Formularies as Topic
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/518)A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity. (+info)
Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia. (2/518)Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (microseconds max) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for microseconds max and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate. (+info)
The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. (3/518)The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production. (+info)
Recent progress in safety evaluation studies on plasticizers and plastics and their controlled use in Japan. (4/518)Recent experimental studies in Japan on the evaluation of potential health hazards from phthalate esters used in manufacturing poly (vinyl chloride) as well as several plastics for medical devices and for food containers and packages were introduced. Development of pulmonary granuloma formation after intravenous injection of diethylhexyl phthalate was assumed to be dependent on the particle size of the phthalate in vehicle used. Dietary administration of large amount of diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate produced renal cysts in mothers and in descendants in reproduction studies in mice. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the phthalates and several plastics and resins were also examined by in vivo and in vitro studies. Hematological parameters examined in rabbits after repeated intravenous injection of diethylhexyl phthalate and after implantation of plastics in aorta for 3--6 months did not show any significant change. A slow decrease of radioactivity was observed in adipose tissue of rats following oral administration of 14C-labeled diethylhexyl phthalate. tthe administrative action on phthalates by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare is briefly reviewed. (+info)
Role of quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase in degradation of phthalate by Burkholderia cepacia DBO1. (5/518)Two distinct regions of DNA encode the enzymes needed for phthalate degradation by Burkholderia cepacia DBO1. A gene coding for an enzyme (quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase) involved in the biosynthesis of NAD+ was identified between these two regions by sequence analysis and functional assays. Southern hybridization experiments indicate that DBO1 and other phthalate-degrading B. cepacia strains have two dissimilar genes for this enzyme, while non-phthalate-degrading B. cepacia strains have only a single gene. The sequenced gene was labeled ophE, due to the fact that it is specifically induced by phthalate as shown by lacZ gene fusions. Insertional knockout mutants lacking ophE grow noticeably slower on phthalate while exhibiting normal rates of growth on other substrates. The fact that elevated levels of quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase enhance growth on phthalate stems from the structural similarities between phthalate and quinolinate: phthalate is a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme and the phthalate catabolic pathway cometabolizes quinolinate. The recruitment of this gene for growth on phthalate thus gives B. cepacia an advantage over other phthalate-degrading bacteria in the environment. (+info)
Quantitative evaluation of alternative mechanisms of blood and testes disposition of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in rats. (6/518)Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a commercially important plasticizer, induces testicular toxicity in laboratory animals at high doses. After oral exposure, most of the DEHP is rapidly metabolized in the gut to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), which is the active metabolite for induction of testicular toxicity. To quantify the testes dose of MEHP with various routes of exposure and dose levels, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for DEHP and MEHP in rats. Tissue:blood partition coefficients for DEHP were estimated from the n-octanol: water partition coefficient, while partition coefficients for MEHP were determined experimentally using a vial equilibration technique. All other parameters were either found in the literature or estimated from blood or tissue levels following oral or intravenous exposure to DEHP or MEHP. A flow-limited model failed to adequately simulate the available data. Alternative plausible mechanisms were explored, including diffusion-limited membrane transport, enterohepatic circulation, and MEHP ionization (pH-trapping model). In the pH-trapping model, only nonionized MEHP is free to become partitioned into the tissues, where it is equilibrated and trapped as ionized MEHP until it is deionized and released. All three alternative models significantly improved predictions of DEHP and MEHP blood concentrations over the flow-limited model predictions. The pH-trapping model gave the best predictions with the largest value of the log likelihood function. Predicted MEHP blood and testes concentrations were compared to measured concentrations in juvenile rats to validate the pH-trapping model. Thus, MEHP ionization may be an important mechanism of MEHP blood and testes disposition in rats. (+info)
Retrospective evaluation of alpha 2u-globulin accumulation in male rat kidneys following high doses of diisononyl phthalate. (7/518)Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a widely used plasticizer, has been evaluated in two chronic studies in rats and one in mice. In the early 1980s, Exxon found no carcinogenic potential at the estimated maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 0.6% (307 mg/kg/ day for male rats) administered in the diet of rats for 2 years. A recent study conducted at dietary levels up to 1.2% DINP (733 mg/kg/d for male rats) reported kidney tumors in male rats at the high treatment level, but not in female rats nor mice of either sex. Because these tumors occurred only in male rats, and only at high doses, the male rat-specific alpha 2u-globulin (alpha2UG) mechanism of action was investigated. Technological advances in immunohistochemical staining and computerized image analysis techniques permitted measuring the accumulation of alpha2UG in archived kidneys from the earlier Exxon study. Using archived tissue obtained at the 12-month interim sacrifice, we identified a dose-dependent accumulation of alpha2UG in specific regions of male rat kidneys only. An increase in cell proliferation was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and was confined to the areas of alpha2UG accumulation. H and E-stained sections revealed tubular epithelial hypertrophy and regeneration, consistent with the immunohistopathology findings. These findings are consistent with the alpha2UG mechanism of tumorigenesis, which is not regarded as relevant for humans. Thus, exposure to DINP produced a dose-dependent alpha2UG accumulation in male rat kidneys, significant at a dietary level of 0.6% and a likely mechanism for the kidney tumors seen only in male rats administered higher dietary levels of DINP. (+info)
Characterization of the phthalate permease OphD from Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17616. (8/518)The ophD gene, encoding a permease for phthalate transport, was cloned from Burkholderia cepacia ATCC 17616. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli results in the ability to transport phthalate rapidly into the cell. Uptake inhibition experiments show that 4-hydroxyphthalate, 4-chlorophthalate, 4-methylphthalate, and cinchomeronate compete for the phthalate permease. An ophD knockout mutant of 17616 grows slightly more slowly on phthalate but is still able to take up phthalate at rates equivalent to that of the wild-type strain. This means that 17616 must have a second phthalate-inducible phthalate uptake system. (+info)
Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians - AFSCME Information Highway
Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and green or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for ...
diethyl phthalate menufacture in china
Jan 21, 2015· Diethyl phthalate is a man-made colorless liquid with a slight aromatic odor and a bitter, disagreeable taste. Trade names include neantine, peilatinol A, and solvanol. Diethyl phthalate is manufactured for many uses. It is commonly used to make plastics more flexible. Because diethyl phthalate is not a part of the chain of chemicals (polymers) which makes up the plastics, it can be ...
Association of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference: a cross-sectional...
Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants aged 6-80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999-2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP), mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP), mono-n-butyl (MBP), and mono-benzyl (MBzP) phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP) phthalate (2001-2002). Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. The most consistent associations were in males aged 20-59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002), and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In
Global Diethyl Phthalate Market Research Report, Future Demand and Growth Scenario
Diethyl Phthalate Market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 3.30% for 2021 to 2028 with factors such as, increase in population has increased the need for modern day agricultural cultivation with better yield, restraining the market growth in the above mentioned forecasted period., Diethyl phthalate market has shown an exceptional penetration in developed economies in Asia-Pacific due to growing population, increase in the production level of personal care products and rise in the level of disposable income within this particular region.
Diethyl phthalate - Wikipedia
Biodegradation of DEP in soil occurs by sequential hydrolysis of the two diethyl chains of the phthalate to produce monoethyl phthalate, followed by phthalic acid. This reaction occurs very slowly in an abiotic environment. Thus there exists an alternative pathway of biodegradation which includes transesterification or demethylation by microorganisms, if the soil is also contaminated with methanol, that would produce another three intermediate compounds, ethyl methyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate and monomethyl phthalate. This biodegradation has been observed in several soil bacteria. Some bacteria with these abilities have specific enzymes involved in the degradation of phthalic acid esters such as phthalate oxygenase, phthalate dioxygenase, phthalate dehydrogenase and phthalate decarboxylase. The developed intermediates of the transesterification or demethylation, ethyl methyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate, enhance the toxic effect and are able to disrupt the membrane of ...
Phthalic Acid | Article about Phthalic Acid by The Free Dictionary
Looking for Phthalic Acid? Find out information about Phthalic Acid. C6H4 2 Any of three isomeric benzene dicarboxylic acids; the ortho form is usually called phthalic acid, comprises alcohol-soluble, colorless crystals... Explanation of Phthalic Acid
Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age: Taiwan maternal and infant cohort...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age. T2 - Taiwan maternal and infant cohort study. AU - Lien, Yin Ju. AU - Ku, Hsiu Ying. AU - Su, Pen Hua. AU - Chen, Suh Jen. AU - Chen, Hsiao Yen. AU - Liao, Pao Chi. AU - Chen, Wei J.. AU - Wang, Shu Li. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2014, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children.Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age.Methods: A total of 122 mother-child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and ...
Maternal phthalate exposure and asthma, rhinitis and eczema in 552 children aged 5 years; a prospective cohort study |...
Prenatal phthalate exposure has been suggested to alter immune responses and increase the risk of asthma, eczema and rhinitis. However, few studies have examined the effects in prospective cohorts and only one examined rhinitis. We therefore studied associations between maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and asthma, eczema and rhinitis in offspring aged 5 years. From 552 pregnant women in the Odense Child Cohort, we quantified urinary concentrations of 12 phthalate metabolites in third trimester. We assessed asthma, rhinitis and eczema in their offspring at age 5 years with a questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), and conducted logistic regression adjusting for relevant confounders. 7.4% of the children had asthma, 11.7% eczema and 9.2% rhinitis. Phthalate exposure was low compared to previous cohorts. No significant associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and asthma were found. Odds ratios (ORs) of child rhinitis with
Phthalates or phthalate esters are organic chemicals commonly used as plasticizers to make plastic supple. They make plastic products cheap, easy to clean and also very toxic. Some studies confirm that phthalates damage the male reproductive system, impair lungs, cause asthma and affect the duration of pregnancy.. In the draft regulations of the BIS, the phthalates standards have been set at par with international standards. The draft regulates six phthalates commonly found in toys and childcare items- Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP),Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and Di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP). (see Box). The draft regulates the the phthalates Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) will be regulated to be less than or equal to 0.1 per cent in all plastic toys and childcare products. On the other hand phthalates like Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), ...
Methods for the determination of endocrine disrupting phthalate esters | Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO) | US EPA
Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in may industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates into the list of priority substances with potentially endocrine disrupting action. Namely they are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalates (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DNDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring of different phthalates in various environmental, biological and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical ...
3-Nitro Phthalic Acid by Prism Industries Ltd - Photos Price & Offers
3-Nitro Phthalic Acid by Prism Industries Ltd in kalamsar Anand, Price of 3-Nitro Phthalic Acid by Prism Industries Ltd, 3-Nitro Phthalic Acid Photos, 3-Nitro Phthalic Acid Offers & Deals by Prism Industries Ltd in kalamsar Anand
Terephthalic Acid in Mumbai,Terephthalic Acid Manufacturers and Suppliers from india
Business Directory for Terephthalic Acid Suppliers in Mumbai - Get contact details of Terephthalic Acid Manufacturers, Wholesale Terephthalic Acid Exporters, Best Terephthalic Acid Traders & Distributors Across the Mumbai.
Determination of phthalate esters in environmental water by magnetic Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 solid-phase extraction...
In this study, the magnetic Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) microspheres were successfully synthesized and applied as an effective sorbent for preconcentration of several typical phthalate esters (PAEs) from environmental water samples. Firstly, the solvothermal treatment method was used for preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Then, mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) was served as the functionalized chemical to modify Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The [email protected] core-shell microspheres were synthesized through coating the MAA-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles with ZIF-8. By coupling magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a reliable, sensitive and cost-effective method for simultaneous determination of five main PAEs including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) was developed. Good linearity was observed in the range of 1.0-100.0μg/L. The limits of detection (S/N=3)
Mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid in leachates from young landfills in early degradation phases
All members of the chemical group of phthalates are salts of phthalic acid and in the international literature dealing with phthalates, the chemical group seems to have been regarded as phthalic acid diesters only, although, the diesters might be degraded to phthalic acid monoesters and phthalic acid. PDEs are widely used in a range of different products such as in, cardboard, paint, ink, adhesives, perfumes, but mainly as plasticisers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. They are not chemically bound to the products and are therefore able to migrate to the aquatic environment. Biodegradation is considered to be the most significant fate process for phthalate diesters (Staples et al., 1997) and degradation of phthalate diesters to monoesters has been shown to occur in both aerobic (Inman et al., 1984; Shelton et al., 1984) and anaerobic (Ejlertsson et al., 1996) laboratory studies. Together with the diesters also the monoesters and phthalic acid has been found in old landfills with methanogenic ...
Sciencemadness Discussion Board - Chemistry of Terephthalic acid - Powered by XMB 1.9.11
Romix, the solubility of normal sodium terephthalate is about 14g of salt per 100ml of saturated solution or about 15g of salt per 100ml of water based on my own experience and this is almost independant of temperature ie you cant recrystallise the sodium salt from water by simply cooling a hot saturated solution. Other sodium salts, particularly NaOH, greatly reduce its solubility so the salt can be precipitated by adding 60% NaOH solution until the concntration of NaOH in the terephthalate solution is about 15% but beware! The resulting slurry is impossible to filter with paper filters and is very fine grained and so washes through all but the finest glass frits. Both bases of terephthalic acid are stronger than carbonic acid and so CO2 will not precipitate terephthalic acid. Terephthalic acid is almost insoluble in water (about 10 milligrams per litre!), the only workable solvent for terephthalic acid appears to be dimethylformamide, solubility 7g per 100ml of solvent at room temperature ...
Flame ionization gas chromatographic determination of phthalate esters in water, surface sediments and fish species in the Ogun...
The detection and quantification of four phthalate esters-dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-in water, sediment, and some fish species were carried out using flame ionization gas chromatography. The samples were collected from the Ogun river catchments, Ketu, Lagos. The DMP was not detected in the water and fish samples but was detected in sediments collected from four of the six sampling sites. The concentration of DEP, DBP, and DEHP in the fish species ranged from 320.0-810.0, 380.0-1,080.0, and 40.0-150.0 μg/kg in Tilapia sp.; 310.0-860.0, 400.0-1,170.0, and 40.0-110.0 μg/kg in Chrysichthys sp.; and 320.0-810.0, 400.0-3,970.0, and 30.0-300.0 μg/kg (DEHP) in Synodontis sp., respectively. The differences in fish phthalate levels are not statistically significant at p∈,∈0.05, an indication that phthalate esters accumulation is not fish species dependent. The DEP, DBP, and DEHP values recorded are considerably ...
