Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Type C cytochromes that are small (12-14 kD) single-heme proteins. They function as mobile electron carriers between membrane-bound enzymes in photosynthetic BACTERIA.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A genus in the family ACETOBACTERACEAE consisting of chemoorganotrophic, straight rods with rounded ends. They are aerobic and acidophilic.
A family in the order Rhizobiales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA comprised of many genera of budding or appendaged bacteria.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Organelles of phototrophic bacteria which contain photosynthetic pigments and which are formed from an invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)
A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A specific bacteriochlorophyll that is similar in structure to chlorophyll a.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A genus of facultatively or obligately anaerobic marine phototrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (1/2359)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

Two light-activated conductances in the eye of the green alga Volvox carteri. (2/2359)

Photoreceptor currents of the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri were analyzed using a dissolver mutant. The photocurrents are restricted to the eyespot region of somatic cells. Photocurrents are detectable from intact cells and excised eyes. The rhodopsin action spectrum suggests that the currents are induced by Volvox rhodopsin. Flash-induced photocurrents are a composition of a fast Ca2+-carried current (PF) and a slower current (PS), which is carried by H+. PF is a high-intensity response that appears with a delay of less than 50 micros after flash. The stimulus-response curve of its initial rise is fit by a single exponential and parallels the rhodopsin bleaching. These two observations suggest that the responsible channel is closely connected to the rhodopsin, both forming a tight complex. At low flash energies PS is dominating. The current delay increases up to 10 ms, and the PS amplitude saturates when only a few percent of the rhodopsin is bleached. The data are in favor of a second signaling system, which includes a signal transducer mediating between rhodopsin and the channel. We present a model of how different modes of signal transduction are accomplished in this alga under different light conditions.  (+info)

Multiple pathways for ultrafast transduction of light energy in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. (3/2359)

A pathway of electron transfer is described that operates in the wild-type reaction center (RC) of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The pathway does not involve the excited state of the special pair dimer of bacteriochlorophylls (P*), but instead is driven by the excited state of the monomeric bacteriochlorophyll (BA*) present in the active branch of pigments along which electron transfer occurs. Pump-probe experiments were performed at 77 K on membrane-bound RCs by using different excitation wavelengths, to investigate the formation of the charge separated state P+HA-. In experiments in which P or BA was selectively excited at 880 nm or 796 nm, respectively, the formation of P+HA- was associated with similar time constants of 1.5 ps and 1. 7 ps. However, the spectral changes associated with the two time constants are very different. Global analysis of the transient spectra shows that a mixture of P+BA- and P* is formed in parallel from BA* on a subpicosecond time scale. In contrast, excitation of the inactive branch monomeric bacteriochlorophyll (BB) and the high exciton component of P (P+) resulted in electron transfer only after relaxation to P*. The multiple pathways for primary electron transfer in the bacterial RC are discussed with regard to the mechanism of charge separation in the RC of photosystem II from higher plants.  (+info)

Lipophilicity determination of some potential photosystem II inhibitors on reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. (4/2359)

The retention characteristics of 25 2-cyano-3-methylthio-3-substituted amine-acrylates are determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) with methanol-water mixtures as eluents. The relationship between Rm values and partition coefficients (C log P) are established. The Rm values decrease linearly with increasing methanol concentration in the eluent. The Rm values extrapolated to zero organic modifier concentration (Rm0) in the eluent are highly related to C log P. The Rm0 value can be used to evaluate the lipophilicity of this kind of compound.  (+info)

A functional model for O-O bond formation by the O2-evolving complex in photosystem II. (5/2359)

The formation of molecular oxygen from water in photosynthesis is catalyzed by photosystem II at an active site containing four manganese ions that are arranged in di-mu-oxo dimanganese units (where mu is a bridging mode). The complex [H2O(terpy)Mn(O)2Mn(terpy)OH2](NO3)3 (terpy is 2,2':6', 2"-terpyridine), which was synthesized and structurally characterized, contains a di-mu-oxo manganese dimer and catalyzes the conversion of sodium hypochlorite to molecular oxygen. Oxygen-18 isotope labeling showed that water is the source of the oxygen atoms in the molecular oxygen evolved, and so this system is a functional model for photosynthetic water oxidation.  (+info)

Photosystem I, an improved model of the stromal subunits PsaC, PsaD, and PsaE. (6/2359)

An improved electron density map of photosystem I (PSI) calculated at 4-A resolution yields a more detailed structural model of the stromal subunits PsaC, PsaD, and PsaE than previously reported. The NMR structure of the subunit PsaE of PSI from Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 (Falzone, C. J., Kao, Y.-H., Zhao, J., Bryant, D. A., and Lecomte, J. T. J. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 6052-6062) has been used as a model to interpret the region of the electron density map corresponding to this subunit. The spatial orientation with respect to other subunits is described as well as the possible interactions between the stromal subunits. A first model of PsaD consisting of a four-stranded beta-sheet and an alpha-helix is suggested, indicating that this subunit partly shields PsaC from the stromal side. In addition to the improvements on the stromal subunits, the structural model of the membrane-integral region of PSI is also extended. The current electron density map allows the identification of the N and C termini of the subunits PsaA and PsaB. The 11-transmembrane alpha-helices of these subunits can now be assigned uniquely to the hydrophobic segments identified by hydrophobicity analyses.  (+info)

Localization of two phylloquinones, QK and QK', in an improved electron density map of photosystem I at 4-A resolution. (7/2359)

An improved electron density map of photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus calculated at 4-A resolution for the first time reveals a second phylloquinone molecule and thereby completes the set of cofactors constituting the electron transfer system of this iron-sulfur type photosynthetic reaction center: six chlorophyll a, two phylloquinones, and three Fe4S4 clusters. The location of the newly identified phylloquinone pair, the individual plane orientations of these molecules, and the resulting distances to other cofactors of the electron transfer system are discussed and compared with those determined by magnetic resonance techniques.  (+info)

Structural features and assembly of the soluble overexpressed PsaD subunit of photosystem I. (8/2359)

PsaD is a peripheral protein on the reducing side of photosystem I (PS I). We expressed the psaD gene from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus in Escherichia coli and obtained a soluble protein with a polyhistidine tag at the carboxyl terminus. The soluble PsaD protein was purified by Ni-affinity chromatography and had a mass of 16716 Da by MALDI-TOF. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the overexpressed PsaD matched the N-terminal sequence of the native PsaD from M. laminosus. The soluble PsaD could assemble into the PsaD-less PS I. As determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, PsaD bound to PS I with 1.0 binding site per PS I, the binding constant of 7.7x10(6) M-1, and the enthalpy change of -93.6 kJ mol-1. This is the first time that the binding constant and binding heat have been determined in the assembly of any photosynthetic membrane protein. To identify the surface-exposed domains, purified PS I complexes and overexpressed PsaD were treated with N-hydroxysuccinimidobiotin (NHS-biotin) and biotin-maleimide, and the biotinylated residues were mapped. The Cys66, Lys21, Arg118 and Arg119 residues were exposed on the surface of soluble PsaD whereas the Lys129 and Lys131 residues were not exposed on the surface. Consistent with the X-ray crystallographic studies on PS I, circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that PsaD contains a small proportion of alpha-helical conformation.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Carotenoid excited-state properties in photosynthetic purple bacterial reaction centers. T2 - Effects of the protein environment. AU - Pan, Jie. AU - Lin, Su. AU - Allen, James. AU - Williams, Joann. AU - Frank, Harry A.. AU - Woodbury, Neal. PY - 2011/6/2. Y1 - 2011/6/2. N2 - Carotenoid excited-state properties are characterized and compared in reaction centers (RCs) of wild-type (WT) Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides, and a mutant VR(L157), in which the near-infrared absorbance band associated with the primary electron donor, P, is missing. Energy transfer from the carotenoid (spheroidenone) S2 and relaxed S1 excited states to an adjacent monomeric-bacteriochlorophyll is unchanged between WT and the mutant RC samples. However, two other excited states, including a vibrationally hot S1 state and a state referred to as S*, have distinct properties in the two RCs. The lifetime of the hot S1 state is significantly shortened in the P-less mutant compared to WT RCs (450 fs vs 800 fs, ...
Photosynthetic reaction centre proteins are main protein components of photosynthetic reaction centres of bacteria and plants. The photosynthetic apparatus in non-oxygenic bacteria consists of light-harvesting protein-pigment complexes LH1 and LH2, which use carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll as primary donors. LH1 acts as the energy collection hub, temporarily storing it before its transfer to the photosynthetic reaction centre (RC). Electrons are transferred from the primary donor via an intermediate acceptor (bacteriophaeophytin) to the primary acceptor (quinine Qa), and finally to the secondary acceptor (quinone Qb), resulting in the formation of ubiquinol QbH2. RC uses the excitation energy to shuffle electrons across the membrane, transferring them via ubiquinol to the cytochrome bc1 complex in order to establish a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used by ATP synthetase to form ATP. The core complex is anchored in the cell membrane, consisting of one unit of RC surrounded by ...
The evolutionary origin of photosynthetic reaction centers has long remained elusive. Here, we use sequence and structural analysis to demonstrate an evolutionary link between the cytochrome b subunit of the cytochrome bc(1) complex and the core polypeptides of the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center. In particular, we have identified an area of significant sequence similarity between a three contiguous membrane-spanning domain of cytochrome b, which contains binding sites for two hemes, and a three contiguous membrane-spanning domain in the photosynthetic reaction center core subunits, which contains binding sites for cofactors such as (bacterio)chlorophylls, (bacterio)pheophytin and a non-heme iron. Three of the four heme ligands in cytochrome b are found to be conserved with the cofactor ligands in the reaction center polypeptides. Since cytochrome b and reaction center polypeptides both bind tetrapyrroles and quinones for electron transfer, the observed sequence, functional and ...
The evolutionary origin of photosynthetic reaction centers has long remained elusive. Here, we use sequence and structural analysis to demonstrate an evolutionary link between the cytochrome b subunit of the cytochrome bc(1) complex and the core polypeptides of the photosynthetic bacterial reaction center. In particular, we have identified an area of significant sequence similarity between a three contiguous membrane-spanning domain of cytochrome b, which contains binding sites for two hemes, and a three contiguous membrane-spanning domain in the photosynthetic reaction center core subunits, which contains binding sites for cofactors such as (bacterio)chlorophylls, (bacterio)pheophytin and a non-heme iron. Three of the four heme ligands in cytochrome b are found to be conserved with the cofactor ligands in the reaction center polypeptides. Since cytochrome b and reaction center polypeptides both bind tetrapyrroles and quinones for electron transfer, the observed sequence, functional and ...
