Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Mice, Inbred C57BLNitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Mechanism. Further information: Biology of bipolar disorder. Physiological. Brain imaging studies have revealed differences in ... The causes of bipolar disorder likely vary between individuals and the exact mechanism underlying the disorder remains unclear. ... Unlike mania, hypomania is not always associated with impaired functioning.[15] The biological mechanisms responsible for ... Overall functioning may actually increase during episodes of hypomania and is thought to serve as a defense mechanism against ...
Physiological and developmental mechanisms[edit]. An understanding of the physiological causes and consequences of the eusocial ... Pheromones are thought to play an important role in the physiological mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of ... Similar mechanisms are used for the eusocial wasp species Vespula vulgaris. In order for a Vespula vulgaris queen to dominate ... This mechanism of sex determination gives rise to what W. D. Hamilton first termed "supersisters" which are more related to ...
Physiological mechanisms[edit]. The muscle has "tension producing tissue comprising small contractile units referred to as ... n.d.). "When active muscles lengthen: Properties and consequences of eccentric contractions". News in Physiological Sciences. ... Eccentric movement provides a braking mechanism for muscle and tendon groups that are experiencing concentric movement to ... "The physiological cost of negative work". Physiology. 117 (3): 380-390. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1952.sp004755. PMC 1392548. PMID ...
Riggs, D.S. (1970). Control theory and physiological feedback mechanisms. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.. ... In acid-base homeostasis there are two mechanisms that can help regulate the pH. Respiratory compensation a mechanism of the ... and equilibrium is maintained by many regulatory mechanisms. All homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three ... The two homeostatic mechanisms working through PTH on the one hand, and calcitonin on the other can very rapidly correct any ...
Here too, he began with a brilliant discovery: the demonstration of a time-compensated sun-compass mechanism of orientation in ... doi:10.1007/s10739-015-9401-z. Pardi, L. (1948). "Dominance order in Polistes wasps". Physiological Zoology. 21 (1): 1-13. ... Pardi and his co-workers investigated several mechanisms of orientation in littoral animals and the innate and learned ... Pardi, L.; Ercolini, A. (1986). "Zonal recovery mechanisms in talitrid crustaceans". Italian Journal of Zoology. 53 (2): 139- ...
"Mechanisms of estrogen action". Physiological Reviews. 81 (4): 1535-65. PMID 11581496. Leung YK, Mak P, Hassan S, Ho SM (Aug ... and the available evidence suggests that both mechanisms contribute: First, binding of estrogen to the ER stimulates ...
Argetsinger, L. S.; Carter-Su, C. (1996-10-01). "Mechanism of signaling by growth hormone receptor". Physiological Reviews. 76 ... Physiological Flexibility by Molecular Specificity". Physiological Reviews. 82 (4): 923-944. doi:10.1152/physrev.00014.2002. ... This is the mechanism through which receptors can induce regulation of gene expression depending on both the extracellular ... "Mechanism of Action: Hormones with Intracellular Receptors". www.vivo.colostate.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-06. "Molecular Biology ...
Murray, M. J.; Murray, A. B. (1979). "Anorexia of infection as a mechanism of host defense". The American Journal of Clinical ... Weinberg, E. D. (1984). "Iron withholding: A defense against infection and neoplasia". Physiological Reviews. 64 (1): 65-102. ... Konsman, JP; Parnet, P; Dantzer, R (March 2002). "Cytokine-induced sickness behaviour: mechanisms and implications". Trends in ... murine IL-1 alpha and murine IL-1 beta are transported from blood to brain in the mouse by a shared saturable mechanism". The ...
Physiological Reviews. 81 (2): 807-69. PMID 11274345. Cuadrado A, Nebreda AR (Aug 2010). "Mechanisms and functions of p38 MAPK ... Gong X, Ming X, Deng P, Jiang Y (Aug 2010). "Mechanisms regulating the nuclear translocation of p38 MAP kinase". Journal of ... Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of p38α MAPK not only revealed its biological significance in physiological function but ... "Diverse mechanisms of myocardial p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation: evidence for MKK-independent activation by a ...
