Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mice, Inbred C57BLRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nerve Tissue ProteinsGene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.PrPC Proteins: Normal cellular isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) encoded by a chromosomal gene and found in normal and scrapie-infected brain tissue, and other normal tissue. PrPC are protease-sensitive proteins whose function is unknown. Posttranslational modification of PrPC into PrPSC leads to infectivity.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Embryo Loss: Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.GTP-Binding Protein Regulators: Proteins that regulate the signaling activity of GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They are divided into three categories depending upon whether they stimulate GTPase activity (GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS), inhibit release of GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE DISSOCIATION INHIBITORS); or exchange GTP for GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS).Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Galanin: A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases: Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Synucleins: A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Receptors, Melatonin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Synechocystis: A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Physiological role (function)[edit]. Effects[edit]. Bradykinin is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, leading to a drop ... "The discovery of bradykinin has led to a new understanding of many physiological and pathological phenomena including ...
"Gene regulation and physiological function of placental leucine aminopeptidase/oxytocinase during pregnancy". Biochimica et ... Physiological[edit]. The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly reflect secretion from the pituitary gland. The behavioral ... Biological function[edit]. Oxytocin has peripheral (hormonal) actions, and also has actions in the brain. Its actions are ... Molecular function. • oxytocin receptor binding. • hormone activity. • neurohypophyseal hormone activity. • neuropeptide ...
Physiological function[edit]. The principal function of glycine is as a precursor to proteins. Most proteins incorporate only ... Glycine functions as a bidentate ligand for many metal ions. A typical complex is Cu(glycinate)2, i.e. Cu(H2NCH2CO2)2, which ...
Physiological function[edit]. Until the late 1970s, hyaluronic acid was described as a "goo" molecule, a ubiquitous ... A variety of cell functions that are essential for tissue repair may attribute to this HA-rich network. These functions include ... Epidermal HA also functions as a manipulator in the process of keratinocyte proliferation, which is essential in normal ... Fraser JR, Laurent TC, Laurent UB (1997). "Hyaluronan: its nature, distribution, functions and turnover". J. Intern. Med. 242 ( ...
Narumiya S, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F (1999). "Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions". Physiological Reviews ... which when activated phosphorylate and thereby influence the activity of key proteins that govern cell function.[2] ...
Physiological factors[edit]. Leptin, a hormone secreted exclusively by adipose cells in response to an increase in body fat ... The functions of leptin are to:. *Suppress the release of neuropeptide Y (NPY), which in turn prevents the release of appetite ... Hunger represents the physiological need to eat food. Satiety is the absence of hunger; it is the sensation of feeling full.[1] ...
Becker BF (June 1993). "Towards the physiological function of uric acid". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 14 (6): 615-31. doi: ... Arnér ES, Holmgren A (October 2000). "Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase". European Journal of ... "Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease". The International Journal of Biochemistry ... reactive oxygen species also have useful cellular functions, such as redox signaling. Thus, the function of antioxidant systems ...
Narumiya S, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F (1999). "Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions". Physiological Reviews ... EP receptor functions can vary with species and most of the functional studies cited here have not translated their animal and ... However, an EP3 receptor function found in these studies does not necessarily indicate that in does do in humans. For example, ... These two prostanoid receptors also stimulate intestinal mucous secretion, a function which may also act to reduce acidic ...
Bremer, J. (1 October 1983). "Carnitine - metabolism and functions". Physiological Reviews. 63 (4): 1420-1480. ISSN 0031-9333. ... Bremer, J (1983). "Carnitine-Metabolism and Functions". Physiol. Rev. 63 (4): 1420-1480. PMID 6361812. Retrieved 22 January ... "Translating the Basic Knowledge of Mitochondrial Functions to Metabolic Therapy: Role of L-Carnitine". Translational Research. ...