Questioning Answers: Urinary phthalate metabolites and autism
A blog post discussing research suggesting elevated levels of primary and secondary phthalate metabolites are present in cases of autism.
A Cross-Sectional Study of Phthalate Exposure and Inflammation Biomark by Avery Trim
Phthalates are industrial chemicals added to plastics found in products such as childrens toys, cosmetics, and household items, and some laboratory studies suggest phthalates may increase levels of inflammation. Chronic inflammation is associated with many chronic health conditions, such as diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Although research is limited, recent studies suggest a strong positive relationship between mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) and c-reactive protein (CRP), as well as monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, this relationship has not been examined among postmenopausal women, a population that is at higher risk of developing chronic health conditions. Our aim was to examine the association between urinary phthalate biomarkers and inflammation biomarkers among postmenopausal women using baseline data from a subset of participants of the Womens Health
A student purified a 3.88 g sample of phthalic acid by recrystallization
A student purified a 3.88 g sample of phthalic acid by recrystallization from water. The published solubility of phthalic acid in 100 mL of water is 0.54 g at 14ºC and 18 g at 99ºC. What is the smallest volume (in milliliters) of boiling water the student could use to dissolve the 3.88 g sample of phthalic acid? (Report your answer to 3 significant figures.) ...
DiVA - Søkeresultat
Children are constantly exposed to many chemicals via the products they come in contactwith in their everyday life. One chemical group is phthalates, the most commonly usedplasticisers in the world. Phthalates are used mainly in PVC plastic products like floors, toys,food containers and wallpaper but they are also used in rubber, glue, paint, cables etc. Sincethese chemicals are weakly chemically bound to the PVC they can leak and migrate to the air,food, water and skin. Children are exposed to phthalates mainly through food, but because ofthe hand to mouth behaviour they are also exposed via dust inhalation and dust ingestion.About ten years ago regulations of the most toxic phthalates in toys and child care productswere implemented in the EU and from February 2015 it is a general prohibition for the use ofDEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate), DnBP (di-n-butyl phthalate), DiBP (diisobutyl phthalate) andBBzP (butyl benzyl phthalate). DiNP (diisononyl phthalate) is a relatively new phthalate andit has ...
Toxics | Free Full-Text | A Review of Biomonitoring of Phthalate Exposures
Phthalates (diesters of phthalic acid) are widely used as plasticizers and additives in many consumer products. Laboratory animal studies have reported the endocrine-disrupting and reproductive effects of phthalates, and human exposure to this class of chemicals is a concern. Several phthalates have been recognized as substances of high concern. Human exposure to phthalates occurs mainly via dietary sources, dermal absorption, and air inhalation. Phthalates are excreted as conjugated monoesters in urine, and some phthalates, such as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), undergo secondary metabolism, including oxidative transformation, prior to urinary excretion. The occurrence of phthalates and their metabolites in urine, serum, breast milk, and semen has been widely reported. Urine has been the preferred matrix in human biomonitoring studies, and concentrations on the order of several tens to hundreds of nanograms per milliliter have been reported for several phthalate metabolites. Metabolites of diethyl
A rather long build up to one punchline - Bad Science
That day has come. They asked: Is your lipstick giving you breast cancer? And the answer is simple: butyl benzyl phthalate should be banned from use in the cosmetic industry. I agree with a scare story in the Daily Mail.. Chemicals found in lipstick and nail varnish could trigger breast cancer, scientists warned yesterday. Yes. A study has shown that butyl benzyl phthalate, or BBP, can interfere with the healthy development of breast tissue. I agree. Environmental campaigners yesterday called for it to be banned in the cosmetic industry. I agree with them too.. For just one moment, indulge my secret geeky love of materials science. Phthalates are very clever oily substances which are used as plasticisers: when you add them to something like, say PVC, which is hard, they allow the long PVC molecules to slide over each other. Its a bit like adding water to clay.. You can tell plastic products which have phthalates in them because they have that kind of waxy, flexible texture, and a dodgy ...
Plastics | About memory
Following a previous study linking higher maternal levels of two common chemicals with slower mental and motor development in preschoolers, a new study has found that this effect continues into school age.. The study involved 328 inner-city mothers and their children. The mothers levels of prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate were measured in late pregnancy. IQ tests were given to the children at age 7.. Childrens IQ scores were negatively associated with higher maternal phthalate levels. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest levels of DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations (the top 25% vs the bottom 25%), IQ was 6.7 and 7.6 points lower, respectively. There were similar associations with processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and verbal comprehension; BBzP and perceptual reasoning.. DnBP and DiBP are found in a wide ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Variability over 1 Week in the Urinary Concentrations of Metabolites of Diethyl Phthalate and Di(2...
MEP and MEHHP urinary concentrations varied considerably during 1 week, but the main contributors to the total variance differed (interday variability, MEHHP; interperson variability, MEP) regardless of the sampling strategy (spot, first morning, 24-hr collection). The nature of the exposure (diet vs. other lifestyle factors) and timing of urine sampling to evaluate exposure to phthalates should be considered. For DEHP and phthalates to which people are mostly exposed through diet, collecting 24-hr voids for only 1 day may not be advantageous compared with multiple spot collections. When collecting multiple spot urine samples, changing the time of collection may provide the most complete approach to assess exposure to diverse phthalates ...
TDMS Study 05094-99 Pathology Tables
INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE NTP Experiment-Test: 05094-99 Report: PEIRPT03 Study Type: CHRONIC Date: 05/10/95 Route: DOSED FEED Time: 17:12:30 05094/02 -VS- 05094/03 COMPARISON Facility: SOUTHERN RESEARCH INSTITUTE Chemical CAS #: 85-68-7 Lock Date: 11/25/92 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: 25022 Accidently Killed 25004 Dead 25005 Interval Sacrifice 25003 Moribund 25019 Moribund Sacrifice 25020 Natural Death 25026 Other 25021 Terminal Sacrifice Removal Date Range: All Treatment Groups: Include 001 AD LIB CONTROL Include 002 AD LIB CONTROL Include 005 RTD CONTROL Include 006 RTD CONTROL a Number of animals examined microscopically at site and number of animals with lesion Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 05094-99 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT03 Study Type: CHRONIC BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE Date: 05/10/95 Route: DOSED FEED Time: 17:12:30 ...
Phthalate ester plasticizers in freshwater systems of Venda, South Africa and potential health effects
Introduction. Phthalates are among the most widely used industrial chemicals in existence. They are used principally as plasticizers, to impart flexibility, workability, and durability to polymers, but they can also be found in products such as adhesives, inks, and cosmetics, munitions, industrial and lubricating oil, as well as solvents in perfumes and paints and additives in hair-sprays and insect repellent (Shanker et al., 1985; Ling et al., 2007; Huang et al., 2008). To provide flexibility phthalate esters are not chemically bonded to resin and therefore are easily released (Yuan et al., 2008). The most commonly used phthalate plasticizers are di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) with the others used only for selective applications (ATSDR, 2006).. There has been growing interest in the unusual ubiquity of phthalates in the environment (Fatoki and Vernon, 1990; Fatoki and Ogunfowokan, 1993a) and their wide range of toxicological characteristics (Blount et al., ...
Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with childhood behavior and executive functioning. - PubMed - NCBI
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Apr;118(4):565-71. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901470. Epub 2010 Jan 8. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.
Association of Prenatal Phthalate Exposure With Language Development in Early Childhood. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Terephthalic acid - Wikipedia
Alternatively, but not commercially significant, is the so-called Henkel process or Raecke process, named after the company and patent holder, respectively. This process involves the rearrangement of phthalic acid to terephthalic acid via the corresponding potassium salts. Terephthalic acid can be prepared in the laboratory by oxidizing various para-disubstituted derivatives of benzene, including caraway oil or a mixture of cymene and cuminol with chromic acid.. The use of carbon dioxide overcomes many of the problems with the original industrial process. Because CO2 is a better flame inhibitor than N2, a CO2 environment allows for the use of pure oxygen directly, instead of air, with reduced flammability hazards. The solubility of molecular oxygen in solution is also enhanced in the CO2 environment. Because more oxygen is available to the system, supercritical carbon dioxide (Tc = 31 °C) has more complete oxidation with fewer byproducts, lower carbon monoxide production, less ...
Diethyl phthalate - Registration Dossier - ECHA
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Diethyl phthalate - Registration Dossier - ECHA
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Heer Pharma Chem in Narol, Ahmedabad, Gujarat - Diethyl Phthalate Dealer | IndianYellowPages
Heer Pharma Chem in Narol, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Get Heer Pharma Chem reviews, ratings, contact address, phone numbers, contact person and send quotes instantly to the company at IndianYellowPages.com.
Comparison of hepatic peroxisome proliferative effect and its implication for hepatocarcinogenicity of phthalate esters, di(2...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of hepatic peroxisome proliferative effect and its implication for hepatocarcinogenicity of phthalate esters, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate with a hypolipidemic drug. AU - Reddy, J. K.. AU - Reddy, M. K.. AU - Usman, M. I.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Peroxisome proliferation is inducible in hepatocytes of rodent and nonrodent species by structurally dissimilar hypolipidemic drugs and certain phthalate ester plasticizers. The induction of peroxisome proliferation appears to be a tissue specific response limited largely to the hepatocyte. Peroxisome proliferation is associated with increases in the activity of the H2O2-generating peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation system and in the amount of peroxisome proliferation-associated 80,000 MW polypeptide (PPA-80). Chronic administration of these non-DNA damaging and nonmutagenic peroxisome proliferators to rats and mice results in the development of hepatocellular carcinomas. Comparative ...
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Background & objectives: Pyrazinamide is an essential component of first line anti-tuberculosis regimen as well as most of the second line regimens. This drug has a unique sterilizing activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its unique role in tuberculosis treatment has lead to the search and development of its structural analogues. One such analogue is 5-chloro-pyrazinamide (5-Cl-PZA) that has been tested under in vitro conditions against M. tuberculosis. The present study was designed with an aim to assess the activity of 5-Cl-PZA, alone and in combination with first-line drugs, against murine tuberculosis. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5-Cl-PZA in Middlebrook 7H9 broth (neutral pH) and the inhibitory titre of serum from mice that received a 300 mg/kg oral dose of 5-Cl-PZA 30 min before cardiac puncture were determined. To test the tolerability of orally administered 5-Cl-PZA, uninfected mice received doses up to 300 mg/kg for 2 wk. Four weeks after low-dose ...
Phthalate Background & Hazards | The Stealth Syndromes Project
The phthalate syndrome in rats bears a resemblance to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) in humans, which includes poor semen quality, testis cancer, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias, and which is hypothesized to have its origins during fetal life. There is a rapidly growing body of epidemiological studies on the association of exposure to phthalates with human health.. Most studies primarily focus on the association of maternal phthalate exposure with male reproductive tract developmental endpoints and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Two of three cohort studies found reduced AGD in male infants in relation to higher maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites.. Other studies reported associations between reduced AGD and hypospadias, poor sperm quality, or reduced fertility. Seven prospective pregnancy cohort studies and two cross-sectional studies investigated associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with neurological measures in infants and children.. Interestingly, ...
Toxic substance profile: Phthalates
Phthalates are esters of 1,2-benzoldicarbonic acid (ortho-phthalic acid). The chemical structure of phthalates can be characterised by a planar aromatic ring with two slightly mobile side chains. For phthalates, in general, side chains are mainly alkyl groups with a secondary role played by allyl, benzyl, phenyl, cycloalkyl and alkoxy groups. With alkyl phthalates, a further distinction can be made between branched and unbranched side chains.. In the early 1980s, annual, world-wide production of phthalate esters was estimated to be 20 million tonnes (Schmitzer et al, 1988), although it may now be closer to 5 million tonnes (Lewis et al 1998). The total consumption of phthalate esters in the UK was estimated to be 122,000 tonnes in 1989, of which 54% was DEHP and DIOP (Brooke et al 1991).. Phthalates esters are manufactured world-wide on a large scale, being mainly produced for use as plasticisers in resins and polymers, especially as a softener in PVC (87% of the total production of phthalates ...
Risk Management for Phthalates | Assessing and Managing Chemicals under TSCA | US EPA
EPA is concerned about phthalates because of their toxicity and the evidence of pervasive human and environmental exposure to these chemicals.. Phthalates are used in many industrial and consumer products, many of which pose potentially high exposure. Phthalates have been detected in food and also measured in humans.. Adverse effects on the development of the reproductive system in male laboratory animals are the most sensitive health outcomes from phthalate exposure. Several studies have shown associations between phthalate exposures and human health, although no causal link has been established. Recent scientific attention has focused on whether the cumulative effect of several phthalates may multiply the reproductive effects in the organism exposed.. ...
2016 Global and Chinese 2,5-Dihydroxy Terephthalic Acid (CAS 610-92-4) Industry Market Research Report : ReportsnReports
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Global and Chinese 2,5-Dihydroxy Terephthalic Acid (CAS 610-92-4) Industry Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese 2,5-Dihydroxy Terephthalic Acid Industry,...
Terephthalic Aldehyde Market: Global Industry Analysis and Opportunity Assessment 2015-2025 | Jul 10, 2015 - ReleaseWire
Press Release issued Jul 10, 2015: With hasty technological advancement and increasing penetration of terephthalic aldehyde in emerging application areas such as organic synthesis of pesticides and perfumes, the global terephthalic aldehyde market is rapidly escalating. The global terephthalic aldehyde market is driven by the growing investment in dyes and plastic industry. Terephthalic aldehyde is a whitish crystal compound. Commercially, it is manufactured by the utilization of Xylene in the presence of catalysts such as Tungsten, Bismuth and Molybdenum. Terephthalic aldehyde is also known as 1,4-Phthalaldehyde, 1,4-Benzenedicarboxaldehyde and Terephthaldicarboxaldehyde. It is a basic organic chemical employed as an intermediate in various application segments including dyes, plastics and pharmaceutical. Being a chemical intermediate, the global terephthalic aldehyde market has increased with a robust growth over the past few years and the trend is exhibited to continue in the coming future. Strong
Simultaneous selective detection of organophosphate and phthalate esters using gas chromatography with positive ion chemical...
