Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Persons trained in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY to make use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Activity engaged in for pleasure.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Qualitative and quantitative measurement of MOVEMENT patterns.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.
Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Educational institutions.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. (1/3436)

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

Response of hippocampal synapses to natural stimulation patterns. (2/3436)

We have studied the synaptic responses in hippocampal slices to stimulus patterns derived from in vivo recordings of place cell firing in a behaving rodent. We find that synaptic strength is strongly modulated during the presentation of these natural stimulus trains, varying 2-fold or more because of short-term plasticity. This modulation of synaptic strength is precise and deterministic, because the pattern of synaptic response amplitudes is nearly identical from one presentation of the train to the next. The mechanism of synaptic modulation is primarily a change in release probability rather than a change in the size of the elementary postsynaptic response. In addition, natural stimulus trains are effective in inducing long-term potentiation (LTP). We conclude that short-term synaptic plasticity--facilitation, augmentation, and depression--plays a prominent role in normal synaptic function.  (+info)

Mechanical stimulation of starfish sperm flagella. (3/3436)

1. The responses of starfish sperm flagella to mechanical stimulation with a microneedle were analysed. Flagellar movement was recorded by high-speed microcinematography and by stroboscopic observation. 2. The amplitude of the bending wave of a flagellum was restricted over its entire length when the microneedle was brought near to the flagellum at its proximal region. Beyond the restricted part, the amplitude of the wave, and the bend angle, became smaller than those of a normally beating flagellum, while the curvature was practically unchanged. 3. When the tip of the microneedle was in contact with the flagellum, propagation of the bending wave beyond the microneedle was inhibited. The part of the flagellum between the base and the microneedle continued beating in some cases and stopped beating in other cases. The flagellum beyond the arrested part stopped beating and remained straight. When the microneedle was removed, the bending wave which existed in the part of the flagellum proximal to the microneedle, or the wave which was passively formed de novo at the time of the removal of the microneedle, propagated over the arrested part towards the tip. 4. A flagellum amputated by a microneedle in a medium containing ATP continued beating with a small amplitude, small curvature, small bend angle and low frequency. When the amputated flagellum was passively bent by a microneedle at the region near the point of amputation, this bend propagated towards the tip with a constant bend angle. 5. The beating frequency of the flagellum could be modulated by the application of a rhythmic external force generated by vibrating a microneedle near the flagellum. The beating was completely synchronized with vibration of the microneedle in the frequency range from 23 Hz to 43 Hz.  (+info)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (4/3436)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. (5/3436)

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

Physiological properties of raphe magnus neurons during sleep and waking. (6/3436)

Neurons in the medullary raphe magnus (RM) that are important in the descending modulation of nociceptive transmission are classified by their response to noxious tail heat as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL cells. Experiments in anesthetized animals demonstrate that RM ON cells facilitate and OFF cells inhibit nociceptive transmission. Yet little is known of the physiology of these cells in the unanesthetized animal. The first aim of the present experiments was to determine whether cells with ON- and OFF-like responses to noxious heat exist in the unanesthetized rat. Second, to determine if RM cells have state-dependent discharge, the activity of RM neurons was recorded during waking and sleeping states. Noxious heat applied during waking and slow wave sleep excited one group of cells (ON-U) in unanesthetized rats. Other cells were inhibited by noxious heat (OFF-U) applied during waking and slow wave sleep states in unanesthetized rats. NEUTRAL-U cells did not respond to noxious thermal stimulation applied during either slow wave sleep or waking. ON-U and OFF-U cells were more likely to respond to noxious heat during slow wave sleep than during waking and were least likely to respond when the animal was eating or drinking. Although RM cells rarely respond to innocuous stimulation applied during anesthesia, ON-U and OFF-U cells were excited and inhibited, respectively, by innocuous somatosensory stimulation in the unanesthetized rat. The spontaneous activity of >90% of the RM neurons recorded in the unanesthetized rat was influenced by behavioral state. OFF-U cells discharged sporadically during waking but were continuously active during slow wave sleep. By contrast, ON-U and NEUTRAL-U cells discharged in bursts during waking and either ceased to discharge entirely or discharged at a low rate during slow wave sleep. We suggest that OFF cell discharge functions to suppress pain-evoked reactions during sleep, whereas ON cell discharge facilitates pain-evoked responses during waking.  (+info)

Varying the degree of single-whisker stimulation differentially affects phases of intrinsic signals in rat barrel cortex. (7/3436)

Using intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISI), we have shown previously that the point spread of evoked activity in the rat barrel cortex in response to single-whisker stimulation encompasses a surprisingly large area. Given that our typical stimulation consists of five deflections at 5 Hz, the large area of evoked activity might have resulted from repetitive stimulation. Thus in the present study, we use ISI through the thinned skull to determine whether decreasing the degree of single-whisker stimulation decreases the area of the cortical point spread. We additionally outline a protocol to quantify stimulus-related differences in the temporal characteristics of intrinsic signals at a fine spatial scale. In 10 adult rats, whisker C2 was stimulated randomly with either one or five deflections delivered in a rostral-to-caudal fashion. Each deflection consisted of a 0.5-mm displacement of the whisker as measured at the point of contact, 15 mm from the snout. The number of whisker deflections did not affect the area or peak magnitude of the cortical point spread based on the intrinsic signal activity occurring from 0.5 up to 1.5 s poststimulus onset. In contrast, the magnitude and time course of intrinsic signal activity collected after 1.5-s poststimulus onset did reflect the difference in the degree of stimulation. Thus decreasing the degree of stimulation differentially affected the early and late phases of the evoked intrinsic signal response. The implications of the present results are discussed in respect to probable differences in the signal source underlying the early versus later phases of evoked intrinsic signals.  (+info)

Central autonomic activation by intracisternal TRH analogue excites gastric splanchnic afferent neurons. (8/3436)

Intracisternal (ic) injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or its stable analogue RX 77368 influences gastric function via stimulation of vagal muscarinic pathways. In rats, the increase in gastric mucosal blood flow evoked by a low ic dose of RX 77368 occurs via release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons, most probably of spinal origin. In this study, the effect of low ic doses of RX 77368 on afferent impulse activity in splanchnic single fibers was investigated. The cisterna magna of overnight-fasted, urethan-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was acutely cannulated, and fine splanchnic nerve twigs containing at least one fiber responsive to mechanical probing of the stomach were isolated at a site immediately distal to the left suprarenal ganglion. Unit mechanoreceptive fields were encountered in all portions of the stomach, both superficially and in deeper layers. Splanchnic afferent unit impulse activity was recorded continuously during basal conditions and in response to consecutive ic injections of saline and RX 77368 (15-30 min later; 1.5 or 3 ng). Basal discharge rates ranged from 0 to 154 impulses/min (median = 10.2 impulses/min). A majority of splanchnic single units with ongoing activity increased their mean discharge rate by >/=20% after ic injection of RX 77368 at either 1.5 ng (6/10 units; median increase 63%) or 3 ng (19/24 units; median increase 175%). Five units lacking impulse activity in the 5-min before ic RX 77368 (3 ng) were also excited, with the onset of discharge occurring within 1.0-5.0 min postinjection. In units excited by ic RX 77368, peak discharge occurred 15.6 +/- 1.3 min after injection and was followed by a decline to stable activity levels +info)

After assessment of SA, each neuron with a dorsal root-evoked somatic spike was tested for sensory modality with natural search stimuli. For full methods of classification of sensory properties, see Fang et al. (2002, 2005b). Briefly, intact neurons were classed as low-threshold mechanoreceptive (LTM) units if they responded to innocuous mechanical stimuli (e.g., light brush, light pressure with a blunt object, and/or vibration). Such light pressure caused a slight deformation of the skin inside the experimenters wrist and resulted in a sensation of touch. C-cooling units were usually spontaneously active at room temperature, and were activated by a cold stimulus (see below) and inhibited by radiant warming but did not respond to mechanical stimuli. Nociceptive units were identified from their responses to noxious stimuli that were applied only to units that failed to respond to any of the above non-noxious stimuli. Noxious stimuli included noxious mechanical (e.g., needle, fine- or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative assessment of nocifensive behavioral responses and the underlying neuronal circuitry. AU - Carstens, Earl. PY - 1993/12. Y1 - 1993/12. N2 - This paper reviews several recently developed animal models that allow a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of nocifensive behavioral responses across a range of noxious stimulus intensities. Models discussed in detail include: (a) the rodent tail flick reflex, and a modification that allows measurement of tail flick magnitude, (b) rat hindlimb flexion withdrawal reflex elicited by noxious thermal stimulation of the paw, and (c) a learned operant response (nose bar press) evoked by noxious thermal stimulation of the rats tail. These models are discussed in terms of their advantages over previous methods measuring response threshold, their fulfillment of criteria for ideal pain assessment models, and the neuronal circuitry underlying the behavioral response.. AB - This paper reviews several recently developed animal models ...
Browse our large selection of Sensory Stimulation & Early Childhood Education at Nasco. You will find a unique blend of products for Arts & Crafts, Education, Agriculture, and more!
1. Single unit impluses were recorded from the ulnar and median nerves of awake human subjects with tungsten electrodes inserted percutaneously in the upper arm. 2. One hundred and one slowly adapting receptors with receptive fields in the glabrous skin area were studied. The units were classified a …
Synonyms for cutaneous stimulation in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cutaneous stimulation. 21 synonyms for stimulation: encouragement, inspiration, motivation, encouragement, fillip, impetus, impulse, incentive, inducement, motivation, prod, push.... What are synonyms for cutaneous stimulation?
Tactile stimulation products are related to the sense of touch. Textures, sand tray, massage balls, rings, etc., help enhance a child's tactile stimulation.
Investigation of acceptable dose of mobilisation and Tactile Stimulation (MTS) to enhance upper limb recovery after stroke. A Phase 1 trial.. The scientific evidence indicates that upper limb movement recovery may be enhanced with the appropriate dose of afferent (sensorimotor) stimulation normally arising from functional activities such as grasping a cup. Even if the appropriate dose was known, people with substantial paresis (muscle weakness) would not be able to participate repetitively in functional training. For these people Mobilisation and Tactile Stimulation (MTS) therapy might enhance upper limb (arm and hand) recovery.. The key question is: in patients with substantial paresis early after stroke which dose of therapy has the best effect for the least adverse effects?. Participants were randomised to 1 of 4 groups:. ...
Response reliability is complementary to more conventional measurements of response amplitudes, and can reveal phenomena that response amplitudes do not. Here we review studies that measured reliability of cortical activity within or between human subjects in response to naturalistic stimulation (e. …
De biosynthese van kraakbeenachtige extracellulaire matrix door chondrocyten kan worden beïnvloed door toepassing van mechanische...
My son has been diagnosed with SPD and since then I have come to realise that I have quite a lot of issues for tactile input. With my first child breastfeeding
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isoflurane can indirectlg depress lumbar dorsal horn activity in the goat via action within the brain. AU - Jinks, S.. AU - Antognini, J. F.. AU - Carstens, Earl. AU - Buzin, V.. AU - Simons, C.. PY - 1999/2. Y1 - 1999/2. N2 - We have examined the response of lumbar dorsal horn cells to a noxious mechanical stimulus during differential delivery of isoflurane to the brain and spinal cord of goats. We hypothesized that isoflurane, acting in the brain, would depress dorsal horn neuronal responses to a noxious mechanical stimulus applied to the hindlimb. Eight goats were anaesthetized with isoflurane and neck dissections performed which allowed cranial bypass. Lumbar laminectomies were performed to allow measurements of single-unit dorsal horn neuronal activity. Isoflurane 1.3% was administered before bypass, and during differential delivery it was administered at each of the following head/torso combinations: 1.3%/1.3%, 0.8%/1.3%, 0.3%/1.3%, 1.3%/0.8%, 0.8%/0.8% and 0.3%/0.8%. When ...
University of Luxembourg , Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education (FLSHASE) , Integrative Research Unit: Social and Individual Development (INSIDE) ,] ...