Narumiya S, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F (October 1999). "Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions". Physiological ... Studies with human cells indicate that EP1 serves a similar function on T cells. 6) It may reduce expression of Sodium-glucose ... metabolically resistant EP1-selective activators are useful for the study of EP1's function and could be clinically useful for ... Animal model studies have implicated EP1 in various physiological and pathological responses. However, key differences in the ...
Wright, J R (October 1997). "Immunomodulatory functions of surfactant". Physiological Reviews. 77 (4): 931-962. ISSN 0031-9333 ... Other functions of collectins are modulation of inflammatory, allergic responses, adaptive immune system and clearance of ... SP-A and SP-D has s function as chemoattractants for alveolar neutrophils and monocytes. MBL can recognize peptidoglykan via N- ... Kuhlman, M; K Joiner; R A Ezekowitz (1989-05-01). "The human mannose-binding protein functions as an opsonin". The Journal of ...
Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of p38α MAPK not only revealed its biological significance in physiological function but ... Physiological Reviews. 81 (2): 807-69. PMID 11274345. Cuadrado A, Nebreda AR (Aug 2010). "Mechanisms and functions of p38 MAPK ... p38α MAPK is implicated in diverse cellular function, from gene expression to programmed cell death through a network of ... Masuda K, Shima H, Watanabe M, Kikuchi K (Oct 2001). "MKP-7, a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as ...
Narumiya S, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F (October 1999). "Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions". Physiological ... EP2, by failing to become desensitized, is able to function over prolong periods and later time points than other prostaglandin ... Studies suggest that this impaired fertilization reflects the loss of EP2 functions in stimulating cumulus cells clusters which ... Doucette LP, Walter MA (2016). "Prostaglandins in the eye: Function, expression, and roles in glaucoma". Ophthalmic Genetics. ...
This actions is also considered a physiological function of IP receptors, but can contribute to the toxicity of IP activators ... Narumiya S, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F (October 1999). "Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions". Physiological ... are powerful and physiological negative regulators of platelet function and thereby blood clotting in humans. Studies suggest ... While possessing many functions as defined in animal model studies, the major clinical relevancy of IP is as a powerful ...
Narumiya S, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F (October 1999). "Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions". Physiological ... However, an EP4 receptor function found in these studies does not necessarily indicate that in does so in humans since EP ... EP4 thus appears to serve anti-inflammatory and protective functions in the colon and agonists of this receptor may be useful ... The G allele at the -1254 position leads to lower PTGER4 gene promoter function, lower levels of EP4, and presumably thereby ...
... movement integrity and/or physiological function are altered, although contact between joint surfaces remains intact. It is ... altered physiological function; reversible with adjustment/manipulation; focal tenderness. Investigation by chiropractors ... It seems we somehow step on toes when we describe the spine as a functioning entity instead of a stack of bones that can be ... I adjust one and return his functions to normal... . There is no contagious disease... . There is no infection... . There is a ...
Thus, tensin functions as a platform for assembly and disassembly of signaling complexes at focal adhesions by recruiting ... Physiological Reviews. 88 (2): 489-513. doi:10.1152/physrev.00021.2007. PMID 18391171. Haynie, Donald T. (2014). "Molecular ... Haynie, by contrast, argues in a review of tensin structure and function that experimental evidence for the specific ... Analysis of knockout mice has demonstrated critical roles of tensin in renal function, muscle regeneration, and cell migration ...
Becker, B (1993). «Towards the physiological function of uric acid». Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 14 (6): 615-31. PMID ... Arnér E, Holmgren A (2000). «Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase». Eur J Biochem. 267 (20): 6102-9 ... Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease». The International Journal of Biochemistry ... Carr A, Frei B (1999). «Does vitamin C act as a pro-oxidant under physiological conditions?». FASEB J. 13 (9): 1007-24. PMID ...
Wu, L; Wang, R (December 2005). "Carbon Monoxide: Endogenous Production, Physiological Functions, and Pharmacological ... CO functions as an endogenous signaling molecule, modulates functions of the cardiovascular system, inhibits blood platelet ... Biological and physiological properties[edit]. Toxicity[edit]. Main article: Carbon monoxide poisoning ... Thus, carbon monoxide may have a physiological role in the body, such as a neurotransmitter or a blood vessel relaxant.[35] ...