Organophosphate and phthalate esters are polymer additives that are frequently found in air and dust in indoor environments. This thesis describes the development and application of air sampling and selective mass spectrometric (MS) determination of these two compound groups. It also describes the sampling and screening of these compounds in indoor air and dust from different environments and the development and evaluation of a method for the extraction and determination of these compounds in indoor dust.. An air sampling method previously used for air sampling of only organophosphate esters, is here demonstrated to be applicable for simultaneous sampling of both phthalate and organophosphate esters. Selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) showed good results for simultaneous determination of organophosphate and phthalate esters in air. The high selectivity of this technique was especially advantageous when analyzing dust.. Comparison of chemical profiles of the ...
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Determination and Pharmacokinetics of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in Rats by Ultra Performance...
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used to increase the ﬂexibility of plastics for industrial products. However, the illegal use of the plasticizer DEHP in food and drinks has been reported in Taiwan in 2011. In order to assess the exact extent of the absorption of DEHP via the oral route, the aim of this study is to develop a reliable and validated ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to evaluate the oral bioavailability of DEHP in rats. The optimal chromatographic separation of DEHP and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP; used as internal standard) were achieved on a C18 column. The mobile phase was consisted of 5 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (11:89, v/v) with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The monitoring ion transitions were m/z 391.4 → 149.0 for DEHP and m/z 313.3 → 149.0 for BBP. The mean matrix effects of DEHP at low, medium and high concentrations were 94.5 ± 5.7% and 100.1 ± 2.3% in plasma and feces homogenate samples, respectively. In
Prevalence of organo-microbial entities in selected commercial foods and food wrappers
Phthalate esters (PEs) belong to a class of organic compounds used as plasticisers in plastic materials such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and so on, including those used in the food packaging industry. Phthalate plasticisers are not chemically bound to plastic materials and hence, migrate into items such as foodstuffs they house. The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of selected phthalate esters from plastic wrappers into food as well as the presence of food and/or pathogenic microorganisms. Plastic-wrapped cheese, vienna sausages and polony samples purchased from commercial stores in the four regions of Pretoria (Tswane), South Africa, were analysed for the presence of plasticisers; di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). Soxhlet extraction using hexane with florisil column cleanup was carried out. Analysis of PEs was by Gas ...
Sphere, cylinder, and vesicle nanoaggregates in poly(styrene-b-isoprene) diblock copolymer solutions<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sphere, cylinder, and vesicle nanoaggregates in poly(styrene-b-isoprene) diblock copolymer solutions. AU - Bang, Joona. AU - Jain, Sumeet. AU - Li, Zhibo. AU - Lodge, Timothy P.. AU - Pedersen, Jan Skov. AU - Kesselman, Ellina. AU - Talmon, Yeshayahu. PY - 2006/2/7. Y1 - 2006/2/7. N2 - An asymmetric poly(styrene-b-isoprene) diblock copolymer with block molecular weights of 13 000 and 71 000 g/mol, respectively, was dissolved at 1 vol % in a series of solvents with varying selectivity for styrene: dibuthyl phthalate (DBF), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The degree of solvent selectivity was adjusted by mixing DBP/DEP and DEP/DMP in various proportions. With increasing solvent selectivity, the predominant micellar shape changes from spheres to cylinders to vesicles, reflecting the changing interfacial curvature. The detailed micellar morphologies were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy ...
ChemIDplus - 88-99-3 - XNGIFLGASWRNHJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Phthalic acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource...
88-99-3 - XNGIFLGASWRNHJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Phthalic acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Welcome to CDC stacks | Identification of di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP) metabolites using human liver microsomes for...
Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), a structural isomer of the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is used in food packaging and medical devices, among other applications, and is a potential replacement for DEHP and other ortho-phthalate plasticizers. Identifying sensitive and specific biomarkers of DEHTP is necessary to assess humans' background exposure to DEHTP. Using mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of DEHTP by human liver microsomes to identify in vitro DEHTP metabolites. We unequivocally identified terephthalic acid (TPA) and mono-2-ethylhydroxyhexyl terephthalate (MEHHTP), using authentic standards, and tentatively identified mono-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (MEHTP) and two other oxidative metabolites of DEHTP: mono-2-ethyloxohexyl terephthalate (MEOHTP), and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) from their mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns. We also evaluated the formation of in vitro metabolites of DEHP. DEHTP and DEHP produced ...
RUBBER DUCKS, TEETHERS AND MORE: A GUIDE TO CURRENT AND PROPOSED REGULATIONS OF PHTHALATES - Juvenile Products Manufacturers...
By Cierra Simpson and Lisa Rippey of Stinson Leonard Street. Phthalates1 are chemicals that provide flexibility and durability to a variety of products. They have historically been used in childrens toys, particularly those made of flexible plastics. Phthalates soften plastics, permitting children to play and chew on the product without breaking or cracking it.. Like other chemicals, phthalates may pose various risks to human health. One example being they have been found to be endocrine disruptors, which can lead to serious reproductive problems for children later in life.2 To address this issue, various states have begun passing legislation regulating the use of phthalates, and several companies have removed phthalates from the childrens products they manufacture and sell.. In 2008, Congress passed the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA)3, which banned the use of certain types of phthalates in childrens products, and requires third party testing for certain childrens toys and ...
Metabolomics: Application to the study of phthalates in reproduction and development | RTI
This study was conducted to evaluate the use of metabolomics for improving our ability to draw correlations between early life exposures and reproductive and/or developmental outcomes. Pregnant CD rats were exposed daily during gestation (gd 14-21) to vehicle or to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) at a level (750 mg/kg) known to induce effects in the offspring and at a level (25 mg/kg) not expected to induce effects.
MedicalResearch.com | Can Phthalates Alter Sex Development During Pregnancy?
Dr. Adibi: Prenatal exposure to phthalates in rodents can cause defects in male sexual development including a shorter distance between the anus and the genitalia (anogenital distance or AGD). Human studies have shown a correlation between higher prenatal phthalate urinary concentrations in the mother and shorter AGD in males. AGD in males is related to fertility and reproductive health over the lifetime. In females, AGD was associated with numbers of ovarian follicles. The role of the placenta has not been considered in these studies. A placental hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is essential for normal male development. Our previous research has shown that hCG expression by human placental cells is disrupted by phthalate concentrations equal to what we measured in maternal urine. The placenta secretes molecules early in pregnancy that might provide an opportunity to detect these effects in humans.. Medical Research: What are the main findings?. Dr. Adibi: In 350 pregnancies, we ...
Effects of In Utero Exposure to Di-n-Butyl Phthalate on Testicular Development in Rat
Humans are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). In utero exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) induces abnormal development of the testis and reproductive tract in male offspring, which correspond closely with the human condition of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS)-like syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, pregnant rats were orally exposed to either corn oil (controls) or DBP at three different doses by gavage during Gestational Days 12.5-21.5. Pathological examinations were performed for toxicity evaluation. Proliferation and apoptosis related proteins (ras related dexamethasone induced 1 (Rasd1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases1/2 (MEK1/2), Bcl-2, and Bax) were measured for mechanisms exploration. The results showed that different doses of DBP caused male developmental and reproductive toxicity in rats, including the decrease of anogenital distance (AGD), the histological damage of testis, and ...
Removal of phthalic acid diesters through a municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment process | Springer for Research &...
We studied the removal of two phthalic acid diesters (PAEs), di- n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from leachates of a municipal solid waste landfill treatment facility....
Phthalate degradation by glow discharge plasma enhanced with pyrite in aqueous solution on Environmental XPRT
Article Phthalate degradation by glow discharge plasma enhanced with pyrite in aqueous solution. In order to prevent health risk from potential exposures to phthalates, a glow discharge plasma (GDP) process was applied for phthalate degradation in aq...
EWG Tap Water Database | Holliston Water Department | Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
EWGs Tap Water Database Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate results for Holliston Water Department | Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Find out what is in your tap water
EWG Tap Water Database | Griffin | Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
EWGs Tap Water Database Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate results for Griffin | Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Find out what is in your tap water
Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) Market Top Business Growing Strategies, Technological Innovation and Emerging...
Study accurate information about the Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) Market: Statistics, Facts and Figures, Growth Overview, Size, Major Players, Swot Analysis Industry Outlook and Regional Analysis, and Forecast To 2029. Extensive Study on Impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) market originally based on Current Research of Potential Growth Challenges and Future Progress till 2029. The Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) report encompasses a cautious evaluation of small and monetary science trouble that is influencing the enlargement of the market. The Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) market has cardinal frameworks that embody market outlook, Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) modern-day methods, institution, size, revenue and modern-day trends of Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) market from 2020-2029. Get Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables ...
DIBUTYL PHTHALATE ( DBP)
Phthalates are by far the most widely used plasticisers, primarily to make soft and flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for the applications in the industry of automotive, building & construction material, cable, flooring, medical device and toys. Phthalates make the long polyvinyl molecules to slide against one another. Minor quantity of phthalates are used in adhesives, caulk, sealants, paint to improve work performance. Small molecule phthalates are used as solvents in perfumes to provide longer linger longer and in nail polish to prevent chipping. They are also used as ingredients of insect repellents, as solvents in lacquer and pesticides, and as dye carrier. They are used as textile lubricating agents and as solid rocket propellents. Phthalates are produced by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with appropriate alcohols from methanol up to isodecanol (C13), either as a straight chain or with some branched in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Excess alcohols are ...
Developments in bio based plasticizers - Bio-based News
Olvex 51 Biobased Plasticizer for PVC has been developed by Brazils SGS Polímeros. Olvex 51 is a bio-based, renewable primary plasticizer produced from vegetable raw materials and renewables which is used as a substitute for petroleum-based plasticizers (DOA, DOP/DEHP, etc) replacing it in 100% and used in traditional PVC, PLA. It can replace conventional phthalate based plasticizers that have restrictions in many markets and products in the industrialization of nitrile rubber.. PolyOne, in conjunction with ADM, has commercialized a soy-based plasticizer that can directly replace butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), which has issues concerning toxicity and price volatility. Based on the chemistry, PolyOnes biobased plasticizer is very compatible with PVC resin and has been applied to flooring and caulk and sealant products that can be used in sustainable building projects. The company is also in an agreement with Segetis, an innovative bio-based chemical company, to explore the development of ...
Phthalate exposure alters gut microbiota composition and IgM vaccine response in human newborns<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phthalate exposure alters gut microbiota composition and IgM vaccine response in human newborns. AU - Yang, Yung Ning. AU - Yang, Yu Chen S.H.. AU - Lin, I. Hsuan. AU - Chen, Ying Yu. AU - Lin, Hung Yun. AU - Wu, Chien Yi. AU - Su, Yu Tsun. AU - Yang, Yao Jong. AU - Yang, San Nan. AU - Suen, Jau Ling. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - Postnatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a common plasticizer, is associated with allergy development in childhood, suggesting that DEHP exposure may dysregulate immune response in infants. We investigated whether DEHP exposure in newborns through medical treatment affected the gut microbiota pattern and vaccine response, which are both related to immune development. In this prospective cohort study from May 1, 2016 through July 31, 2017, newborns with respiratory distress who were given intravenous infusions (IVs) were enrolled as the DEHP group, and newborns who did not receive IVs were enrolled as the control group. We ...
ADHERENCE SUBSTANCE, PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVE SHEET AND ITS USE - Patent application
0183]As such a curing catalyst, a known catalyst may suitably be used as a component to accelerate the reaction of reactive silicon groups. Specifically, it may, for example, be an organic tin carboxylate such as dibutyltin diacetate, dibutyltin dilaurate, dioctyltin dilaurate, (n-C4H9)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOOCH3)2, (n-C4H9)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOO(n-C4H9))2, (n-C8H17)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOOCH3)2, (n-C8H17)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOO(n-C4H9))2 or (n-C8H17)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOO(iso-C8H17))2; a sulfur-containing organic tin compound such as (n-C4H9)2Sn(SCH2COO), (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2COO), (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2CH2COO), (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2COOCH2CH2OCOCH2S), (n-C4H9)2Sn(SCH2COO(iso-C8H17))2, (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2COO(iso-C8H17))2, (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2COO(n-C8H17))2 or (n-C4H9)2SnS; an organic tin oxide such as (n-C4H9)2SnO or (n-C8H17)2SnO; a reaction product of an ester compound selected from the group consisting of ethyl silicate, dimethyl maleate, diethyl maleate, dioctyl maleate, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate, with ...
Variations in repeated serum concentrations of UV filters, phthalates, phenols and parabens during pregnancy - Research - The...
BACKGROUND: Biobank serum samples from longitudinal mother-child cohorts have been used to estimate prenatal exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the knowledge about variations in serum concentrations of non-persistent chemicals during pregnancy is limited.. OBJECTIVE: To describe the within- and between-person variations in serum concentrations of non-persistent chemicals and changes over trimesters, including phthalate metabolites, parabens, phenols, and UV filters.. DESIGN: Longitudinal study with repeated blood samples from 128 healthy pregnant women during pregnancy.. SETTING: Population based study at a University Hospital in Copenhagen 1999-2001.. METHODS: 503 repetitive prenatal serum samples from 128 pregnant women taken at approximately gestational week 12, 20, 30 and 40 were analyzed for 7 UV filters, 32 metabolites of 15 phthalate diesters, 8 phenols and 7 parabens by LC-MS/MS.. RESULTS: Ten of 32 phthalate metabolites from six out of 15 phthalate diesters, ...
EP1829563B1 - Thermoplastic absorbent material having increased absorption and retention capacity for proteinaceous or serous...