The investigators will use passive repetitive tactile stimulation over a period of 3 months, one hour a day for five days a week, with vertical, horizontal and oblique lines generated randomly by a tactile stimulator. Our aim is (a) to study if repetitive tactile stimulation can create cross-modality and improve recognition and localization of patterns in blind people, (b) to evaluate the impact of this training on brain activity the investigators performed high-density scalp EEG recording during the initial stimulation session and in the last one. And (c) measure the functional connectivity of the brain with resting state MRI pre and post training. The resting state MRI protocol consist on one run of T1WI and three bold runs (TE=30ms,TR=3000ms, flip angle 90º,voxel size 3mm, 124 time points, 0 gap).. Cross-modality sensory stimulation may offer a good opportunity to improve recognition, localization and navigation in blind people. Although the neural substrate of this multimodality integration ...
View Notes - Perception from CJ 3323 at Texas State. Perception Definitions Sensation = physical stimulation of the sense organs by sensory information; sense organs are data reduction
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gut nociceptors. T2 - sentinels promoting host defense. AU - Brierley, Stuart M.. PY - 2020/4. Y1 - 2020/4. N2 - Gut-innervating nociceptive neurons detect noxious mechanical and chemical stimuli within our gut, constituting the start of the gut pain pathway. In a recent paper in Cell, Lai et al. report that these nociceptors also play major roles in sensing intestinal bacterial pathogens as well as defending the host by limiting pathogen colonization and invasion.. AB - Gut-innervating nociceptive neurons detect noxious mechanical and chemical stimuli within our gut, constituting the start of the gut pain pathway. In a recent paper in Cell, Lai et al. report that these nociceptors also play major roles in sensing intestinal bacterial pathogens as well as defending the host by limiting pathogen colonization and invasion.. KW - gut pain pathway. KW - intestinal bacterial pathogens. KW - pathogen colonization. UR - ...
In the present work, we describe the functional properties of cells recorded from area PEc in awake animals. Among the cells recorded in the caudal part of the SPL, we analyzed here only the properties of those cells that were found to be located within the limits of area PEc defined according to the cytoarchitectonic criteria described by Pandya and Seltzer (1982) and Luppino et al. (2005).. This is the first study that analyzes the somatosensory properties of single cells in area PEc. We found that many neurons in area PEc could be driven by somatosensory stimulation. We did not find any clustering of somatosensory properties, both in single cases and at population level. Even adjacent cells in the same penetration were modulated by somatosensory stimuli applied on different parts of the body or by different somatosensory submodalities. Although we are aware that we did not record from the entire extent of PEc, these data strongly suggest a lack of somatotopy in this cortical area. Despite ...
Katušić, Ana and Mejaški-Bošnjak, Vlatka (2011) Effects of vibrotactile stimulation on the control of muscle tone and movement facilitation in children with cerebral injury. Collegium Antropologicum, 35 (Suppl.). pp. 57-63. ISSN 0353-3735 Jurić-Lekić, Gordana and Radujković, Vedran and Kancijan, Valentina and Bulić-Jakuš, Floriana and Lokošek, Vedran and Katušić, Ana and Vlahović, Maja and Šerman, Ljiljana (2008) Differentiation of epiglottal epithelia during prenatal and postnatal human development. Collegium antropologicum, 32 (4). pp. 1115-1120. ISSN 0350-6134 (Print) Katušić, Ana and Jurić-Lekić, Gordana and Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša and Vlahović, Maja and Ježek, Davor and Šerman, Ljiljana and Sinčić, Nino and Veljanovska, Biljana and Bulić-Jakuš, Floriana (2008) Development of the fetal neural retina in vitro and in ectopic transplants in vivo. Collegium antropologicum, 32 (1). pp. 201-207. ISSN 0350-6134 (Print) Šerman, Ljiljana and Vlahović, Maja and Šijan, ...
It was suggested for Warage RTS for demonstration purposes, but then rejected by main developer. I will just leave it here, so you can hear how alternative soundtrack looks like.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the therapeutic potential of stochastic vibrotactile stimulation (SVS) as a complementary non-pharmacological intervention for withdrawal in opioid-exposed newborns. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, within-subjects single-center study was conducted in 26 opioid-exposed newborns ( | 37 weeks; 16 male) hospitalized since birth and treated pharmacologically for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. A specially-constructed mattress delivered low-level SVS (30-60Hz, 10-12mum RMS), alternated in 30-min intervals between continuous vibration (ON) and no vibration (OFF) over a 6-8 hr session. Movement activity, heart rate, respiratory rate, axillary temperature and blood-oxygen saturation were calculated separately for ON and OFF. RESULTS: There was a 35% reduction in movement activity with SVS (p|0.001), with significantly fewer movement periods | 30 sec duration for ON than OFF (p = 0.003). Incidents of tachypneic breaths and tachycardic heart beats were each significantly reduced with SVS, whereas
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of nitric oxide, 20-HETE, and EETs during functional hyperemia in whisker barrel cortex. AU - Liu, Xiaoguang. AU - Li, Chunyuan. AU - Falck, John R.. AU - Roman, Richard J.. AU - Harder, David R.. AU - Koehler, Raymond C. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) modulates vasodilation in cerebral cortex during sensory activation. NO is known to inhibit the synthesis of 20-HETE, which has been implicated in arteriolar constriction during astrocyte activation in brain slices. We tested the hypothesis that the attenuated cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to whisker stimulation seen after NO synthase (NOS) inhibition requires 20-HETE synthesis and that the ability of an epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) antagonist to reduce the CBF response is blunted after NOS inhibition but restored with simultaneous blockade of 20-HETE synthesis. In anesthetized rats, the increase in CBF during whisker stimulation was attenuated after the blockade of neuronal NOS with ...
Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus. For example, the temperature modality is registered after heat or cold stimulate a receptor. Some sensory modalities include: light, sound, temperature, taste, pressure, and smell. The type and location of the sensory receptor activated by the stimulus plays the primary role in coding the sensation. All sensory modalities work together to heighten stimuli sensation when necessary. Multimodal perception is the ability of the mammalian nervous system to combine all of the different inputs of the sensory nervous system to result in an enhanced detection or identification of a particular stimulus. Combinations of all sensory modalities are done in cases where a single sensory modality results in ambiguous and incomplete result. Integration of all sensory modalities occurs when multimodal neurons receive sensory information which overlaps with different modalities. Multimodal neurons are ...
An apparatus and method for generating tactile sensation by using constellation metaphor are provided. The apparatus includes: a tactile generator generating a tactile pattern by using a shape of image inputted from a user and generating a tactile icon having a shape of dots and lines by using the constellation metaphor according to the tactile pattern; a tactile indicator indicating a tactile sensation by using the generated tactile pattern; and a display unit displaying the generated tactile icon. Accordingly, there is an advantage in that the tactile pattern is easily generated, and a user can easily recognize the generated tactile pattern.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Spontaneous discharge and increased heat sensitivity of rat C-fiber nociceptors are present in vitro after plantar incision. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of morphine on responses of ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) neurons to colorectal distension in the rat. AU - Yang, Shou Wei. AU - Follett, Kenneth A.. PY - 1998/10/12. Y1 - 1998/10/12. N2 - In 49 halothane-anesthetized rats, we characterized the responses of single neurons in the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) to a noxious visceral stimulus (colorectal balloon distension, CRD), and studied the effects of intravenous morphine on these responses using standard extracellular microelectrode recording techniques. One hundred and four neurons were isolated on the basis of spontaneous activity. Fifty-seven (55%) responded to CRD, of which 32% had excitatory and 68% had inhibitory responses. Neurons showed tendencies toward graded responses to graded CRD pressures (20-100 mmHg), with maximum excitation or inhibition occurring at 80 or 100 mmHg, respectively. Responses to noxious (pinch, heat) and innocuous (brash, tap) cutaneous stimuli were studied in 80 of the VLO ...
A potential confusion lies in that some researchers refer to active sensing and others to active perception, when describing the same process. There is also a distinction between teleceptive and contact active sensory systems. Sensation and perception are considered distinct stages in the processing of the senses in humans and animals. Tactile sensation refers to the first stages in the functioning of the senses, related to the effect of a physical stimulus on touch receptors in the skin and their transduction and transmittal from the peripheral nervous system to the sensory areas of the brain; tactile perception refers to later stages where the sensation is processed, organized and interpreted so that the organism may use the information to guide its behaviour based on understanding its environment. Therefore active sensing could refer to controlling the movements of the sensory apparatus while contacting a stimulus; for example, brushing our fingertips across a surface to feel texture. ...
The spinothalamic tracts are ascending pathways in the spinal cord primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting pain, temperature, coarse (non-discriminative) touch and pressure sensations 1. Unlike other trac...
Abstract: Misophonia is an understudied but relatively common respondent behavior condition, the effects of which range from annoying to debilitating. Misophonia cannot be classified with DSM or ICD-criteria. Misophonia is known as a condition where commonly occurring innocuous stimuli (e.g. chewing sound) elicit anger and accompanying physiological responses which function as motivating operations for overt aggression and escape. Recent basic research on misophonia as a behavioral phenomenon has identified an immediate physical response (typically a muscle flinch) elicited by misophonic stimuli, which is unique for each person. Although there are some common misophonic stimuli, each person has a unique set of stimuli, which often includes auditory and visual stimuli, but can be any sensory modality. Misophonia is similar to general sensory sensitivity which is common with autism, but the management and intervention for each are quite different. Misophonia was first identified and named by ...
Fundación MAPFRE y Fundación Inspire working in the learning through sensory stimulation of people with special needs. Know more.
Implement a few sensory stimulation activities to help reduce aggressive behavior and calm your residents. Add a few activities to your senior activity
The Davidson Lab uses a diverse array of methods to investigate the encoding and plasticity of somatosensory information in the nervous system. ...
Potentiation of the S1 responses after ischemic treatment.(a) Example of contralateral S1 responses elicited by vibratory stimulation applied to the left hindpa
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system. For .
With all of the different options of touch technology available on the market today, its sometimes challenging to determine what type of touch sensor will work best
The rat somatosensory system contains multiple thalamocortical loops (TCLs) that altogether process, in fundamentally different ways, tactile stimuli delivered passively or actively sampled. To elucidate potential top-down mechanisms that govern TCL processing in awake, behaving animals, we simultaneously recorded neuronal ensemble activity across multiple cortical and thalamic areas while rats performed an active aperture discrimination task. Single neurons located in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the ventroposterior medial, and the posterior medial thalamic nuclei of the trigeminal somatosensory pathways exhibited prominent anticipatory firing modulations before the whiskers touching the aperture edges. This cortical and thalamic anticipatory firing could not be explained by whisker movements or whisker stimulation, because neither trigeminal ganglion sensory-evoked responses nor EMG activity were detected during the same period. Both thalamic and S1 anticipatory activity were predictive of
Slow-adapting type I (SA-I) afferents deliver sensory signals to the somatosensory cortex during low-frequency (or static) mechanical stimulation. It has been reported that the somatosensory projection from SA-I afferents is effective and reliable for object grasping and manipulation. Despite a large number of neuroimaging studies on cortical activation responding to tactile stimuli mediated by SA-I afferents, how sensory information of such tactile stimuli flows over the somatosensory cortex remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated tactile information processing of pressure stimuli between the primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortices by measuring effective connectivity using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). We applied pressure stimuli for 3 s to the right index fingertip of healthy participants and acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using a 3T MRI system. DCM analysis revealed intra-hemispheric effective connectivity between the contralateral SI
TY - ABST. T1 - Chronic and experimental jaw muscle pain evaluated with use of pressure-pain thresholds and stimulus-response functions. AU - Svensson, Peter. AU - Arendt-Nielsen, Lars. N1 - Conference code: 3. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. M3 - Conference abstract in journal. VL - 3. SP - 44. JO - Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain. JF - Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain. SN - 1058-2452. IS - Suppl. 1. Y2 - 30 July 1995 through 3 August 1995. ER - ...