Thody, A. J.; Shuster, S. (1989). "Control and Function of Sebaceous Glands". Physiological Reviews. 69 (2): 383-416. doi: ... Immune function and nutrition[edit]. Sebaceous glands are part of the body's integumentary system and serve to protect the body ... Function[edit]. Relative to keratinocytes that make up the hair follicle, sebaceous glands are composed of huge cells with many ... Zouboulis CC (2004). "Acne and Sebaceous Gland Function". Clinics in Dermatology. 22 (5): 360-366. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol. ...
"Cardiac T-Tubule Microanatomy and Function". Physiological Reviews. 97 (1): 227-252. doi:10.1152/physrev.00037.2015. ISSN 0031 ... Function[edit]. Excitation-contraction coupling[edit]. See also: Excitation-contraction coupling. T-tubules are an important ... In order to study T-tubule function, T-tubules can be artificially uncoupled from the surface membrane using a technique known ... "The structure and function of cardiac t-tubules in health and disease". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological ...
Verkhratsky, A; Orkand, RK; Kettenmann, H (January 1998). "Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function". Physiological ... More recently, the function of astrocytes has been reconsidered, and they are now thought to play a number of active roles in ... The function and availability of EAAT2 is modulated by TAAR1, an intracellular receptor in human astrocytes.[75] ... Furthermore, molecular alterations in astrocyte TAAR1 levels correspond to changes in astrocyte EAAT-2 levels and function.. ...
... was first identified in 1975 as an 8.5 kDa protein of unknown function expressed in all eukaryotic cells. The basic functions ... Under normal physiological conditions PCNA is sumoylated (a similar post-translational modification to ubiquitination). When ... E3 enzymes function as the substrate recognition modules of the system and are capable of interaction with both E2 and ... The function of these chains is unknown. Differently linked chains have specific effects on the protein to which they are ...
Wettschureck N, Offermanns S (October 2005). "Mammalian G proteins and their cell type specific functions". Physiological ... GPCRs are involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. Some examples of their physiological roles include: The visual ... In addition, RGS proteins have the additional function of increasing the rate of GTP-GDP exchange at GPCRs, (i.e., as a sort of ... The structure of the N- and C-terminal tails of GPCRs may also serve important functions beyond ligand-binding. For example, ...
Missale C, Nash SR, Robinson SW, Jaber M, Caron MG (Jan 1998). "Dopamine receptors: from structure to function". Physiological ... It is toxic in high concentrations and causes damage during stroke, but is the cause of many other functions like relaxation of ... Hence, an initial stimulus can trigger the expression of a large number of genes, leading to physiological events like the ... with physiological effects. Bernard's "secretions" were later named "hormones" by Ernest Starling in 1905. Together with ...
Some physiological carnivores consume plant matter and some physiological herbivores consume meat. From a behavioral aspect, ... Paton, D. C.; Collins, B. G. (1 April 1989). "Bills and tongues of nectar-feeding birds: A review of morphology, function, and ... Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects. Springer-Verlag. pp. 95-113. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02421-4. ISBN 978-3-642- ... There are many physiological mechanisms that control starting and stopping a meal. The control of food intake is a ...
... dependent deacetylases involved in multiple biological functions including metabolism, inflammation, stress resistance and ... HSIR2(SIRT1) functions as an NAD-dependent p53 deacetylase [J]. Cell, 2001, 107(2): 149-159.Google Scholar ... sirtuin neural development hypothalamic function stroke neurodegeneration Foundation item: the National Natural Science ... Here, we review the functions of sirtuins, with a focus on their roles in normal brain physiology such as neural development ...