The thermoplastic polymeric base materials for use herein furthermore can comprise from 5% to 90%, or from 10% to 85%, or from 15% to 70%, or preferably from 30% to 65% by weight of a suitable compatible plasticiser or a blend of suitable compatible plasticizers. Suitable plasticizers for use in the present invention generally can include any conventional plasticizers which decrease hardness and modulus, enhance pressure sensitive tack and reduce melt and solution viscosity h may be desirable that the plasticizer be water soluble or water dispersible or alternatively be a wax-like substance such as polyethylene or polypropylene glycol, glycerin, glycerol and its esters, butylene glycol or sorbitol. Other plasticizers suitable for use in the present invention may be esters of sucrose; phthalate plasticizers such as dioctyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate (e. g., Santicizer 160 from Monsanto), benzoate plasticizers such as 1,4-cyclohexane dimethanol dibenzoate (e.g., Benzoflez 352 from ...
Eastman Chemical announced that it will discontinue production of two of its ortho -phthalate plasticizers―diethyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate (DBP)―by the end of 2011, saying they no longer.... ...
Dibutyl phthalate ≥98.0% (GC) | Sigma-Aldrich
Dibutyl phthalate ≥98.0% (GC); CAS Number: 84-74-2; EC Number: 201-557-4; Synonym: n-Butyl phthalate, DBP, Phthalic acid dibutyl ester; Linear Formula: C16H22O4; find Sigma-Aldrich-80102 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Tetraethylene glycol monobenzyl ether - Alfa Chemistry
Tetraethylene glycol monobenzyl ether/ACM86259872 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
phthalic anhydride synthesis
All Rights Reserved. Did you use this product in your Paper? For example, the reaction of phthalic anhydride with 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol) initially occurs regioselectively with the primary hydroxyl groups to give a linear polymer. Phthalic anhydride is a precursor to a variety of reagents useful in organic synthesis. The use of 3,3′-methylene bis(salicylic acid) along with phthalic anhydride in polyester formulation has led to a significant improvement in hardness, gloss and alkali resistance.6 Polyester coating made from bicyclo[2.2.2] oct-5-ene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid exhibits high impact strength, flexural strength, heat resistance and resistance to water. This white solid is an important industrial chemical, especially for the large-scale production of plasticizers for plastics. you enter 062K1064. Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction of benzene with phthalic anhydride is one of the main methods of synthesis of anthraquinone , traditionally the reaction AlCl3 as a catalyst , but will ...
METHODS FOR PRODUCTION OF TEREPHTHALIC ACID FROM ETHYLENE OXIDE - NOVOMER INC
The present invention provides methods for the production of terephthalic acid and derivatives thereof using ethylene oxide, carbon monoxide and furan as feedstocks. The process is characterized by high yields and high carbon efficiency. The process can utilize 100% biobased feedstocks (EO via ethanol, CO via biomass gasification, and furan via known processes from cellulosic feedstocks).
Blog - New Phthalates Research Indicates Male Children Less Male in Play
A new study shows that kids dont have to sleep on crib mattress with phthalates in them or play with phthalates-laden toys to suffer the consequences of these dangerous chemicals. Its getting into their bodies while theyre still in the womb. Phthalates are in a long list of products: perfumes, fragrances, cosmetics, scented lotions, shampoos, aftershaves, nail polish, hair spray, food packaging, adhesives, car interiors, medical devices like blood IV bags and tubing, vinyl flooring, vinyl wallpaper, vinyl shower curtains - the list is very long. So long, in fact, that it would be hard to find a mom who wasnt exposed to phthalates during or before her pregnancy. The new study, published in the International Journal of Andrology, tested the urine of women during the 28th week of pregnancy and divided them into four groups based on the concentration of phthalate metabolites or breakdown products. Then they assessed the play behavior of their 145 children when they reached age 3 to 6. If mothers ...
2020 7th Canadian National Perinatal Research Meet
Methods: We collected anthropometric measures and biomonitoring data on approximately 200 children between ages two and five years of age enrolled in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Child Development Plus study. We measured 22 phthalate metabolites in urine; 20 had an adequate percent of samples above the limit of detection. Sixteen of these were summed into 5 distinct parent compounds. The remaining four metabolites originated from a unique parent compound and were modelled individually. Our primary exposures were, therefore, 5 parent compounds and 4 metabolites. Childrens weight and height were converted to BMI z-scores using the World Health Organization growth standards. We used linear regression, adjusted for maternal and child confounders, to evaluate associations between tertiles of phthalate concentrations and BMI z-scores. We stratified all analyses by sex and also tested for interactions between each phthalate metabolite or parent compound and sex ...
Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Early Menopause | Science, Health, and More
Phthalates are some of the most studied endocrine disruptors. Theyre used to make plastic more flexible and cosmetics smoother. Phthalate use in childrens toys was banned in 2008. However, results from a recent study show that high amounts of certain phthalates are present in some meats, cooking oils and dairy products, thus contributing to children exposure despite the ban. In her article A threat to male fertility, Deborah Blum writes: A growing body of work over the last two decades suggests that phthalates can rewire the male reproductive system, interfering with the operation of androgenic hormones, such as testosterone, that play key roles in male development. That mechanism, some experts believe, explains findings that link phthalate exposure to changes in everything from testicular development to sperm quality.. In addition, according to results from a new study, two phthalates belong to a group of 15 chemicals that are significantly associated with early menopause and may have ...
UFZ - Publication Index - Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research
The most frequently occurring phthalate, di(2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), causes adverse effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in several cell models and epidemiological studies. However, thus far, there is no information available on the molecular interaction of phthalates and one of the key regulators of the metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Since the endogenous ligand of PPARγ, 15‐deoxy‐delta‐12,14‐prostaglandin J2 (15Δ‐PGJ2), features structural similarity to DEHP and its main metabolites produced in human hepatic metabolism, mono(2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono(2‐ethyl‐5‐oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), we tested the hypothesis of direct interactions between PPARγ and DEHP or its transformation products. ...
structure of phthalic anhydride
Three glycerol:phthalic acid molar ratio used for the bulk polymerization were: 2:2 ; crystallinity for the polymers containing higher amounts of phthalic anhydride. The molecular structure of the polyesters is strongly influenced by the molar Chat Online ...
How Perfume Messes With Your Hormones (Even If You Dont Wear It) - mindbodygreen
Although many of us love our signature scent, it likely contains chemicals that may wreck havoc on our hormone function. Im not suggesting we ditch fragrances, but its important to know what we are putting on our bodies and to be smart consumers.. Heres what every woman needs to know about perfume, its impact on hormones, and how to find safer scents:. 1. Phthalates are hiding in synthetic perfumes.. Phthalates are associated with serious health issues, but you wont find them listed on the labels. Ingredients in perfumes are considered a trade secret, so manufacturers can hide hundreds of chemicals under the term fragrance. The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics found phthalates in 70% of the perfumes they tested, but they werent listed on any of the labels.. 2. Phthalates are known hormone disruptors.. Weve heard that hormone disruptors are bad, but what exactly do they do?. A hormone disruptor is a synthetic chemical that when absorbed into the body acts like a hormone. Phthalates effect our ...
Reducing Toxic and Hazardous Waste in the Health Care Community - Canadian Coalition for Green Health Care
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are chemicals that can disrupt any systems of the body regulated by hormones. Hormonal disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders.. EDCs in Health Care. Phthalates are a group of chemical substances, primarily used as plasticisers (softeners) in plastics. They are abundant in polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) based medical devices such as blood bags, nutrition pockets, tubing, umbilical venous catheters or disposable gloves, where they can account for up to 40% of the final product. Phthalates are also commonly used as medicine excipients to make coatings for oral medications and in flooring, among many other uses. Phthalates can easily be released, transferred or leached into the air, water or body fluids during their production, use and disposal. Numerous phthalates are documented or suspected EDCs, which act by inhibiting the production of testosterone in the testes, and are classified as toxic to reproduction ...
pollution load from plastic bags | ToxicsWatch, Journal of Earth, Science, Economy and Justice
Some plastic products contain a variety of additives, some of which can be toxic. For example, plasticizers like adipates and phthalates are often added to brittle plastics like polyvinyl chloride to make them pliable enough for use in food packaging, toys, and many other items. Traces of these compounds can leach out of the product. Owing to concerns over the effects of such leachates, the European Union has restricted the use of DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate)and other phthalates in some applications. Some compounds leaching from polystyrene food containers have been proposed to interfere with hormone functions and are suspected human carcinogens ...
US4405749A - Thermoplastic elastomer compositions - Google Patents
Segmented thermoplastic copolyester elastomers containing recurring polymeric long chain ester units derived from phthalic acids and long chain glycols and short chain ester units derived from phthalic acids and 1,4-butanediol or 1,4-butenediol. The elastomers also contain between about 0.1% and about 5% by weight of said copolyester of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid triester with 1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine-2,4-6-(1H, 3H, 5H) trione.
Organic Chemistry: acid pKa of a substituted phthalic acid | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community
Dicarboxylic acids, especially when carboxyl groups are adjacent, are moderately strong acids. Starting with the comparison of benzoic, pK 4.19 with o-phthallic, 2.16. So this led me to suppose the monoionised species is stabilized by hydrogen bonding in a structure such as [tex]O=C_\mid-O-H...^-O-C_\mid=O[/tex] possibly involving other water molecules. From glimpses of literature it appears that this is accepted. An even more striking effect in a somewhat analogous structure is maleic acid pK 1.83 compared with say acetic, 4.86. The -COOH s are a little differently positioned in phthallic than in maleic, evidently such as to allow a more favorable interaction in the latter case ...
jurnal proses pembuatan phthalic anhydride
A pre-design of plant to produce 45.000 tons/year phthalic anhydride from 47,200 tons/year ortho-xylene uses Davy McKee process with vanadium pentaoxide catalyst in non isothermal - non adiabatic fixed bed multitubes reactor that operated at 2 atm and 340-360oC. Phthalic anhydride is intermediate chemical that raw material ...
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Exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and related workers habits in an ink factory on Environmental XPRT
Article Exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and related workers habits in an ink factory. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), one of the ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs), is often used as a solvent in surface coatings such as spray lacquers,...
Toxicogenomics in the 3T3-L1 cell line, a new approach for screening of obesogenic compounds - Institutional Repository...
Endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals: From accumulation to their role in the global neuro-endocrine epidemic of obesity and its metabolic consequences ...
A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B:...
Given the widespread occurrence of phthalates in the aquatic environment, fish are also likely to be exposed to phthalates via the water column, food and/or via the sediments, depending on their ecological niche. In support of this, a study in wild fish in The Netherlands measured median concentrations of DEHP and DBP at 1.7 and 1.0 µg kg−1 (wet wt.), respectively, with 95th percentile values reaching up to 141 µg DEHP kg−1 and 26 µg DBP kg−1 (wet wt.) (Peijnenburg & Struijs 2006). Laboratory studies have further shown that phthalates bioconcentrate in fish. For example, the BCF for DEHP was 120 in the carp and for BBP, 9.4 in bluegill sunfish (Staples et al. 1997). The presence of phthalates in wild fish and their ability to concentrate in body tissues demonstrate their potential to induce adverse effects on the health of wild populations, but there has been little bearing on this expectation.. Very few studies have comprehensively addressed the biological effects of phthalates on ...
Benzyl butyl adipate - Alfa Chemistry
Benzyl butyl adipate/ACM4121135 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Polyester Compositions Which Comprise Spiro-Glycol, Cyclohexanedimethanol, and Terephthalic Acid - Patent application
0097]In one embodiment, amounts of the phosphate ester of the invention added during polymerization are chosen from the following: 1 to 5000 ppm; 1 to 1000 ppm, 1 to 900 ppm, 1 to 800 ppm, 1 to 700 ppm. 1 to 600 ppm, 1 to 500 ppm, 1 to 400 ppm, 1 to 350 ppm, 1 to 300 ppm, 1 to 250 ppm, 1 to 200 ppm, 1 to 150 ppm, 1 to 100 ppm; 1 to 60 ppm; 2 to 5000 ppm; 2 to 1000 ppm, 2 to 900 ppm, 2 to 800 ppm, 2 to 700 ppm. 2 to 600 ppm, 2 to 500 ppm, 2 to 400 ppm, 2 to 350 ppm, 2 to 300 ppm, 2 to 250 ppm, 2 to 200 ppm, 2 to 150 ppm, 2 to 100 ppm; 2 to 60 ppm; 2 to 20 ppm, 3 to 5000 ppm; 3 to 1000 ppm, 3 to 900 ppm, 3 to 800 ppm, 3 to 700 ppm. 3 to 600 ppm, 3 to 500 ppm, 3 to 400 ppm, 3 to 350 ppm, 3 to 300 ppm, 3 to 250 ppm, 3 to 200 ppm, 3 to 150 ppm, 3 to 100 ppm; 3 to 60 ppm; 3 to 20 ppm, 4 to 5000 ppm; 4 to 1000 ppm, 4 to 900 ppm, 4 to 800 ppm, 4 to 700 ppm, 4 to 600 ppm, 4 to 500 ppm, 4 to 400 ppm, 4 to 350 ppm, 4 to 300 ppm, 4 to 250 ppm, 4 to 200 ppm, 4 to 150 ppm, 4 to 100 ppm; 4 to 60 ppm; 4 to 20 ...
Terephthalic acid - Substance Information - ECHA
About this substance This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance factsheet.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information ...
OSA | Method to Determine all Detectable Exchangeable Cations Using X-Ray Emission and Optical Emission Spectroscopy
A method is described, employing as the sample bottom mud from Linsley Pond, North Branford, Connecticut, for the determination of all detectable exchangeable cations lying between lithium and uranium on the periodic table. Dried (48 h 110°C) and ground (200 mesh) lake mud samples are leached successively with IN, ,i,p,/i,H 6.9 ammonium acetate. Another set of similarly prepared samples are leached with doubly distilled deionized water. The leachate is made up to 100 ml. This volume is then added to a beaker containing two grams of terephthalic acid. The liquid is evaporated on to the water-insoluble terephthalic acid. The dried material is ground and pressed into a pellet. Another set of samples is treated in a similar fashion except that methyl cellulose is used as a substrate. The advantages and disadvantages of the two substrates are discussed. The pressed pellets containing the absorbed detectable exchangeable cations are examined with a G. E. x-ray emission spectroscope for those elements ...