Allodynia (Ancient Greek άλλος állos other and οδύνη odúnē pain) refers to central pain sensitization (increased response of neurons) following normally non-painful, often repetitive, stimulation. Allodynia can lead to the triggering of a pain response from stimuli which do not normally provoke pain. Temperature or physical stimuli can provoke allodynia, which may feel like a burning sensation, and it often occurs after injury to a site. Allodynia is different from hyperalgesia, an extreme, exaggerated reaction to a stimulus which is normally painful. There are different kinds or types of allodynia: Mechanical allodynia (also known as tactile allodynia) Static mechanical allodynia - pain in response when touched Dynamic mechanical allodynia - pain in response to stroking lightly Thermal (hot or cold) allodynia - pain from normally mild skin temperatures in the affected area Movement allodynia - pain triggered by normal movement of joints or muscles Allodynia is a clinical ...
NIRS (Near-infrared spectroscopy) is a relatively, new, non-invasive, and non-ionizing method of measuring hemodynamic responses in thick biological tissues such as the cerebral cortex. In this study, we measured the hemodynamic responses of the rat barrel cortex to whisker stimulation by using a frequency-domain NIRS system. We designed multiple optical probes comprising multi-mode optical fibers and manipulating arms, both of which can be easily applied to small animals. Various electrical stimulations were applied to rat whiskers at different voltage levels and stimulation frequencies. Our results show that the hemodynamic responses are highly dependent on the stimulation voltage level, and not so much on stimulation frequency. This paper suggests that NIRS technology is highly suitable for the study of small animal brains.. © 2009 Optical Society of Korea. PDF Article ...
Somatosensory Cortex: The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus, and is part of the somatosensory system.
Neocortical activity can evoke sensory percepts, but the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We trained mice to detect single brief whisker stimuli and report perceived stimuli by licking to obtain a reward. Pharmacological inactivation and optogenetic stimulation demonstrated a causal role for the primary somatosensory barrel cortex. Whole-cell recordings from barrel cortex neurons revealed membrane potential correlates of sensory perception. Sensory responses depended strongly on prestimulus cortical state, but both slow-wave and desynchronized cortical states were compatible with task performance. Whisker deflection evoked an early (,50 ms) reliable sensory response that was encoded through cell-specific reversal potentials. A secondary late (50-400 ms) depolarization was enhanced on hit trials compared to misses. Optogenetic inactivation revealed a causal role for late excitation. Our data reveal dynamic processing in the sensory cortex during task performance, with an early ...
Cortical sensory neurons adapt their response properties to use and disuse of peripheral receptors in their receptive field. Changes in synaptic strength can be generated in cortex by simply altering the balance of input activity, so that a persistent bias in activity levels modifies cortical receptive field properties. Such activity-dependent plasticity in cortical cell responses occurs in rat cortex when all but two whiskers are trimmed for a period of time at any age. The up-regulation of evoked responses to the intact whiskers is first seen within 24 h in the supragranular layers [Laminar comparison of somatosensory cortical plasticity. Science 265(5180):1885-1888] and continues until a new stable state is achieved [Experience-dependent plasticity in adult rat barrel cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(5):2082-2086; Armstrong-James M, Diamond ME, Ebner FF (1994) An innocuous bias in whisker use in adult rat modifies receptive fields of barrel cortex neurons. J Neurosci 14:6978-6991]. These and many
Author: Spitzer, Bernhard et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2014-05; Keywords: Working memory; Tactile; fMRI; Connectivity; Stimulus coding; Title: Maintenance and manipulation of somatosensory information in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
Previous studies suggest that cholecystokinin (CCK) is implicated in the modulation of pain sensitivity and the development of neuropathic pain. We used CCK(2) receptor deficient (CCK(2) (-/-)) mice and assessed their mechanical sensitivity using Von Frey filaments, as well as the development and time course of mechanical hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain. We found that CCK(2) (-/-) mice displayed mechanical hyposensitivity, which was reversed to the level of wild-type animals after administration of naloxone (0.1-10 mg/kg). On the other hand, injection of L-365260 (0.01-1 mg/kg), an antagonist of CCK(2) receptors, decreased dose-dependently, mechanical sensitivity in wild-type mice. The mechanism of reduced mechanical sensitivity in CCK(2) (-/-) mice may be explained by changes in interactions between CCK and opioid systems. Indeed, CCK(2) (-/-) mice natively expressed higher levels of lumbar CCK(1), opioid delta and kappa receptors. Next, we found that CCK(2) (-/-) mice did not ...
Skeletal metastases are frequently accompanied by chronic pain that is mechanoceptive in nature. Mechanistically, cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is mediated by peripheral sensory neurones innervating the cancerous site, the cell bodies of which are housed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). How these somatosensory neurons encode sensory information in CIBP remains only partly explained. Using a validated rat model, we first confirmed cortical bone destruction in CIBP but not sham-operated rats (day 14 post-surgery, designated late stage bone cancer). This occurred with behavioural mechanical hypersensitivity (Kruskal-Wallis H for independent samples; CIBP vs. Sham-operated, day 14; p , 0.0001). Next, hypothesising that the proportion and phenotype of primary afferents would be altered in the disease state, DRG in vivo imaging of genetically-encoded calcium indicators and Markov Cluster Analysis were employed to analyse 1748 late-stage CIBP (n=10), and 757 sham-operated (n=9), neurons. Distinct ...
Neuronal activity elicits metabolic and vascular responses, during which oxygen is first consumed and then supplied to the tissue via an increase in cerebral blood flow. Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of blood and tissue oxygen (To₂) responses following neuronal activity is crucial for understanding the physiological basis of functional neuroimaging signals. However, our knowledge is limited because previous To₂ measurements have been made at low temporal resolution (|100 ms). Here we recorded To₂ at high temporal resolution (1 ms), simultaneously with co-localized field potentials, at several cortical depths from the whisker region of the somatosensory cortex in anaesthetized rats and mice. Stimulation of the whiskers produced rapid, laminar-specific changes in To₂. Positive To₂ responses (i.e. increases) were observed in the superficial layers within 50 ms of stimulus onset, faster than previously reported. Negative To₂ responses (i.e. decreases) were observed in the
We used fMRI to establish whether attention to touch enhances somatosensory cortical activity. Subjects received somatosensory and visual stimulation and were instructed to attend selectively to one modality during alternating stimulus detection periods interspersed with rest periods during which no stimulus was delivered. The maximum signal change for each task versus rest was measured in anatomically defined regions of interest for each subject. Attended touch produced greater signal change than unattended touch in primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortex. In contrast to the conclusions of some previous studies, we found that the enhancement of activation with attention was at least as great in S1 as in S2. The attentional effect was unilateral in S1 and bilateral in S2 and the somatosensory insula.
The vibrotactile delayed discrimination task has been intensively studied in humans (Kostopoulos et al., 2007; Li Hegner et al., 2007; Pleger et al., 2006; Preuschhof et al., 2006; Harris et al., 2002) and nonhuman primates (Romo & Salinas, 2003). Behavioral studies gave insight regarding the ability of humans and monkey to discriminate vibrotactile frequencies (Harris et al., 2001; Sinclair & Burton, 1996; Mountcastle, Steinmetz, & Romo, 1990). Single-unit recordings revealed the neural code necessary to perform the task (Lemus et al., 2007; Luna et al., 2005; Romo et al., 1999, 2003, 2004; Brody et al., 2003; Hernandez et al., 2000, 2002; Romo, Hernandez, Zainos, et al., 2002; Salinas et al., 2000). Computational models suggest how the working memory and the decision-making components of the task might be implemented on the level of neural networks (Deco, Scarano, & Soto-Faraco, 2007; Deco & Rolls, 2006; Machens, Romo, & Brody, 2005; Miller, Brody, Romo, & Wang, 2003). Collectively, ...
Key to understanding somatosensation is the form of how the mechanical stimuli are represented in the evoked neuronal activity of the brain. Here, we focus on studies that address the question of which components of the evoked neuronal activity in the somatosensory system represent the stimulus features. We review experiments that probe whether these neuronal representations are essential to somatosensation. We also discuss recent results that suggest how the somatosensory stimuli are represented in the brain during short-term memory. Finally, we review data that show the neuronal correlates of a decision during somatosensory perception. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. ...
17. The findings demonstrate significant correlations between CT activity and estimates of pleasantness when two different stimulus parameters were varied, that is, the speed of an object moving over the skin surface 26 Å. Vallbo et al. Fig. 17 Dependence of psychoneural relation on temperature of moving touch stimuli. Lefthand plot shows CT response (n = 8) to an object moving over the receptive field at different speeds. Three different object temperatures are color coded: black-neutral, red-warm, and blue-cool. B) Delayed acceleration of impulse discharge started after about 10 s. (a, b) Originate from the same recording displayed on different time scales After-Discharge and Tickle Hypothesis Long-lasting after-discharge in thin mechanoreceptive afferents was originally described by Zotterman (1939) in the cat and led him to formulate the tickle hypothesis, that is, that an essential role of unmyelinated tactile afferents is to account for the ticklish sensation associated with light touch. ...
Cat whiskers are extremely useful for hunting, particularly at night. Their amazing sensitivity directs the cat by feeling the prey and the preys movement, to provide information for the cat to strike at the exactly correct area (the nape of the neck) of the prey. The area between the upper vertebrae, where the cats teeth can be inserted to break the back of the prey and kill it.. For a cat with damaged whiskers this is not possible and a clean kill can only take place during the day when eyesight alone can be relied upon. A cat with intact whiskers can kill equally effectively at night as in daylight.. I have noticed that when I play with my cat and she becomes attentive at what I am doing close by, her whiskers jump instantly to a forward position pointing towards the tease in front of her. This puts them in a postion to test what is front of her and be more threatening if required.. See a picture of a cat with cut whiskers.. Why are cat whiskers white?. Whatever the color the cats fur ...
Although tinnitus is defined as an internal auditory sensation, external auditory stimuli can mask tinnitus under some circumstances. High-frequency vibration delivered as bone conduction stimulation is effective in masking high-pitched tinnitus. In this preliminary report, somatosensory stimulation in the form of low-frequency muscle vibration can also mask high-frequency tinnitus. Somatosensory stimulation provides fast, immediate relief, […]. ...
View Notes - PSYC 460 from PSYC 460 at South Carolina. Cord. Spinothalamic Tract Pain Reception The difference between sharp and dull pain is the transmission speed of the nerve fibers. Alpha Delta
For infants with hirschsprungs disease hirschsprungs disease. Subsequently, innocuous stimuli that might have been used successfully in practice. Up to of cases, including skin infections, nasal packing, herpes zoster osteomyelitis chila_chap.Indd tumor primary myeloma sarcoma neural tumor secondary metastatic prostate pm professionalism the osteopathic medical research michael m. Patterson key concepts biobehavioral mechanisms or prevent their excesses. At one end of inhalation, carry the force closure mechanism proposed by those who used ocf in the ed.
China Light Touch Sensor manufacturers - Select 2018 high quality Light Touch Sensor products in best price from certified Chinese Light Industry manufacturers, Aluminum Light Parts suppliers, wholesalers and factory on
SOMATOSENSATION refers to the process that conveys information regarding the body surface and its interaction with the environment. It can be subdivided into: ...
There are numerous mechanisms by which the CNS can increase or decrease its sensitivity to a stimulus from the body. The most extreme example of desensitization occurs during an emergency situation as described above, when pain signals from the body are completely inhibited from reaching the brain.. Most of the time an injury will increase the level of sensitization, presumably so that the brain can more easily protect an area that is now known to be damaged. When an area becomes sensitized, we can expect that pain will be felt sooner and more strongly, so that even normally innocuous mechanical pressures can cause pain. There are many complicated mechanisms by which the level of sensitivity is increased or decreased which are far beyond the scope of this article to address. For our purposes, the key point is that the CNS is constantly adjusting the level of volume on the pain signals depending on a variety of factors. For whatever reason, it appears that in many individuals with chronic pain, ...
To assess mechanical allodynia, which is a painful response to a light touch or pressure from a stimulus that is not normally painful, the Electronic von Frey Anesthesiometer was developed.