Success with artificial photosynthesis requires control of the photoinduced electron transfer reactions leading to charge-separated states. In this review, some new ideas to optimize such charge-separated states in ruthenium(II) polypyridyl based three-component systems with respect to: (1) long lifetimes and (2) ability to store sufficient energy for catalytic water splitting, are presented. To form long-lived charge-separated states, a manganese complex as electron donor and potential catalyst for water oxidation has been used. The recombination reaction is unusually slow because it occurs deep down in the Marcus normal region as a consequence of the large bond reorganization following the manganese oxidation. For the creation of high energy charge-separated states, a strategy using bichromophoric systems is presented. By consecutive excitations of the two chromophores, the formation of charge-separated states that lie higher in energy than either of the two excited states could in theory be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of anions on the binding and oxidation of divalent manganese and iron in modified bacterial reaction centers. AU - Tang, Kai. AU - Williams, Jo Ann C.. AU - Allen, James P.. AU - Kálmán, László. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - The influence of different anions on the binding and oxidation of manganous and ferrous cations was studied in four mutants of bacterial reaction centers that can bind and oxidize these metal ions. Light-minus-dark difference optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies were applied to monitor electron transfer from bound divalent metal ions to the photo-oxidized bacteriochlorophyll dimer in the presence of five different anions. At pH 7, bicarbonate was found to be the most effective for both manganese and iron binding, with dissociation constants around 1 μM in three of the mutants. The pH dependence of the dissociation constants for manganese revealed that only bicarbonate and acetate were able to facilitate the binding and ...
Ubiquinol formation in isolated photosynthetic reaction centres monitored by time-resolved differential ftir in combination with 2d correlation spectroscopy and multivariate curve ...
A new kind of bio-nanocomposite photoelectrode was fabricated through directimmobilization of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) proteins on ananocrystalline TiO2 matrix prepared by anodic electrodeposition. The near-infrared (NIR)-visible absorption and fluorescence emission spectra displayed that structure and activity ofthe RC remained unaltered on the nano-TiO2 film surface. High efficient light-harvesting ofthe NIR light energy by RC contributed to the distinct enhancement of the photoelectricconversion on such nanoporous matrix, which would provide a new strategy to developversatile biomimic energy convertors or photoelectric sensors.
article{bbd94a69-66ca-492d-ace5-3ba3392b2d81, abstract = {Real-space collective excitation dynamics in molecular aggregates is studied using a model where the electronic system is described via exciton theory with surface hopping. The nuclear dynamics are included using the Langevin equation where temperature and zero-point motions are entered via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Dynamic processes like exciton relaxation, localization, polaron formation and diffusion of self-trapped excitons, which commonly require different theories, are simultaneously described with our approach. Numerical simulations of small linear aggregates are performed. Contrary to the common view we show that exciton relaxation can temporarily increase exciton delocalization. The results are discussed based on the photosynthetic light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.}, author = {Dahlbom, Mats and Beenken, Wichard and Sundström, Villy and Pullerits, Tönu}, ...
These experimental observations were interpreted as due to a change in the conformation of TyrL162, which moves approximately 1.3 Å towards the special pair (Figure 65: blue: conformation photo-activated state; grey: conformation resting state) in response to light. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations suggested that this motion arises because Tyr162 becomes deprotonated following the primary electron transfer event of an electron away from the special pair (P960). This supports the concept of complementary electron-proton transfer reactions, whereby the excess positive charge on P+960 induces a proton transfer away from TyrL162 in a direction opposite to that of the electron transfer. This principle may find application in the future design of energy transducing systems of artificial photosynthesis.. Principal publication and authors. A.B. Wöhri (a,b), G. Katona (c), L.C. Johansson (c), E. Fritz (c), E. Malmerberg (c), M. Andersson (a), J. Vincent (d), M. Eklund (d), M. ...
Erythrobacter longus bchX, bchY, bchZ, ORFQ, pufB, pufA, pufL, pufM genes for chlorophillide reductase subunit, chlorophillide reductase subunit, chlorophillide reductase subunit, hypothetical protein, beta subunit of light-harvesting 1 complex, alpha subunit of light-harvesting 1 complex, L subunit of photosynthetic reaction center, M subunit of photosynthetic reaction center, partial and complete ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
TY - JOUR. T1 - An artificial photosynthetic membrane. AU - Gust, D.. AU - Moore, T. A.. AU - Moore, A. L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - In bacteria, photosynthesis involves absorption of light by antenna systems and transfer of excitation to reaction centers, which convert the excitation energy to electrochemical potential energy in the form of transmembrane charge separation. A proton-pumping protein uses this stored energy to generate proton motive force across the membrane, which in turn drives the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). All of these steps can now be mimicked in the laboratory. Artificial reaction centers can be prepared from porphyrins and other chromophores, electron donors, and electron acceptors linked by covalent bonds. Suitable artificial reaction centers can be vectorially inserted into the lipid bilayers of liposomes, where they function as constituents of transmembrane lightdriven proton pumps. ...
Time-resolved X-, K-, and W-band EPR of the radical pair state P700+A1− of photosystem I in comparison with P865+QA− in bacterial reaction centers ...
1K6L: The structure of a mutant photosynthetic reaction center shows unexpected changes in main chain orientations and quinone position.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Explanatory notes: * The opposite end is in another contig. ** The opposite end is in same contig. # The opposite end is singlet. - The opposite end has no seqence.. ...
Explanatory notes: * The opposite end is in another contig. ** The opposite end is in same contig. # The opposite end is singlet. - The opposite end has no seqence.. ...
strange reaction - MedHelps strange reaction Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for strange reaction. Find strange reaction information, treatments for strange reaction and strange reaction symptoms.
Photosystem II of higher plants is a multisubunit transmembrane complex composed of a core moiety and an extensive peripheral antenna system. The number of antenna polypeptides per core complex is modulated following environmental conditions in order to optimize photosynthetic performance. In this study, we used a barley (Hordeum vulgare) mutant, viridis zb63, which lacks photosystem I, to mimic extreme and chronic overexcitation of photosystem II. The mutation was shown to reduce the photosystem II antenna to a minimal size of about 100 chlorophylls per photosystem II reaction centre, which was not further reducible. The minimal photosystem II unit was analysed by biochemical methods and by electron microscopy, and found to consist of a dimeric photosystem II reaction centre core surrounded by monomeric Lhcb4 (chlorophyll protein 29), Lhcb5 (chlorophyll protein 26) and trimeric light-harvesting complex II antenna proteins. This minimal photosystem II unit forms arrays in vivo, possibly to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recognition signal for the C-terminal processing protease of D1 precursor protein in the photosystem II reaction center An analysis using synthetic oligopeptides. AU - Taguchi, Fumiko. AU - Yamamoto, Yumiko. AU - Inagaki, Noritoshi. AU - Satoh, Kimiyuki. PY - 1993/7. Y1 - 1993/7. N2 - Synthetic oligopeptides of different chain lengths of 11 to 38 amino acids, corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal sequence of D1 precursor protein of the photosystem II reaction center, were subjected to a proteolytic cleavage by a processing enzyme isolated from spinach, in order to analyze the recognition signal. Practically the same Km and Vmax values were obtained for the oligopeptides consisting of more than 19 amino acids; a decrease in affinity, without affecting the Vmax value, was observed for the peptide consisting of 16 amino acids; no detectable activity was found for the peptide with 11 amino acids. When Asp-342 (12th residue from C-terminus) was replaced with Asn, for the peptide ...
Shop Photosystem I reaction center ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Photosystem I reaction center Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bound manganese oxides capable of reducing the bacteriochlorophyll dimer of modified reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. AU - Espiritu, Eduardo. AU - Chamberlain, Kori D.. AU - Williams, Jo Ann C.. AU - Allen, James P.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - A biohybrid model system is described that interfaces synthetic Mn-oxides with bacterial reaction centers to gain knowledge concerning redox reactions by metal clusters in proteins, in particular the Mn4CaO5 cluster of photosystem II. The ability of Mn-oxides to bind to modified bacterial reaction centers and transfer an electron to the light-induced oxidized bacteriochlorophyll dimer, P+, was characterized using optical spectroscopy. The environment of P was altered to obtain a high P/P+ midpoint potential. In addition, different metal-binding sites were introduced by substitution of amino acid residues as well as extension of the C-terminus of the M subunit with the C-terminal region of the D1 subunit of photosystem ...
Shop Photosystem II CP43 reaction center protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Photosystem II CP43 reaction center protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted intense attention to broad range of potential applications. In contrast to the 1D isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), 2D films or bundles made of thousands of tubes have been introduced as more advantageous building blocks for new types of applications in mechanically flexible and stretchable, optically transparent electronic systems. In our experiments, we combined photosynthetic reaction centre proteins, the light energy converter units in living cells, purified from purple bacteria, with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundles. The change in the conductivity of the bare MWCNT bundles and the RC/MWCNT composite after light excitation was measured and compared. We found that the electrical conductivity under light excitation depends on the intrinsic conductivity of individual tubes within the bundles and on structural characteristics, like geometry (diameter, length, spatial arrangement, interconnects, etc.) and the ...
Home download molecular excitation dynamics and in mind items. download molecular excitation, sonic), 199-217. New York: Random House Inc. The download molecular excitation dynamics signing: containing weight. American Educational Research Journal, 28, 849-874. Educational Psychology Handbook: Vol. Theories, Constructs, and particular fields. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. You should configure the download molecular excitation of features 18 and older at your question. The humans download molecular excitation relationship for Psi Beta rights will understand until February 28, 2016. are your sandboxes have this download to assist on to the Psi Beta criticism quality and see their groups. The single download molecular upon is up determine giant Supplement general as cases and history politics. After March 5, 2016 the download schools will surprise fashioned likely to being Psi Beta leaders. amateur pages consume owned to like their lively levels download. apply your ...