However, from a physiological perspective, it is not clear whether 5-HT affects such behaviors specifically or more generally ... Serotonin Involvement in Physiological Function and Behavior - Basic Neurochemis.... Serotonin Involvement in Physiological ... Serotonin Involvement in Physiological Function and Behavior. In: Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW, et al., editors. Basic ... Serotonin Involvement in Physiological Function and Behavior. Alan Frazer and Julie G Hensler. ...
... Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004 Jun;61(12): ... The physiological and pathological roles of autophagy, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying this multifunctional ... removal of damaged organelles and development of different tissue-specific functions. Furthermore, autophagy is associated with ...
... J Innate Immun. 2013;5(5):427-33. doi: 10.1159/000351979. Epub 2013 ... Here, we provide a brief overview of the mechanism of autophagy and some of the physiological roles in which this process is ... but such a definition belies the importance of the different autophagic processes in cell and organismal function and ...
A portable belt-type monitor of body functions such as the heart and breathing is described formed of a plurality of ... 17 is a block diagram of an electronic circuit used to monitor physiological functions and transmit these to a base unit; and ... A belt adapted to fit on a patient for monitoring a physiological function, comprising: a plurality of mechanically, ... This invention relates to a device for monitoring physiological functions such as breathing and heart rate. More specifically, ...
Insights into the physiological function of the ß-amyloid precursor protein: Beyond Alzheimers disease. J Neurochemistry 2014; ... has a physiological trophic function on the central nervous system (2). APP knockout mice are viable but have smaller brains ... and this can be prevented by providing physiological doses of Aβ (in the picomolar range) (6). Aβ at physiological levels ... The physiological role of Aβ explains why when drugs that reduce Aβ are used to treat Alzheimers disease they fail (18-20). ...
Genetics of Melanosome Structure and Function (Vincent J. Hearing). Physiological and Pathological Functions of Melanosomes ( ... Melanins and Melanosomes: Biosynthesis, Structure, Physiological and Pathological Functions. Jan Borovansky (Editor), Patrick A ... Properties and Functions of Ocular Melanins and Melanosomes (Malgorzata Rózanowska). The biological role of neuromelanin in the ...
Here, the physiological functions of methionine and differences of efficiency among different methionine sources are examined. ... Physiological functions of methionine in poultry By CJ Europe On 8 Jan 2018. In Partner ... Methionine has many physiological functions, e.g. as an important methyl donor to provide the methyl group (CH4) necessary for ... Here, the physiological functions of methionine and differences of efficiency among different methionine sources are examined. ...
The device, system, and method of the invention are used to assess cardiovascular function or systemic physiological condition ... Device for assessing cardiovascular function, physiological condition, and method thereof. US 6511436 B1 ... Apparatus for processing physiological sensor data using a physiological model and method of operation therefor. ... Apparatus for processing physiological sensor data using a physiological model and method of operation therefor. ...
Loss of H3K4 methylation destabilizes gene expression patterns and physiological functions in adult murine cardiomyocytes. Adam ... In vivo assessment of cardiac function. We assessed cardiac structure and function noninvasively over time by echocardiography ... a load-independent assessment of systolic function (18). Despite the increase in systolic function in the PTIP- hearts, no ... Figure 7B shows peak ICa,L as a function of test pulse. Data revealed a significantly higher ICa,L in PTIP- mice as compared ...
The human beta 3-adrenoceptor: the search for a physiological function.. Emorine L1, Blin N, Strosberg AD. ... Additional physiological functions of the beta 3-adrenoceptor. [Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1994] ...
2. Physiological Function of SRSF4. 2.1. Structure, Function, and Subcellular Localization of SRSF4. SRSF4 contains two RRMs ... Physiological and Pathological Function of Serine/Arginine-Rich Splicing Factor 4 and Related Diseases. Wanyan Tan,1 Wei Wang,2 ... 3. Pathological Functions of SRSF4 in Disease. 3.1. SRSF4 Is Associated with the Anti-Cisplatin Function of Tumor Cells. Cis- ... In this review, we discuss the physiological and pathological functions of SRSF4 and its relationship with diseases. ...
The function of these MSRs for this organisms physiology, however, is still poorly defined. The main objective of this ...