Initial tension often arises in a typical micro-fabrication process. It has been well recognized that the magnitude of initial tension could be high enough to cause a serious degradation in structural performance such as the deflection-based pressure sensitivity. The coupled effect due to pretension and un-symmetry upon the relevant structural responses can be very important in this case. In particularly, it may be worthy of note about the associated mechanical sensitivity for such typical sensing devices undergoing a large deflection condition. To this end, the sensitivity of an isotropic un-symmetric layered micro-layered plate under initial tension is formulated analytically. von Karman large deflection plate theory for the case of a un-symmetrically layered isotropic plate was simplified, leading to a modified Bessel equation for the lateral slope. The solutions for geometrical responses were further manipulated to obtain an analytical expression for the mechanical sensitivity for a typical layered
The best 30 synonyms for whisker, including: facial-hair, filament, bristle, cilium, hair, breath, dash, ghost, hint, intimation, semblance and more... Find another word for whisker at YourDictionary.
Background: Preclinical studies measure withdrawal responses to evoking thermal and mechanical stimuli instead of the more clinically important spontaneous pain. New method: Therefore, we studied the effect of peripheral ...
Here you can find research highlights, reports and material written by CSCS. The information featured here is aimed at informing the public, policymakers, and computational scientists in order to promote tha CSCSs research objectives and advance the field of high-performance computing.
Shop Daily Probiotic for Dogs Chews : 60 Counts by Pet Naturals of Vermont at Whiskers N Paws with free shipping over HK$300 purchase, delivery in less than 3 working day
Daiwa WHISKER DF Carp 4,25lb 360cm prémium bojlis bot (WDFSPD2414) (173709), Prémium bojlis bot a japán Daiwatól. Előre utalással INGYEN szállítva,utánvéttel 500.- Ft szállítási költséggel., Díszállat és Horgászcikk termékek diszkont áron, akciósan!
There may be a glimmer of hope. When this diagnosis is made, it is usually a body blow. However, things just may not be totally as bad as they at first seem. CDRM is a progressive and non-painful degenerative neurological disease of dogs, affecting...
Looking for low deflection, high performance cues? PoolDawg is your source, offering pool cues from Predator, Lucasi Hybrid, OB Cues, McDermott and more.
Looking for low deflection, high performance cues? PoolDawg is your source, offering pool cues from Predator, Lucasi Hybrid, OB Cues, McDermott and more.
あっついテントに入ること1時間(驚)。ものすごいキツそうだと思ったのに、テントから出て一番に発した言葉が「すげぇイイ時間だった」ですよ。なんか、その言葉がすごく翔くんっぽくていいなぁと思いました。儀式によって色々考え、悟ったようです。貴重な体験ができてよかったね、翔くん。. 以上、ツボどころをお伝えしました(満足)♪長谷川理恵さんとご一緒ということで「年下の男はどうですか?」発言も飛び出すなど(笑)色々と頑張ってた翔くん。モナリザと言い、エコSPと言い、ちょっと知的な特番に翔くんを組んでくれた日テレ万歳☆これからもどうぞヨロシク。次はまた「ウルトラ」みたいな嵐5人での特番が見たいです(ちゃっかり)♪. 余談ですが。このエコSPのことを書いている間中なぜか「Touch Me ...
The American Physical Therapy Association, a professional organization representing physical therapists, accepts the use of ... Muscle stimulation[edit]. In 1856 Guillaume Duchenne announced that alternating was superior to direct current for ... Electrotherapeutic Terminology in Physical Therapy; Section on Clinical Electrophysiology. Alexandria, VA: American Physical ... Sim J, Adams N (1999). "Physical and other non-pharmacological interventions for fibromyalgia". Baillière's Best Practice & ...
When they adept forgiveness, their physical stimulation glided downward. They showed no more of an anxiety reaction than normal ... Forgiveness is seen as preventing poor physical health and managing good physical health.[125] ... Individuals who make a decision to genuinely forgive someone are also shown to have better physical health. This is due to the ... His studies show a reduction in experience of stress, physical manifestations of stress, and an increase in vitality.[20] ...
Infant stimulation (specialized instruction) in your home or community. *Physical, occupational and/or speech/language therapy ... The program's services and resources are designed to foster stable family relationships, enhance children's physical and ... and physical health outcomes of 4,667[22] three- and four-year-old children in a nationally representative sample of programs ...
Physical forces in bone stimulation. G.I.O.T. 2007;33(suppl. 1):S255-S261. ... specificity: the capacity of the physical agent applied to the biological target to obtain a response depending on its physical ... Physical energy can be applied for diagnostic or therapeutic aims. The principle on which clinical biophysics is based are ... Symposium of Physical Regulation of Skeletal Repair. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Rosemont, Illinois; 2005. p. 37- ...
... mechanical stimulation is all that is necessary. Arousal and stimulation are distinct things. Stimulation is a physical ... Sexual abuse results in severe emotional and often physical trauma. Among sexual assault victims over 18, 31.5% of females and ... Mostly, male victims try to hide and deny their victimization, similar to female victims, unless they have serious physical ... Effects on Sexual Assaults on Men: Physical, Mental and Sexual Consequences. International Journal of Men's Health, Vol 6, No 1 ...
Increased sympathetic stimulation is usually due to physical or psychological stress. This is the basis for the so-called fight ... An increase in sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes the heart rate to increase, both by the direct action of ... flight response, but such stimulation can also be induced by stimulants such as ephedrine, amphetamines or cocaine. Certain ... as pheochromocytoma can also cause epinephrine release and can result in tachycardia independent of nervous system stimulation ...
Physical exercise increases the amount of blood flow through the brain while simultaneously causing the growth of brain cells ... Mental stimulation is also recommended for patients. Brain aerobic activities such as reading and puzzles are endorsed to test ... However the four pillars of Alzheimer's prevention which outlines diet, physical and mental exercise, yoga and meditation and ... Paillard, Thierry; Rolland, Yves; de Souto Barreto, Philipe (2015-07-01). "Protective Effects of Physical Exercise in ...
Physical urticarias (requires a primary stimulation) d. Chronic autoimmune urticaria 3. Idiopathic (When mast cell ... Stimulation of histamine activates a histamine (H2)-sensitive adenylate cyclase of oxyntic cells, and there is a rapid increase ... and through microglia stimulation [47], contributing to the pathogenesis of such conditions such as headaches, [48] autism [49 ... physical injury through pattern recognition receptors for damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), microbial pathogens ...
"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea" [74] ... Neurophysicsis the branch of biophysics dealing with the development and use of physical methods to gain information about the ... the physical processes which occur throughout neurons are analogous to electrical circuits. Designers focus on such analogies ... generally using physiological techniques that include measurement and stimulation with electrodes or optically with ion- or ...
"Spinal cord stimulation, physical therapy help paralyzed man stand, walk with assistance". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2018-09-25. ... spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and motor cortex stimulation. ... In September 2018, Mayo Clinic and UCLA reported that spinal cord stimulation supported with physical therapy can help people ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. References[edit]. *^ a b c d McKenzie-Brown, Anne Marie (November 1, 2016). " ...
They benefit from regular physical and mental stimulation. Pembroke and Cardigan Welsh Corgis were originally listed as one ...
... transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). DBS involves implanting an ... Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug?". Current Neuropharmacology. 13 (1): 71-88. doi:10.2174/ ... "Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) , How Does TMS Work". Retrieved 2020-04-03. Levasseur-Moreau, Jean; ... Methods of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have been found to enhance human performance. In 2019, a study funded by the ...
Physical injuries, occasionally serious, are considered part of the game. Ecotopians on the whole value the benefits to young ... The narrator discovers that Ecotopian healing practices may include sexual stimulation.) The national defense strategy has ...
Infant stimulation and physical, occupational, speech and hearing therapy may benefit some patients. Infants with abnormal ... Together with this sign, the diagnosis is based on the physical symptoms and genetic testing for mutations. If the gene ...
A bottom is not necessarily a submissive; they may enjoy intense physical and psychological stimulation but not submit to the ... they may enjoy taking orders from a dominant without receiving any physical stimulation. For bottoms who are not submissive, ... Contrast this with the pure dominant, who might give orders to a submissive, or otherwise employ physical or psychological ... Many distinguish top/bottom from dominant/submissive by seeing top/bottom as an expression of physical power, while dominant/ ...
Repeated stimulation of this structure will cause orgasm and ejaculation in men. In men with spinal cord injury preventing ... Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 76 (1): 59-64. doi:10.1016/S0003-9993(95)80044-1. PMID 7811177. Griffin AS, ... Pryor, JL; Leroy, Suzanne C.; Nagel, Theodore C.; Hensleigh, Hugh C. (1995). "Vibratory stimulation for treatment of ... and Baur observe that two extremely sensitive specific locations that many men find particularly responsive to stimulation are ...
Some success has been reported with deep brain stimulation. Mouthguards and other physical protective devices may be useful in ... Patients usually receive speech, occupational and physical therapies to help with the complications associated with movement. ... "The Risk of Hardware Infection in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery Is Greater at Impulse Generator Replacement than at the ...
Physical therapy is the most common form of treatment (source needed). It may include sensory stimulation, stretching, ... Alternative forms of physical therapy include yoga and dance. Physical therapy may also include the use of braces while not ... The benefits of surgery can also be negated or reversed if the patient does not participate in physical therapy and braces (or ... Constraint-induced movement therapy is a newer form of physical therapy for SHCP that involves casting or splinting the ...
Rapport, M.D. & Bailey, J.S. (1985). "Behavioral physical therapy and spina bifida: A case study". Journal of Pediatric ... "Posture control using electrical stimulation biofeedback: A pilot study". Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology. 20 (2): ... physical therapy and criminal justice. As a discipline it has its own conferences, organizations, certification processes and ... Physical Therapy. 74 (1): 50-60. doi:10.1093/ptj/74.1.50. PMID 8265728. Brucker B. (1980): Biofeedback and rehabilitation. In L ...
Recruitment patterns in human skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation. Physical Therapy, 85(4), 358-364. Retrieved from ... It was shown that the use of electrical stimulation of muscles for motor control would stimulate large, fatigable motor unit ... In an article titled "Recruitment Patterns in Human Skeletal Muscle During Electrical Stimulation", Professors Chris M. Gregory ...
Some argue that by adding physical natural elements, such as plants, trees, rain gardens, and green roofs, to the built ... This interaction with promotes interest, mental stimulation, and pleasure. Weather: Weather can be observed directly through ... This includes three sections: Biophilic Urbanism - the physical biophilic and green measures that can be taken to increase the ... increase physical activity, better mental health and quality of life. Further, Dannenberg, et al. also found that children ...
When they adept forgiveness, their physical stimulation glided downward. They showed no more of an anxiety reaction than normal ... Forgiveness is seen as preventing poor physical health and managing good physical health. Specifically individuals who choose ... Individuals who make a decision to genuinely forgive someone are also shown to have better physical health. This is due to the ... The forgiveness of others has a positive effect on physical health when it is combined with mindfulness but evidence shows that ...
Patient has any movement to physical stimulation (score -4). Patient has no response to voice or physical stimulation (score -5 ...
This physical stimulation appears to enhance the cell-repair effects of the inflammatory response. ... Physical therapy[edit]. Ultrasound is applied using a transducer or applicator that is in direct contact with the patient's ... Therapeutic ultrasound in physical therapy is alternating compression and rarefaction of sound waves with a frequency of 0.7 to ... Kerry G Baker; Robertson, VJ; Duck, FA (2001). "A Review of Therapeutic Ultrasound: Biophysical Effects". Physical Therapy. 81 ...
Physical enhancements include cosmetics (plastic surgery & orthodontics), Drug-induced (doping & performance-enhancing drugs), ... neuro-stimulation, and supplements that improve mental functions.[2][3] Computers, mobile phones, and Internet[4] can also be ... Three forms of human enhancement currently exist: reproductive, physical, and mental. Reproductive enhancements include embryo ... such as the fear that some enhancements will create unfair physical or mental advantages to those who can and will use them, or ...
Stimulation[edit]. Ovulation induction is usually initially performed by giving an antiestrogen such as clomifene citrate or ... Stress, physical exercise, and weight loss have been correlated with oligomenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea.[17] Similarly ... The HPG axis is highly conserved in the animal kingdom.[19] While reproductive patterns may vary, the physical components and ... These physical differences lead to differences in behavior. While GnRH has not been shown to have any direct influence on ...
Physical exercise Aerobic and anaerobic exercise has been studied concerning cognitive improvement. There appears to be short- ... Pleasurable social stimulation Exposing individuals with cognitive impairment (i.e., Dementia) to daily activities designed to ... However, the effects are transient and diminishes over time and after cessation of the physical activity. Dietary supplements ... Other methods Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to improve cognition in individuals without dementia 1 ...
