systemic circulation. abrupt cessation of physical exertion (resulting in heart output in excess of current muscular need for blood flow) abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), usually in patients who have had abdominal surgery alcohol flush reaction antiestrogens such as tamoxifen atropine poisoning body contact with warm or hot water (hot tub, bath, shower) butorphanol reaction with some narcotic analgesics (since butorphanol is also an ...
... was a theory competing with galvanism in Italy in the late 18th century. It is named after Albrecht von ...
"Physiology and Behavior - Indexing Information". Retrieved 2009-05-10. "Physiology & Behavior". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. ... Physiology & Behavior is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier. It covers the fields of behavioral ... Physiology journals, Publications established in 1966, English-language journals, Elsevier academic journals, Journals ...
... is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of The ... According to the Journal Citation Reports, its 2020 impact factor is 2.969 It covers all areas of physiology, especially work ... "Editorial Statement". Experimental Physiology. 75: 1. 1990. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.1990.sp1990751fm. "John H Coote - ... under the title of Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology. In 1981, The Physiological Society took over its management. ...
... is an online only, fully open access journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the ... "About , Conservation Physiology , Oxford Academic". Retrieved 2017-10-30. "Search". Official website ... the journal also publishes short and punchy lay summaries of key papers under the banner of Conservation Physiology in Action ( ... Physiology journals, Open access journals, All stub articles, Biology journal stubs). ...
The terms elastance and compliance are of particular significance in cardiovascular physiology and respiratory physiology. In ... "Handbook of Physiology" in 1963 in work entitled "Pulsatile Flow in the Vascular System". So, C = ΔV/ΔP. Arterial compliance is ... American Journal of Physiology. 278 (4): H1407. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.2000.278.4.H1407. PMID 10787279. Nestel, P. J.; Pomeroy, S ... Essentials of Human Physiology.[dead link] Gelman, Simon (2008). "Venous Function and Central Venous Pressure". Anesthesiology ...
The term gaze is frequently used in physiology to describe coordinated motion of the eyes and neck. The lateral gaze is ...
reflex, in biology, an action consisting of comparatively simple segments of behaviour that usually occur as direct and immediate responses to particular stimuli uniquely correlated with them. Many reflexes of placental mammals appear to be innate. They are hereditary and are a common feature of the species and often of the genus. Reflexes include not only such simple acts as chewing, swallowing, blinking, the knee jerk, and the scratch reflex, but also stepping, standing, and mating. Built up into complex patterns of many coordinated muscular actions, reflexes form the basis of much instinctive behaviour in animals. Humans also exhibit a
The talus is positioned above the calcaneus (heel bone). Source for information on Ankle Anatomy and Physiology: World of ... Ankle Anatomy and Physiology. The human ankle is the joint created at the point where the tibia (the shin bone) and the fibula ... ... ...
In tribute of Dr. Richard B. (Dick) Stein. June 14, 1940 - Nov 3, 2020. Dicks Family, Friends, and Colleagues invite you to a Tribute Service via zoom.. Saturday, December 5, 2020. 1:00 PM Mountain Time [12:00 PST; 3:00 PM EST]. Join us to remember and reflect on his remarkable life, his achievements, and his legacy.. After the planned speakers, we invite those who wish to share a short story of Dicks impact on your life. The ceremony will be recorded and shared for those who cannot join us live.. For your information, we have attached an overview of the tributes, obituaries and news reports that have been published in the last few weeks.. To honor Dick, we invite you to consider a donation in his memory to the Richard B Stein Neuroscience Graduate Student Fund.. Mail: Office of Memorial and Tribute Giving , 3-501, 10230 Jasper Ave NW , Edmonton AB T5J ...
Physiology, Neurotransmitters. Zachary M. Sheffler; Vamsi Reddy; Leela Sharath Pillarisetty.. Author Information and ... Physiology, Neurotransmitters. [Updated 2022 May 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; ...
... Here, There, Everywhere. Anatomy and Physiology. *Cardiovascular and Lymphatic ... The Complete Idiots Guide to Anatomy and Physiology. © 2004 by Michael J. Vieira Lazaroff. All rights reserved including the ...
Imperfect Physiology. Imperfect Physiology. Instant. The lingering effects of the curse of flesh interfere with the titans ...