Murer H, Hernando N, Forster I, Biber J (Oct 2000). "Proximal tubular phosphate reabsorption: molecular mechanisms". ... Physiological Reviews. 80 (4): 1373-409. PMID 11015617. Fenollar-Ferrer C, Forster IC, Patti M, Knoepfel T, Werner A, Forrest ...
Yet the molecular mechanisms underlying this protection are largely unknown. Bacteria can help the host to fight against ... Rev". Physiological Reviews. 90 (3): 859 -904. doi:10.1152/physrev.00045.2009. PMID 20664075. Stecher B, Hardt WD (2011). " ... All these defence mechanisms do not work independently, but jointly to ensure an optimal defence response against pathogens. ... Although some of the genes are known to be important for C. elegans lifespan extension, the precise underlying mechanisms still ...
Aguilar, H. N.; Mitchell, S.; Knoll, A. H.; Yuan, X. (2010). "Physiological pathways and molecular mechanisms regulating ...
The structure and mechanism of action of AChE have been elucidated from the crystal structure of the enzyme. The anionic ... Trends in Physiological Sciences. 11 (1): 8-13. doi:10.1016/0165-6147(90)90034-6. PMID 2408211. Purves D, Augustine GJ, ... Fersht A (1985). Enzyme structure and mechanism. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. p. 14. ISBN 0-7167-1614-3. Whittaker VP (1990). " ... Tougu V (2001). "Acetylcholinesterase: Mechanism of Catalysis and Inhibition" (PDF). Current Medicinal Chemistry Central ...
Biochemical adaptation: mechanisms and process in physiological evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. 466 p. Somero, G. ... He is the co-author, with George Somero, of Biochemical Adaptation: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution. Highly ... His work included studies of enzyme adaptation to temperature and pressure, the mechanisms underlying tolerance to low oxygen ... Comparative physiology Evolutionary physiology "Peter W. Hochachka". The American Physiological Society. Hochachka, P.W. & G.N ...
... and after they have been released may be recycled by one of three proposed mechanism. The first proposed mechanism involves ... Physiological Reviews. 83 (3): 1017-1066. doi:10.1152/physrev.00004.2003. ISSN 0031-9333. PMID 12843414. Holden, Arun; Winlow, ... However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this interaction. ... Acting as a retrograde messenger, ... Synaptic signaling mechanisms in cannabinoid and orexin systems • Figure 3: Schematic of brain pathways involved in food intake ...
Plants have specialized mechanisms for transporting mRNAs through plasmodesmata, and these mechanisms are thought to be used by ... Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology. 62: 56. Kanyuka, Konstantin; Ward, Elaine; Adams, Michael J. (2003). "Polymyxa ... Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ... 5] Little is known about the mechanisms involved in the transmission of plant viruses via seeds, although it is known that it ...
Ying and Li-Byarlay (2015). "Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Nutrition in Honey Bees". Advances in Insect Physiology ... Repair mechanisms then correct it back to the original C:G pair; alternatively, they may substitute G for A, turning the ... The near-universal replacement of uracil by thymine in DNA, but not RNA, may have evolved as an error-control mechanism, to ... One proposed mechanism behind this global hypomethylation is elevated homocysteine levels causing hyperhomocysteinemia, a known ...
These mechanisms always exist, but may change depending on the conditions of the cell soma, axon, and dendrites at the time. ... Corner, M.A.; Ramakers, G.J.A. (1992). "Spontaneous firing as an epigenetic factor in brain development - physiological ... The negative feedback mechanisms work to protect against saturation or suppression of the circuit activity as a whole. Axonal ... Without a homeostatic mechanism, this would result in downstream saturation and all information would be lost. If a neuron ...