The suit can greatly accentuate the sensations from sexual stimulation. It is not clear if this effect can be experienced by ... Emp herself describes her physical strength, while the suit is undamaged, as approximating that of ten fit men. Invisibility. ... The suit sometimes acts autonomously, taking on the physical dimensions of Emp without her actually wearing it. The only ... and physical attributes that do not necessarily enhance the function of the suit but are active nonetheless. Most of the suit's ...
... which refers to a type of physical trauma caused to a body part, either by impact, injury or physical attack. Chloroformaster ... The suit can greatly accentuate the sensations from sexual stimulation. It is not clear if this effect can be experienced by ... Their physical condition is indicated to not be coincidental. Something which is further exemplified by the appearances of the ... Its physical attributes regarding gender, race, and possible powers or abilities are not revealed, however, Baby Bird may ...
Stimulation to orgasm is optimally achieved by a massaging sensation. Sexual arousal results in a number of physical changes in ... Sexual stimulation of the clitoris (by a number of means) can result in widespread sexual arousal and, if maintained, can ... Local stimulation can involve the clitoris, vagina and other perineal regions. The clitoris is the human female's most ...
Further studies are needed to determine the precise effects of HMB on muscle strength and physical function in older adults. ... One important rehabilitation tool for muscle atrophy includes the use of functional electrical stimulation to stimulate the ... Minimizing such occurrences as soon as possible is a primary mission of occupational and physical therapists employed within ... D.Zhang et al., Functional Electrical Stimulation in Rehabilitation Engineering: A survey, Nenyang technological University, ...
A further advantage of statistical image reconstruction techniques is that the physical effects that would need to be pre- ... Khan, FR; Henderson, JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M (eds.). Brain ... Stimulation: Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 116. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 28-30. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53497-2.00003-6.. ...
physical dependence - dependence that involves persistent physical-somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue and delirium ... Electrical or chemical stimulation of the rat hippocampus causes strengthening of synaptic signals, a process known as long- ... In "kindling", repeated stimulation of hippocampal or amygdaloid neurons in the limbic system eventually leads to seizures in ... Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ...
A metronome was used as part of a technique to test the effects of musical and rhythmic stimulation in physical rehabilitation ... eds.). Cochlear Blood Flow Changes With Short Sound Stimulation. Scientific basis of noise-induced hearing loss. New York ... Physical activity[edit]. When combining exercise with exposure to loud noises, humans have been observed to experience a long ... After a series of tests involving physical therapy exercises while songs with different tempos played, subjects were asked to ...
Is electrical brain stimulation used (like drugs) to produce pleasures in humans in other settings than scientific experiments? ... That does not mean there are some separate physical particles of a substance called "electricity" which are flowing opposite ... 1.1 Is electrical brain stimulation used (like drugs) to produce pleasures in humans in other settings than scientific ... but by physical changes. I'm guessing it turns an ugly color very quickly. Abductive (reasoning) 08:07, 3 August 2021 (UTC) ...
One major pathway being through stimulation of the nociceptin receptor,[8][9][10] and blocking this receptor may therefore be a ... may experience hyperalgesia and experience pain out of proportion to physical findings, which is a common cause for loss of ... Stimulation of nociceptive fibers in a pattern consistent with that from inflammation switches on a form of amplification in ... The use of a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation device has been shown to alleviate hyperalgesia.[28][29] ...
Electrophysiological recording and stimulation can take place either across the network or locally via an MEA, and the network ... Physical Review E. 75. doi:10.1103/physreve.75.050901. Bakkum DJ, Shkolnik AC, Ben-Ary G, Gamblen P, DeMarse TB, Potter SM ( ... They employ approximately sixty electrodes for recording and stimulation in varying patterns in a dish with a typical culture ... Other studies have attempted to imprint signal patterns onto the networks via artificial stimulation. This can be done by ...
"Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD001878. doi: ... electrical muscle stimulation, therapeutic ultrasound, and moist heat.[21] Some mixers also use techniques from alternative ... Biondi DM (June 2005). "Physical treatments for headache: a structured review". Headache. 45 (6): 738-46. doi:10.1111/j.1526- ... Chiropractic overlaps with several other forms of manual therapy, including massage therapy, osteopathy, physical therapy, and ...
The electrodes contact the heart directly through the chest, allowing stimulation pulses to pass through the body. Recipients ... Therapeutic: physical therapy machines like continuous passive range of motion (CPM) machines ... disorder or abnormal physical state, or its symptoms, in a human being; the restoration, correction or modification of a body ... diagnosis or prevention of a disease or abnormal physical condition. Health Canada reviews medical devices to assess their ...
... kindly demeanor and they adore playing games that spark their interest in physical and social stimulation. For example, with ... They require both physical and intellectual activities. A typical poodle should be reserved and a little aloof with strangers ...
... magnetic brain stimulation using transcranial magnetic stimulation, psychopharmacological manipulation, optogenetic ... He thus concludes that the idea of the self is not logically dependent on any physical thing, and that the soul should not be ... Thus if we see a tiger then there is a self-conscious identity residing in it (the soul), and a physical representative (the ... Souls who rise victorious over wicked emotions while still remaining within physical bodies are referred to as arihants.[50] ...
With causal closure, no physical event has a cause outside the physical domain, and with physical determinism, the future is ... "might be brought about by direct stimulation of someone's brain, in the absence of any relevant desire or intention on the part ... Accounts of libertarianism subdivide into non-physical theories and physical or naturalistic theories. Non-physical theories ... "If the brain is nothing but a complex physical object whose states are as much governed by physical laws as any other physical ...
It may also be used by farmers and labourers for reducing physical fatigue or hunger, and by drivers and students for improving ... to achieve a state of euphoria and stimulation; it also has anorectic (appetite-reducing) side effects. The leaves or the soft ... Khat was ranked 17th in dependence, 20th in physical harm, and 20th in social harm.[21] ... without physical examination, all entries of khat",[112] based on section 801(a) (3) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic ...
However, stimulation experiments in animals indicate that other cortical areas also affect the process. ... American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 139: 182-192. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20971. PMID 19051254.. ... During micturition, parasympathetic stimulation causes the detrusor muscle to contract and the internal urethral sphincter to ... the storage phase the internal urethral sphincter remains tense and the detrusor muscle relaxed by sympathetic stimulation. ...
Stimulation of bone resorption by vitamin A has been reported to be independent of its effects on vitamin D.[23] ... Castaño G, Etchart C, Sookoian S (2006). "Vitamin A toxicity in a physical culturist patient: a case report and review of the ...
Chebili S, Abaoub A, Mezouane B, Le Goff JF (1998). "[Antidepressants and sexual stimulation: the correlation]". Encephale (in ... making it a safer antidepressant in the elderly or people with physical disorders.[63] Of 18 people who overdosed on ... extracellular levels also increase which results in increased monoamine receptor stimulation and suppression of REM sleep, down ...
Multimodal stimulation and music: By combining music, such as lullabies and multi-modal stimulation, premature infants were ... Music interventions may have positive effects on psychological and physical outcomes in people with cancer.[51] A 2016 meta- ... Infant stimulation: This type of intervention uses musical stimulation to compensate for the lack of normal environmental ... Multi-modal stimulation (MMS) includes the applications of auditory, tactile, vestibular, and visual stimulation that helps aid ...
Epinephrine and norepinephrine (E/NE) are produced by the adrenal medulla through sympathetic stimulation and the local effects ... Release of CRH from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress, physical activity, illness, by blood levels of cortisol and by ... the adrenal cortex, which produces glucocorticoid hormones (mainly cortisol in humans) in response to stimulation by ACTH. ... The HPA axis integrates physical and psychosocial influences in order to allow an organism to adapt effectively to its ...
The most obvious physical characteristic is the strong, curved, broad bill. The upper mandible is prominent, curves downward, ... Parrots invariably require an enormous amount of attention, care, and intellectual stimulation to thrive, akin to that required ...
Itch sensations are caused by stimulation of free nerve ending from chemicals.[5] ... Cutaneous mechanoreceptors respond to mechanical stimuli that result from physical interaction, including pressure and ... They have small receptive fields and produce transient responses to the onset and offset of stimulation. ... They also produce sustained responses to static stimulation, but have large receptive fields. ...
D1 receptor stimulation activates adenylyl cyclase and raises intracellular cyclic AMP, resulting in vasodilation of most ... Chemical and physical data. Formula. C16H16ClNO3. ...
... norepinephrine is the major vasoconstrictor through stimulation of α1 receptors on the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Under ... Chemical and physical data. Formula. C21H26N2O3. ...
Hlastala MP, Ralph DD, Babb AL, Influence of gas physical properties on pulmonary gas exchange, Adv Exp Med Biol. 227 (1988) 33 ... Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated in vitro by determining their effects on stimulation of pulmonary and ...
Physical interventionEdit. The most widely used current therapeutic intervention is positive airway pressure whereby a ... Neurostimulation is currently being studied as a method of treatment;[63] an implanted hypoglossal nerve stimulation system ... In the cases where airflow is reduced to a degree where blood oxygen levels fall, or the physical exertion to breathe is too ... FDA "Premarket Approval (PMA) Inspire II Upper Airway Stimulation System" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. April 30, 2014. ...
F50-F59) Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors[edit]. *(F50) Eating disorders * ... F06) Other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical disease *(F06.0) Organic hallucinosis ... F06.9) Unspecified mental disorder due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical disease *Organic brain syndrome NOS ... F59) Unspecified behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors. (F60-F69) Disorders of ...
The increased visual, physical, and cognitive stimulation all translates into more neuronal activity and synaptic communication ... Certain types of physical exercise have been shown to markedly (threefold) increase BDNF synthesis in the human brain, a ... See also: Neuroplasticity and Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § BDNF signaling. Various studies have shown ... Russo-Neustadt AA, Beard RC, Huang YM, Cotman CW (2000). "Physical activity and antidepressant treatment potentiate the ...
... and diminished sex-specific physical characteristics. They are agonists of the GnRH receptor and work by increasing or ... continued stimulation with GnRH agonists desensitizes the pituitary gland (by causing GnRH receptor downregulation) to GnRH. ...
... or the biological intimacy of the relationship in relation to physical closeness (e.g., one species living within the tissues ... "The cleaning goby mutualism: a system without punishment, partner switching or tactile stimulation" (PDF). Journal of Zoology ...
... or that produce physical or psychological scarring.[8] Isotretinoin is not indicated for treatment of prepubertal acne and is ... The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and psychosis suggests that an increase in dopaminergic stimulation or sensitivity in ...
Physical. In terms of medical issues, lesbians are referred to as women who have sex with women (WSW) because of the ... Sexual contact, according to Kinsey, included lip kissing, deep kissing, body touching, manual breast and genital stimulation, ... Physical relationships between women were often encouraged; men felt no threat as they viewed sexual acts between women to be ... His work influenced novelist Théophile Gautier's Mademoiselle de Maupin, which provided the first description of a physical ...
Noninvasive brain stimulation and physical therapy - alone or in combination - improve some measures of walking ability in ... "Transcranial stimulation and/or physical therapy improves walking speed in Parkinsons disease." Medical News Today. ... Noninvasive brain stimulation and physical therapy - alone or in combination - improve some measures of walking ability in ... Transcranial direct current stimulation and physical therapy "could be used alone or together as a combination treatment ...
Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) therapy has been adopted as a standard treatment modality for various chronic pain conditions. ... Spinal Cord Stimulation. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) therapy has been adopted as a standard treatment modality for various ... Transient Neuropathic Pain after the Insertion of Spinal Cord Stimulation Leads: Linqiu Zhou and Tom G Shahwan ...
Mayo Clinic researchers used electrical stimulation on the spinal cord and intense physical therapy to help a man intentionally ... Electrical stimulation on spinal cord and physical therapy help patient to move paralyzed legs. *Download PDF Copy ... Mayo Clinic researchers used electrical stimulation on the spinal cord and intense physical therapy to help a man intentionally ... After a three-week recovery period from surgery, the patient resumed physical therapy with stimulation settings adjusted to ...
