Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.No-Reflow Phenomenon: Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Zein: A group of alcohol-soluble seed storage proteins from the endosperm of corn.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Mimosine: 3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.Cordia: A plant genus of the family BORAGINACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES and naphthoxirene.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Gums: Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksCrystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Book SelectionBook Reviews as Topic: Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.Isatin: An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Gestalt Theory: A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Azotobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.

Isolation of SMTP-3, 4, 5 and -6, novel analogs of staplabin, and their effects on plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis. (1/2765)

Four novel triprenyl phenol metabolites, designated SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6, have been isolated from cultures of Stachybotrys microspora IFO 30018 by solvent extraction and successive chromatographic fractionation using silica gel and silica ODS columns. A combination of spectroscopic analyses showed that SMTP-3, -4, -5, and -6 are staplabin analogs, containing a serine, a phenylalanine, a leucine or a tryptophan moiety in respective molecules in place of the N-carboxybutyl portion of the staplabin molecule. SMTP-4, -5, and -6 were active at 0.15 to 0.3 mM in enhancing urokinase-catalyzed plasminogen activation and plasminogen binding to fibrin, as well as plasminogen- and urokinase-mediated fibrinolysis. On the other hand, the concentration of staplabin required to exert such effects was 0.4 to 0.6 mM, and SMTP-3 was inactive at concentrations up to 0.45 mM.  (+info)

Novel selective inhibitors for human topoisomerase I, BM2419-1 and -2 derived from saintopin. (2/2765)

Compounds BM2419-1 and -2 were isolated from a culture broth of a fungus Paecilomyces sp. BM2419. It was shown that these novel compounds were artifacts derived from saintopin, a dual inhibitor of topoisomerase I and II by independent processes. In the human topoisomerase I inhibition assay using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, BM2419-1 and -2 inhibited selectively the yeast growth dependent on human topoisomerase I induction with IC50 values of 0.3 ng/ml and 6.0 ng/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Apicularens A and B, new cytostatic macrolides from Chondromyces species (myxobacteria): production, physico-chemical and biological properties. (3/2765)

A novel macrolide, apicularen A, was produced by several species of the genus Chondromyces. Initially it was discovered by bioassay-guided RP-HPLC-fractionation of culture extracts of Chondromyces robustus, strain Cm a13. Apicularen A showed no antimicrobial activity, but was highly cytotoxic for cultivated human and animal cells, with IC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 3 ng/ml. A cometabolite of apicularen A, the N-acetylglucosamine glycoside apicularen B, was distinctly less cytotoxic with IC50 values between 0.2 and 1.2 microg/ml, and showed weak activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria. Apicularen A is chemically closely related to the salicylihalamides A and B from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (4/2765)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Diperamycin, a new antimicrobial antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities. (5/2765)

Antibacterial antibiotics, diperamycin (1) was produced in the culture broth of Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. Various spectroscopic analyses of 1 suggested that 1 belonged to a member of cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic. Antibiotic 1 had potent inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus seriolicida and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  (+info)

Structure of actinotetraose hexatiglate, a unique glucotetraose from an actinomycete bacterium. (6/2765)

An Actinomycete strain A499 belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis or Amycolata isolated from a Western Australian soil sample produced the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic quinaldopeptin (1), together with the actinotetraose hexatiglate (2), the hexa-ester of a novel non-reducing glucotetraose.  (+info)

Relationships between the lipophilicity of some 1,4-piperazine derivatives of aryloxyaminopropanols and their beta-andrenolytic activity. (7/2765)

Nineteen 1,4-piperazine derivatives of aryloxyaminopropanol were evaluated with respect to beta-adrenolytic activity. The retention factors obtained from HPLC, RM values obtained from partition TLC and the lipophilic Hansch's (4) constants pi were determined and the compounds were studied with respect to their lipophilicity based on chromatographic properties. The study of the influence of different substituents introduced at the para position on the phenyl ring on the retention factor indicated the log k vs. the number of carbon atoms in R1 substituent to be a linear relationship. Attempts have been made to relate the beta-adrenolytic activity to the lipohydrophilic parameters by deriving a quantitative relationship between them. Significant parabolic correlation was observed between the beta-adrenolytic activity and the logarithm of the retention factor, log k. An analogous relationship was obtained between the beta-adrenolytic activity of the compounds and the RM values obtained from partition TLC as well as Hansch's lipophilic constants pi.  (+info)

Determination of the lipophilicity of active anticonvulsant N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. (8/2765)

The lipophilicities of fourteen anticonvulsant active N-substituted amides of alpha-arylalkylamine-gamma-hydroxybutyric acid [I-XIV] have been determined by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography with a mixture of methanol, TRIS buffer, and acetic acid as the solvent system. The RM value of each compound decreased linearly with increasing concentration of methanol. The partition coefficients (log P) of the amides were calculated by use of the Prolog P module of the Pallas system. Comparison of RM and log P enabled clog P values to be calculated. It was found that the anticonvulsant activity of amides [I-XIV] can be explained on the basis of their lipophilicity.  (+info)

  • Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units-Appendix II: Definitions, Terminology and Symbols in Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Part II: Heterogeneous Catalysis presents the pertinent definitions and terminologies concerning colloid and surface chemistry. (
  • But the fact is that there are phenomena, specially these relating to living organism, which are not deducible from Physics and Chemistry. (
  • Physics and chemistry cannot explain the phenomenon of of life and cannot distinguish between a living cell and a cell which has just died. (
  • two living bodies having different organizations will display vital phenomena the diversity of which will always be in direct proportion to the difference in organization" ( op. cit . (
  • Although he later honored Bichat by preparing his two major works for publication, Magendie furnished these editions with ample commentaries praising Bichat the experimenter but treating with irony all attempts at a systematic explanation of vital phenomena. (
  • Rest alternates with work in all vital phenomena. (
  • Comprehensive physicochemical characterization was carried out to analyze the particle morphology, surface structure, solid-state transitions, amorphous character, residual water content, and phospholipid bilayer structure. (
  • The recent discovery of coral Black Band Disease at Mākua Reef on Kaua'i, Hawai'i prompted an investigation into the physicochemical drivers and geomorphic controls of reef water circulation, and the temporally variable nutrient fluxes derived from SGD. (
  • Experiments agree quantitatively with scaling arguments and numerical computations, confirming the basic phenomenon, revealing design strategies, and suggesting a broad set of new possibilities for the manipulation and control of suspended particles. (
  • Based on the analogy between the p -theorem of the theory of dimensionality, the second law of thermodynamics and the stoichiometry of complex physicochemical reactions, basic dynamic equations and an extreme principle were formulated. (
  • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Saskatchewan (UoS), the Carnegie Geophysical Laboratory (GL) and the University of Chicago , challenged this basic chemical phenomenon by examining the possible reaction between iron and nickel with xenon at thermodynamic conditions like those found in Earth's core. (
  • Although scientific research on coal-gas interactions has been conducted for more than a century, the physicochemical and hydro-thermodynamic phenomena are still not fully understood. (
  • It is also emitted naturally during combustion phenomena (fires, cigarette smoking) and anthropogenic activities (cooking food, using a wood burning stove). (
  • This phenomenon may arise because of a higher rate and greater extent of metal accumulation in GM poplars than in naturally occurring plants, which resulted in greater changes in soil environments and hence the microbial habitat. (
  • However, this correlation was not valid for all of the analyzed protein species, which proves that it is insufficient to look only at physicochemical data to predict organ distribution. (
  • The aim of present research is to study the seasonal and special nutrient variation and change in physicochemical parameter due to the impact of pollution sources and industrial effluents upon Mahanadi estuarine environment. (
  • We look forward to writing new chapters about extreme physicochemical phenomena," Stavrou said. (
  • These two parameters play a vital role in nutrient cycling, eutrophication, biota abundance and overall food web dynamics in estuarine and near shore ecosystems, whereas surface runoff is a seasonal phenomenon largely affected by climate in the basin. (
  • Few physicochemical features of shallow, permanent bodies of standing fresh water are vertically stratified, although many features vary significantly according to season. (
  • However, in permanent bodies of fresh water located in regions warmer than the temperate zone, thermal stratification and related phenomena may develop at shallower depths and persist longer than they would in temperate lakes of similar morphometry. (
  • En modélisant l'entrée des grains dans l'eau comme l'imprégnation d'un matériau poreux, nous mettons en évidence une relation entre la forme du front d'imbibition et la vitesse d'immersion, et caractérisons l'effet des propriétés physico-chimiques des grains. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and biochemical background of AN activity in winter wheat exposed to low temperature. (
  • Pervasive and sustained coral diseases contribute to the systemic degradation of reef ecosystems, however, to date an understanding of the physicochemical controls on a coral disease event is still largely lacking. (
  • This phenomenon was totally unexpected, since successive dilutions of biologically active molecules in pure water do necessarily lead to their complete elimination. (
  • Coupled Phenomena in Environmental Geotechnics collects the special lectures and papers presented at the International Symposium on Coupled Phenomena in Environmental Geotechnics (Torino, Italy, 1-3 July 2013), which was organized by the Italian Geotechnical Society within the framework of Technical Committee TC 215 of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE). (
  • Finally, one very important phenomenon is an increase, observed during the cold, of unsaturation of the fatty acids in membrane lipids (Skoczowski and Filek 1994 ) resulting in the reduction of the phase transition temperature and increase in the "fluidity" of the hydrophobic phase. (
  • Physicochemical chracteristics (binding of biomolecules, phase transition and phase separation) of the synthetic bilayer are discussed. (
  • En fonction de la quantité de liquide, la phase granulaire humide est soit érodée par l'écoulement sec, soit capte des grains par accrétion granulaire, soit transfère du liquide de la phase humide à la phase sèche par imprégnation. (
  • The puzzling phenomenon of "water memory" had even a characteristic property: the biological efficiency of EHDs decreased at first, but increased again and reached a high value after about the 9th decimal dilution. (
  • A research team led by Hyoungsoo Kim, a professor of Mechanical Engineering at KAIST, succeeded in quantifying the phenomenon called, the Marangoni effect, which occurs at the interface between alcohol and water. (
  • Water temperature data show frequent anomalies probably connected with possible precursory phenomena of local seismic events. (