... and staff in the department of Physiology at the Medical College of Wisconsin are dedicated to education, mentorship and a ...
Project Title: An investigation into the possible association between mitochondrial function and retinal microvascular geometric morphology in HIV-negative vs. HIV positive (on ART) in a Western Cape population​​ ...
Fourteen laureates were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2022, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind. Their work and discoveries range from paleogenomics and click chemistry to documenting war crimes ...
Dial 911 in the event of a medical emergency ...
... Cell. 2014 Mar 27;157(1):142-50. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.02.032. ...
Allison, S., Wallenstein, M. & Bradford, M. Soil-carbon response to warming dependent on microbial physiology. Nature Geosci 3 ... Soil-carbon response to warming dependent on microbial physiology. *Steven D. Allison. 1, ...
Feb. 9, 2023 - Dr. Christoph Grundner and Center for Global Infectious Disease Research colleagues discovered how nutrients cross the outer wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
What is the physiology of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)?. What are contraindications for the use of hyperbaric oxygen ... Hyperbaric Physics and Physiology. Physics of hyperbaric medicine. The physics behind hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) lies ... Hyperbaric physiology. Table 1 below summarizes the physiologic mechanisms of HBOT. Each of these is discussed in the context ... Brubakk A, Neuman T. Bennett and Elliotts Physiology and Medicine of Diving. 5th ed. Great Britain: Elsevier Science Limited; ...
Physiology. The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene (VHL) is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 3 (3p25.3) and encodes a ...
Explores all aspects of the physiology of animals living in aquatic ecosystems, from freshwater to marine. ... Explores all aspects of the physiology of animals living in aquatic ecosystems, from freshwater to marine. ...
Yunjeong Kim, associate professor of anatomy and physiology, will present the next Anatomy and Physiology Seminar at 4 p.m. ... Anatomy and Physiology Seminar April 26 features Yunjeong Kim. *IEEE Kansas Power and Energy Conference April 25-26, free ... Anatomy and Physiology Seminar April 26 features Yunjeong Kim. Submitted by Dan Galbraith ...
Physiology and Human Biology. LIFESCI XL 7C. This third course in the pre-medical life science sequence explains cells, organs ... Organization of cells into tissues and organs and principles of physiology of organ systems. Introduction to human genetics and ...
Nobel Physiology Medicine, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize Winners, Nobel Prizes, Peter Higgs, Randy Schekman, Thomas Sudhof ...
... This thematic series is published in Animal Biotelemetry. ... Novel development or application of sensors to study physiology, including initial studies in the laboratory. ...
Download Introduction to Exercise Physiology - Kit 2.2 for Mac View system requirements and release notes 11.20MB, released 9 ... Download Introduction to Exercise Physiology - system 2.2 for Mac View system requirements and release notes 10.20MB, released ... Download Introduction to Exercise Physiology - Kit 3 for Windows View system requirements and release notes 12.40MB, released 9 ... Download Introduction to Exercise Physiology - Kit 2.1 for Windows View system requirements and release notes 12.50MB, released ...
... the fundamentals of human body structure and function based on curriculum of 6-credits of post-secondary anatomy and physiology ... Interested in being notified about future offerings of Anatomy and Physiology Challenge Exam (BHSC 0020)? If so, fill out the ... Upon completion of exam, students will have Anatomy and Physiology entrance requirement for the Nursing program fulfilled. ... Electoneurophysiology and Prosthetics and Orthotics applicants that have taken a 6 credit Anatomy and Physiology course and ...
Articles focused on biological processes and physiology relevant for personal trainers and their clients. ... The Physiology of Fat Loss: Understanding the Hierarchy. Posted April 14th, 2022 by Ian Nimblett Fat loss training can be very ... The Physiology of Post-Exercise Recovery. Posted November 9th, 2021 by Shay Vasudeva Adequate post-exercise recovery is a key ... Home , NFPT Blog , Certified Personal Trainers , Exercise Science, Biology, and Research , Physiology , Page 2 ...
Choose from courses that include human physiology, membrane transport, intercellular communication, ion channels, and human ... Your study in the Master of Science in Physiology and Neuroscience program will give you a broad knowledge of physiology and ... Physiology and Neuroscience. Your study in the Master of Science in Physiology and Neuroscience program will give you a broad ... You will leave with a strong research-oriented background in one of several areas of physiology, biophysics, or neuroscience. ...