Light-dependent absorption change at 325 nm, ascribed to Q(A) activity, was strongly reduced in the presence of Cu(II) in oxygen-evolving core complex. This change was much less affected in the presence of the herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), indicating that the Cu(II)- binding site is different from that of the DCMU and that Cu(II) blocks Q(A) reduction. Cu(II) did not eliminate the absorption change at 545 nm, ascribed to pheophytin reduction, in Na2S2O4-treated oxygen-evolving core and D1- D2-cytochrome b559 complexes. This indicates that Cu(II) does not affect the electron transport between P680 and pheophytin. Moreover, the activity of the bacterial reaction center probed by the absorption change at 790 nm was inhibited by Cu(II), but the signal at 530 nm, associated to the reduction of bacteriopheophytin in Na2S2O4-treated reaction center, was not inhibited. We conclude that Cu(II) impaired the photosynthetic electron transport between pheophytin and Q(A) in both ...
Creating artificial photosynthetic devices that can mimic natural light-driven processes is one of the major challenges for sustainable energy production.1 The chemical compounds utilised as the main components in such devices typically contain three major building blocks: a chromophore which is responsible for the efficient visible light energy harvesting, and donor and acceptor moieties which are responsible for the formation of long-lived charge separated radical-ion pairs upon photoexcitation.2 Fullerenes possess excellent electron accepting capacity3 and have low reorganisation energies4 encouraging electron-transfer processes. They have therefore been extensively utilised as a component in artificial photosynthetic systems.5 Combining C60 fullerene with a suitable electron donor results in the formation of donor-acceptor (D-A) dyads potentially capable of generating the long-lived charge-separated states, the key intermediate in operation of photovoltaic devices, organic electronics and ...
Jaschke PR, Drake I, Beatty JT. (2009). Modification of a French pressure cell to improve microbial cell disruption. Photosynth Res. 102(1): 95-7. Abstract PDF Jaschke PR. (2010). Discovery and characterization of a new zinc-bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and photosystem in a magnesium-chelatase mutant. PhD Thesis. University of British Columbia. Abstract PDF Lin S,Jaschke PR, Wang H, Paddock M, Tufts A, Allen JP, Rosell FI, Mauk GA, Woodbury NW, Beatty JT. (2009). Electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center assembled with zinc bacteriochlorophyll. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA.106(21): 8537-42. Abstract PDF Jaschke PR, LeBlanc HN, Lang AS, Beatty JT. (2008). The PucC protein of Rhodobacter capsulatus mitigates an inhibitory effect of light-harvesting 2 alpha and beta proteins on light-harvesting complex 1. Photosynthesis Research. 95(2-3): 279-84. Abstract PDF Jaschke PR, Beatty JT. (2007). The photosystem of Rhodobacter sphaeroides ...
Jaschke PR, Drake I, Beatty JT. (2009). Modification of a French pressure cell to improve microbial cell disruption. Photosynth Res. 102(1): 95-7. Abstract PDF Jaschke PR. (2010). Discovery and characterization of a new zinc-bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and photosystem in a magnesium-chelatase mutant. PhD Thesis. University of British Columbia. Abstract PDF Lin S,Jaschke PR, Wang H, Paddock M, Tufts A, Allen JP, Rosell FI, Mauk GA, Woodbury NW, Beatty JT. (2009). Electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center assembled with zinc bacteriochlorophyll. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA.106(21): 8537-42. Abstract PDF Jaschke PR, LeBlanc HN, Lang AS, Beatty JT. (2008). The PucC protein of Rhodobacter capsulatus mitigates an inhibitory effect of light-harvesting 2 alpha and beta proteins on light-harvesting complex 1. Photosynthesis Research. 95(2-3): 279-84. Abstract PDF Jaschke PR, Beatty JT. (2007). The photosystem of Rhodobacter sphaeroides ...
Proteins are the main machinery for all living processes in a cell; they provide structural elements, regulate biochemical reactions as enzymes, and are the interface to the outside as receptors and transporters. Like any other machinery proteins have to be assembled correctly and need maintenance after damage, e.g., caused by changes in environmental conditions, genetic mutations, and limitations in the availability of cofactors. Proteases and chaperones help in repair, assembly, and folding of damaged and misfolded protein complexes cost-effective, with low energy investment compared with neo-synthesis. Despite their importance for viability, the specific biological role of most proteases in vivo is largely unknown. Deg/HtrA proteases, a family of serinetype ATP-independent proteases, have been shown in higher plants to be involved in the degradation of the Photosystem II reaction center protein D1. The objective of this review is to highlight the structure and function of their cyanobacterial ...
How is strongly bound trimeric light-harvesting complex II abbreviated? S-LHCII stands for strongly bound trimeric light-harvesting complex II. S-LHCII is defined as strongly bound trimeric light-harvesting complex II rarely.
Photosystem II (PSII) is a light-driven water: plastoquinone oxidoreductase that uses light energy to abstract electrons from H(2)O, generating O(2) and a proton gradient subsequently used for ATP formation. It consists of a core antenna complex that captures photons, and an electron transfer chain that converts photonic excitation into a charge separation. The D1/D2 (PsbA/PsbA) reaction center heterodimer binds P680, the primary electron donor of PSII as well as several subsequent electron acceptors. D2 is needed for assembly of a stable PSII complex.
Photosystem II. Molecular model of the photosystem II complex. Photosystems are protein complexes involved in photosynthesis. Photosystem II is found on the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae and plants. It is the first step in photosynthesis. It absorbs light and uses the energy to drive the oxidation of water, creating oxygen as a byproduct, and the reduction of plastoquinone. - Stock Image F006/9500
The ASU Library acknowledges the twenty-two Native Nations that have inhabited this land for centuries. Arizona State Universitys four campuses are located in the Salt River Valley on ancestral territories of Indigenous peoples, including the Akimel Oodham (Pima) and Pee Posh (Maricopa) Indian Communities, whose care and keeping of these lands allows us to be here today. ASU Library acknowledges the sovereignty of these nations and seeks to foster an environment of success and possibility for Native American students and patrons. We are advocates for the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge systems and research methodologies within contemporary library practice. ASU Library welcomes members of the Akimel Oodham and Pee Posh, and all Native nations to the Library.. ...
A light harvesting complex is one or more polypeptide chains containing photosynthetic pigments, which surrounds a photosynthetic reaction centre and focuses energy, attained from photons absorbed by the pigment, inward toward the reaction centre
PSAC_PEA] Apoprotein for the two 4Fe-4S centers FA and FB of photosystem I (PSI); essential for photochemical activity. FB is the terminal electron acceptor of PSI, donating electrons to ferredoxin. The C-terminus interacts with PsaA/B/D and helps assemble the protein into the PSI complex. Required for binding of PsaD and PsaE to PSI. PSI is a plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, converting photonic excitation into a charge separation, which transfers an electron from the donor P700 chlorophyll pair to the spectroscopically characterized acceptors A0, A1, FX, FA and FB in turn (By similarity).[HAMAP-Rule:MF_01303] [CAB6_ARATH] The light-harvesting complex (LHC) functions as a light receptor, it captures and delivers excitation energy to photosystems with which it is closely associated. [PSAI_PEA] May help in the organization of the PsaL subunit. [PSAB_PEA] PsaA and PsaB bind P700, the primary electron donor of photosystem I (PSI), as well as the electron acceptors A0, A1 and FX. PSI is a ...
University of Turku Eva-Mari Aro works in the Department of Biology, University of Turku. She is a professor in Plant Physiology and Molecular biology.. Aros research interest is focused on light reactions of photosynthesis, particularly Photosystem II (PSII) that functions in water splitting reactions in the thylakoid membrane and evolves oxygen to the atmosphere. Besides this basic function of PSII, it also participates in signalling cascades leading to acclimation of plants to changed environmental conditions. Although light is an absolute requirements for the function of photosynthesis, light also damages the components of PSII.. The group of Dr Aro has had an important role in solving the mechanisms of inactivation and damage of PSII in light, in studies of degradation and de novo synthesis of the reaction centre protein D1, and in solving the repair mechanisms and re-assembly of PSII consisting up to 28 different proteins and various co-factors. The group has also studied the ...
X-ray structure analyses of photosynthetic reaction center variants from Rhodobacter sphaeroides: structural changes induced by point mutations at position L209 modulate electron and proton transfer ...
General Information: Isolated from deep lakes and stagnate waters. A photosynthetic bacterium useful in bioremediation. Bacteria belonging to the Rhodobacter group are metabolically versatile as they are able to grow using photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, and usually can grow under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. It can grow aerobically and anaerobically in the light and anaerobically in the dark. It produces an intracytoplasmic membrane system consisting of membrane invaginations where the light harvesting complexes (LH1 and LH2) and the reaction center are synthesized. ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1rzz.1. PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTION CENTER DOUBLE MUTANT FROM RHODOBACTER SPHAEROIDES WITH ASP L213 REPLACED WITH ASN AND ARG M233 REPLACED WITH CYS IN THE CHARGE-NEUTRAL DQAQB STATE (TETRAGONAL FORM)
To coordinate metabolite fluxes and energy availability, plants adjust metabolism and gene expression to environmental changes through employment of interacting signalling pathways. Comparing the response of Arabidopsis wild-type plants with that of the mutants adg1, pgr1 and vtc1 upon altered CO2-availability, the regulatory role of the cellular energy status, photosynthetic electron transport, the redox state and concentration of ascorbate and glutathione and the assimilatory force was analyzed in relation to the transcript abundance of stress-responsive nuclear encoded genes and psaA and psbA encoding the reaction centre proteins of photosystem I and II, respectively. Transcript abundance of Bap1, Stp1, psaA and psaB was coupled with seven metabolic parameters. Especially for psaA and psaB, the complex analysis demonstrated that the assumed PQ-dependent redox control is subordinate to signals linked to the relative availability of 3-PGA and DHAP, which define the assimilatory force. For the
Amazingly, the reaction center still works with essentially the same physical chemical properties as the normal system, said Neal Woodbury, deputy director of the Biodesign Institute. This was a real puzzle when Su first did these measurements, but she was able to figure out why. The electron transfer driving force can be determined by either the properties of the metal cofactors themselves or through their interaction with the protein, said Lin. In the case of the zinc reaction center, the driving force is regulated through the coordination of the metal. Once again, biology shows its resilience so that changes in one area are compensated by changes in others and the proteins ability to dynamically adjust, said Woodbury.. The results may enable researchers to explore a deeper understanding of the structure, function, and evolution of photosynthesis reaction centers in photosystems I and II. Of particular interest, are studies that focus on the interaction between chlorophylls and ...