Molecular mechanisms and physiological significance". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (43): 44417-26. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Allum JHJ, Dietz V, Freund HJ; Dietz; Freund (1978). "Neuronal mechanisms underlying physiological tremor". J Neurophysiol. 41 ... 2014). "Exploring mechanisms of spontaneous functional connectivity in MEG: How delayed network interactions lead to structured ... Simulations have shown that ongoing wave activity in cortex can elicit steady muscle force with physiological levels of EEG-EMG ... Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within individual neurons or by ...
II: Physiological Mechanisms of Modulation. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 1047-3211. Arruda, J.E., Amoss, R.T., Kizer, L.D., & Coburn, K ... This has been interpreted as suggesting that the left hemisphere in particular uses top-down attentional mechanisms to prepare ... Thus, the P2 may index mechanisms for selective attention, feature detection (including color, orientation, shape, etc.) and ... 2009, Auditory training alters the physiological detection of stimulus-specific cues in humans. Clinical Neurophysiology. ...
McNeilly, As (Feb 1994). "Physiological mechanisms underlying lactational amenorrhea". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 709: 145-155. doi: ... The mechanism of suckling-induced disruption of GnRH release remains unknown. Return of menstruation following childbirth ...
a b Nilsson H, Aalkjaer C. Vasomotion: mechanisms and physiological importance. Molecular Interventions. 2003; 3: 79-89. ... the complete mechanisms responsible for its generation and its physiological importance remain to be elucidated, however ... Mechanism[edit]. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration exhibits periodic oscillations in vascular smooth muscle cells. ... The "classic" mechanism of vasomotion generation is thought to be the voltage-dependent coupled model.[4] In this model, high ...
Biochemical adaptation - mechanism and process in physiological evolution. Oxford University Press. 478 pp. Mangum, C. P., and ... New directions in comparative physiology and biochemistry: mechanisms, adaptations, and evolution. Physiological Zoology 71:471 ... 2. The use of physiological information to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of organisms. In principle physiological ... Eckert animal physiology: mechanisms and adaptations. 5th ed. W. H. Freeman and Co., New York. 736 pp. + glossary, appendices, ...
Small interruptions in the endothelium are handled by physiological mechanisms; large interruptions by the trauma surgeon. [28] ... Classically it was thought that this was the only mechanism involved in aggregation, but three new mechanisms have been ... Furie B, Furie BC (August 2008). "Mechanisms of thrombus formation". The New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (9): 938-49. doi: ... This process is similar to the mechanism of contraction in a muscle cell.[21]. The entire OCS thus becomes indistinguishable ...
There are many physiological mechanisms that control starting and stopping a meal. The control of food intake is a ... Some physiological carnivores consume plant matter and some physiological herbivores consume meat. From a behavioral aspect, ... Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects. Springer-Verlag. pp. 95-113. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02421-4. ISBN 978-3-642- ... this would make them omnivores, but from the physiological standpoint, this may be due to zoopharmacognosy. Physiologically, ...
LINDAHL, P., ÖBERG, K. Mechanism of the Physiological Action of Rotenone. Nature 187, 784 (1960) doi:10.1038/187784a0 ... Modulatory profiling identifies mechanisms of small molecule-induced cell death *A. J. Wolpaw ...
The main molecular mechanisms and gene/protein players are summarized in the Table 1, and some of them are represented in Fig. ... Main molecular mechanisms involved in the response of bifodobacteria to different stresses. a Bile is detoxified from the ... The mechanisms most extensively studied in response to technological stress of bifidobacteria are those related to heat, oxygen ... Kurdi P, Tanaka H, Van Veen HW, Asano K, Tomita F, Yokota A (2006) Mechanisms of growth inhibition by free bile acids in ...