Patente US5420212 - Polyester/polycarbonate/polycaprolactone blends - Google Patentes
This invention relates to a polymer blend comprising: (a) a concentrate comprising a polycarbonate resin, polycaprolactone and a copolyester having repeat units derived from terephthalic acid, ethylene glycol and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; and (b) a copolyester having repeat units derived from terephthalic acid, ethylene glycol and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol.
Pediatric Exposure and Potential Toxicity of Phthalate Plasticizers | American Academy of Pediatrics
In July 2000, the first expert panel convened by the Center for the Evaluation of Reproductive Risks to Humans2 (CERHR) under the direction of the National Toxicology Program, funded by the National Institutes of Health, and housed at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences completed a 15-month analysis of the developmental and reproductive risks to humans of 7 phthalate esters, including DINP and DEHP.55. For DEHP, the CERHR expert panele expressed minimal concern over the exposure to the general adult population. The panel expressed concern that infants and young toddlers, because of their dietary preferences and mouthing behaviors, might have higher exposures to DEHP at a time when the male reproductive tract is still developing and potentially vulnerable.70 Of similar concern was the possibility that pregnant and lactating women might deliver higher levels of DEHP and MEHP to their infants via placental transfer and breast milk than is estimated for the general population, ...
Babies absorb chemicals from shampoo › News in Science (ABC Science)
Baby lotion, powder and shampoo can lead to higher concentrations in an infants body of phthalates, chemicals linked to allergies and altered reproductive development, a US study shows.. The study conducted at the University of Washington and Seattle Childrens Hospital Research Institute found that babies treated with common babycare products such as lotion, shampoo, and powder were more likely to have phthalates in their urine than other babies.. But more research is needed to determine if exposing very young children to phthalates is linked with reproductive or other problems, says the study published online in the journal Pediatrics.. Phthalates are chemicals commonly found in personal care and other household products, including plastic childrens toys, lubricants and chemical stabilisers in cosmetics and personal care products.. Animal studies of phthalates have found that they can harm reproductive system development, and studies in humans have found that prenatal exposure or exposure ...
Arun Thai Natural: July 2012
The US Center for Disease Control has for more than a decade been studying what they call Body Burden and Bio-Monitoring - the level and concentration of chemicals found in large population samples. They have, in particular, been studying phthalates - a group of chemicals most commonly found in plastics and in synthetic fragrances. Their studies show phthalates in the bloodstreams of as much as 75% of the US population samples tested. (1) Why is this relevant to massage oils? Phthalates are a common component of plastics manufacture and most commercial massage oils are sold in large plastic containers, which means the oils carry high levels of phthalates since oils dissolve plastics over time, especially when stored at warm temperatures. Massage oils made with a mineral oil base have high levels of phthalates, which are also a commercial solvent used in the mineral oil production process. And many, many commercial massage oils are synthetically fragranced. If you are unlucky enough to receive a ...
Ever thought about the toxins in your sex toys? | Grist
Many popular erotic toys are made of polyvinyl chlorides (PVC) - plastics long decried by eco-activists for the toxins released during their manufacture and disposal - and softened with phthalates, a controversial family of chemicals. These include invitingly soft jelly or cyberskin items, which have grown popular in the last decade or so, says Carol Queen, Ph.D., staff sexologist for the San Francisco-based adult toy boutique Good Vibrations. Its actually difficult for a store today to carry plenty of items and yet avoid PVC, Queen says. Its use has gotten pretty ubiquitous among the large purveyors, because its cheap and easy to work with.. In recent years, testing has revealed the potentially serious health impacts of phthalates. Studies on rats and mice suggest that exposure could cause cancer and damage the reproductive system. Minute levels of some phthalates have been linked to sperm damage in men, and this year, two published studies linked phthalate exposure in the womb and ...
The base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the hydrogen phthalate ester of 4-bro by Bing-Kou. Tang
Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1972 .T24. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 62-13, Section: A. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1972.
Cadmium (1-ethylhexyl) phthalate (1:2:2) - Substance Information - ECHA
This database contains the ADNs Dangerous Goods List, as implemented by the EUs Directive 2008/68/EC. This Directive establishes rules for the safe transport of dangerous goods between EU countries by road, rail, and waterway. It applies the European Agreements on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR) and inland waterways (ADN), and the Regulations concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by rail (RID).. ...
Scientific panel recommends steps to lower unsafe phthalate exposures
This report is a case-study in many of the shortcomings of chemical management programs in the US. People are exposed to multiple chemicals, from multiple sources, with similar kinds of health effects. These exposures are sometimes at unsafe levels. How common is that? Unfortunately, all too often we dont know since, until now, with few exceptions, no effort has been undertaken to assess the cumulative risk. Even worse, many chemicals in consumer products have not undergone safety testing at all, and there is no pre-market requirement for manufacturers to do that. This means that people are the guinea pigs, and its up to government regulators, academic scientists, and non-governmental organizations to press for and carry out testing long after our families and communities have already been exposed. It makes no sense. Hopefully, this panels report will encourage strengthened efforts to reform chemicals management in the US with a strong emphasis on protecting public health, based on modern ...
It is the diester of phthalic acid and the branched-chain 2-ethylhexanol. This colorless viscous liquid is soluble in oil, but ... "117-81-7 - Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 98+% - Dioctyl phthalate - Phthalic acid bis(2-ethylhexyl)ester - A10415 - Alfa Aesar ... Lorz, Peter M.; Towae, Friedrich K.; Enke, Walter; Jäckh, Rudolf; Bhargava, Naresh; Hillesheim, Wolfgang (2007). "Phthalic Acid ... and phthalic acid (PA) in zebrafish primary hepatocyte cultures". Toxicology in Vitro. 27 (1): 84-91. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2012.09 ...
"Phthalic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a20_ ... It is the imide derivative of phthalic anhydride. It is a sublimable white solid that is slightly soluble in water but more so ... Phthalimide is used as a precursor to anthranilic acid, a precursor to azo dyes and saccharin. Alkyl phthalimides are useful ... Phthalimide can be prepared by heating phthalic anhydride with alcoholic ammonia giving 95-97% yield. Alternatively, it may be ...
It can be oxidised to phthalic acid. v t e. ...
Ribbons DW, Evans WC (1966). "Oxidative metabolism of phthalic acid by soil pseudomonads". Biochem. J. 76: 310-318. Biology ...
Hydrolysis of N-hydroxyphthalimide by the addition of strong bases produces phthalic acid monohydroxamic acid by adding water ... Conversion of phthalic acid into salicylic acid]. Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. (in German). 205 (3): 295-314. doi:10.1002/jlac. ... The oximes of opianic acid and of phthalic anhydride". J. Chem. Soc.: 529-539. doi:10.1039/JR9280000529. Hurd, Charles D.; ... Derivatives of homophthalic and phthalic acid". J. Chem. Soc.: 3518-3521. doi:10.1039/JR9550003518. Porcheddu, Andrea; ...
It hydrolyses to phthalic acid and 1-butanol. "Monobutyl phthalate". PubChem. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U. ... It is a white solid that features both an butyl ester group and a carboxylic acid group. It is the major metabolite of dibutyl ...
Isobutyl esters of phthalic, adipic, and related dicarboxylic acids are common plasticizers. Isobutanol is also a component of ... The host's highly active amino acid biosynthetic pathway is shifted to alcohol production. α-Ketoisovalerate, derived from ...
Chromic acid oxidizes it to retene quinone, phthalic acid and acetic acid. It forms a picrate that melts at 123-124 °C. Retene ... Sodium and boiling amyl alcohol reduce it to a tetrahydroretene, but if it heated with phosphorus and hydriodic acid to 260 °C ... It is readily soluble in warm ether and in hot glacial acetic acid. ...
... which produces a stoichiometric quantity of phthalic acid salts. If the desired product has an enantiomer the reaction needs to ...
... typical acids used are phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, and maleic anhydride. Water, a condensation by- ... but maleic acid and fumaric acid are also used. Maleic acid and fumaric acid are isomers where maleic is the cis-isomer and ... For example, a resin containing primarily terephthalic acid is known as a Tere resin, a resin containing primarily phthalic ... Terephthalic acid is generally lower cost than isophthalic acid, but both give similar strength characteristics to a UPR ...
ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Lorz, Peter M. "Phthalic Acid and Derivatives" in Ulmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley- ... and hydrochloric acid. The first intentional synthesis involved dehydration of phthalamide by boiling in acetic anhydride. ...
Phthalic acid Phthalates Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) Nail polish NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0187". National ... Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the six phthalic acid esters found on the Priority Pollutant List, which consists of ... Hydrolysis of DBP leads to phthalic acid and 1-butanol. Monobutyl phthalate (MBP) is its major metabolite. Biodegradation by ... "Environmental impact of phthalic acid esters and their removal from water and sediments by different technologies - A review". ...
"Action of some bisquaternary derivatives of phthalic acids and related substances on neuromuscular transmission". British ...
Acids include isophthalic, terephthalic, adipic, benzoic, succinic acids and phthalic, maleic and trimellitic anhydride. ... The more commonly used polyacids are phthalic, isophthalic, terephthalic and adipic acid. Phthalic and trimellitic anhydrides ... Cathodic resins contain amines on the polymer backbone which are neutralised by acids groups such as acetic acid to give a ... polybasic acids and alcohols) modified to confer water miscibility. Typical components are vegetable oils or fatty acids such ...
doi:10.1002/14356007.a21_253 Bogert, Marston Taylor; Renshaw, Roemer Rex (1 July 1908). "4-Amino-0-Phthalic Acid and Some of ... They also resist weak acids but are not recommended for use in environments that contain alkalis or inorganic acids. Some ... The polymerization of a diamine and a dianhydride can be carried out by a two-step method in which a poly(amid acid) is ... At first a soluble poly(amic acid) is prepared which is cyclized after further processing in a second step to the polyimide. A ...
... phthalate (PVAP): Polyvinyl acetate is partially hydrolyzed and then esterified with phthalic acid. Vinyl ... The monomer, vinyl acetate, was first produced on an industrial scale by the addition of acetic acid to acetylene with a ... In alkaline conditions, boron compounds such as boric acid or borax cause the polyvinyl alcohol to cross-link, forming ... while its ester groups are sensitive to base hydrolysis and slowly convert PVAc into polyvinyl alcohol and acetic acid. The ...
Some bacteria with these abilities have specific enzymes involved in the degradation of phthalic acid esters such as phthalate ... Recent studies show that DEP, a phthalic acid ester (PAE), is enzymatically hydrolyzed to its monoesters by pancreatic ... followed by phthalic acid. This reaction occurs very slowly in an abiotic environment. Thus there exists an alternative pathway ... "Enzymatic hydrolysis of structurally diverse phthalic acid esters by porcine and bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterases". ...
Polyvinyl acetate phthalate
It is a vinyl acetate polymer that is partially hydrolyzed and then esterified with phthalic acid. Its main use in ...
1836 in science
French chemist Auguste Laurent discovers o-phthalic acid (1,2-benzenecarboxylic acid) by oxidizing naphthalene tetrachloride. ...
... related to phthalic acid. This pale yellow solid is a building block in the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and a reagent ... and amino acids, by capillary electrophoresis and chromatography. OPA reacts specifically with primary amines above their ... in the analysis of amino acids. OPA dissolves in water solution at pH < 11.5. Its solutions degrade upon UV illumination and ...
Examples are succinimide, derived from succinic acid, and phthalimide, derived from phthalic acid. For imides derived from ... Most imides are cyclic compounds derived from dicarboxylic acids, and their names reflect the parent acid. ... The intramolecular reaction of a carboxylic acid with an amide is far faster than the intermolecular reaction, which is rarely ... One example is Kapton where the repeat unit consists of two imide groups derived from aromatic tetracarboxylic acids. Another ...
It is a mixture of compounds derived from the esterification of phthalic acid and isomeric decyl alcohols. The coating on ...
Benzyl butyl phthalate
Concentrated sulfuric acid dehydrates n-butyl alcohol to yield 1-butene, which reacts with phthalic anhydride to produce n- ... Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a phthalate, an ester of phthalic acid, benzyl alcohol, and n-butanol. BBP is a clear liquid ... Phthalic anhydride does react directly with 1-butanol to form this same intermediate, but further reaction to form dibutyl ... In the latter, they are conjugated with glucuronic acid and then excreted as glucuronate. Studies in rats have shown that 70% ...
... is formed through the cyclotetramerization of various phthalic acid derivatives including phthalonitrile, ... diiminoisoindole, phthalic anhydride, and phthalimides. Alternatively, heating phthalic anhydride in the presence of urea ... H 2Pc and CuPc dissolve easily in sulfuric acid due to the protonation of the nitrogen atoms bridging the pyrrole rings. Many ...
ortho-xylene - both methyl groups can be oxidized to form (ortho-)phthalic acid *phthalic anhydride ... adipic acid - a 6-carbon dicarboxylic acid, which can be a precursor used as a co-monomer together with a diamine to form an ... Purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Styrene monomer (SM). Thermosetting Resin (Urea/Melamine). Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). Vinyl ... Acetic acid. Acrylonitrile (AN). Ammonia. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (dioctyl phthalate). n-Butene. Cyclohexane. Dimethyl ...
The original alkyds were compounds of glycerol and phthalic acid sold under the name Glyptal. These were sold as substitutes ... Both types are typically produced from dicarboxylic acids or anhydrides, such as phthalic anhydride or maleic anhydride, and ... Alkyds are derived from polyols and a dicarboxylic acid or carboxylic acid anhydride. The term alkyd is a modification of the ... In this process, an acid anhydride, a polyol and an unsaturated fatty acid are combined and cooked together until the product ...