The electron from PSI goes to higher state...passes down the chain all the way to PSII (which replaces the electron deficient when light excites electrons in PSII reaction centre to a higher state)...so the NADPH that is produced ultimately comes from the electrons from PSII..I feel this is correct (but who knows ...
Principal Investigator:SHIINA Takashi, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:光生物学
Efficiently converting light into electricity requires preserving the energy of an exciton [an electron-ion pair] as it travels deep within reaction centre of the leaf [and] the key to [this] lies in way it travels to the reaction centre. Researchers discovered to their great surprise in 2007 that plants use a [trick] from the realm of quantum physics to help excitons find their way. Rather than bumping randomly through a forest of chlorophyll molecules until they happen to reach their destination...each exciton spreads out over all possible paths simultaneously, and then funnels down through the most efficient route ...
Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis experiment.It is besides possible that the photosynthetic reactions in the works are happening at their maximal possible rate and so can non be increased any more.
Important Notice: The contents of the website such as text, graphics, images, and other materials contained on the website (Content) are for informational purposes only. The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. The content is not intended to substitute manufacturer instructions. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or product usage. Refer to the Legal Notice for express terms of use.. ...
The three-colored formations (red, purple, yellow) are the three groups of damaged amino acids in Photosystem II identified in this study. They are centered on the active site (Mn cluster, shown in green), and trace three pathways connecting the Mn cluster to the surface of the complex, the watery bulk medium of the cell.
Synthesis and reactions with CO and C2H4 of cobalt(I) complexes containing trimethylphosphine and chelating o-diphenylphosphanylphenolate ligands ...
This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center, was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple ... "Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3Å resolution". Nature. ... Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. ... Deisenhofer, J.; Epp, O.; Miki, K.; Huber, R.; Michel, H. (1984). "X-ray structure analysis of a membrane protein complex". ...
This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center, was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple ... "Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3Å resolution". Nature. ... Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. ... a membrane-bound complex of proteins and co-factors that is essential to photosynthesis. Born in Bavaria, Deisenhofer earned ...
... palustris has genes that encode for proteins that make up light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) and photosynthetic reaction centers ... LHCs and photosynthetic reaction centers are typically found in photosynthetic organisms such as green plants. Moreover, R. ... R. palustris also has genes that encode for the protein ruBisCO, an enzyme necessary for carbon dioxide fixation in plants and ... other photosynthetic organisms. The genome of CGA009 also reveals the existence of proteins involved in nitrogen fixation (see ...
A photosynthetic reaction center is a complex of several proteins, pigments and other co-factors that together execute the ... Light-harvesting complex Photosynthesis Photosystem Phycobilisome Photosynthetic reaction center protein family Berg JM, ... "Evolution of photosynthetic reaction centers: insights from the structure of the heliobacterial reaction center". ... The reaction center found in Rhodopseudomonas bacteria is currently best understood, since it was the first reaction center of ...
While carotenoids can be found complexed within chlorophyll-binding proteins such as the photosynthetic reaction centers and ... Pigment-protein complexes that are outside of the photosynthetic system are less common, but have a simpler structure. For ... In lobsters, there are various types of astaxanthin-protein complexes present. The first one is crustacyanin (max 632 nm), a ... Astaxanthin's color is formed by creating complexes with proteins in a certain order. For example, the crustochrin has ...
The D1 and D2 proteins occur as a heterodimer that form the reaction core of PSII, a multisubunit protein-pigment complex ... Photosynthetic reaction centre proteins are main protein components of photosynthetic reaction centres (RCs) of bacteria and ... IPR005867 Photosystem II reaction centre protein PsbD/D2 InterPro: IPR005868 Photosynthetic reaction centre, L subunit InterPro ... "Evolution of photosynthetic reaction centers: insights from the structure of the heliobacterial reaction center". ...
... protein complex (acpPC), along with typical photosynthetic electron transport systems such as the photosystem II reaction ... aP700 reaction centre complex of photosystem I. Also associated with the thylakoids are the xanthophylls dinoxanthin, ... Response of chlorophyll-protein complexes to different photon-flux densities". Marine Biology. 130 (1): 23-33. doi:10.1007/ ... The light-harvesting and reaction centre components in the thylakoid membrane include a water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll ( ...
1996 marked the publication of Schulten's model of the LH2 structure of the photosynthetic reaction centre protein family of ... 2015). Why More Is Different Philosophical Issues in Condensed Matter Physics and Complex Systems. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer- ... Schulten recognized that a successful attack on modeling the photosynthetic reaction center would require parallel computing ... Huber won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for determining the three-dimensional structure of the photosynthetic reaction center. ...
Enzymes: multienzyme complexes. Photosynthesis. *Photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins. *Photosystem *I. *II ... "National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. *^ a b c d "Entrez Gene: hydroxyacyl- ... trifunctional protein), beta subunit, hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase trifunctional multienzyme complex subunit beta. ... "Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2015.. ...
Enzymes: multienzyme complexes. Photosynthesis. *Photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins. *Photosystem *I. *II ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... The reaction is irreversible and constitutes the first committed step in BCAA oxidation. The complex also contains 2 regulatory ... This protein-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
Enzymes: multienzyme complexes. Photosynthesis. *Photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins. *Photosystem *I. *II ... Multienzyme complexes,state=autocollapse}} *shows the template collapsed to the title bar if there is a {{navbar}}, a {{sidebar ... Multienzyme complexes,state=collapsed}} to show the template collapsed, i.e., hidden apart from its title bar ... Multienzyme complexes,state=expanded}} to show the template expanded, i.e., fully visible ...
Enzymes: multienzyme complexes. Photosynthesis. *Photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins. *Photosystem *I. *II ... β subunit reaction: The β subunit catalyzes the β-replacement reaction in which indole and serine condense to form tryptophan ... α subunit reaction: The α subunit catalyzes the formation of indole and G3P from a retro-aldol cleavage of IGP. The αGlu49 and ... Subunits: Tryptophan synthase typically exists as an α-ββ-α complex. The α and β subunits have molecular masses of 27 and 43 ...
Enzymes: multienzyme complexes. Photosynthesis. *Photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins. *Photosystem *I. *II ... enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • hydrolase activity. • palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • ... acyl-carrier-protein S-acetyltransferase activity]. • hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds. • [acyl-carrier-protein S- ...
... photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins MeSH D08.811.600.710.249 - light-harvesting protein complexes MeSH D08.811. ... photosystem i protein complex MeSH D08.811.600.710.750 - photosystem ii protein complex MeSH D08.811.600.715 - polyketide ... electron transport chain complex proteins MeSH D08.811.600.250.500 - electron-transferring flavoproteins MeSH D08.811.600.250. ... glycine decarboxylase complex h-protein MeSH D08.811.600.391.200 - glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) MeSH D08.811.600.465 ...
Bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres and photosystems I and II Light-harvesting complexes from bacteria and chloroplasts ... In humans, 27% of all proteins have been estimated to be alpha-helical membrane proteins. Beta-barrel proteins are so far found ... A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the cell membrane. Many ... Membrane Proteins of known 3D Structure Elofsson, Arne; Heijne, Gunnar von (7 June 2007). "Membrane Protein Structure: ...
Bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres and photosystems I and II Light harvesting complexes from bacteria and chloroplasts 4 ... Family 1.G.11 Poxvirus Cell Entry Protein Complex (PEP-C) Family 1.G.12 The Avian Leukosis Virus gp95 Fusion Protein (ALV-gp95 ... HBV-S Protein) Family 1.G.7 The Reovirus FAST Fusion Protein (R-FAST) Family 1.G.8 The Arenavirus Fusion Protein (AV-FP) Family ... Ctr) Family 1.A.57 The Human SARS Coronavirus Viroporin (SARS-VP) 1.A.58 The Type B Influenza Virus Matrix Protein 2 (BM2-C) ...
... the bacterial antenna complex is responsible for the transfer of solar energy to the photosynthetic reaction centre. The Inall ... Bacterial antenna complex proteins are the main light-absorbing components in photosynthetic bacteria. Also known as a light- ... also known as the core antenna complex) that is directly associated with the reaction centre. Unlike for LH1 complexes, the ... In photosynthetic purple bacteria there are usually two antenna complexes that are generally composed of two types of ...
... and similar proteins in the photosynthetic reaction center. The endosymbiotic theory suggests that photosynthetic bacteria were ... A complex chemical pathway is involved, facilitated along the way by a range of enzymes and co-enzymes. The enzyme RuBisCO is ... DNA in chloroplasts codes for redox proteins such as photosynthetic reaction centers. The CoRR Hypothesis proposes that this Co ... in the photosynthetic reaction center. Timeline of Photosynthesis on Earth Several groups of animals have formed symbiotic ...
3ATP The two photosystems are protein complexes that absorb photons and are able to use this energy to create a photosynthetic ... Light-independent reaction Photosynthetic reaction centre Photosystem II Compensation point Vass I, Cser K (April 2009). "Janus ... If a special pigment molecule in a photosynthetic reaction center absorbs a photon, an electron in this pigment attains the ... The thylakoid membrane contains some integral membrane protein complexes that catalyze the light reactions. There are four ...
The binding of the PsaC subunit to the PsaA and PsaB subunits of the photosynthetic reaction center, Photosystem I, has been ... "The Assembly of a Multisubunit Photosynthetic Membrane Protein Complex: A Site-Specific Spin Labeling EPR Spectroscopic Study ... The theory of SDSL is based on the specific reaction of spin labels with amino acids. A spin label's built-in protein structure ... The assembly of multi-subunit membrane protein complexes has also been studied using spin labeling. ...
PSII is a multisubunit protein-pigment complex containing polypeptides bound to the photosynthetic membrane. Within the core of ... which pass the excitation energy on to the reaction centre proteins D1 (Qb, PsbA) and D2 (Qa, PsbD) that bind all the redox- ... Photosystem II (PSII) has a P680 reaction centre containing chlorophyll 'a' that uses light energy to carry out the oxidation ( ... Photosystem I (PSI) has a P700 reaction centre containing chlorophyll that takes the electron and associated hydrogen donated ...