Mechanisms underlying pace-of-life. The mechanisms underlying evolutionary costs of reproduction form the basis of pace-of-life ... Evolution of sex-specific pace-of-life syndromes: genetic architecture and physiological mechanisms. ... Jones G (1995) Molecular mechanisms of action of juvenile hormone. Annu Rev Entomol 40:147-169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Here, we outline mechanisms for how males and females can evolve differences in POLS traits and in how such traits can covary ...
Sex differences in exertional dyspnea in patients with mild COPD: physiological mechanisms.. Guenette JA1, Jensen D, Webb KA, ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological basis for sex-differences in exercise-induced dyspnea in patients ...
... Nosratollah Hedayatpour ... However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and ...
... Nosratollah Hedayatpour ... B. J. Schoenfeld, "The mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and their application to resistance training," Journal of Strength & ... P. Aagaard, J. L. Andersen, P. Dyhre-Poulsen et al., "A mechanism for increased contractile strength of human pennate muscle in ... a mechanism that underpins knee pain after eccentric exercise?" British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 429-434 ...
Over the last years, yeast genetic screens have considerably increased our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of ... Autophagy is a degradative mechanism mainly involved in the recycling and turnover of cytoplasmic constituents from eukaryotic ... Autophagy: molecular mechanisms, physiological functions and relevance in human pathology Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004 Jun;61(12): ... The physiological and pathological roles of autophagy, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying this multifunctional ...
... J Innate Immun. 2013;5(5):427-33. doi: 10.1159/000351979. Epub 2013 ... Here, we provide a brief overview of the mechanism of autophagy and some of the physiological roles in which this process is ... Thus, autophagy is in part a mechanism for cellular recycling, but such a definition belies the importance of the different ...
The molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences of oxidative stress: lessons from a model bacterium.. Imlay JA1. ... The molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences of oxidative stress: lessons from a model bacterium ... The molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences of oxidative stress: lessons from a model bacterium ... The molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences of oxidative stress: lessons from a model bacterium ...
Conformational Coupling: A Physiological Calcium Entry Mechanism Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... At physiological agonist concentrations, the earliest Ca2+ response to receptor activation may be the stimulation of entry, ... may occur through a conformation coupling mechanism. IP3 receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum located in a junctional zone ... in the vicinity of the junctional zone to induce a localized depletion of the ER store to switch on a store-operated mechanism ...
Evolution of sex-specific pace-of-life syndromes: genetic architecture and physiological mechanisms. Immonen, Elina Uppsala ... Here, we outline mechanisms for how males and females can evolve differences in POLS traits and in how such traits can covary ... Pleiotropic effects may govern many of the genetic correlations, but little is still known about the mechanisms involved in ...
The purpose of this paper is to review the physiological mechanisms determining eccrine sweat composition to assess the utility ... Ion membrane transport mechanisms for sodium and chloride are well established, but the mechanisms of secretion and/or ... Final sweat composition is not only influenced by extracellular solute concentrations, but also mechanisms of secretion and/or ... Sweat metabolite concentrations are not a reliable biomarker for exercise intensity or other physiological stressors. To date, ...
The physiological and biochemical responses to heat stress are active research areas, and the molecular approaches are being ... Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. In addition, major ... and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. HT-induced gene expression and metabolite synthesis also ... tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in ...
Purpose This study aimed to examine the relationship between a large set of hypothesized physiological measures of vocal effort ... A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated ... The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral ... The Relationship Between Physiological Mechanisms and the Self-Perception of Vocal Effort.. 08:00 EDT 10th April 2019 , ...
The three major areas of physiological mechanisms. initiated and enhanced by Qi Gong and Yoga/Pranayama. practice are: ... Physiological Mechanisms Operating in the Human System During the Practice of Qigong and Yoga/Pranayama. Roger Jahnke OMD4 min ... spectrum of physiological and bio-energetic events are. triggered by Qi Gong and Yoga and that these mechanisms can. be ... physiological mechanisms activated by the practice of these. simple, self applied health enhancement techniques of China. and ...
Physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.. Authors. *. H. Ueda. ... These findings are discussed in relation to the physiological mechanisms of imprinting and homing migration in anadromous and ... Matthew L. Keefer, Christopher C. Caudill, Homing and straying by anadromous salmonids: a review of mechanisms and rates, ... Hiroshi Ueda, The current propagation systems and physiological studies of Japanese chum salmon, Fisheries Science, 2015, 81, 2 ...
Genetic Evidence of Distinct Physiological Regulation Mechanisms in the ς54 Pu Promoter ofPseudomonas putida Ildefonso Cases, ... Two or more independent mechanisms mediate the physiological control of Pu activity.Two observations reported in this work show ... Genetic Evidence of Distinct Physiological Regulation Mechanisms in the ς54 Pu Promoter ofPseudomonas putida ... Genetic Evidence of Distinct Physiological Regulation Mechanisms in the ς54 Pu Promoter ofPseudomonas putida ...
Psychosocial and Physiological Mechanisms in the Effect of Hormonal Contraception on the Female Sexual Desire. The safety and ...
These studies provide insights into the mechanism of molecular regulation of leaf colour variation in YL mutants. ... indicating a good correlation between differentially accumulated proteins and physiological changes in leaves. The ... Comparative Proteomic and Physiological Analysis Reveals the Variation Mechanisms of Leaf Coloration and Carbon Fixation in a ... "Comparative Proteomic and Physiological Analysis Reveals the Variation Mechanisms of Leaf Coloration and Carbon Fixation in a ...
Physiology of invasion: cane toads are constrained by thermal effects on physiological mechanisms that support locomotor ... Physiology of invasion: cane toads are constrained by thermal effects on physiological mechanisms that support locomotor ... Physiology of invasion: cane toads are constrained by thermal effects on physiological mechanisms that support locomotor ... Physiology of invasion: cane toads are constrained by thermal effects on physiological mechanisms that support locomotor ...
Sensory and Physiological Ecology of Plants. Decoding the acquisition and use of information by wild and cultivated plant ... Acclimation of stomatal responses to light: environmental cues, strategies and mechanisms. People. *Pedro J. Aphalo, PhD, ... The aim of this project is to describe the environmental variables involved and the mechanisms behind the acclimation of ... especially for a detailed description of the mechanism of acclimation. ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Disease Models & Mechanisms Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the ... Disease Models & Mechanisms 2019 12: dmm037424 doi: 10.1242/dmm.037424 Published 2 January 2019 ... Disease Models & Mechanisms 2019 12: dmm037424 doi: 10.1242/dmm.037424 Published 2 January 2019 ... Disease Models & Mechanisms 2019 12: dmm037424 doi: 10.1242/dmm.037424 Published 2 January 2019 ...
A Physiological and Behavioral Mechanism for Leaf Herbivore-Induced Systemic Root Resistance. Matthias Erb, Christelle A.M. ... Our study provides a physiological mechanism for a behavioral pattern that explains the negative effect of leaf attack on a ... A Physiological and Behavioral Mechanism for Leaf Herbivore-Induced Systemic Root Resistance ... A Physiological and Behavioral Mechanism for Leaf Herbivore-Induced Systemic Root Resistance ...
Additional work has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms by which early adversity becomes ... Biological embedding of childhood adversity: from physiological mechanisms to clinical implications. *Anne E. Berens1,2,3. , ... Berens, A.E., Jensen, S.K.G. & Nelson, C.A. Biological embedding of childhood adversity: from physiological mechanisms to ... of effects and on physiological mechanisms, and prioritize studies using prospective, longitudinal designs. ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Disease Models & Mechanisms Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the ... A2E induces physiological retinal damage. Average b-wave (A) and a-wave (B) amplitudes in response to flashes of light of ... Although biochemical mechanisms by which vitamin A dimers, such as A2E, might induce retinal toxicity have been proposed ( ... 2002). Involvement of oxidative mechanisms in blue-light-induced damage to A2E-laden RPE. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, ...