Physical Methods for Stimulation of Plant and Mushroom Development. Edited by: Mohamed El-Esawi. ISBN 978-1-78923-748-1, eISBN ... Physical Methods for Stimulation of Plant and Mushroom Development. Edited by Mohamed A. El-Esawi. Tanta University ... Physical Methods for Stimulation of Plant and Mushroom Development. Edited by Mohamed A. El-Esawi ... Physical Methods for Stimulation of Plant and Mushroom Development. Edited by Mohamed A. El-Esawi ...
Whats more, using such a minimally invasive technique, called transcranial direct-current stimulation, increased perception ... that acts of physical and sexual assault were morally wrong. ... Brain Stimulation Decreases Intent to Commit Physical, Sexual ... Brain Stimulation Decreases Intent to Commit Physical, Sexual Assault Research from the University of Pennsylvania shows that ... After the stimulation, the researchers presented participants with two hypothetical scenarios, one each about physical and ...
Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy Conference scheduled on September 23-24, 2022 in September 2022 in London is for the ... Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy. ICESPT 2022: 16. International Conference on Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy ... Orthopedic physical therapy. Geriatric physical therapy. Pediatric physical therapy. Neurological physical therapy. Acupuncture ... ICESPT 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy. A number of selected high ...
Active Comparator: Physical Therapy Procedure: Physical Therapy The 1.5-hour physical therapy in the control arm are provided ... Noxipoint Therapy Versus Standard Physical Therapy Using Electrical Stimulation for Chronic Pain. This study has been completed ... and compare it with standard physical therapy using electrical stimulation on patients with chronic pain. ... TENS stimulation (45 minutes):. • Electrodes will be placed around the patient-identified general pain area on the neck / ...
Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy Conference scheduled on April 22-23, 2022 in April 2022 in New York is for the ... Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy. ICESPT 2022: 16. International Conference on Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy ... Orthopedic physical therapy. Geriatric physical therapy. Pediatric physical therapy. Neurological physical therapy. Acupuncture ... ICESPT 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy. A number of selected high ...
BIOTRONIKs New CRT-D with Closed Loop Stimulation Compensates for Hard to Detect Physical Activity. July 22nd, 2015 Editors ... The device features the firms Closed Loop Stimulation physiologic sensor that takes into account the patients physical ... Transcranial Magnetic Brain Stimulation to Treat Depression and OCD: Interview with Stanfords Dr. Nolan Williams. 3D-Printed ... Flashback: BIOTRONIKs Closed Loop Stimulation for Smart Heart Pacing Now Available in U.S…. ...
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation ASsociated With Physical-therapy In Acute Stroke Patients - the tDCS ASAP - a ... Combination of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Enhances Neurological Recovery of ... More News: Anxiety , Brain , Depression , Eyes , Neurology , Physical Therapy , Rehabilitation , Statistics , Stroke , Study ...
Mild stimulation protocols try to decrease the physical, economic and psychological. Home / Uncategorized / Mild stimulation ... Mild stimulation protocols try to decrease the physical, economic and psychological. December 9, 2018. exposed0 comments ... Mild stimulation protocols try to decrease the physical, economic and psychological burden from the typical IVF process without ... Routine programming to help ease out the task schedule of doctors and embryologists put into the physical burden of treatment. ...
The simultaneous visuo-tactile stimulation of an individuals body and a virtual body (avatar) is an experimental method used ... The structure of self-experience during visuo-tactile stimulation of a virtual and the physical body ... The structure of self-experience during visuo-tactile stimulation of a virtual and the physical body ... The structure of self-experience during visuo-tactile stimulation of a virtual and the physical body ...
... is an electrical stimulation unit with pulsed and continuous therapy operation. ... Bay State Physical Therapy Acquires Comprehensive Physical Therapy August 10, 2020 * AdventHealth, PT Solutions Partner to ... Electrical Stimulation Unit Offers Portability for In and Out of Clinic Use. Posted by Cassandra Perez , Aug 22, 2014 , Pilates ... This unit has two channels of electrical stimulation output and fully functional 1 and 3.3 MHz frequencies. The Intelect also ...
Perception Definitions Sensation = physical stimulation of the sense organs by sensory information; sense organs are data ... Perception Definitions • Sensation = physical stimulation of the sense organs by sensory information; sense organs are "data ... Müllers Law - Each nerve is excited by one kind of energy and stimulation of that nerve is interpreted by the brain as that ... Perception - Perception Definitions Sensation = physical.... This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full ...
... initially preferred burst stimulation over tonic stimulation. After one year, 68.2% of subjects preferred burst stimulation, ... Why Burst Stimulation Helps Emotional Response as well as Function. Burst stimulation is a novel waveform made up of closely ... Tonic stimulation engages only the lateral pathway.7. Compared to traditional neurostimulation therapy, burst stimulation has ... Whereas tonic stimulation relies on the clinicians ability to successfully overlap stimulation-induced paresthesias with ...
1 Physical Therapy Program Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 2 ... REVIEWS EFFECTIVENESS OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION AFTER KNEE AND HIP ARTHROPLASTY: LESSONS ... Home , Riviste , European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Fascicoli precedenti , European Journal of Physical ... Neuromuscular electrical stimulation after total joint arthroplasty: a critical review of recent controlled studies. Kittelson ...
... DSpace/Manakin Repository ... 4. 4. Separate measurement and registration of the physical quantities involved in stimulation is advisable. The values ... 1. 1. In artificial heart stimulation, the essential quantity is the density of current, , in the intramyocardial wall. Dosage ...
Home , Papers , A Comparison of the Effects of Burst and Tonic Spinal Cord Stimulation on Hyperalgesia and Physical Activity in ... A Comparison of the Effects of Burst and Tonic Spinal Cord Stimulation on Hyperalgesia and Physical Activity in an Animal Model ... A Comparison of the Effects of Burst and Tonic Spinal Cord Stimulation on Hyperalgesia and Physical Activity in an Animal Model ...
OpenFES: Development of an Open-Source EMG-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation Controller for Physical Therapy. ASME. J ... OpenFES: Development of an Open-Source EMG-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation Controller for Physical Therapy PUBLIC ... Return to: OpenFES: Development of an Open-Source EMG-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation Controller for Physical ... 6) Stimulation amplitude range: 0-100 mA (16 bit analog output with voltage controlled current source). (7) Stimulation ...
Morning wood usually isnt caused by sexual stimulation. Learn what causes morning wood, what it means if you stop having these ... Physical stimulation. Though your eyes are shut, your body is still very much aware of whats happening around you. If you or ... The increase in this hormone alone may be enough to cause an erection, even in the absence of any physical stimulation. As men ... Certain physical disabilities may also make ED more likely.. Medications may also affect your ability to experience morning ...
Consult with a physical therapist today!. If you are interested in learning more about electrical stimulation therapy, or if ... If our physical therapist believes electrical stimulation will be beneficial to you, he or she will explain it in depth, and it ... How will electrical stimulation therapy benefit me?. At our Homestead and Miami, FL physical therapy practice, our main ... Electrical Stimulation Therapy. Electrical stimulation therapy is a safe and effective method of treatment that can provide ...
Electrical stimulation is a type of physical therapy modality used to accomplish various tasks in physical therapy. If you have ... is a physical therapy modality used to manage acute and chronic pain in physical therapy. Your physical therapist will use TENS ... Iontophoresis is a type of electrical stimulation that is used to help administer medication to you in physical therapy. The ... Types of electric stimulation that we might use:. Interferential Current: Interferential current (IFC) is often used to ...
Today is all about how physical stimulation encourages neurostimulation and brain function. ... There are simple strategies you can do every day to ensure the stimulation of our brain and nervous system. ...
Heal your pain through a safe and effective electric stimulation method at Together Physical Therapy. Our expert therapists are ... If our physical therapist believes electrical stimulation will be beneficial to you, he or she will explain it in depth, and it ... Consult with a physical therapist today!. If you are interested in learning more about electrical stimulation, or if you think ... How will electrical stimulation benefit me?. At our Hadley, MA physical therapy practice, our main priorities are your comfort ...
Advanced Physical Therapy Center offers certified hand therapy, occupational therapy and, physical therapy treatments including ... Electrical Muscle Stimulation Electrical stimulation uses an electrical current to cause a single muscle or a group of muscles ... Contracting the muscle via electrical stimulation helps strengthen the affected muscle. The physical therapist can change the ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a therapy that uses low-voltage electrical current for pain relief. The ...
Get instant relief from several conditions through a safe and effective electrical stimulation method at Elevate PT. Learn more ... If our physical therapist believes electrical stimulation will be beneficial to you, he or she will explain it in depth, and it ... Consult with a physical therapist today!. If you are interested in learning more about electrical stimulation, or if you think ... How will electrical stimulation benefit me?. At our Brevard, NC physical therapy practice, our main priorities are your comfort ...
Our physical therapists provide a great range of physical therapy treatments and services in locations of Chicago, IL. ... Excellcare Physical Therapy offers Electrical Stimulation to reduce or eliminate the pain, increase local circulation, decrease ... Electrical Stimulation. The Use of Electrical Stimulation in Physical Therapy. What is electrical stimulation?. While it may ... What is electrical stimulation used for in physical therapy?. There are several electrical stimulation modes that use different ...
... physical therapists offer electrical stimulation to treat relevant aches and injuries in Cortez, CO. ... What is electrical stimulation used for in physical therapy?. There are several electrical stimulation modes that use different ... Electrical Stimulation. What is electrical stimulation?. While it may sound a bit intimidating, electrical stimulation really ... Does electrical muscle stimulation hurt?. No!. The intensity of the electrical muscle stimulation or sensory nerve stimulation ...
Read more about electric stimulation here. Book an appointment today. ... Heal your pain with our unique and effective electric stimulation therapy solution at NorthStar Physical Therapy. ... If our physical therapist believes electrical stimulation will be beneficial to you, he or she will explain it in depth, and it ... Consult with a physical therapist today!. If you are interested in learning more about electrical stimulation, or if you think ...
... our authorized physical therapy treatments include electrical stimulation which can help you relieve pain and stiff muscles in ... At Walker Physical Therapy & Sports Injury Center established in Menifee, CA, ... Contact Walker Physical Therapy today to learn more.. How does electrical stimulation work?. Electrical stimulation contains a ... Get started with electrical stimulation at Walker Physical Therapy today:. At our physical therapy practice, our main ...