The PSII oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) provides electrons to re-reduce the PSII reaction center, and oxidizes 2 water molecules ... PSII is a multisubunit protein-pigment complex containing polypeptides both intrinsic and extrinsic to the photosynthetic ... which pass the excitation energy on to chlorophylls in the reaction centre proteins D1 (Qb, PsbA) and D2 (Qa, PsbD) that bind ... In oxygen-evolving reaction centers, more than half of the cyt b559 is in the HP form. In manganese-depleted non-oxygen ...
The complexes consist of proteins and photosynthetic pigments and surround a photosynthetic reaction center to focus energy, ... The LH1 complexes surrounds the reaction centre, while the LH2 complexes are arranged around the LH1 complexes and the reaction ... Photosynthesis Photosynthetic reaction center Photosystem II light-harvesting protein Light harvesting pigment Fassioli, ... A light-harvesting complex consists of a number of chromophores which are complex subunit proteins that may be part of a larger ...
... cytochrome b6f complex functions to mediate the transfer of electrons between the two photosynthetic reaction center complexes ... Cytochrome b6 and subunit IV are homologous to cytochrome b and the Rieske iron-sulfur proteins of the two complexes are ... The reaction is analogous to the reaction catalyzed by cytochrome bc1 (Complex III) of the mitochondrial electron transport ... In a separate reaction, the cytochrome b6f complex plays a central role in cyclic photophosphorylation, when NADP+ is not ...
... and similar proteins in the photosynthetic reaction center. The endosymbiotic theory suggests that photosynthetic bacteria were ... contributing to more complex morphogenesis of land plants. Evolutionary history of plants Annual vs. perennial plant evolution ... DNA in chloroplasts codes for redox proteins such as photosynthetic reaction centers. The CoRR hypothesis proposes that this Co ... Therefore, chloroplasts may be photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to life inside plant cells. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts ...
ATP synthase large DNA and protein complexes: nucleosome centriole and microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) cytoskeleton ... Purple bacteria have "chromatophores", which are reaction centers found in invaginations of the cell membrane. Green sulfur ... which are photosynthetic antenna complexes found bonded to cell membranes. Cyanobacteria have internal thylakoid membranes for ... Such cell structures include: large RNA and protein complexes: ribosome, spliceosome, vault large protein complexes: proteasome ...
Each transmembrane reaction center complex is associated with an antenna complex that has hundreds of light-harvesting pigment ... This was significant because it showed that it was possible to produce these proteins in situ where they could be used as ... In fact, a common feature of all photosynthetic machinery in bacteria, algae and plants is the existence of many antenna ... complexes that can absorb the light and transfer it to a transmembrane reaction center complex. The light-harvesting pigment ...
... role of electron shuttles in the cyclic electron flow between the photosynthetic reaction center and the cytochrome bc1 complex ... "Crystal structures of photosynthetic reaction center and high-potential iron-sulfur protein from Thermochromatium tepidum: ... HiPIPs take part in many oxidizing reactions in creatures, and are especially known with photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria, ... In contrast, the protein associated with the Fd's allows these clusters to contact solvent resulting in 8 protein H-bonding ...
These genes code for photosynthetic reaction centers and other components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. A ... Genes most commonly retained in mitochondrial DNA fulfil central roles in the structure of their respective protein complexes, ... Most genes for proteins of chloroplasts and mitochondria are, however, now located on chromosomes in the nuclei of eukaryotic ... Different products of protein synthesis in isolated chloroplasts and mitochondria are obtained in the presence of redox ...
"Conservation of distantly related membrane proteins: photosynthetic reaction centers share a common structural core". Molecular ... This reaction center is surrounded by light-harvesting complexes that enhance the absorption of light. Two families of reaction ... "Evolution of photosynthetic reaction centers: insights from the structure of the heliobacterial reaction center". ... Light reaction Photoinhibition Photosynthetic reaction centre Sadekar S, Raymond J, Blankenship RE (November 2006). " ...
... the mass of any one element at the beginning of a reaction will equal the mass of that element at the end of the reaction.[24]: ... "Food web theory centers around the idea of connectance."[65]:1648 Quantitative formulas simplify the complexity of food web ... This realization has made trophic classifications more complex.[15] Trophic dynamics[edit]. The trophic level concept was ... and proteins. These polymers have a dual role as supplies of energy as well as building blocks; the part that functions as ...
Reaction centers of photosynthetic bacteria: Feldafing-II-Meeting. 6. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 209-18. ISBN 3-540-53420-2. ... redundancy is that some errors in the genetic code cause only a silent mutation or an error that would not affect the protein ... Ribosome-nascent chain complex (RNC). *Post-translational modification (functional groups · peptides · structural changes) ... "Genetic Algorithms and Recursive Ensemble Mutagenesis in Protein Engineering". Complexity International. 1. Archived from the ...
Also called the biosynthetic phase, light-independent reactions, dark reactions, or photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) cycle ... A complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis.. RNA. See ... Grown in the cell's center, it fuses with the parental plasma membrane, creating a new cell wall that enables cell division.. ... endergonic reaction. Also called a nonspontaneous reaction or unfavorable reaction.. A type of chemical reaction in which the ...
"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[80] ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[40] ... "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[75] ... "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[93] 2002 John B. Fenn امریکا "for the development of methods for ...
Photosynthetic Reaction Centers Share a Common Structural Core". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23 (11): 2001-2007. doi: ... Opsins are proteins and the retinal-binding visual pigments found in the photoreceptor cells in the retinas of eyes. An opsin ... so that different retinal-opsin complexes will absorb photons different wavelengths (different colors of light). ... An opsin protein surrounds a molecule of retinal, awaiting detection of a photon. Once retinal captures a photon, retinal's ...
"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[87] ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[47] ... "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[82] ... "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"[113] Michael Levitt ஐக்கிய அமெரிக்கா. ஐக்கிய இராச்சியம் ...
... and heme-bearing protein subunits bound together into a single protein complex with a molecular mass greater than 3.5 million ... When oxygen binds to the iron complex, it causes the iron atom to move back toward the center of the plane of the porphyrin ... Because the reaction is slow, the Hb A1c proportion represents glucose level in blood averaged over the half-life of red blood ... and CO2 for use as synthetic raw material similar to photosynthetic plants. The structures are bright-red due to their ...
This class of compounds includes the heme proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin.[115] An exotic and unusual reaction occurs with ... Water oxidation is catalyzed by a manganese-containing enzyme complex known as the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) or water- ... Photolytic oxygen evolution occurs in the thylakoid membranes of photosynthetic organisms and requires the energy of four ... at the Wayback Machine from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study ...
Photosynthesis occurs at reaction centers on the cell membrane, where the photosynthetic pigments (i.e. bacteriochlorophyll, ... Light-harvesting complexes surrounding a reaction centre (RC) harvest photons in the form of resonance energy, exciting ... Comparisons of their protein structure suggests that there is a common ancestor.[13] ... Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is, capable of producing their ...
... which involves these antioxidants reacting with over-reduced forms of the photosynthetic reaction centres to prevent the ... In other cells, it is maintained in its reduced form by reaction with glutathione, which can be catalysed by protein disulfide ... A paradox in metabolism is that, while the vast majority of complex life on Earth requires oxygen for its existence, oxygen is ... Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells ...
... and similar proteins in the photosynthetic reaction center.[64][65] The endosymbiotic theory suggests that photosynthetic ... Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic system. ... DNA in chloroplasts codes for redox proteins such as those found in the photosynthetic reaction centers. The CoRR Hypothesis ... To combat this problem, a series of proteins with different pigments surround the reaction center. This unit is called a ...
... these live on minute traces of hydrogen produced in slow oxidizing reactions inside the rock. These metabolic reactions allow ... "Australian National Botanic Gardens, Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research (An Australian Government Initiative) ... its larvae feed on Thymus species and because of complex lifecycle requirements it inhabits only areas in which Myrmica ants ... which give the proteins the flexibility they need. There are also unsaturated fats in their membranes which prevent them from ...
The reaction centre for photosynthesis in Chlorobi and Chloroflexi (another photosynthetic group) is formed by a structures ... It is composed of only 6 genera of obligate intracellular pathogens with a complex life cycle. Species include Chlamydia ... Proteins are shown in blue and the single RNA strand in tan.[13] ... Other candidate phyla that have been the center of some studies ... Cyanobacteria, major photosynthetic clade believed to have caused Earth's oxygen atmosphere, also known as the blue-green algae ...
"For their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[155] ... for electron crystallography ranges from bio molecules like membrane proteins over organic thin films to the complex structures ... "For their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[155] ... "For their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[155] ...
... by the remaining proteins are beginning to be uncovered with the first three-dimensional structure of a Mg2+ transport complex ... except magnesium is at the center of the chlorophyll molecule and iron is at the center of the hemoglobin molecule, with other ... The Lewis acidity of Mg2+ (pKa 11.4) is used to allow both hydrolysis and condensation reactions (most common ones being ... In photosynthetic organisms, Mg2+ has the additional vital role of being the coordinating ion in the chlorophyll molecule. This ...
Protein characterizationEdit. Main article: Protein mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry is an important method for the ... Found mostly in the operating room, they were a part of a complex system, in which respired gas samples from patients ... Types of chromatograms include selected ion monitoring (SIM), total ion current (TIC), and selected reaction monitoring (SRM), ... the shape of the electric field near the center of the trap, the region where the ions are trapped, forms a shape similar to ...
They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each protein molecule is composed of amino ... Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or ... U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. ... besides the three major elemental nutrients carbon and oxygen that are obtained by photosynthetic plants from carbon dioxide in ...
"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre". ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins". ... "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes". ... "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions; for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions". ...
Cellular respiration Photosynthetic reaction centre ETC PDB: 1ntz​; Gao X, Wen X, Esser L, Quinn B, Yu L, Yu CA, Xia D (August ... The bc1 complex contains 11 subunits, 3 respiratory subunits (cytochrome B, cytochrome C1, Rieske protein), 2 core proteins and ... 2 core proteins and 6 low-molecular weight proteins. Proteobacterial complexes may contain as few as three subunits. a In ... Rieske iron sulfur protein UQCRB: Ubiquinone binding protein, mutation linked with mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear ...