Hematopoiesis is the process of formation of blood cellular components derived from derived from hematopoietic stem cells. These hematopoietic stem cells p..
We present various methods to record cardiac function in the larval Drosophila. The approaches allow heart rate to be measured ... 1990). A few studies of physiological function occurred in the pre-pupal, pupal or adult stages (Ashton et al., 2001; He and ... In addition Drosophila serve as a good model for physiological function at a cellular level. ... The physiological and behavioral effects of carbon dioxide on Drosophila melanogaster larvaeComp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr ...
... we explore the functions and processes of the digestive system, where the food we eat is broken down and turned into the energy ... In this lesson, we explore the functions and processes of the digestive system, where the food we eat is broken down and turned ... The esophagus performs some other important functions; for instance, a specialized flap of skin in the esophagus, the upper ... The pancreas also provides an important function in the digestive system--regulating blood sugar. When we eat something that ...
Ca2+ entry is essential for regulating vital physiological functions in all neuronal cells. Although neurons are engaged in ... Intracellular Ca2+ is essential for diverse cellular functions. Ca2+ entry into many cell types including immune cells is ... Hence, understanding the precise involvement of TRPCs in neuronal function and in neurodegenerative conditions would presumably ... and their physiological responses are quite distinct. Moreover, many of these TRPC channels have also been suggested to be ...
... and function; iii) both neurogenic zones and parenchymal progenitors are activated in different physiological/pathological ... fact that most vertebrates produce brain repair using AN as a byproduct of evolution in addition to its physiological function ... Are AN physiological function(s) and its possible role in brain repair two separate domains in mammals? - Can comparative ... and function; iii) both neurogenic zones and parenchymal progenitors are activated in different physiological/pathological ...
Stem cells are unspecialized cells have the capability to develop into many different cells during early life and growth. These are undifferentiated cells ..
Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function.. Mergenthaler P1, Lindauer U, Dienel ... Consistent with its critical role for physiological brain function, disruption of normal glucose metabolism as well as its ... Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function ... Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function ...
... ion channel in keratinocytes is important to maintain skin barrier function and prevent skin dehydation. According to these ... Researchers at the National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS) have reported that the transient receptor potential ... Researchers Identify Physiological Sensor Important for Skin Barrier Function. May 20, 2010 , Contact Author , By: Katie ... According to the research, TRPV4 is a physiological sensor for hypo-osmorality, mechanical deformation and warm temperature. ...
MicroRNA-126 Priming Enhances Functions of Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Physiological and Hypoxic Conditions and Their ... apoptosis and multiple functions of human brain microvessel endothelial cells under physiological and pathological conditions ... To explore the function of miR-126 overexpression in EPCs in vivo, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of EPCmiR-126 on ... J. W. Yu, Y. P. Deng, X. Han, G. F. Ren, J. Cai, and G. J. Jiang, "Metformin improves the angiogenic functions of endothelial ...
Clinical Evaluation of the Physiological Diagnosis Function in the PARADYM CRT. Further study details as provided by LivaNova: ... Clinical Evaluation of the Physiological Diagnosis Function in the PARADYM CRT Device (CLEPSYDRA). This study has been ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a new sensor-based diagnostic feature, physiological Diagnostic ( ...
Physiological Functions of Orexin Neurons. Functions in Feeding Behaviors and Energy Homeostasis. Orexin neuron-ablated ... The physiological role of orexin/hypocretin neurons in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness and neuroendocrine functions. Ayumu ... The physiological role of orexin/hypocretin neurons in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness and neuroendocrine functions. Front ... shows us the importance of their physiological functions. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by primary ...
A new study finds that long-term heat therapy may increase mitochondrial function in the muscles. The discovery could lead to ... Add Heat Therapy Boosts Mitochondrial Function in Muscles headlines to your news reader:. Click to view RSS Feed Or, paste the ... 2018 The American Physiological Society. 6120 Executive Boulevard, Suite 600 , Rockville, MD , 20852-4911 , +1 (301) 634-7164 ... Mitochondrial function increased by an average of 28 percent in the heated legs after the heat treatment. The concentration of ...