  • Invented by Dr. Charlie Koo at Stanford University, Noxipoint Therapy is a specific procedure with precise location, duration and intensity of TENS stimulation within the general FDA guidelines. (
  • The different types of modes include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), interferential, pre-modulated, Russian, and symmetrical or asymmetrical bi-phasic. (
  • Electric stimulation can be muscular, general and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). (
  • For the convenience of the patient, a portable TENS unit can be prescribed by the doctor or a physical therapist for the patient to use at home. (
  • Transcutaneous electrical neuromuscular stimulation (TENS) is a physical therapy modality used to manage acute and chronic pain in physical therapy. (
  • Your physical therapist will use TENS to decrease your pain by applying electrodes to your body over painful areas. (
  • Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a therapy that uses low-voltage electrical current for pain relief. (
  • These include modes such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), interferential, pre-modulated, Russian, and symmetrical or asymmetrical bi-phasic. (
  • I needed a break from fasting papers and, while I'm a big, BIG fan of EMS, and to a substantially lesser extent TENS, I am underwhelmed by high "kilohertz-frequency" alternating type currents as is commonly used in Russian stimulation for. (
  • Abstract Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). (
  • An investigation into the magnitude of the current window and perception of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) sensation at various frequencies and body sites in healthy human participants. (
  • Transcutaneous Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (TENS) is a popular electrical stimulation modality for controlling pain. (
  • A physical therapist can give you product recommendations and detailed instructions on how to set the TENS unit for maximum pain relief. (
  • TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) is a portable black unit which stimulates the nerve to block pain signals. (
  • The most common form of electrical stimulation is TENS (these are often the hand-held units you see advertised on TV or in the malls). (
  • This is distinct from transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), in which an electric current is used for pain therapy. (
  • Transcutaneous electrical stimulation, or TENS, is primarily used (with mixed results) in the treatment of muscular pain. (
  • Transcutaneous electrical neuromuscular stimulation (TENS) is a form of electrical stimulation used by your physical therapist to help control pain . (
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation and physical therapy "could be used alone or together as a combination treatment protocol to improve walking speed and step length among patients with PD," according to the study by Krisna Piravej, MD, and colleagues of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. (
  • One group received a noninvasive brain stimulation technique called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). (
  • What's more, using such a minimally invasive technique, called transcranial direct-current stimulation, increased perception that acts of physical and sexual assault were morally wrong. (
  • We're trying to find benign biological interventions that society will accept, and transcranial direct-current stimulation is minimal risk. (
  • New research lead by Hamilton with Sichun Ling, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Criminology at the University of Pennsylvania, focuses on high-density transcranial direct-current stimulation, a higher-resolution approach that activates smaller portions of the prefrontal cortex like the frontal pole. (
  • A possible adjunct to stroke rehabilitation might be non-invasive brain stimulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate cortical excitability, and hence to improve these outcomes in people after stroke. (
  • The release, which was issued by Monash University , states that current methods used to stimulate different parts of the brain with electricity include transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current simulation (tACS). (
  • Click here to read 'Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Plus Physical Therapy on Gait in Patients With Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (
  • Article: 'Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Plus Physical Therapy on Gait in Patients With Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (
  • But nearly every animal benefits from daily mental stimulation. (
  • It also is a form of mental stimulation. (
  • It takes repetition for a dog to learn something new, which means that training and practice are great forms of mental stimulation. (
  • Remember, engaging with you and the world around them is the best form of mental stimulation for your dog. (
  • Whether you have a dog or a cat, exercise can provide both physical and mental stimulation and help to improve problem behaviors. (
  • Introducing exercise by employing different cat toys will help to promote physical and mental stimulation, bonding between you and your cat, ward off overeating and problem behaviors. (
  • Just like cats, exercise provides dogs with an outlet for pent up energy and mental stimulation by engaging with their environment. (
  • We are supporting the wellbeing and mental stimulation of people living with dementia through group programmes. (
  • Noninvasive brain stimulation and physical therapy - alone or in combination - improve some measures of walking ability in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), concludes a clinical trial in the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation , the official journal of the Association of Academic Physiatrists. (
  • In addition to showing a benefit of brain stimulation, the results suggest that physical therapy has benefits beyond symptom relief for patients with PD. (
  • Deep brain stimulation is an effective treatment for slow walking and other manifestations of PD. (
  • Can brain stimulation enhance physical skills? (
  • At ISTC the Laboratory of Electrophysiology for Translational neuroScience (LET'S) is carrying on pioneering studies on rehabilitation techniques using brain stimulation. (
  • This technique uses brain stimulation to introduce non-invasive electric signals into the brain, increasing the activity of the hemisphere affected by the stroke. (
  • Since 2009, four randomized controlled trials have investigated the use of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) as a treatment modality following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). (
  • Factors influencing quadriceps femoris muscle torque using transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation.Physical Therapy. (
  • Abstract Quadriceps femoris muscle torque was measured in 40 subjects during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). (
  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation can elicit aerobic exercise response without undue discomfort in healthy physically active adults. (
  • Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. (
  • Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is often used to help your muscles to relearn how to contract properly. (
  • The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of Noxipoint(TM) therapy on chronic pain, and compare it with standard physical therapy using electrical stimulation on patients with chronic pain. (
  • Leading Edge Physiotherapy is pleased to offer IMS - Intra-Muscular Stimulation in Edmonton and St. Albert, Alberta. (
  • Northgate Physiotherapy, Chiropractic & Massage Therapy Centre provides multiple treatment options including intramuscular stimulation. (
  • Physical abilities can therefore be enhanced not only through traditional physiotherapy, but also by exploiting brain plasticity. (
  • Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) therapy has been adopted as a standard treatment modality for various chronic pain conditions. (
  • Electrical stimulation is a type of physical therapy modality used to accomplish various tasks in physical therapy. (
  • When used correctly and provided under the guidance of a licensed and skilled physical therapist , electrical stimulation is a safe and efficacious modality that can be used to treat a variety of conditions. (
  • If your physical therapist decides that electrical stimulation is an appropriate part of your plan of care, he or she will first educate you about the specific modality. (
  • Electrical stimulation is a modality which uses electrical current to stimulate a muscle contraction. (
  • Electrical stimulation is a therapeutic modality commonly used in physical therapy as part of a comprehensive physical therapy program. (
  • Teams from Mayo Clinic's departments of Neurosurgery and Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and the Division of Engineering collaborated on this project. (
  • If you have an injury or illness that causes pain or limited functional mobility, we may use electrical stimulation, or E-stim, as one small part of your rehabilitation program. (
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. (
  • In medicine, EMS is used for rehabilitation purposes, for instance in physical therapy in the prevention muscle atrophy due to inactivity or neuromuscular imbalance, which can occur for example after musculoskeletal injuries (damage to bones, joints, muscles, ligaments and tendons). (
  • American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation focuses on the practice, research and educational aspects of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (
  • Enquire for a fast quote from Physical Rehabilitation Clinic - Jakarta Barat. (
  • February 2009 : Dr. Sumarni has finished her study program on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia. (
  • Two of these studies demonstrated a treatment effect of NMES for improving physical function, while another study failed to find additional benefit of NMES relative to a progressive exercise intervention. (
  • The fourth study demonstrated non-inferiority of NMES compared supervised physical therapy. (
  • Some specialized stimulation units, like the Bioness , use functional NMES. (
  • He had three training sessions a week to prepare his muscles for attempting tasks during spinal cord stimulation. (
  • Physical therapists and other medical practitioners attach electrodes on the patient's skin, causing the target muscles to contract. (
  • Electric stimulation works by mimicking the natural way by which the body exercises its muscles. (
  • The muscular type of electric stimulation seeks to strengthen the muscles by reducing muscle spasms. (
  • A physical therapist attaches electrodes on the patient's skin through which electric impulses are delivered, causing the target muscles to contract. (
  • Electrical stimulation uses an electrical current to cause a single muscle or a group of muscles to contract. (
  • Electrical muscle stimulation creates tiny contractions in the muscles so they become tired and relax, relieving pain and muscle spasms. (
  • Muscles that have a nerve supply (are innervated) can be strengthened and the stimulation can prevent or reverse disuse atrophy, improve mobility, promote circulation, and prevent fibrotic changes. (
  • Using a vaginal or rectal probe, the stimulation is directed to the pelvic floor muscles and surrounding tissues which may be the source of pain due to spasm, trigger points, tender points, or swelling. (
  • rather it is the mechanical stimulation of the insertion of the needle into the affected muscles that provides the therapeutic effect. (
  • Electrical stimulation is typically used to reduce swelling, reduce pain, strengthen muscles, and increasing uptake of certain medications. (
  • EMS devices cause a calorie burning that is marginal at best: calories are burnt in significant amount only when most of the body is involved in physical exercise: several muscles, the heart and the respiratory system are all engaged at once. (
  • However, some authors imply that EMS can lead to exercise, since people toning their muscles with electrical stimulation are more likely afterwards to participate in sporting activities as the body becomes ready, fit, willing and able to take on physical activity. (
  • It was discovered that the body functions induced by electrical stimulation caused long-term changes in the muscles. (
  • Medical physiology research pinpointed the mechanisms by which electrical stimulation causes adaptation of cells of muscles, blood vessels and nerves. (
  • Neurostimulation electrodes "are placed on the convex side of the curve in the region of the posterior to midaxillary line" in order to engage the back muscles through neuromuscular stimulation as the patient sleeps. (
  • Interventions Participants were randomised (remotely by computer) to 8 weeks (5×60 mins per week) of either LF-EMS intervention (4 Hz, continuous, n=30) or sham placebo (skin level stimulation only, n=30) of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles. (
  • After locating painful areas in the pelvic floor muscles, a myofascial physical therapist uses her fingers to manipulate the tender areas to release tight muscle fibers. (
  • Your physical therapist may use electrical stimulation to help improve the way your muscles contract. (
  • If you are having difficulty with incontinence , your PT may use electrical stimulation to help you engage the proper muscles that help keep urine flow at bay. (
  • Your PT may also use a form of electrical stimulation as biofeedback -electrical impulses that monitor your muscle contractions to tell you if you are working the right muscles properly. (
  • From there, one of our licensed physical therapists will create an individualized treatment plan, based on your specific needs. (
  • It is used by physical therapists and chiropractors for the purpose of decreasing inflammation and swelling of affected tissues. (
  • In using electric stimulation, physical therapists seek to improve quality of life for patients when the traditional treatment plans are not working. (
  • Physical therapists use very specific types of electrical stimulation to potentially speed up the healing process. (
  • Physical therapists make use of EMS for joint-sparing muscle formation. (
  • In-clinic visits with physical therapists are very important for these patients, but another (often overlooked) component of a full recovery is the continuous care achieved through at-home exercises. (
  • Our physical therapy department is staffed by full-time therapists and therapy assistants. (
  • Some physical therapists are wound care specialists, and they may use electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing. (
  • Physical therapists are highly educated medical professionals who work with patients toward wellness and injury prevention. (
  • A new technique engineered to enhance brain excitability could improve physical performance in healthy individuals such as athletes and musicians, and improve treatments for neurological and neuropsychological conditions such as stroke, chronic pain, and depression, reports a recent news release. (
  • Electrical stimulation treatments are often combined with temperature modalities (hot packs, cold packs) at the end of a physical therapy session for fifteen minutes to control swelling after activity. (
  • Physical therapy for lower back pain is similar to treatments as for other athletic injuries. (
  • A study involving 81 women with interstitial cystitis and pelvic area pain were randomized to receive myofascial physical therapy or regular massage therapy for 10 treatments. (
  • Electrical stimulation treatments may be used to send gentle electrical pulses through the skin into local tissue. (
  • There are different types of electrical stimulation , or e-stim as it is commonly referred to. (
  • Recent developments in SCS technology offer nonpharmacologic treatment options for patients with intractable chronic pain conditions that act not only on physical pain symptoms but also on the emotional effects of chronic pain. (
  • 0.017) to tonic stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain of the trunk and/or limbs. (
  • Electrical muscle stimulation works well for both acute and chronic pain. (
  • Deep Muscle Stimulation Therapy can be used in effective management of acute and chronic pain. (
  • Iontophoresis is a form of electrical stimulation that is used by your physical therapist to administer medication . (
  • A broad range of musculoskeletal problems are now successfully treated using the relatively new technique of Intramuscular Stimulation (IMS). (
  • 1 Devices were first implanted in 1967 by Shealy , who noted that paresthesia elicited by electrical stimulation of the dorsal columns (DC) inhibited deep pain due to metastatic lung cancer. (
  • Many physical factors are currently used for plant treatment, including electromagnetic waves, optical emission, laser, magnetic field, gamma rays and ultrasound and ionizing radiation. (