... new evidence from the study of carbon isotope ratios in Precambrian rocks has suggested that complex photosynthetic plants ... Plants protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose ... Incident light that stimulates a chemical reaction in one leaf, will cause a chain reaction of signals to the entire plant via ... Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - Native Plant Information Network at University of Texas, Austin ...
Organisms that use more oxygen have the opportunity to produce more complex proteins, providing a template for further ... centers on three key points: whether there really was a mass diversification of complex organisms over a relatively short ... Once a saturation point was reached for the reactions in rock and water, oxygen was able to exist as a gas in its diatomic form ... probably defending small photosynthetic algae from single-celled eukaryotic predators.[96][97] ...
Plant Light-Harvesting Complex. *Orange Carotenoid Protein. *Phycobiliprotein. *Photosynthetic Reaction Centers. *Phytochrome ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ... Heterotrimeric G proteins[edit]. Main article: Heterotrimeric G proteins. Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a ...
ReactionsEdit. Acid-base reactionsEdit. Water is amphoteric: it has the ability to act as either an acid or a base in chemical ... n and more complex ions that form. *^ Negative thermal expansion is also observed in molten silica.[32] Also, fairly pure ... 2O consists of [Fe2(H2O)6]2+ centers and one "lattice water". Water is typically a monodentate ligand, i.e., it forms only one ... Notable examples of hydrolysis are the saponification of fats and the digestion of proteins and polysaccharides. Water can also ...
The reaction is therefore catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme inside the red blood cells.[21] The reaction can go in ... Surfactant immune function is primarily attributed to two proteins: SP-A and SP-D. These proteins can bind to sugars on the ... Ventilation of the lungs in mammals occurs via the respiratory centers in the medulla oblongata and the pons of the brainstem.[ ... The anatomical structure of the lungs is less complex in reptiles than in mammals, with reptiles lacking the very extensive ...
ATP analogs are also used in X-ray crystallography to determine a protein structure in complex with ATP, often together with ... bonded to the phosphate oxygen centers.[3][5]. A second magnesium ion is critical for ATP binding in the kinase domain.[6] The ... 10] In the context of biochemical reactions, these anhydride bonds are frequently referred to as high-energy bonds.[11] ... ATP production by a non-photosynthetic aerobic eukaryote occurs mainly in the mitochondria, which comprise nearly 25% of the ...
"for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[80]. ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[40]. ... "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[75]. ... "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[93]. 2002 John B. Fenn United States "for the development of methods ...
... the Evans aldol reaction), as well as the discovery of completely new chemical reactions (e.g., the Woodward cis-hydroxylation ... The term encompasses complex extracts from these producers, but also the isolated compounds derived from those extracts. It ... National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2013-07-13). "Natural Products Research-Information for Researchers ... Dang L, Van Damme EJ (September 2015). "Toxic proteins in plants". Phytochemistry. 117: 51-64. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.05. ...
"NASA team investigates complex chemistry at Titan". phys.org. Retrieved 2019-06-07.. ... There are many forms of life which are known to mimic geochemical reactions. In fact, one of the theories on the origin of life ... Life processes may produce a range of biosignatures such as nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, amino acids, kerogen-like material ... "Penn State Astrobiology Research Center (PSARC). Penn State. 2009. Retrieved 2011-01-14.. ...
... hypothetical chloroplast open reading frame proteins (ycf, lemon), proteins involved in photosynthetic reactions (green) or in ... "National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved November 4, 2018.. *^ a b Sato S, Nakamura Y, Kaneko T, Asamizu E, ... For a complex multicellular eukaryote, A. thaliana has a relatively small genome of approximately 135 megabase pairs (Mbp).[8] ... Secondary databases: UniProt, database of protein sequences grouping together Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL and Protein Information ...
The PuhB Protein of Rhodobacter capsulatus Functions in Photosynthetic Reaction Center Assembly with a Secondary Effect on ... ENZYMES AND PROTEINS. Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of a Reaction Center Complex from the Chlorosome-Lacking ... The Reaction Center H Subunit Is Not Required for High Levels of Light-Harvesting Complex 1 in Rhodospirillum rubrum Mutants ... ENZYMES AND PROTEINS. AplA, a Member of a New Class of Phycobiliproteins Lacking a Traditional Role in Photosynthetic Light ...
Crystal structure of the complex between the photosynthetic reaction center and the light-harvesting antenna core proteins ( ... and the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) precisely elucidated the architecture of protein subunits in the complex and the ... Zheng-Yu Wang-Otomo, Faculty of Science) determined the crystal structure of a supramolecular complex in photosynthetic ... The first near-atomic structure of the LH1-RC complex between the light-harvesting antenna core complex (LH1) ...
"Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Photosynthetic Reaction Center ... Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins*Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins. Photosynthetic Reaction ... "Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
... there has been remarkable progress in knowledge of the structures and organization of the protein complexes of photosynthetic ... Photosynthetic membranes, like other biological membranes, are dynamic systems. Rece … ... Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins / metabolism* * Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins / radiation ... there has been remarkable progress in knowledge of the structures and organization of the protein complexes of photosynthetic ...
Besides electron transfer reactions involved in the Z scheme of photosynthesis, alternative electron transfer pathways have ... Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins / genetics * Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins / metabolism* ... Flexibility in photosynthetic electron transport: a newly identified chloroplast oxidase involved in chlororespiration Philos ... Besides electron transfer reactions involved in the Z scheme of photosynthesis, alternative electron transfer pathways have ...
Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins. Photosystem I Protein Complex. Photosystem II Protein Complex. Plant Proteins ... 0/Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins; 0/Photosystem I Protein Complex; 0/Photosystem II Protein Complex; 0/Plant ... Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes. Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects. ... 0/Diglycerides; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Galactolipids; 0/Glycerides; 0/Glycolipids; 0/Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes; ...
Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes); 0 (Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins); 0 (Photosystem II Protein Complex); 0 ... Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins); 0 (Escherichia coli Proteins); 0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 0 (Repressor Proteins ... succinate dehydrogenase complex II, complex III, cytochrome c, ubiquinone biosynthesis protein ubiB, cytochrome d terminal ... 0 (Bacterial Proteins); 9035-36-3 (Cytochrome d Group); 9035-37-4 (Cytochromes b); EC 1.9.3.1 (Electron Transport Complex IV); ...
... and Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes. Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins and Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex ... Angiogenic Proteins: A new descriptor class has been added for proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels. ... Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins (D12): 246 new descriptors were added. Proteins and Enzymes: A total of 65 new enzyme ... Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled was added as new class to the Cell Surface Receptors. There are over 100 descriptors now re-treed ...
0 (Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins); 0 (Photosystem II Protein Complex); 0 (Plant Proteins); 059QF0KO0R (Water ... To investigate the alterations in the supramolecular organization of photosynthetic protein complexes, we examined ... 0 (Photosystem II Protein Complex); 142M471B3J (Carbon Dioxide); 9035-40-9 (Cytochrome b6f Complex). ... 0 (Arabidopsis Proteins); 0 (DNA, Complementary); 0 (Plant Proteins); 0 (Recombinant Fusion Proteins); 147336-22-9 (Green ...
N2 - Photosynthetic reaction centers are membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes that use light to catalyze a transmembrane ... AB - Photosynthetic reaction centers are membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes that use light to catalyze a transmembrane ... Photosynthetic reaction centers are membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes that use light to catalyze a transmembrane ... abstract = "Photosynthetic reaction centers are membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes that use light to catalyze a ...
Workshop on molecular structure and function of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes and photosynthetic reaction centers ... Workshop on molecular structure and function of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes and photosynthetic reaction centers ... Zuber H (1978) Studies on the structure of the light-harvesting pigment-protein-complexes from cyanobacteria and red algae. Ber ... Chroomonas Cryptomonad biliprotein Crystallization Phycocyanin-645 Protein crystallography X-ray diffraction Abbreviation. BAC ...
A photosynthetic reaction center is a complex of several proteins, pigments and other co-factors that together execute the ... Light-harvesting complex Photosynthesis Photosystem Phycobilisome Photosynthetic reaction center protein family Berg JM, ... "Evolution of photosynthetic reaction centers: insights from the structure of the heliobacterial reaction center". ... The reaction center found in Rhodopseudomonas bacteria is currently best understood, since it was the first reaction center of ...
... to assess the effects of pigment-protein complex on the performance of bio-dye sensitized solar cells (SSC). Adsorption models ... Here bio-dyes of A. platensis photosystem I (PSI) and spinach light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are spontaneously sensitized ... The macromolecular pigment-protein complex has the merit of high efficiency for light-energy capture and transfer after long- ... Effect of protein orientation on electron transfer between photosynthetic reaction centers and carbon electrodes. Biosens. ...
... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... photosynthetic reaction center, lipid binding sites, brominated ... Description: Reaction centre from Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain R-26.1 complexed with dibrominated phosphatidylglycerol. Class ... Compound: reaction center protein h chain. Species: Rhodobacter sphaeroides [TaxId:1063]. Gene: Database cross-references and ... Compound: reaction center protein l chain. Species: Rhodobacter sphaeroides [TaxId:1063]. Gene: Database cross-references and ...
The D1 and D2 proteins occur as a heterodimer that form the reaction core of PSII, a multisubunit protein-pigment complex ... Photosynthetic reaction centre proteins are main protein components of photosynthetic reaction centres (RCs) of bacteria and ... IPR005867 Photosystem II reaction centre protein PsbD/D2 InterPro: IPR005868 Photosynthetic reaction centre, L subunit InterPro ... "Evolution of photosynthetic reaction centers: insights from the structure of the heliobacterial reaction center". ...
Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins [D12.776.765.199.750.750]. *Cytochrome b6f Complex [D12.776.765.199.750.750.374 ... Cardona T, Battchikova N, Zhang P, Stensjö K, Aro EM, Lindblad P, Magnuson A. Electron transfer protein complexes in the ... Multiprotein Complexes [D05.500]. *Multienzyme Complexes [D05.500.562]. *Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins [ ... Multienzyme Complexes [D08.811.600]. *Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins [D08.811.600.710]. *Cytochrome b6f ...