Advanced critical appraisal of research in applied exercise physiology.. This course may not be repeated for credit.. Hours. *Q ... KNES 717 - Seminar in Applied Exercise Physiology IV - Winter 2024. ...
Associate Professor of Pharmacology, Physiology & Biophysics. *Title Associate Professor of Pharmacology, Physiology & ... Department of Pharmacology, Physiology & Biophysics. Chobanian & Avedisian School of Medicine. 700 Albany Street. Boston MA ...
Kinesiology and Integrative Physiology at Michigan Tech offers a Masters degree in Kinesiology and an Accelarated Masters ... Integrative Physiology-PhD. Fascinated by health and human physiology and have a passion for fitness? Bring your interests ... Kinesiology and Integrative Physiology. Student Development Complex. 1400 Townsend Drive. Houghton, MI 49931 ... together with study in a doctorate of Integrative Physiology. This research-based degree is based on work in faculty labs ...
Are you an instructor? We have award-winning 3D products and resources for your anatomy and physiology course! Learn more here. ...
The Jacob-Henle Medal, introduced in 1988, recognizes high-impact scientific achievements in physiology and medicine. Kalluri ... Scientist Receives Top Award in Physiology and Medicine. MD Anderson News Release February 13, 2015 ...
Two American scientists have won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their discovery of receptors for temperature and ... Two American scientists have won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their discovery of receptors for temperature and ...
  • Yunjeong Kim, associate professor of anatomy and physiology, will present the next Anatomy and Physiology Seminar at 4 p.m. Tuesday, April 26, in the Mara Conference Center, 407 Trotter Hall. (
  • Exam addresses topics related to the fundamentals of human body structure and function based on curriculum of 6-credits of post-secondary anatomy and physiology course (s). (
  • Exam is designed for Bachelor of Science Nursing, Cardiovascular Perfusion, Electoneurophysiology and Prosthetics and Orthotics applicants that have taken a 6 credit Anatomy and Physiology course and received a minimum C+ (67%) but do not meet the three (3) year recency requirement. (
  • a knowledge of the anatomy, physiology and pathologies involving the OMN is of fundamental importance. (
  • Figure modified with permission from: Guyton AC, Hall JE: Textbook of Medical Physiology (2006) Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia. (
  • Advanced critical appraisal of research in applied exercise physiology. (
  • For those interested in learning about the molecular physiology of nicotinic receptors, the subject is discussed as optional reading below. (
  • This third course in the pre-medical life science sequence explains cells, organs, and the physiology of organ systems. (
  • Organization of cells into tissues and organs and principles of physiology of organ systems. (
  • The Jacob-Henle Medal, introduced in 1988, recognizes high-impact scientific achievements in physiology and medicine. (
  • Fascinated by health and human physiology and have a passion for fitness? (
  • Novel development or application of sensors to study physiology, including initial studies in the laboratory. (
  • Bring your interests together with study in a doctorate of Integrative Physiology . (
  • She heads the Reproductive Physiology and Pathophysiology Group and holds a secondary appointment in NIEHS Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory . (
  • The Reproductive Physiology and Pathophysiology Group studies the mechanisms involved in the integrated control of the reproductive system in women and its disruption in reproductive disorders. (
  • In addition, it may result in pre-term births and preclampsia in women and interfere with normal reproductive physiology in both men and women. (
  • The Section on Sensory Physiology and Biophysics focuses on the relationship between the mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channel complex and sensory inner ear hair cell physiology. (
  • The Aging Physiology Branch focuses on age-related changes affecting tissue and organ function. (
  • The Muscle Development and Physiology Program research portfolio focuses on development, growth, and maintenance of skeletal muscle tissue. (
  • Our experiments are performed on several unique genetically modified mouse lines that display altered photoresponses and signaling properties, as well as other species whose variations in retinal anatomy and physiology can further inform these questions. (
  • A major theme for the Aging Physiology Branch is inter-organ communication which is a topic connecting all programs in this branch. (
  • The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to National Institutes of Health grantees Bruce A. Beutler, M.D., of The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, Calif. (
  • The focus of the integrative physiology program is the understanding of the regulatory network in the heart that controls the flow of energy. (