... esters are the dialkyl or alkyl aryl esters of phthalic acid (also called 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, not be ... Phthalates (US: /ˈθæleɪts/, UK: /ˈθɑːleɪtsˌ ˈfθælɪts/), or phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid. They are mainly used ... confused with the structurally isomeric terephthalic or isophthalic acids ); the name "phthalate" derives from phthalic acid, ... "Phthalic Acid and Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/ ...
... beginning with 3-nitrophthalic acid. First, hydrazine (N2H4) is heated with the 3-nitrophthalic acid in a high-boiling ... On the hydrazide of trimesic acid [1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid] and of hemimellitic acid [1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylic acid ... H. O. Albrecht (1928) "Über die Chemiluminescenz des Aminophthalsäurehydrazids" (On the chemiluminescence of aminophthalic acid ...
It is a phthalate and is the diester of phthalic acid and the 10-carbon branched-chain alcohol 2-propylheptanol. This colorless ...
A second method to prepare fluorescein uses methanesulfonic acid as a Brønsted acid catalyst. This route has a high yield under ... Fluorescein was first synthesized by Adolf von Baeyer in 1871. It can be prepared from phthalic anhydride and resorcinol in ... The extent to which fluorescein dilaurate is broken down to yield lauric acid can be detected as a measure of pancreatic ...
Typical Lewis acid catalysts are acids and aluminium trichloride. However, because the product ketone forms a rather stable ... from two equivalents of thymol and phthalic anhydride: A reaction of phthalic anhydride with resorcinol in the presence of zinc ... or a Brønsted acid catalyst using the anhydride or even the carboxylic acid itself as the acylation agent. ... For primary (and possibly secondary) alkyl halides, a carbocation-like complex with the Lewis acid, [R(+)---(X---MXn)(-)] is ...
... and a small amount of organic sulfonic acid, and variations on the compound n-butyl cyanoacrylate for medical applications[ ... although the inclusion of phthalic anhydride reportedly counteracts both of these characteristics. ...
... including azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, cysteamine, topical steroids, glycolic acid, and other substances. ... "BHA"). The useful dye quinizarin is produced by diacylation of hydroquinone with phthalic anhydride. ... Hydroquinone was first obtained in 1820 by the French chemists Pelletier and Caventou via the dry distillation of quinic acid.[ ... On pages 341-342, the preparation and properties of l'acide pyro-kinique (pyroquinic acid or hydroquinone) are discussed. ...
Examples from industry are the reduction of phthalic acid:. and the reduction of 2-methoxynaphthalene: *The Tafel rearrangement ... Cathodic reduction of a carboxylic acid (oxalic acid) to an aldehyde (glyoxylic acid, shows as the rare aldehyde form) in a ... Originally phenylpropanoic acid could be prepared from reduction of cinnamic acid by electrolysis. ... The method was invented in the 1930s. Amines, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and sulfonic acids are converted to the ...
... phthalate (PVAP): Polyvinyl acetate is partially hydrolyzed and then esterified with phthalic acid. ... The monomer, vinyl acetate, was first produced on an industrial scale by the addition of acetic acid to acetylene with a ... In alkaline conditions, boron compounds such as boric acid or borax cause the polyvinyl alcohol to cross-link, forming ... while its ester groups are sensitive to base hydrolysis and slowly convert PVAc into polyvinyl alcohol and acetic acid. ...
... such as acrylic acid, anthraquinone, ethylene oxide, methanol, phthalic anhydride, styrene, methyl methacrylate monomers, and ... In the acid digestion, the silicate pollucite rock is dissolved with strong acids, such as hydrochloric (HCl), sulfuric (H. 2SO ... 4), hydrobromic (HBr), or hydrofluoric (HF) acids. With hydrochloric acid, a mixture of soluble chlorides is produced, and the ... The sulfuric acid method yields the insoluble double salt directly as caesium alum (CsAl(SO. 4). 2·12H. 2O). The aluminium ...
List of organic reactions
Erlenmeyer-Plöchl azlactone and amino-acid synthesis. *Eschenmoser fragmentation. *Eschweiler-Clarke reaction ... Gibbs phthalic anhydride process. *Gilman reagent. *Glaser coupling. *Glycol cleavage. *Gomberg-Bachmann reaction ...
Another amino acid-like drug is the antineoplastic agent melphalan. Tumor cells spend less time in resting phases than normal ... p-Nitrophenyl-alanine (1) was converted to its phthalimide by heating with phthalic anhydride, and this was converted to its ... Heating in acid with oxirane, followed by treatment with phosphorus oxychloride provided the bischloride, and removal of the ... Bergel, F.; Burnop, V. C. E.; Stock, J. A. (1955). "Cyto-active amino-acids and peptides. Part II. Resolution of para- ...
Sensitizer-induced occupational asthma immunologic form of asthma which occurs due to inhalation of specific substances (i.e., high-molecular-weight proteins from plants and animal origins, or low-molecular-weight agents that include chemicals, metals and wood dusts) and occurs after a latency period of several weeks to years.. Irritant-induced (occupational) asthma is a non-immunologic form of asthma that results from a single or multiple high dose exposure to irritant products. It is usually develops early after exposure; however can also develop insidiously over a few months after a massive exposure to a complex mixture of alkaline dust and combustion products, as shown in the World Trade Center disaster. Unlike those with sensitizer-induced occupational asthma, subjects with irritant-induced occupational asthma do not develop work-related asthma symptoms after re-exposure to low concentrations of the irritant that initiated the symptoms. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) is ...
The Friedel-Crafts reaction of benzene and phthalic anhydride in presence of AlCl3 producing o-benzoylbenzoic acid which then ... From the left: C.I.Acid Blue 43 an "acid dye" for wool (also called "Acilan Saphirol SE"), C.I. Vat Violet 1, which is applied ... The acid-catalyzed dimerization of styrene to give a 1,3-diphenylbutene, which then can be transformed to the anthaquinone. ... anthraquinone-1-sulfonic acid, and the dinitroanthraquinone. Natural pigments that are derivatives of anthraquinone are ...
1,4-Benzenedioic acid. Benzene-1,4-dioic acid. Terephthalic acid. para-Phthalic acid. TPA. PTA. BDC ... This process involves the rearrangement of phthalic acid to terephthalic acid via the corresponding potassium salts. ... This reaction proceeds through a p-toluic acid intermediate which is then oxidized to terephthalic acid. In p-toluic acid, ... Ogata, Yoshiro; Tsuchida, Masaru; Muramoto, Akihiko (1957). "The Preparation of Terephthalic Acid from Phthalic or Benzoic Acid ...
The most common class of plasticizers used in PVC is phthalates, which are diesters of phthalic acid. Phthalates can be ... 2-dicarboxylic acid diisononylester (DINCH), di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, polymerics and trimellitic acid, and 2- ... PVC is chemically resistant to acids, salts, bases, fats, and alcohols, making it resistant to the corrosive effects of sewage ... of fatty acids) are common in flexible PVC applications, species such as calcium stearate. Addition levels vary typically ...
ഥാലിക് അമ്ലം - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
Related carboxylic acids Isophthalic acid. Terephthalic acid Related compounds Phthalic anhydride. Phthalimide. Phthalhydrazide ... www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458418/phthalic-acid. കടപ്പാട്: കേരള സർക്കാർ ഗ്നൂ സ്വതന്ത്ര പ്രസിദ്ധീകരണാനുമതി പ്രകാരം ഓൺ ... C with conversion to phthalic anhydride and water (J.T.Baker MSDS). ...
Benzoic acid from toluene, terephthalic acid from para-xylene, and phthalic acid from ortho-xylene are illustrative large-scale ... Alpha hydroxy acids. containing a hydroxy group example glyceric acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid ... Pelargonic acid. Nonanoic acid. CH3(CH2)7COOH. Pelargonium 10. Capric acid. Decanoic acid. CH3(CH2)8COOH. Coconut and Palm ... Undecylic acid. Undecanoic acid. CH3(CH2)9COOH. 12. Lauric acid. Dodecanoic acid. CH3(CH2)10COOH. Coconut oil and hand wash ...
The most common plasticizers are derivatives of phthalic acid. The materials are selected on their compatibility with the ... 2-dicarboxylic acid, diisononylester (DINCH), Di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, polymerics and trimellitic acid, 2-ethylhexylester ... PVC is chemically resistant to acids, salts, bases, fats, and alcohols, making it resistant to the corrosive effects of sewage ... of fatty acids) are common in flexible PVC applications, species such as calcium stearate. Addition levels vary typically ...
Benzoic acid from toluene, terephthalic acid from para-xylene, and phthalic acid from ortho-xylene are illustrative large-scale ... Pelargonic acid. Nonanoic acid. CH3(CH2)7COOH. Pelargonium 10. Capric acid. Decanoic acid. CH3(CH2)8COOH. Coconut and Palm ... Undecylic acid. Undecanoic acid. CH3(CH2)9COOH. 12. Lauric acid. Dodecanoic acid. CH3(CH2)10COOH. Coconut oil and hand wash ... Margaric acid. Heptadecanoic acid. CH3(CH2)15COOH. 18. Stearic acid. Octadecanoic acid. CH3(CH2)16COOH. Chocolate, waxes, soaps ...
... sulfonic acids and sulfonatesEdit. Many naphthalenesulfonic acids and sulfonates are useful. Alkyl naphthalene ... The single largest use of naphthalene is the industrial production of phthalic anhydride, although more phthalic anhydride is ... Sulfonation gives the "alpha" product naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid as the kinetic product but naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid as the ... 2 in the presence of vanadium pentoxide as catalyst gives phthalic anhydride: C10H8 + 4.5 O2 → C6H4(CO)2O + 2 CO2 + 2 H2O. This ...
Hydrochloric acid alone reacts poorly with primary alcohols and secondary alcohols, but a combination of HCl with ZnCl2 (known ... Related to the latter is the classical preparation of the dye fluorescein from phthalic anhydride and resorcinol, which ... Wilson, A. D.; Nicholson, J. W. (1993). Acid-Base Cements: Their Biomedical and Industrial Applications. Cambridge University ... Ninhydrin reacts with amino acids and amines to form a colored compound "Ruhemann's purple" (RP). Spraying with a zinc chloride ...
It is related to resorcinol, 1,3-C6H4(OH)2. Orcinol was first prepared by dehydroacetic acid, a conversion that involved ring- ... Unlike resorcinol it does not give a fluorescein with phthalic anhydride. Oxidation of the ammoniacal solution gives orcein, ...
Examples from industry are the reduction of phthalic acid: and the reduction of 2-methoxynaphthalene: The Tafel rearrangement, ... Cathodic reduction of a carboxylic acid (oxalic acid) to an aldehyde (glyoxylic acid, shows as the rare aldehyde form) in a ... Amines, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and sulfonic acids are converted to the perfluorinated derivatives using this technology. A ... Cyanoacetic acid from cathodic reduction of carbon dioxide and anodic oxidation of acetonitrile. Propiolic acid is prepared ...
The methyl ester of phthalic acid, it is a colorless liquid that is soluble in organic solvents. Dimethyl phthalate is used as ...
o-Xylene is an important precursor to phthalic anhydride. The demand for isophthalic acid is relatively modest so m-xylene is ... Xylenes are metabolized to methylhippuric acids. The presence of methylhippuric acid can be used as a biomarker to determine ... Kira S. (1977). "Measurement by gas chromatography of urinary hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid as indices of toluene and ... Of the three isomers, the p-isomer is the most industrially sought after since it can be oxidized to terephthalic acid. Xylenes ...
Phthalic acid, monooctyl ester
ICSC 0768 - PHTHALIC ACID
EWG Skin Deep® | What is DISTEARYL PHTHALIC ACID AMIDE
DIHYDROGENATED TALLOW PHTHALIC ACID AMIDE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG
CISDOC - Toxicology of complex esters of phthalic acid (literature survey)
Phthalic acid - Wikipedia
Phthalic acid is one of three isomers of benzenedicarboxylic acid, the others being isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid. ... The toxicity of phthalic acid is low with LD50 (mouse) of 550 mg/kg. The bacteria Pseudomonas sp. P1 degrades phthalic acid. ... Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4(CO2H)2. It is an isomer of isophthalic acid and terephthalic ... phthalic acid) and admits that his earlier empirical formula for phthalic acid was wrong. Reprinted in German as: Auguste ...
Phthalic acid - Registration Dossier - ECHA
Phthalic acid EC Number:. 201-873-2. EC Name:. Phthalic acid. CAS Number:. 88-99-3 Molecular formula:. C8H6O4 IUPAC Name:. ... Phthalic acidPhthalic acid. CAS Number:. 88-99-3. Molecular formula:. C8H6O4. IUPAC Name: ... Phthalic acidPhthalic acid. CAS Number:. 88-99-3. Molecular formula:. C8H6O4. IUPAC Name: ... 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid. Total tonnage band. Total range:. 1 000 - 10 000 tonnes per annum. REACH. Registered as:. FULL. ...
Phthalic acid - legislation-obligation - ECHA
Phthalic acid - Registration Dossier - ECHA
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Patent US3216481 - Recovery of phthalic and maleic acid from solutions - Google Patents
Example I A feed solution consisting of 45.4 g. phthalic acid, 136.1 g. maleic acid :and 62.1 g. citraconic acid, and 756.4 g. ... Example 1I 1500 g. raw feed solution consisting of 76.5 g. of phthalic acid, 241.2 g. maleic acid, 108.0 g. citraconic acid and ... The sample contained approximately 26 g. phthalic acid, 99 g. maleic acid and 25 g. of citraconic acid. It was processed in a ... "solid phthalic acid may be removed through line 38, and used directly as commercial phthalic acid, or it may be passed by line ...
aniline; phthalic acid
... phthalic acid
Metallo-beta-lactamase inhibitory activity of phthalic acid derivatives. - PubMed - NCBI
The structure-activity relationship study of substituted phthalic acids afforded 3-phenylphthalic acid derivatives as potent ... Metallo-beta-lactamase inhibitory activity of phthalic acid derivatives.. Hiraiwa Y1, Morinaka A, Fukushima T, Kudo T. ... On the other hand, 3-substituted with 4-hydroxyphenyl phthalic acid derivative displayed a potent combination effect with ... 4-Butyl-3-methylphthalic acid was recognized as a metallo-beta-lactamase inhibitor. ...