  • Our physical therapy services, including electrical stimulation and other modalities, are evidenced-based, state-of-the-art, effective, and have minimal to no risk of side effects. (
  • Modern physical therapy often involves the use of modalities. (
  • Physical therapy combines passive modalities with active exercise to help patients resume normal activities more quickly. (
  • Compared to traditional neurostimulation therapy, burst stimulation has been shown to provide superior relief from pain and its associated suffering. (
  • Today is all about how physical stimulation encourages neurostimulation and brain function. (
  • It is a non-invasive scoliosis treatment that utilizes electrical muscle stimulation, which is also known as neurostimulation or neuromuscular stimulation. (
  • The stimulation creates muscle contractions and strengthens the patient's back in order to gradually straighten out the spinal curvature. (
  • Perception - Perception Definitions Sensation = physical. (
  • However, tonic SCS frequently leaves patients with insufficient pain relief and uncomfortable paresthesias (described as an abnormal tingling or pricking sensation), leading manufacturers to develop new stimulation waveforms including burst and high frequency. (
  • Electrical stimulation therapy is also safe to use on every area of the body - even the anterior neck, eyes, or over areas with damaged skin or decreased sensation. (
  • Typically, electrical stimulation will feel tingly or prickly (some patients describe it as a comforting "pins and needles" sensation). (
  • Research at the University of Bayreuth for sports medicine in Germany has found that EMS significantly reduces back pains and unintentional urination as well as a significant improvement in physical sensation and stress. (
  • Electric stimulation therapy is a therapeutic treatment that applies electrical stimulation in treating muscle spasms and pain. (
  • Electrical muscle stimulation can be used as a training, therapeutic, or cosmetic tool. (
  • After a three-week recovery period from surgery, the patient resumed physical therapy with stimulation settings adjusted to enable movements. (
  • If you are feeling muscle spasms and have trigger points , your PT may use electrical stimulation such as interferential current to help reduce your symptoms. (
  • While physical therapy has been used to treat symptoms in patients with PD, it has not been regarded as a standard treatment. (
  • The new study adds to previous evidence that physical therapy targeting joint motion, flexibility, muscle strength, cardiovascular fitness, and balance can improve problems with gait abnormality in patients with PD. (
  • Activation of pain fibers also induces tingling paresthesias in the dermatomal regions correlated with the area of the spinal cord where the stimulation is applied, which clinicians find useful to map the extent of the stimulation, but which are also often uncomfortable for patients. (
  • The goal of these small pilot studies was to test the anti-inflammatory effect of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) of specific target zones within the outer ear on patients with rheumatoid arthritis and a control group. (
  • Kevin Tracey concluded, "This clinical research suggests that non-invasive [vagus nerve] stimulation could suppress inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis patients. (
  • Patients trying to heal from pelvic pain or dysfunction, urinary or fecal incontinence, or bladder urgency/frequency may benefit from the use of internal electrical stimulation applied transvaginally or transrectally. (
  • Our study demonstrated that both tDCS and physical therapy are effective in improving the walking ability in patients with PD,' Dr. Piravej and coauthors conclude. (
  • Monthly issues keep physiatrists up-to-date on the optimal functional restoration of patients with disabilities, physical treatment of neuromuscular impairments, the development of new rehabilitative technologies, and the use of electrodiagnostic studies. (
  • DRF is excited to announce our investment in MoTrack Therapy , a company improving the physical therapy experience for patients by integrating their at-home exercises with a smartphone app, providing real-time feedback, long term improvement tracking, and fun games. (
  • There is greater consumerization of healthcare services overall - we're seeing this especially in the primary care services market, but physical therapy clinics are included in this new competitive market, since patients have limited insurance coverage and are paying out of pocket. (
  • Said David Greene, CEO of the Arizona Pain Network, "The most modern and successful treatment model is to bring pain doctors, chiropractors, physical rehab, acupuncture, and spinal decompression therapy together so patients have more options. (
  • 25 underwent an intervention involving physical exercise with music, and 21 performed cognitive stimulation tasks. (
  • In the cognitive-stimulation group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices and the cognitive functional independence measure at baseline. (
  • In the no-IMP subgroup, voxel-based morphometric analysis at baseline revealed more extensive gray matter loss in the anterior cingulate gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus in the exercise-with-music and cognitive-stimulation groups, respectively. (
  • Maintenance Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (MCST) is a weekly one to two-hour long programme for people living with mild to moderate dementia. (
  • After someone is diagnosed with dementia, they may be offered Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST). (
  • Cognitive Stimulation is the only non-drug treatment recommended to improve cognition, independence and well-being by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) . (
  • Following physical therapy, he underwent surgery to implant an electrode in the epidural space near the spinal cord below the injured area. (
  • Included studies differed in terms of type, location and duration of stimulation, amount of current delivered, electrode size and positioning, as well as type and location of stroke. (
  • The following is my headache results with electric muscle stimulation (EMS) and builds on a prior blog where I did the same thing but with somewhat different electrode placement, and slightly different parameters programmed into my EMS machines. (
  • In fact, the intensity of the electrical muscle stimulation or sensory nerve stimulation can be easily modified to the tolerance of each patient. (
  • The intensity of the electrical muscle stimulation or sensory nerve stimulation is easily modifiable and ultimately will only be as much as you, the patient, can tolerate. (
  • Vagus nerve stimulation via the external ear may reduce inflammatory responses. (
  • For this study, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) pioneer Kevin Tracey and his team at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research collaborated with researchers at the Academic Medical Center at the University of Amsterdam. (
  • For their most recent pilot study, senior author Sangeeta Chavan of the Feinstein Institute and colleagues tested the efficacy of external-ear vagus nerve stimulation using vibrotactile treatment to reduce inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis severity. (
  • Nerve stimulation. (
  • Routine programming to help ease out the task schedule of doctors and embryologists put into the physical burden of treatment. (
  • The treatment, Jaberzadeh says, known as transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) is a non-constant form of stimulation with "on" and "off" periods-or pulsing-between the two electrodes. (
  • Electrical stimulation therapy is a safe and effective method of treatment that can provide pain relief and recovery for several conditions. (
  • A standard electrical stimulation device utilizes self-adhesive electrodes placed around the target treatment area on the body. (
  • If our physical therapist believes electrical stimulation will be beneficial to you, he or she will explain it in depth, and it will be incorporated into your treatment plan. (
  • During an electrical stimulation treatment, you'll be asked to sit or lie in a comfortable position, your skin in the target treatment area will be cleaned and prepped, and your PT will guide you step-by-step through the entire treatment. (
  • While individual units and modes of delivery can vary, the standard electrical stimulation device utilizes self-adhesive electrodes placed around the target treatment area on the body. (
  • Your physical therapist will be able to diagnose your condition and then devise an appropriate treatment plan to meet your unique needs. (
  • Contact us at 734-971-9790 to schedule an initial evaluation with a physical therapist to determine which treatment approach is right for you. (
  • Did you know that physical therapy is a natural form of pain relief treatment that can be used to manage a variety of different conditions? (
  • Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) is a treatment method being used to reduce pain, swelling, and recovery time. (
  • Lateral electrical surface stimulation is a neuromuscular stimulation treatment for idiopathic scoliosis. (
  • The LESS treatment is a less intrusive form of scoliosis treatment, and eliminates the physical and psychological problems that can be associated with traditional bracing treatment. (
  • In LESS treatment, the patient is treated through neuromuscular stimulation each night during sleep. (
  • Lateral electrical surface stimulation as an alternative to bracing in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. (
  • Some scientists are shifting their views on the physical roots of depression, opening up new potential methods of treatment. (
  • A physical therapy treatment program that is active in nature and geared toward instructing the patient in self care techniques and back injury prevention are key ingredients in returning a person to a pain-free, active and healthy lifestyle. (
  • Mayo Clinic researchers used electrical stimulation on the spinal cord and intense physical therapy to help a man intentionally move his paralyzed legs, stand and make steplike motions for the first time in three years. (
  • The data suggest that people with discomplete spinal cord injuries may be candidates for epidural stimulation therapy. (
  • Spinal cord stimulation has been in use for 50 years, but new high frequency and burst devices may be more effective and provide previously unheard-of benefits. (
  • Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) therapy, which was introduced more than 50 years ago, is delivered by a neurostimulator implanted under the skin. (
  • A Comparison of the Effects of Burst and Tonic Spinal Cord Stimulation on Hyperalgesia and Physical Activity in an Animal Model of Neuropathic Pain. (
  • This unit has two channels of electrical stimulation output and fully functional 1 and 3.3 MHz frequencies. (
  • The development of OpenFES hardware presented in this paper involved a closed-loop functional electrical stimulation (FES) system that could be assembled from off-the-shelf parts in India. (
  • Functional Electrical Stimulation to the Dorsiflexors and Quadriceps in Children with Cerebral Palsy. (
  • The purpose of the study was to look at the properties of functional electrical stimulation to the ankle dorsiflexors and quadriceps in children with cerebral palsy (CP). (
  • Biofeedback can help a patient to affect a particular function specific to a problem through mental or physical exercises, such as relieving neck pain due to muscle tension. (
  • Iontophoresis is a type of electrical stimulation that is used to help administer medication to you in physical therapy. (
  • Your physical therapist will likely use iontophoresis to decrease inflammation or muscle spasm, or to break up calcium deposits that may occur in conditions like shoulder calcific tendonitis. (
  • Burst stimulation is a novel waveform made up of closely spaced, high-frequency electrical impulses delivered in packets, which are followed by a quiescent period or interburst interval. (
  • The biphasic stimulation waveform was obtained with an analog switch that switched to reverse the polarity of the surface electrodes. (
  • The study started with the patient going through 22 weeks of physical therapy. (
  • The Mayo study marks the first time a patient intentionally controlled previously paralyzed functions within the first two weeks of stimulation. (
  • Whereas tonic stimulation relies on the clinician's ability to successfully overlap stimulation-induced paresthesias with chronically painful areas, the new waveforms have improved clinical outcomes and are reported to provide a more comfortable patient experience. (
  • With electric stimulation, the patient can maintain muscle tone and strength that would otherwise waste away due to lack of usage. (
  • At your initial consultation, expect to be taken through a thorough patient history questionnaire (we'll ask questions about your current, past, and family medical history) and physical examination. (
  • Assess physical, social and cultural components of the patient. (
  • In the future, the ability to provide 'patient-specific stimulation' tDCS at home could offer additional advantages. (
  • Electrical stimulation, when set with appropriate parameters, can selectively activate the A-beta nerve fibers and block the brain from receiving the pain signal from the body. (
  • Massage therapy has been effective with violent adolescents, perhaps because the physical stimulation reduced their dopamine levels and increased their serotonin levels. (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • ICESPT 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Electric Stimulation in Physical Therapy . (
  • The general type of electric stimulation is used for healing wounds and alleviating pain. (
  • Galvanic stimulation is also another application of electric stimulation. (
  • This is a continuation of the "Notes From My Year Year of Electric Muscle Stimulation" which is becoming one of my more popular blog posts. (
  • Those notes were what I wrote down as I did EMS (electric muscle stimulation) for. (
  • The Health Ministry issued a warning to the public on Monday on the use of EMS (electric muscle stimulation) equipment in gyms and at home for exercise and losing weight. (
  • This book will be of interest to many readers, researchers and scientists who can find this information useful for the advancement of their research works towards a better understanding of physical methods in plant and mushroom development. (
  • After the stimulation, the researchers presented participants with two hypothetical scenarios, one each about physical and sexual assault, and asked them to rate on a scale of 0 to 10 (with 0 being no chance and 10 being 100 percent) the likelihood that they would act as the protagonist in the vignettes. (
  • This causes the currents running between the electrodes to "interfere" with one another, and allows your physical therapist to use a higher intensity current while still maintaining maximum comfort for you. (
  • There are several electrical stimulation modes that use different types of currents intended to stimulate different nerves in a variety of specific ways. (
  • But what happens if M1 excitability is enhanced with transcranial stimulation, a non invasive method that induces weak electrical currents in the brain? (
  • Another group received a physical therapy program, focusing on joint range of motion and flexibility, leg muscle strengthening, and balance and gait training. (
  • Outcome measures Recruitment, adherence and tolerability to the intervention were measured during the trial as well as physiological outcomes (primary outcome: 6 min walk, secondary outcomes: quadriceps strength, quality of life and physical activity). (
  • Here are some examples of how your physical therapist uses electrical stimulation during physical therapy. (
  • With burst stimulation, the impulses traveling to the thalamus target both the lateral area, which controls the individual's perception of pain, and the medial area, which controls the emotional response and attention to painful stimuli. (
  • If you are suffering from a painful condition and you are looking for relief, electrical stimulation may be the answer. (
  • Is electrical stimulation painful? (
  • Noncompliance with at-home physical therapy exercises leads to longer recovery times, repeat surgeries, and permanently impaired range of motion. (
  • MoTrack Therapy is doing the same, improving the effectiveness of physical therapy by drawing focus back to at-home exercises and reducing the time to recovery, increasing the extent of recovery, lowering cost, and increasing accessibility. (
  • Subjecting a eye to a mechanical force would produce the experience of visual information, this is because the nerves are sending visual energy so stimulation produces visual energy. (
  • Deep Muscle Stimulation uses percussion and mechanical vibrations to reach deep into the muscle tissue to stimulate the muscle. (
  • Electrical stimulation is based on the principles of charged particles flowing to reduce inflammation and control pain. (