  • The Developmental Oncogene Laboratory seeks to characterize the molecular mechanisms and normal or oncogenic functions of genes that play important roles during development but also contribute to cancer in the adult. (csun.edu)
  • Elucidating the mechanisms that drive seals' tolerance to hypoxemia/ischemia and insulin resistance could not only increase our knowledge of the fascinating adaptations evolved by these animals but have translatable value for the current understanding and treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory pathologies in humans. (stanford.edu)
  • Nielsen, H. D., Brownlee, C., Coelho, S. M. and Brown, M. T. (2003), Inter-population differences in inherited copper tolerance involve photosynthetic adaptation and exclusion mechanisms in Fucus serratus . (wiley.com)
  • In other words, are growth phase control and nutrient control different aspects of the same regulatory mechanism, or are there distinct physiological controls? (asm.org)
  • The thermoTRPs, a subset of transient receptor potential ion channels are activated by distinct physiological temperatures, and are involved in converting thermal information into chemical and electrical signals within the sensory nervous system. (nature.com)
  • However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. (hindawi.com)
  • Stress may be thought of as a ) a physiological response to an external stimulus, or b ) a psychological response to external stimuli, or c ) stressful events themselves, which can be negative or positive or both. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Three different research approaches from behavioural to molecular biological studies have been used to elucidate the physiological mechanisms underpinning salmonid imprinting and homing migration. (wiley.com)
  • In addition, physiological indicators including reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were measured at 0-21 dpi, and hormone expression [Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA)] was estimated at 0 and 16 dpi to elucidate the mechanism of the Cf-10 -mediated resistance response. (springer.com)
  • Such findings support life-course models of human health describing how early physiological development interacts over time with behavior and ongoing risk environments to shape outcomes holistically [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This article discusses (1) principal behavioral characteristics of filial imprinting and related predispositions, (2) theoretical models that have been developed to account for this behavior, and (3) physiological results elucidating the underlying neural mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, physiological data pertaining to mechanisms underlying the behavior are discussed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such data may be used to test the models which, if validated, have the potential to be an explanatory link between the behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this article, the authors review some of this evidence and consider ways in which stress might affect diabetes, both through physiological mechanisms and via behavior. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A promising system to study the mechanisms and agroecological consequences of plant-mediated interactions between herbivores is maize ( Zea mays ) and its associated pests. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The Symbiosis, Defense and Self-recognition Program (SDS) supports research on processes mediating both antagonistic and beneficial symbiotic interactions, as well as mechanisms of self/non-self recognition, within and between animals, fungi, protists (including photosynthetic protists), prokaryotes, and viruses. (nsf.gov)
  • All aspects of symbiosis among and between non-plant organisms are supported, including commensalism, mutualism, parasitism, host-pathogen interactions, and mechanisms of foreign organelle acquisition. (nsf.gov)
  • This book provides a modern, synthetic overview of interactions between insects and their environments from a physiological perspective that integrates information across a range of approaches and scales. (oup.com)
  • Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and protein metabolism were greatly enriched, indicating a good correlation between differentially accumulated proteins and physiological changes in leaves. (mdpi.com)
  • The Physiological Mechanisms and Biomechanics Program (PMB) supports research on the physiological mechanisms and structural features of organisms. (nsf.gov)
  • The Integrative Ecological Physiology Program (IEP) supports research on the structural and physiological traits of organisms that underlie their capacities to live in various ecological settings. (nsf.gov)
  • This volume offers a comprehensive history of the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory (MDIBL), one of the major marine laboratories in the United States and a leader in using marine organisms to study fundamental physiological concepts. (the-aps.org)