Phthalic acid, cyclobutyl dodecyl ester | C24H36O4 - PubChem
Phthalic acid, 2-diethylaminoethyl hexyl ester | C20H31NO4 - PubChem
Phthalic acid | Read Reviews & Product Use Citations
Tags: buy Phthalic acid , Phthalic acid supplier , purchase Phthalic acid , Phthalic acid cost , Phthalic acid manufacturer , ... Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid. It is a human xenobiotic metabolite.. ... Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid. It is a human xenobiotic metabolite. ...
Phthalic acid | BioExpress
What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic acid esters in Europeans?
Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials. ... What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic acid esters in Europeans? Risk Anal. 2006 Jun;26(3):803-24. ... Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials. ...
Chemical Database: Phthalic acid, tetrachloro-, 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl ester, sodium salt (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)
This page contains information on the chemical Phthalic acid, tetrachloro-, 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl ester, sodium salt including ... Phthalic acid, tetrachloro-, 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl ester, sodium salt. Identifications. *CAS Number: 73972-98-2*Synonyms/ ... Phthalic acid, tetrachloro-, 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl ester, sodium salt*Sodium 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl tetrachlorophthalate ... Chemical Database - Phthalic acid, tetrachloro-, 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl ester, sodium salt. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. 1995 - ...
2018 Global 2-Methacryloylxyethyl phthalic acid Industry Report - History, Present and Future
The global market size of 2-Methacryloylxyethyl phthalic acid is $XX million in 2017 with XX CAGR from 2013 to 2017, and it is ... 9.1 2-Methacryloylxyethyl phthalic acid Supply. 9.2 2-Methacryloylxyethyl phthalic acid Demand by End Use. 9.3 Competition by ... 10.1 2-Methacryloylxyethyl phthalic acid Supply. 10.2 2-Methacryloylxyethyl phthalic acid Demand by End Use. 10.3 Competition ... 11.1 2-Methacryloylxyethyl phthalic acid Supply. 11.2 2-Methacryloylxyethyl phthalic acid Demand by End Use. 11.3 Competition ...
Organic Chemistry: acid pKa of a substituted phthalic acid | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community
C8H6O4 o-Phthalic acid 1 25 2.89 2 25 5.51 C8H6O4 m-Phthalic acid 1 25 3.54 2 18 4.60 C8H6O4 p-Phthalic acid 1 25 3.51 C6H5CIO ... Similar Discussions: Organic Chemistry: acid pKa of a substituted phthalic acid * Solve pKa of unknown monoprotic Acid (Replies ... The pKas for phthalic acid (the 1,2-dicarboxylic acid of benzene) are pKa1 = 2.98 and pKa2 = 5.28. What this would mean is ... The pKas for phthalic acid (the 1,2-dicarboxylic acid of benzene) are pKa1 = 2.98 and pKa2 = 5.28. What this would mean is ...
Phthalic acid, bis-methyl ester- CAS Number 131-11-3
Buy Phthalic acid, bis-methyl ester - CAS Number 131-11-3 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check ... Phthalic acid, dimethyl ester (6CI,8CI) ;. Read more.. ... Phthalic acid, bis-methyl ester. DRE-C16174000- Phthalic acid, ... Mipax ; Repeftal ; Dimethyl o-phthalate ; 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester (9CI) ; Solvanom ; Solvarone ; Avolin ;1 ... 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-dimethyl ester ; NSC 15398 ; NTM ; Palatinol M ; Dimethyl phthalate ; Fermine ; DMF (insect ...
urea with anhydride phthalic acid
Conversion of Phthalic Acid to Phthalic Anhydride. Dec 12, 2015· Conversion of Phthalic Acid to Phthalic Anhydride August 10, ... Phthalic acid - Wikipedia. Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C 6 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2.It is an isomer of ... Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4(COOH)2. Phthalic acid is used mainly in the form of the ... Phthalic anhydride , 85-44-9. Phthalic Anhydride is an organic compound and the anhydride of phthalic acid (P384480). Phthalic ...
A student purified a 3.88 g sample of phthalic acid by recrystallization
... from water. The published solubility of phthalic acid ... The mole ratio in which phthalic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide … * Chemistry [sumone help me please :(]. 0.250g of phthalic ... 0.250g of phthalic acid is dissolved in 40.00cm^3 of 0.100 mol dm^-3 NaOH. It requires 11.80 cubic centimeters of 0.100 mol\dm ... How to find the volume of hot water required to dissolve the mass of acid, if we have 20g of benzoic acid contaminated with 0.4 ...
Experiment 2: AROMATIC SIDE-CHAIN OXIDATION: PHTHALIC ACID FROM XYLENE | Redox | Solubility
Experiment 2: AROMATIC SIDE-CHAIN OXIDATION: PHTHALIC ACID FROM XYLENE ... PHTHALIC ACID FROM XYLENE - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free ... the preparation of phthalic acid and the recrystallization and analysis of the phthalic acid. A. Preparation of Phthalic Acid ... However, in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid, the aqueous base is neutralized and the phthalic acid is formed. ...
Degradation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by enzyme mimics and its application to degradation of intracellular DEHP - Chemical...
84-76-4 - Dinonyl phthalate, mixture of isomers, 96% - Phthalic acid di-n-nonyl ester - A12871 - Alfa Aesar
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Mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid in leachates from young landfills in early degradation phases
... the diesters might be degraded to phthalic acid monoesters and phthalic acid. PDEs are widely used in a range of different ... Mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid in leachates from young landfills in early degradation phases. Jonsson, Susanne Linköping ... All members of the chemical group of phthalates are salts of phthalic acid and in the international literature dealing with ... Together with the diesters also the monoesters and phthalic acid has been found in old landfills with methanogenic leachates ...
Determination of phthalic acid, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in human plasma and in blood...
Pretreatment for the determination of phthalic acid, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP ... 0/Acetonitriles; 0/Phthalic Acids; 4376-20-9/mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; 6O7F7IX66E/phthalic acid; C42K0PH13C/Diethylhexyl ... The amount of phthalic acid, MEHP and DEHP, migrated into blood products from a flexible bag, was studied. About 0.1% of DEHP ... Determination of phthalic acid, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in human plasma and in blood ...
o-Iodoxybenzoic Acid. Cyclopentobarbital. Cilostazol. Ginkgolides. Zinc Lactate. Uridine Diphosphate Glucose. 2,4,6- ... Literature References: Manufactured by catalytic oxidation of o-toluic acid and oxidation of xylene: Taylor, Dean, US 3064046 ( ... Properties: Crystals, mp ~230° when rapidly heated, forming phthalic anhydride and water. One gram dissolves in 160 ml water, ...
PhthalateEsterTerephthalic acidPAEsOrtho-PhthPlasticizersDerivativesIsophthalic acidPhthalatesRemoval of phthalic acidPreparation of phthalic acidOrganicUllmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ChemistryAnhydride and waterMaleic anhydrideEsters and PhthalicDicarboxylicCarboxylic acidsDEHPAceticDegradationAnhydridesToxicityFattyAqueous ammoniaSalicylic acidSodiumReactionSolubilityOxidationCompoundsExposureBenzoicIsomersChlorideDiestersFumaric acidPotassium permanganateDibasic acidChemicalPhtaliqueReactsMolecular WeightPhenolPhthalimideDerivativePhenolicWidely
- The monopotassium salt, potassium hydrogen phthalate is a standard acid in analytical chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
- Typically phthalate esters are prepared from the widely available phthalic anhydride. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalic acid, when found in tissues or biofluids arises from exposure to these phthalate products. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- Determination of phthalic acid, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in human plasma and in blood products. (biomedsearch.com)
- Pretreatment for the determination of phthalic acid, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in human serum or plasma, and the determination of these compounds in blood products by high-performance liquid chromatography was studied. (biomedsearch.com)
- We studied the removal of two phthalic acid diesters (PAEs), di- n -butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from leachates of a municipal solid waste landfill treatment facility. (springer.com)
- Adsorption and removal of phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate from water with zeolitic imidazolate and metal-organic frameworks (2015) Khan N. A et al. (naver.com)
- The primary use of phthalic anhydride is a precursor to phthalate esters, used as plasticizers in vinyl chloride. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalate esters are derived from phthalic anhydride by the alcoholysis reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- The process begins with the reaction of phthalic anhydride with alcohols, giving the monoesters: C6H4(CO)2O + ROH → C6H4(CO2H)CO2R The second esterification is more difficult and requires removal of water: C6H4(CO2H)CO2R + ROH ⇌ C6H4(CO2R)2 + H2O The most important diester is bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ("DEHP"), used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride compounds. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalic anhydride treated with cellulose acetate gives cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), a common enteric coating excipient that has also been shown to have antiviral activity. (wikipedia.org)
- The interaction of para -phthalic acid or its dimethyl ester with ethylene glycol yields polyethylene terephthalate, which is used in the manufacture of polyester fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In the 1960s, all the terephthalic acid produced was converted to its dimethyl ester , since TPA was infusible and difficult to purify. (wikipedia.org)
- consequently, until about 1970 terephthalic acid was purified as its dimethyl ester . (wikipedia.org)
- 1. A salt, ester, or anion of phthalic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It specializes in the production, research and development and marketing of Benzoic Acid, Benzyl Benzoate, Polyol Ester of Benzoic Acid, Sodium Benzoate, Benzyl Alcohol and Benzaldehyde. (frbiz.com)
- Our annual production capacity for Benzoic Acid is 50000 tons, Benzyl Benzoate 4000 tons, Polyol Ester of Benzoic Acid 10000 tons, Sodium Benzoate 20000 tons (including Sodium Benzoate in powder 10000 tons, globular Sodium Benzoate 5000 tons, and columnar Sodium Benzoate 5000 tons), Benzyl Alcohol 5000 tons. (frbiz.com)
- Diethylester kyseliny ftalove [Czech];Diethyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate;o-Benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester;Estol 1550;Anozol;Unimoll DA;Phthalsaeurediaethylester;Neantine;DEP;1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid,esters,diethyl ester;4-09-00-03172 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);Phthalic acid, diethyl ester;RCRA waste no. (lookchem.com)
- It is an isomer of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalic acid is one of three isomers of benzenedicarboxylic acid, the others being isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid. (wikipedia.org)
- Group restriction specification is expressed as terephthalic acid. (europa.eu)
- benzenedicarboxylic acid), C 6 H 4 (COOH) 2 , any one of three dicarboxylic acids of the aromatic series: ortho-phthalic acid (or simply phthalic acid), meta -phthalic acid (or isophthalic acid), and para-phthalic acid (or terephthalic acid). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Terephthalic acid is a organic compound with formula C 6 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2 . (wikipedia.org)
- Terephthalic acid was first isolated (from turpentine) by the French chemist Amédée Cailliot (1805-1884) in 1846. (wikipedia.org)
-  The importance of the terephthalic acid was realized after World War II . (wikipedia.org)
- Terephthalic acid was produced by oxidation of p -xylene with dilute nitric acid . (wikipedia.org)
- This reaction proceeds through a p -toluic acid intermediate which is then oxidized to terephthalic acid. (wikipedia.org)
- Based on structural and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, the detailed process of PET degradation into MHET, terephthalic acid, and ethylene glycol is suggested. (bireme.br)
- Absorption, distribution and excretion of terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate. (cdc.gov)
- Profiles of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in bottled water, tap water, lake water, and wastewater samples collected from Hanoi, Vietnam. (bvsalud.org)
- Contamination levels and distribution patterns of ten typical phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were investigated in various types of water samples collected from Hanoi metropolitan area in Vietnam . (bvsalud.org)
- YC-RL4 is capable of utilizing a broad range of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) as sole source of carbon and energy for growth . (bvsalud.org)
- Drinking Water Criteria Document for Phthalic Acid Esters (PAEs). (epa.gov)
- Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are primarily used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride resins. (epa.gov)
- The dinitrile of ortho -phthalic acid (phthalonitrile) is used in the production of phthalocyanine dyes and polyphthalocyanines. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Also of practical importance are the cyclic imide (phthalimide) and dichloranhydride (phthalyl chloride) of ortho -phthalic acid, as well as phthalylsulfathiazole (Ftalazol). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Hydrolysis by hot water forms ortho-phthalic acid: C6H4(CO)2O + H2O → C6H4(CO2H)2 Hydrolysis of anhydrides is not typically a reversible process. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are used as plasticizers in numerous consumer products, commodities, and building materials. (nih.gov)
- Phthalic Anhydride is an important industrial chemical commonly used in large-scale production of plasticizers f or plastics. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- Phthalates [41,42] (Figure 1.7) are esters of phthalic acid and are used mainly as plasticizers to increase flexibility, transparency, and durability of plastic materials. (netgravity.ca)
- Plasticizers , not only to Phthalic Acid Esters and Phthalic anhydride but a wide variety and kinds, are often added to a lot of engineering and modern polymers and general plastics to improve their process ability, improve their flow ability and injection molding characteristics and also to improve their elasticity or reduce brittleness in them. (blogspot.com)
- Metallo-beta-lactamase inhibitory activity of phthalic acid derivatives. (nih.gov)
- The structure-activity relationship study of substituted phthalic acids afforded 3-phenylphthalic acid derivatives as potent IMP-1 inhibitors. (nih.gov)
- Through the optimization of reaction, phthalimide derivatives were obtained in excellent yields through facile one-pot mild condition reaction of phthalic acid with aryl amines that was catalyzed by L-proline. (thefreedictionary.com)
- a b Peter M. Lorz, Friedrich K. Towae, Walter Enke, Rudolf Jäckh, Naresh Bhargava, Wolfgang Hillesheim "Phthalic Acid and Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. (leparisien.fr)
- the meta form is isophthalic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Phthalic acid is used mainly in the form of the anhydride to produce other chemicals such as dyes, perfumes, saccharin, phthalates and many other useful products. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- All members of the chemical group of phthalates are salts of phthalic acid and in the international literature dealing with phthalates, the chemical group seems to have been regarded as phthalic acid diesters only, although, the diesters might be degraded to phthalic acid monoesters and phthalic acid. (diva-portal.org)