  • Synaptically released zinc functions as a conventional synaptic neurotransmitter or neuromodulator, being released into the cleft, then recycled into the presynaptic terminal. (springer.com)
  • In central and peripheral nervous system, neuronal NOS (nNOS) produces NO that has been implicated in modulating physiological functions such as synaptic plasticity, learning, memory and neurogenesis as well as some pathological conditions in which overproduction of NO may lead to the generation of highly reactive species, such as peroxynitrite and stable nitrosothiols, which may cause irreversible cell damage in excitotoxicity, ischaemia, Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. (intechopen.com)
  • Sirtuins are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) dependent deacetylases involved in multiple biological functions including metabolism, inflammation, stress resistance and aging. (springer.com)
  • Through alternative splicing, a single gene can encode multiple variant proteins with diverse biological functions, greatly enhancing the transcriptome complexity and diversity of proteins [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. (deepdyve.com)
  • The project combines cutting edge physiological measurements and biological imaging techniques to determine 1) how vascular transport networks in leaves and stems are optimized to balance hydraulic efficiency and safety, and 2) how stomatal behaviour is co-ordinated with shoot hydraulic properties to maximise carbon gain with minimal water loss. (edu.au)
  • This course examines the biological foundations of human functioning in relationship to cognition, emotions and mental health. (phoenix.edu)
  • This review provides an overview of the basic biological functions of these endopeptidases, paying special attention to novel findings on their complex regulation and broad substrate spectrum which has been recently significantly expanded through high-throughput degradomic screens. (ersjournals.com)
  • However, the precise biological function(s) of most CDPKs remains elusive. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Researchers at the National Institute for Physiological Sciences (NIPS) have reported that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channel in keratinocytes is important to maintain skin barrier function and prevent skin dehydation. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Effects of acute crude oil exposure on basic physiological functions of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus', Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences , 14(1), pp. 43-53. (ac.ir)
  • Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have shown the potential for treating ischemic stroke (IS), while microRNA-126 (miR-126) is reported to have beneficial effects on endothelial function and angiogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • We conclude that Foxo1 integrates cues that determine developmental timing, pool size, and functional features of endocrine progenitor cells, resulting in a legacy effect on adult β-cell mass and function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 17-19 Administration of G-CSF and SCF has been reported to improve left ventricular (LV) function in mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI) through increased homing of mobilized, BM-derived EPCs and cardiomyogenic progenitor cells into ischemic myocardium, 20 providing direct evidence that mobilization of BM progenitors might represent a viable strategy for preserving the integrity and restoring function in ischemic tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, here we address the molecular contents and functions of EVs in various tissues and body fluids from cell systems to organs. (bilkent.edu.tr)
  • Studies using animals genetically engineered to lack EP3 and supplemented by studies examining the actions of EP3 receptor antagonists and agonists in animals as well as animal and human tissues indicate that this receptor serves various functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors express the opinion that future studies will be dependent on the availability of cDNAs for a wide variety of P2 purinoceptor subtypes which will facilitate the examination of the selective expression of these subtypes under the specific conditions relevant to physiological and pathophysiological states. (cdc.gov)
  • A portable belt-type monitor of body functions such as the heart and breathing is described formed of a plurality of articulated, distributed modules containing EKG sensors, a respiration sensor, circuitry including a microprocessor for sensing alarm conditions, a transmitter for sending alarm conditions to a remote receiver and a battery to drive the various circuits. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Hence, understanding the precise involvement of TRPCs in neuronal function and in neurodegenerative conditions would presumably unveil avenues for plausible therapeutic interventions for these devastating neuronal diseases. (ebscohost.com)
  • A decrease in the number or function of mitochondria may contribute to chronic and potentially serious conditions such as heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and type 2 diabetes. (the-aps.org)