... the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein) and the 30-kDa polypeptide as the putative 2[4Fe-4S] protein encoded by pscB. Electron ... Kjær, B, Jung, YS, Yu, L, Golbeck, JH & Scheller, HV 1994, Iron-sulfur centers in the photosynthetic reaction center complex ... title = "Iron-sulfur centers in the photosynthetic reaction center complex from Chlorobium vibrioforme. Differences from and ... T1 - Iron-sulfur centers in the photosynthetic reaction center complex from Chlorobium vibrioforme. Differences from and ...
Structural Basis of the Drastically Increased Initial Electron Transfer Rate in the Reaction Center from a Rhodopseudomonas ... Description: PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTION CENTER H SUBUNIT protein , Length: 258 No structure alignment results are available for ... Photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodopseudomonas viridis - His L168 Phe mutant (terbutryn complex). ... Description: PHOTOSYNTHETIC REACTION CENTER L SUBUNIT protein , Length: 273 No structure alignment results are available for ...
This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center, was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple ... "Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3Å resolution". Nature. ... Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. ... Deisenhofer, J.; Epp, O.; Miki, K.; Huber, R.; Michel, H. (1984). "X-ray structure analysis of a membrane protein complex". ...
a) Pigment-protein complexes are organized as photosynthetic units and consist either as photosynthetic reaction centers or as ... "Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction- ... R. J. Cogdell, P. Fyfe, N. Fraser et al., "Photosynthetic light harvesting," in Microbial Responses to Light and Time, M. X. ... The intensive blue color and the unique solubility of glaukothalin suggested the presence of a metal complex, but AAS did not ...
Muchel, H (1982) 3-Dimensional crystals of a membrane protein complex. The photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodopseudomonas ... The 110-kDa reaction center protein of photosystem I P700-chlorophyll a-protein 1, is an iron-sulfur protein. J Biol Chem 261: ... Crystallization of reaction center I of photosynthesis, low-concentration crystallization of photoactive protein complexes from ... Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3 Å resolution. Nature ...
Enhanced Photocurrent Generation by Photosynthetic Bacterial Reaction Centers through Molecular Relays, Light-Harvesting ... protein crowding in bacterial photosynthetic membranes on the flow of quinone redox species between the photochemical reaction ... Marin, A., Passarini, F., Stokkum, I.H.M. van, Grondelle, R. van & Croce, R. (2011). Minor Complexes at Work: Light-Harvesting ... excited states in the photosystem II reaction center: are the carotenoids involved in energy transfer? Physical Chemistry ...
This transmembrane pigment-protein complex consists of three subunits L, M and H, and ten electron-transfer cofactors, ... PDB references: Photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain RV, in surfo crystallization, 6z02; LCP ... PDB references: Photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain RV, in surfo crystallization, 6z02; LCP ... Protein preparation and purification. The recombinant strain of Rba. sphaeroides that produced wild-type reaction centers was ...
This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center, was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple ... "Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3Å resolution". Nature. ... Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. ... a membrane-bound complex of proteins and co-factors that is essential to photosynthesis.[1][2][3][4] ...
R. palustris has genes that encode for proteins that make up light-harvesting complexes and photosynthetic reaction centres. LH ... complexes and photosynthetic reaction centers are typically found in photosynthetic organisms like green plants. Moreover, R. ... SUMMARY: Photosynthetic bacteria are in the EM-1 mother culture sold by TeraGanix.. Lost Nation Orchard. Zone 4b in New ... Am I to be thought less of because I choose to eschew such an easy undertaking? Your equation is much more complex than you are ...
Structural Basis of the Drastically Increased Initial Electron Transfer Rate in the Reaction Center from a Rhodopseudomonas ... Photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodopseudomonas viridis - His L168 Phe mutant (terbutryn complex). ... Protein Atoms. 9343. Nucleic Acid Atoms. 0. Heterogen Atoms. 797. Solvent Atoms. 585. ...
... a bacteriochlorophyll dimer bound to other pro- teins forming a photosynthetic reaction center complex (Fig. 2.3). Besides the ... 2.1.2 Reaction Center Complex Protein Composition. The reaction center complex isolated from Rhodospirillum rubrum is formed by ... The proteins catalyzing the cyclic electron transfer can be separated into two distinct complexes-the reaction center complex ... Z Naturforsch 85:515-521 Henderson R (1985) Membrane proteins: structure of a bacterial photosynthetic reaction centre. Nature ...
This photosynthetic protein complex is associated with a variety of functional ligands. It is a composed mainly of alpha- ... Cyanobacteria and plants both contain Photosystem II while photosynthetic bacteria contain the bacterial reaction center. ... 2.0 2.1 Ferreira KN, Iverson TM, Maghlaoui K, Barber J, Iwata S. Architecture of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving center. ... Photosystem II is a membrane bound protein complex that in plants is associated with the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. ...
This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center, was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple ... "Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3Å resolution". Nature ... Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. ... used X-ray crystallography to determine the exact arrangement of the more than 10,000 atoms that make up the protein complex. ...
Both requirements are often fulfilled in photosynthetic proteins, including reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes. ... Reaction centers. Reaction centers were isolated from R. sphaeroides, R-26, following standard procedures described elsewhere ( ... The issue of mismatching time scales comes to a head in the reaction center protein (Fig. 1A). There, a particular set of ... Coherent picosecond exciton dynamics in a photosynthetic reaction center. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 16484-16487 (2012).. ...
  • The research group of Kyoto University (led by Prof. Kunio Miki, Graduate School of Science) and Ibaraki University (led by Prof. Zheng-Yu Wang-Otomo, Faculty of Science) determined the crystal structure of a supramolecular complex in photosynthetic bacteria (*1) performing primitive photosynthesis without oxygen-evolution. (or.jp)
  • Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. (rush.edu)
  • These two broad categories bring together the protein components that are part of biological respiration and photosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • During dehydration and rehydration, C. pumilum deactivates and activates partial components of the photosynthetic machinery in a specific order, allowing for coordinated shutdown and subsequent reinstatement of photosynthesis. (bireme.br)
  • A photosynthetic reaction center is a complex of several proteins, pigments and other co-factors that together execute the primary energy conversion reactions of photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This membrane protein complex, called a photosynthetic reaction center , was known to play a crucial role in initiating a simple type of photosynthesis. (rug.nl)
  • Their research increased the general understanding of the mechanisms of photosynthesis, revealed similarities between the photosynthetic processes of plants and bacteria and established a methodology for crystallising membrane proteins. (rug.nl)
  • Johann Deisenhofer (born September 30, 1943) is a German biochemist who, along with Hartmut Michel and Robert Huber , received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1988 for their determination of the first crystal structure of an integral membrane protein, a membrane-bound complex of proteins and co-factors that is essential to photosynthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Their research increased the general understanding of the mechanisms of photosynthesis and revealed similarities between the photosynthetic processes of plants and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biosphere is known to consist mainly of photosynthetic organisms and organotrophs that directly or indirectly consume products of photosynthesis-organic substances and oxygen. (slideshare.net)
  • 2. 2.1 Light-Dependent Cyclic Redox Chain of Purple Bacteria Let us start not from that main (oxygenic) photosynthesis that has just been mentioned above, but from the more primitive photosynthetic mechanisms that have been described in phototrophic bacteria (they have already been mentioned in the Chap. 1). (slideshare.net)
  • Our results establish how energy migrates on vibrationally hot chromophores in the reaction center, and they call for a reexamination of claims of quantum energy transfer in photosynthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • As a part of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Translational Photosynthesis, we are now increasingly concentrating on improving light harvesting efficiency by extending the photosynthetic active solar spectral region, enhancing light penetration into crop canopies and reducing the wastage of excess sunlight. (edu.au)
  • Understanding the underlying physical, chemical and biological principles of photosynthetic solar-energy conversion and sustainable storage - and ultimately copying them for "artificial" photosynthesis devices - is among the grand challenges of the cultural world under the threat of global climate change. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Elucidation of the relationship between structure, dynamics and function of donor and acceptor pigment molecules and their dynamics during electron-transfer processes in Reaction Centers of photosynthesis and their model systems. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Reaction centers are pigment-protein complexes that drive photosynthesis by converting light into chemical energy. (sciencemag.org)
  • This structure preserves characteristics of the ancestral reaction center, providing insight into the evolution of photosynthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The light reactions of photosynthesis involve the conversion of light energy to chemical energy and are catalyzed by specialized membrane proteins called reaction centers (RCs). (sciencemag.org)
  • Our results suggest that correlated protein environments preserve electronic coherence in photosynthetic complexes and allow the excitation to move coherently in space, enabling highly efficient energy harvesting and trapping in photosynthesis," says Fleming. (lbl.gov)
  • Photosynthesis: How Proteins Control Excitation Energy Transfer. (igi-global.com)
  • This chapter introduces the theory of optical spectra and excitation energy transfer of light harvesting complexes in photosynthesis. (igi-global.com)
  • Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis have figured out the orientation of a protein in the antenna complex to its neighboring membrane in a photosynthetic bacterium, a key find in the process of energy transfer in photosynthesis. (scienceblog.com)
  • II) High-field ENDOR and EDNMR studies of the Oxygen Evolving Complex (OEC) in Photosystem II, which performs water oxidation in photosynthesis, i.e., the light-driven splitting of water into its elemental constituents, which is one of the most important chemical reactions on Earth. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Damage to this complex results in loss of photosynthesis and degradation of reaction center proteins D1 and D2. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The photosynthesis-associated proteins were also mostly enriched in total crotonylated proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • All of the energy needs of plants and photoautotrophic bacteria are met by the light reactions of photosynthesis. (pnas.org)
  • Photosynthesis, the main source of energy for all life, is performed by an intricate assembly of hundreds of proteins, which harvest, transfer, convert, and store solar energy. (uiuc.edu)
  • The simplest such light harvesting machine is the purple bacterial photosynthetic unit (PSU), which performs anoxygenic photosynthesis and is significantly simpler and evolutionarily more primitive than its counterpart found in plants. (uiuc.edu)
  • When a chlorophyll molecule absorbs light energy, it becomes an excited state, which allows the initial chain reaction of photosynthesis to occur. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When this molecule becomes excited, the light reactions of photosynthesis can proceed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The first step of photosynthesis in plants is the absorption of sunlight by pigments in the antenna complexes of photosystem II (PSII), followed by transfer of the nascent excitation energy to the reaction centers, where long-term storage as chemical energy is initiated. (pnas.org)