Removal of phthalic acid2
- Fang CR, Long YY, Shen DS (2009) Comparison on the removal of phthalic acid diesters in a bioreactor landfill and a conventional landfill. (springer.com)
- Zheng Z, Zhang H, He PJ, Shao LM, Chen Y, Pang L (2009) Co-removal of phthalic acid esters with dissolved organic matter from landfill leachate by coagulation and flocculation process. (springer.com)
Preparation of phthalic acid3
- for the preparation of phthalic acid, see page 41. (wikipedia.org)
- METHODOLOGY The experiment was divided into two major parts, the preparation of phthalic acid and the recrystallization and analysis of the phthalic acid. (scribd.com)
- A. Preparation of Phthalic Acid In an appropriately sized round-bottomed flask, 1.5 g of potassium permanganate (KMnO4), about 0.50 g of xylene and 35 mL of water were mixed. (scribd.com)
- The common methods of purication of the predominantly phthalic anhydride reaction product result in production of large quantities of aqueous solutions containing both phthalic acid and maleic acid which also may contain only small quantities of other organic acids, usually citraconic, as the prevailing impurity. (google.com)
- It is the imide derivative of phthalic anhydride.It is a sublimable white solid that is slightly soluble in water but more so upon addition of base.It is used as a precursor to other organic compounds as a masked source of ammonia. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- Phthalic Anhydride is an organic compound and the anhydride of phthalic acid (P384480). (steunmijnclub.nl)
- The well-defined starting period made it possible to study the development from acidogenic phase to methanogenic degradation by measuring pH, volatile organic acids (VFAs) and total organic carbon (TOC). (diva-portal.org)
- Zhang CX, Wang YX (2009) Removal of dissolved organic matter and phthalic acid esters from landfill leachate through a complexaton-flocculation process. (springer.com)
- Typical chemicals included on this list include aromatics, substituted aromatics such as phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), some pesticides such as DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), some heterocyclics, and some esters, organic acids, and ketones. (astm.org)
- Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2O. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalic anhydride is a versatile intermediate in organic chemistry, in part because it is bifunctional and cheaply available. (wikipedia.org)
- 3. The organophilic clay gellant of claim 1 wherein the primary anion is derived from an organic acid having a pKa of less than about 11.0. (google.co.uk)
- Anhydrides of organic acids have many uses. (encyclopedia.com)
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry1
- K (NIST website), (ii) 210−211 °C with decomposition (Sigma-Aldrich on-line), (iii) 191 °C in a sealed tube (Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry), (iv) 230 °C with conversion to phthalic anhydride and water (J.T.Baker MSDS). (wikipedia.org)
Anhydride and water1
- Crystals, mp ~230° when rapidly heated, forming phthalic anhydride and water. (drugfuture.com)
- In the production of phthalic anhydride a substantial amount of maleic anhydride is also formed, usually from oxidation in gaseous `or liquid phase of hydrocarbons of the nature of naphthalene, o-xylene, alkyl naphthalenes and the like. (google.com)
- About 10% of maleic anhydride is also produced: C6H4(CH3)2 + 7+1/2 O2 → C4H2O3 + 4 H2O + 4 CO2 Phthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride are recovered by distillation by a series of switch condensers. (wikipedia.org)
- Other important acid anhydrides include maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride. (encyclopedia.com)
- It has been stated that phthalic anhydride has similar toxic effects (i.e., irritation of the skin, eyes, and upper respiratory system) as maleic anhydride, but has reduced potency [ACGIH 1991]. (nih.gov)
Esters and Phthalic1
- The basic understanding about uses of plasticizing will provide us with a good base to understand Phthalic Acid Esters and Phthalic anhydride more clearly. (blogspot.com)
- Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4(CO2H)2. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid. (selleckchem.com)
- Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4(COOH)2. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- Phthalic acid is an aromatic dicarboxylic acid , with formula C 6 H 4 (CO 2 H) 2 . (leparisien.fr)
- It was the first anhydride of a dicarboxylic acid to be used commercially. (wikipedia.org)
- Feb 26, 1980· The anhydride formed by the elimination of water from carboxylic acids affords a further advantage. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- Unlike other oxidizing agents, KMnO 4 converts only the benzene rings substituents into carboxylic acids. (scribd.com)
- In the case of xylene, the alkyl groups were oxidized to carboxylic acids. (scribd.com)
- The amount of phthalic acid, MEHP and DEHP, migrated into blood products from a flexible bag, was studied. (biomedsearch.com)
- Most of the MEHP and phthalic acid detected in human platelet plasma was not derived from the flexible bag but was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the migrated DEHP. (biomedsearch.com)
- In this process, acetic acid is the solvent and oxygen from compressed air is the oxidant. (wikipedia.org)
- The combination of bromine and acetic acid is found to be highly corrosive and hence the equipment is lined with titanium . (wikipedia.org)
- A feed mixture containing p -xylene , acetic acid , the catalyst system, and compressed air is fed to a reactor. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalic anhydride is a degradation product of CAP. (wikipedia.org)
- This page looks at the reactions of acid anhydrides with ammonia and with primary amines. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- The toxicity of phthalic acid is low with LD50 (mouse) of 550 mg/kg. (wikipedia.org)
- Fatty acids, C18-unsatd. (nih.gov)
- Moreover, 80% of the total fatty acids extracted from moghat roots are oleic and linolenic acids. (hindawi.com)
- Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in normal and osteopenic Spanish women. (bireme.br)
- The regular consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCO3-PUFAs) results in general health benefits. (bireme.br)
- Dietary intakes of total energy, calcium, vitamin D, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA)) were assessed by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). (bireme.br)
- 1. Phthalic acid + aqueous ammonia to form ammonium salt. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- A related ring-opening reaction involves peroxides to give the useful peroxy acid: C6H4(CO)2O + H2O2 → C6H4(CO3H)CO2H Phthalimide can be prepared by heating phthalic anhydride with aqueous ammonia giving a 95-97% yield. (wikipedia.org)
- Reduction of phthalic acid with sodium amalgam in the presence of water gives the 1,3-cyclohexadiene derivative. (wikipedia.org)
- When the filtrate was not colorless after the initial filtration, addition of sodium bisulfite and repetition of the filtration were done to produce a clear filtrate for the isolation of the aromatic acid. (scribd.com)
- 2-Acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid, homopolymer, sodium salt (CAS Reg. (fda.gov)
- The undesirable ammonia formed during thermolysis in the case of some blowing agents or blowing agent mixtures is irreversibly chemically bound by reaction (for example phthalic acid anhydride to phthalic acid imide). (steunmijnclub.nl)
- tnixed sample containing equimolecular quantities of phthalic anhydride and urea at 120-126`C the additive reaction is carried out and the acyclic ureide of phthalic acid is produced. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- Anthroquinone (C14H8O2), an important intermediate in the dye industry, is produced from the reaction of benzene with phthalic anhydride (C8H4O3), followed by dehydration with sulfuric acid. (jiskha.com)
- The permanganate reaction requires work up with acid because the permanganate reaction generates a basic solution as a by product. (scribd.com)
- The naphthalene route (the Gibbs phthalic anhydride process or the Gibbs-Wohg naphthalene oxidation reaction) has declined relative to the o-xylene route. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalic anhydride's reaction on human health is generally an asthma-rhinitis-conjunctivitis syndrome or a delayed reaction and influenza-like symptoms and with increased immunoglobulin (E and G) levels in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
- The specific way is below: prepare the phthalic anhydride and alcohol, and go through the reflux reaction with the existence of sulfuric acid(catalytic agent), and then get the crude products. (lookchem.com)
- The invention is based on the principle that the solubility in water of phthalic acid increases far more rapidly than maleic acid with rising temperature. (google.com)
- Consequently, the dilute solution -of maleic and phthalic acid is rst concentrated by vacuum distillation at a relatively low temperature at which the phthalic acid whose solubility is comparatively low first saturates and crystallizes out, the concentartion of the solution being continued while the phthalic acid substantially separates, until the solution approaches saturation of the maleic acid component. (google.com)
- At the higher temperature the phthalic acid has substantially higher solubility, and, therefore, the solution is unsaturated as to this component. (google.com)
- The published solubility of phthalic acid in 100 mL of water is 0.54 g at 14ºC and 18 g at 99ºC. (jiskha.com)
- A sample of benzoic acid contaminated with NaCl and sand is to be recrystallized: Benzoid Acid: Solubility in water at 100 degrees Celsius in g/100 mL = 6.8, at 0 degrees Celsius in g/100 mL = 0.2. (jiskha.com)
- Phthalic acid is produced by the catalytic oxidation of naphthalene or ortho-xylene directly to phthalic anhydride and a subsequent hydrolysis of the anhydride. (wikipedia.org)
- Manufacturing methods in the nineteenth century included oxidation of naphthalene tetrachloride with nitric acid, or, better, oxidation of the hydrocarbon with fuming sulfuric acid, using mercury or mercury(II) sulfate as a catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
- Naphthalene on oxidation with potassium permanganate or potassium dichromate gives phthalic acid. (wikipedia.org)
- Phthalic Anhydride (PA) is produced from oxidation of O-xylene. (steunmijnclub.nl)
- In this experiment, the transfer of electrons between two chemical species is involved, where phthalic acid was obtained from the oxidation-reduction reacts of xylene with potassium permanganate. (scribd.com)
- Moreover, the vigorous oxidation of alkyl-substituted aromatic rings with hot aqueous KMnO4 results in oxidative cleavage of the side chain, forming a carboxylic acid group, irrespective of the length or branching of the side chain (Fox, 2004). (scribd.com)
- Manufactured by catalytic oxidation of o- toluic acid and oxidation of xylene: Taylor, Dean, US 3064046 (1962 to I.C.I. (drugfuture.com)
- meta -Phthalic acid and para-phthalic acid are prepared by the oxidation of meta -xylene and para -xylene, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This type of oxidation involved the use of air in the initial oxidation step to minimize the consumption of nitric acid and difficulty in purification. (wikipedia.org)
- The oxidation of the methyl group takes place in two steps where p -xylene is converted to p -toluic acid and the byproduct undesirable 4-carboxybenzaldehyde along with crude p -toluic acid. (wikipedia.org)
- In p -toluic acid, deactivation of the methyl by the electron-withdrawing carboxylic acid group makes the methyl one tenth as reactive as the methyls of xylene itself, making the second oxidation significantly more difficult. (wikipedia.org)
- We are the unique company which produces these chemicals by Toluene Oxidation in the world and the best one to produce and market Benzoic Acid and Benzyl Benzoate in China. (frbiz.com)
- See: Auguste Laurent (1836) "Sur l'acide naphtalique et ses combinaisons" (On naphthalic acid and its compounds), Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 61 : 113-125. (wikipedia.org)
- Boonnorat J, Chiemchaisri C, Chiemchaisri W, Yamamoto K (2014) Removals of phenolic compounds and phthalic acid esters in landfill leachate by microbial sludge of two-stage membrane bioreactor. (springer.com)
- Phthalic acid esters are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which have been shown to reduce the diversity of microbial communities and decline crop quality , and are toxic to most aquatic organisms including algae . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Phthalic anhydride is used to dehydrate short-chain nitro-alcohols to yield nitroalkenes, compounds with a high tendency to polymerize. (wikipedia.org)
- What are the sources of exposure to eight frequently used phthalic acid esters in Europeans? (nih.gov)
- The most probable human exposure to phthalic anhydride is through skin contact or inhalation during manufacture or use. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies show that exposure to phthalic anhydride can cause rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. (wikipedia.org)
- A number of human studies found that phthalic anhydride exposure can cause or is associated with sensitization, elevated IgE and IgG, occupational asthma (immediate, late or both), rhinitis, conjunctivitis, chronic bronchitis, respiratory irritation, and contact urticaria. (nih.gov)
- However, the transformation of toluenes to benzaldehyde and benzoic acid is really difficult to perform in real situation. (scribd.com)
- Sometimes the term "phthalic acids" is used to refer to this family of isomers, but in the singular, "phthalic acid", refers exclusively to the ortho- isomer. (leparisien.fr)
- Hot sale 88-99-3 Phthalic acid with best price Our main products: Crovell is specialized in pharmaceutical intermediates, veterinary drug intermediates and dyes intermediates,such as phenylacetamide, dimethylamine hcl, benzyl chloride etc. (lookchem.com)
- Together with the diesters also the monoesters and phthalic acid has been found in old landfills with methanogenic leachates collected from different European landfills (Jonsson et al. (diva-portal.org)
- Separation `of the maleic acid continues at the selected higher temperature which may be, and preferably is, the highest practical temperature below isomerization to fumaric acid. (google.com)
- It is a dibasic acid, with pKas of 2.89 and 5.51. (wikipedia.org)
- Although phthalic acid is of modest commercial importance, the closely related derivative phthalic anhydride is a commodity chemical produced on a large scale. (wikipedia.org)
- on page 92, Laurent coins the name "acide phtalique" (phthalic acid) and admits that his earlier empirical formula for phthalic acid was wrong. (wikipedia.org)
- 12. The polylactic acid according to claim 11, wherein the final polymer product in step (b) has an average molecular weight of from 100,000 to 500,000 as determined by GPC. (google.com.au)
- The present invention relates to a method for producing a solid polylactic acid having a high molecular weight. (google.com.au)
- The polylactic acid obtained by the method of the present invention has a high molecular weight, which may take various shapes such as granular, pelletized, and plate-like forms. (google.com.au)
- Phenolphthalein can be synthesized by the condensation of phthalic anhydride with two equivalents of phenol under acidic conditions (hence the name). (wikipedia.org)
- On the other hand, 3-substituted with 4-hydroxyphenyl phthalic acid derivative displayed a potent combination effect with biapenem (BIPM) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa that produce IMP-1. (nih.gov)
- With this hypothesis the alterations of phenolic acids (PAs) in the rhizosphere soils of P. notoginseng after pathogen infection were determined. (mdpi.com)