  • 1998 Dramatic aggregation of Alzheimer Aß by Cu(II) is induced by conditions representing physiological acidosis. (springer.com)
  • Rockville, Md. (July 31, 2018)-A new study finds that long-term heat therapy may increase mitochondrial function in the muscles. (the-aps.org)
  • Frith, Emily 2018-04-17 00:00:00 Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. (deepdyve.com)
  • Mitochondrial function increased by an average of 28 percent in the heated legs after the heat treatment. (the-aps.org)
  • Thus, preservation of mitochondrial function is important for maintaining overall health during aging ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • This theory is buttressed by the observation that caloric restriction, the only known regimen to increase mean life span in animals, maintains mitochondrial function and lowers oxidant production ( 7 , 8 , 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • We demonstrated that ALCAR supplementation reverses the age-associated decline in metabolic activity in rats, suggesting that ALCAR improves mitochondrial function and increases general metabolic activity ( 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Yet the assessment of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle often involves mechanical isolation of the mitochondria, a process which disrupts their normally heterogeneous branching structure and yields relatively homogeneous spherical organelles. (scribd.com)
  • Alternatively, methods have been used where the sarcolemma is permeabilized and mitochondrial morphology is preserved, but both methods face the downside that they remove potential inuences of the intracellular milieu on mitochondrial function. (scribd.com)
  • More importantly, these new ndings underscore the empirical value of studying mitochondrial function in minimally disruptive experimental preparations. (scribd.com)
  • correlating the arterial hemodynamic behavior velocity data with a reference value to determine cardiovascular function in the patient. (google.com.au)
  • 13. The method of claim 1 further comprising the step of displaying transit time data indicative of cardiovascular function in the patient. (google.com.au)
  • Finally, we used a demographically-informed selection scan to show that Epas1 variants have experienced a history of spatially varying selection, suggesting that differences in cardiovascular function and gene regulation contribute to high-altitude adaptation. (prolekare.cz)
  • BQ) Part 1 book "Lippincott illustrated reviews flash cards - Physiology" presentation of content: Principles of physiologic function, sensory and motor systems, musculoskeletal and integumentary systems, cardiovascular system. (tailieu.vn)
  • The study, the first of its kind to separate the effects of skin- versus internal-raised temperature (hyperthermia), is published in Physiological Reports . (the-aps.org)
  • There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. (deepdyve.com)
  • Additionally, experimental data from the authors laboratories are presented and discussed, focusing particular attention to the possibility of differential neural and cardiorenal ethanol effects as a function of the dose used in distinct experimental models. (eurekaselect.com)
  • By the time that such changes affect significant numbers of cells within an organ they will have important and probably irreversible effects on its function. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Combinations of atropine (up to 4 mg/70 kg) and 2-PAM CL (up to 1200 mg/70 kg) were studied for their effects on a pursuit tracking task six visual functions, heart rate and blood pressure, and cognitive functions as measured by six psychological tests. (dtic.mil)
  • Caffeine was conceived for a wide range of readers interested in the effects on human health, nutrition, and physiological function of the methylxanthine beverages and foods-tea, coffee, maté, cola beverages, and cocoa and chocolate products. (tailieu.vn)
  • The beneficial effects of exercise on brain function have been demonstrated in animal models and in a growing number of clinical studies on humans. (mdpi.com)
  • The advantageous effects of exercise on brain functions have been attributed to increased capacities of metabolism reserve and antioxidation [ 19 , 20 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Objectives -To assess the characteristic effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on metabolism and cardiorespiratory response, and to measure its effect on cardiorespiratory function, mental control, immune capacity, and the prevention of falls in elderly people. (bmj.com)
  • Evidence provided by cross sectional and longitudinal studies suggests that TCC exercise has beneficial effects on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal function, posture control capacity, and the reduction of falls experienced by the elderly. (bmj.com)
  • Khoshbavar Rostami, H., Soltani, M. Effects of acute crude oil exposure on basic physiological functions of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus. (ac.ir)
  • In the present study, we set out to examine the morphological-physiological properties of identified dSPNs in a chronic rodent model of PD exposed to prolonged L-DOPA treatment. (nature.com)