  • Some of these mechanisms resemble those employed for motility in other organisms, while others have features that represent unique adaptations to the demands imposed on a particular parasite. (asm.org)
  • Pleiotropic effects may govern many of the genetic correlations, but little is still known about the mechanisms involved in trade-offs between current and future reproduction and their integration with behavioral variation. (springer.com)
  • Our study provides a physiological mechanism for a behavioral pattern that explains the negative effect of leaf attack on a root-feeding insect. (plantphysiol.org)
  • While physiologists usually remained concerned with analysis of the internal mechanisms that ensured constancy, it was obvious that in many, if not all, instances the complete story would involve the behavioral capabilities of the animal. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pardi and his co-workers investigated several mechanisms of orientation in littoral animals and the innate and learned behavioral components of such orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review, the molecular mechanisms allowing this bacterial group to favourably react to the presence of different stress sources are presented and discussed. (springer.com)
  • Diisocyanates are very reactive compounds that can undergo nonenzymatic hydrolysis to form methylenedianiline (MDA), or react under physiological conditions with primary amines to form ureas and/or with thiols to form labile thiol acid esters. (cdc.gov)
  • Diisocyanates are reactive compounds, MDI can react under physiological conditions with various functional groups found on biological molecules resulting in conjugate formation or undergo non-enzymatic hydrolysis to form 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA). (cdc.gov)
  • IP 3 may act directly to stimulate this coupling complex or IP 3 could act indirectly by stimulating uncoupled IP 3 Rs in the vicinity of the junctional zone to induce a localized depletion of the ER store to switch on a store-operated mechanism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Presynaptic glutamate receptors: physiological functions and mechanisms of action. (mendeley.com)
  • Furthermore, we discuss the physiological conditions that are necessary for their activation, the source of the glutamate that activates them, their mechanisms of action and their involvement in higher brain function. (mendeley.com)
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  • Osmoregulation substance could be classified two categories according to mechanism of action: One is inorganicions adjusting osmotic potential of vacuole, such as K + , Na + etc., the other is organic matter adjusting osmotic potential of cytoplasm, such as proline, betaine etc. . (scirp.org)
  • Renin-angiotensin system: biochemistry and mechanisms of action. (physiology.org)
  • Microbial pathogens employ a variety of mechanisms for cell locomotion, including passive movement within their host's circulation, cooptation of host cytoskeletal and membrane transport pathways, and active self-propulsion through the action of flagellar, amoeboid, or gliding motility. (asm.org)
  • This project aims to use sensors to monitor physiological signals, sleep patterns, vocal characteristics, activity, location and phone usage in study patients with depression who are recei. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This project is investigating the patterns and mechanisms of insecticide resistance within and between the major dengue hotspots in Saudi Arabia. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Final sweat composition is not only influenced by extracellular solute concentrations, but also mechanisms of secretion and/or reabsorption, sweat flow rate, byproducts of sweat gland metabolism, skin surface contamination, and sebum secretions, among other factors related to methodology. (gssiweb.org)
  • In most vertebrate species, the capacity for invasion relies upon the physiological systems that support locomotion, and oxygen transport and metabolism may become limiting as environmental temperatures increase as predicted by the oxygen limitation hypothesis. (biologists.org)
  • Similar physiological control phenomena have been described for Po , a different, yet related, ς 54 promoter which drives the expression of an operon for degradation of phenol and m -cresol in Pseudomonas sp. (asm.org)
  • However, most reported textile electronics can either periodically target a single physiological signal or miss the explicit details of the signals, leading to a partial health assessment. (sciencemag.org)
  • Actual research on Qigong and Yoga in the western world is in its infancy although some work has been done on the physiological parameters that may be influenced by voluntary control of the body's self regulating systems. (healthy.net)
  • Physiological parameters, neurological score, and infarct volume were assessed at 24 and 72 hours in 3 groups of animals: sham-operated (n=18), MCAO treated with vehicle (n=26), and MCAO treated with PC-SOD (n=37). (ahajournals.org)