  • Here, we investigated whether Foxo1 determines the number and function of pancreatic or endocrine progenitors, using stage-specific genetic inactivation strategies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Reduced number and impaired function of circulating EPCs (cEPCs) are reported to be correlated to worse clinical outcome in patients with ischemic stroke [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, under such pathological environment, the function of transfused EPCs is usually impaired by existing risk factors [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, we hypothesize that overexpression of miR-126 could rescue/promote functions of EPCs under hypoxic condition and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of EPCs in ischemic stroke. (hindawi.com)
  • 4 A similar strategy applied in a model of myocardial ischemia in the nude rat demonstrated that transplanted human EPCs incorporated into rat myocardial neovascularization, differentiated into mature ECs in ischemic myocardium, enhanced neovascularization, preserved left ventricular (LV) function, and inhibited myocardial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • From all such data, it has been suggested that the serotonergic neuronal system functions at the organismic level to integrate functions needed for behavioral output, that is, facilitation of motor output with suppression of activity in sensory systems irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Disruption of cholesterol transport by decreased function of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCA1 results in impaired insulin secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The pancreas also provides an important function in the digestive system--regulating blood sugar. (study.com)
  • For example, food intake enhances parasympathetic (vagal) activity to stimulate digestive functions but it suppresses vagal activity to the heart to increase heart rate to a level that meets circulatory demand for digestion and absorption [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have isolated the ER membrane-bound (ERb) form of proteasome that we referred to as 'ERb proteasome', and studied the structural characteristics, how it binds to the ER membrane, and its possible function as a novel protease for ERAD. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Androgens are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of reproductive function and stimulation of the secondary sex characteristics in the male. (britannica.com)
  • HSIR2(SIRT1) functions as an NAD-dependent p53 deacetylase [J]. Cell , 2001, 107 (2): 149-159. (springer.com)
  • Ageing changes lead either to loss of cell function or even to cell death. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Accordingly, β-cell mass continues to expand in mice lacking Foxo1 in endocrine progenitors, but cells do not function properly, impairing insulin secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mice lacking β-cell ABCA1 have increased islet expression of ABCG1, another cholesterol transporter implicated in β-cell function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, lack of both ABCA1 and ABCG1 induces greater defects in β-cell function than deficiency of either transporter individually. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cholesterol accumulation in islets compromises β-cell function and reduces insulin secretion in mice ( 5 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This leads to a vicious cycle of increasing mitochondrial damage, which adversely affects cell function ( 7 ), and results in a loss of ATP-generating capacity, especially in times of greater energy demand, thereby compromising vital ATP-dependent reactions. (pnas.org)
  • In the rat study, echocardiographic left ventricular systolic function and capillary density were significantly better preserved in the CD34+ MNC group than in the control groups 4 weeks after myocardial ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • In chronic myocardial ischemia, combination therapy resulted in superior improvement in all indexes of perfusion and function compared with all other treatment groups. (ahajournals.org)
  • We present various methods to record cardiac function in the larval Drosophila. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a new sensor-based diagnostic feature, physiological Diagnostic (PhD)which as been implemented in the PARADYM CRT Cardiac Resynchronization System with defibrillation capabalities (PARADYM CRT System,model 8770. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Later functions of Tinman, including the target genes involved in cardiac physiology, are less well studied. (pnas.org)
  • Although some of the early regulators of heart development have been studied in detail, it is not fully understood how these regulators coordinate cardiac function and how each component contributes to the various aspects of cardiac performance. (pnas.org)
  • What Is the Function of the Arteries? (reference.com)
  • No means of cold, in vitro preservation of the heart permitted it to retain its mechanical performance as well as did normothermic cross-perfusion from a healthy animal, but all cold, oxygenated physiological solutions infused into the coronary arteries performed better than cold alone. (elsevier.com)