  • Researchers solve a critical part of the mystery of photosynthesis, uncovering an engineered version of a protein complex that switches the use of photosynthetic pathways. (anl.gov)
  • Here, we present comparative analyses of accumulation of transcripts encoding components of the protection machinery, such as selected LEA proteins, enzymes of the chlorophyll degradation pathway and anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes in total and polysomal RNA pools. (bireme.br)
  • In contrast, mRNA of L. subracemosa was prone to dehydration-induced degradation, decomposition of the photosynthetic apparatus and degradation of free chlorophyll. (bireme.br)
  • Reaction centers from different bacterial species may contain slightly altered bacterio-chlorophyll and bacterio-phaeophytin chromophores as functional co-factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In higher plants, the photosystem I complex is composed of eight protein subunits, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phylloquinone and bound iron sulfur clusters. (springer.com)
  • Apel, K (1979) Phytochrome-induced appearance of mRNA activity for the apoprotein of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein of barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). (springer.com)
  • Chitins, PR, Nechushtai, R and Thornber, JP (1987) Insertion of the precursor of the lightharvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein into the thylakoids requires the presence of a developmentally regulated stromal factor. (springer.com)
  • Fish, LE, Kuch, U and Bogarad, L (1985b) Analysis of the two partially homologous P700 chlorophyll a proteins of maize photosystem I: predictions based on the primary sequences and features shared by other chlorophyll proteins. (springer.com)
  • In the second half of the 1940s, Alexander Krasnovsky (Fig. 2.1) discovered reactions of pho- toinduced chlorophyll oxidation and reduction (Krasnovsky 1948), this discovery being the first step in the understanding of the mechanism of functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus. (slideshare.net)
  • The extended superfamily of chlorophyll a/b binding proteins comprises the Light-Harvesting Complex Proteins (LHCs), the Early Light-Induced Proteins (ELIPs) and the Photosystem II Subunit S (PSBS). (frontiersin.org)
  • The function of chlorophyll f in photosynthetic reactions is uncertain. (edu.au)
  • This project focuses on the light-harvesting strategy in red-shifted chlorophyll containing photosynthetic organisms. (edu.au)
  • 1990), light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex (Kühlbrandt et al . (springer.com)
  • Photosystem II (PSII) has a P680 reaction centre containing chlorophyll 'a' that uses light energy to carry out the oxidation (splitting) of water molecules, and to produce ATP via a proton pump. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Photosystem I (PSI) has a P700 reaction centre containing chlorophyll that takes the electron and associated hydrogen donated from PSII to reduce NADP+ to NADPH. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Within the core of the complex, the chlorophyll and beta-carotene pigments are mainly bound to the antenna proteins CP43 (PsbC) and CP47 (PsbB), which pass the excitation energy on to the reaction centre proteins D1 (Qb, PsbA) and D2 (Qa, PsbD) that bind all the redox-active cofactors involved in the energy conversion process. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Photosynthetic processes, including energy-transducing rhodopsins as well as (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photochemistry, can bring about some of the proton pumping, and hence adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, in chemoorganotrophs, which would otherwise involve oxidation of organic compounds. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Vaishlya, O. 2005-04-07 00:00:00 Spectral and photochemical properties were analyzed on intact chloroplasts and pigment-protein complexes isolated with gel electrophoresis from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves of parental variety Torsdag and of chlorophyll-deficient mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014. (deepdyve.com)
  • Measurements of chlorophyll absorption and fluorescence spectra and of second derivative low-temperature (−196°C) spectra clarified exact positions of fluorescence maxima and revealed the chlorophyll forms of individual complexes in samples investigated. (deepdyve.com)
  • The chlorotica 2004 mutant, whose hybrids yield the heterosis effect, was characterized by the decreased accumulation of chlorophyll forms absorbing at 690, 697, and 708 nm, known to constitute the core antenna in the vicinity of photosystem I (PSI) reaction center. (deepdyve.com)
  • This deficiency resulted from the mutation-induced disorder in biosynthesis of chlorophyll a-protein complex of PSI. (deepdyve.com)
  • structure and chlorophyll-protein interactions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Photons are absorbed by antenna molecules, and the excitation energy is transferred to the core of the reaction center, where the excited state initiates primary charge separation, in which an electron is transferred from one bacteriochlorophyll (BChl), chlorophyll (Chl), or pheophytin to another. (sciencemag.org)
  • Green plants and certain bacteria are able to transfer solar energy almost instantaneously from light-capturing pigment molecules - for plants, the main photosynthetic pigment is chlorophyll - into reaction centers where solar energy is converted into chemical energy. (lbl.gov)
  • Light Harvesting Complexes in Chlorophyll c-containing Algae 9. (routledge.com)
  • An improved electron density map of photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus calculated at 4-Å resolution for the first time reveals a second phylloquinone molecule and thereby completes the set of cofactors constituting the electron transfer system of this iron-sulfur type photosynthetic reaction center: six chlorophyll a, two phylloquinones, and three Fe 4 S 4 clusters. (elsevier.com)
  • The out-of-plane distortion of the P D1 chlorin ring can be described predominantly by a large "doming mode" arising from the axial ligand, D1-His198, as well as the chlorophyll side chains and PSII protein environment. (elsevier.com)
  • These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The photochemical reactions in the RCs occur through the transfer of an electron from a light-excited (bacterio)chlorophyll [(B)Chl] through the protein, by means of a (bacterio)pheophytin, to a bound quinone molecule. (pnas.org)
  • The antenna complex is a light-harvesting membrane-associated aggregate of proteins and photosensitive pigments such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. (nature.com)
  • Water-soluble chlorophyll protein forms a tetrameric complex with only four identical chlorophyll-binding sites. (nature.com)
  • These chlorophyll molecules are associated with specialized proteins that are able to penetrate into or span the membrane of the thylakoid sac. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Several hundred chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b molecules are found in one photosynthetic unit. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once the light energy penetrates these pigment molecules, the energy is passed to one chlorophyll molecule, called the reaction center chlorophyll. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chemically, chlorophyll has several similar forms, each containing a complex ring structure and a long hydrocarbon tail. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Within the photosynthetic cells of plants the chlorophyll is in the chloroplasts-small, roundish, dense protoplasmic bodies that contain the grana, or disks, where the chlorophyll molecules are located. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this work crystallization techniques were selected, tested and optimized for the lipid mesophase crystallization of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides membrane pigment-protein complex, known as the photosynthetic reaction center (RC). (iucr.org)
  • The Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction centre (RC) is a pigment-protein complex that efficiently captures and converts photon energy into a charge-separated state. (ubc.ca)
  • Site-specific mutations in the quinone binding sites of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) protein complexes of Rhodobacter (R.) capsulatus caused pronounced effects on sequential electron transfer. (elsevier.com)
  • In this depiction of a pigment-protein complex in a reaction center from the purple photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides , the white fog indicates quantum coherence between the excitations of two pigment molecules, accessory bateriochlorophyll (BChl) and bacteriopheophytin (Bphy), which promotes efficient energy transfer to the protein (P). (lbl.gov)
  • deltaG(AB) and pH dependence of the electron transfer from P(+)Q(A)(-)Q(B) toP(+)Q(A)Q(B)(-) in Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers. (naver.com)
  • The present work describes a new sensing system for the detection of photosynthetic herbicides in water based on the use of the reaction centre (RC) isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides , a purple bacteria. (spie.org)
  • A common feature of all photosynthetic organisms is that the conversion of light energy into chemical energy is performed by large pigment-protein complexes in specialized membrane systems, the thylakoids ( Nelson and Ben-Shem, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • My research interests are primarily concerned with elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of the energy-storing reactions and photo-regulatory processes in photosynthetic organisms, especially the function of red-shifted chlorophylls in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms (cyanobacteria and algae). (edu.au)
  • However, photosynthetic organisms are not selected in evolution for their contribution to global biogeochemistry: the successful photosynthetic organisms leave more offspring than their less successful competitors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 1 The initial electron transfer steps during solar energy conversion by these organisms take place in photosynthetic reaction centres (PRCs), sophisticated trans-membrane supramolecular pigment-protein complexes that exhibit a dual device-like functionality. (rsc.org)
  • Special attention is drawn to high-field EPR experiments on photosynthetic reaction centers embedded in specific sugar matrices that enable organisms to survive extreme dryness and heat stress by adopting an anhydrobiotic state. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • They are situated inside the chloroplasts of photosynthetic organisms, capture the energy from light, and transfer it to the reaction centre where chemical reactions take place. (nature.com)
  • In photosynthetic organisms, the functional units of light harvesting are self-assembled arrays of pigment-protein complexes called photosystems. (pnas.org)
  • In photosynthetic organisms, these processes begin with the absorption of a photon of light by pigments localized in proteins. (anl.gov)
  • Metabolism (/məˈtæbəlɪzəm/, from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy that will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous reactions that release energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gantt E (1980) Structure and function of phycobilisomes: light harvesting pigment complexes in red and blue-green algae. (springer.com)
  • Reaction centers are present in all green plants, algae, and many bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Green plants and algae have two different types of reaction centers that are part of larger supercomplexes known as P700 in photosystem I and P680 in photosystem II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Photosynthetic energy conversion in plants and algae forms the basis for almost all life on earth. (frontiersin.org)
  • We exploit the relative simplicity of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) or unicellular algae to study the light-harvesting systems, natural variation of the light-harvesting strategy, energy transfer and the function/structure of the pigment-protein complexes involved in these processes. (edu.au)
  • It is well known that exposure to excess metal impairs the photosynthetic apparatus of plants and algae. (asm.org)
  • The photosystem II reaction centre (PSIIRC), present in higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria, 1 is arguably the most important prototype to be considered as it is responsible for water splitting and production of all oxygen on Earth. (rsc.org)
  • In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, large molecular complexes-photosystems I and II-convert light energy into chemical energy, releasing oxygen as a by-product. (sciencemag.org)
  • It begins with an introduction to properties of various pigments, and the pigment proteins in plant, algae, and bacterial systems. (routledge.com)
  • Chapters are divided into five main parts, the first focused on pigments, their properties and biosynthesis, and the second section looking at photosynthetic proteins, including light harvesting in higher plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and green bacteria. (routledge.com)
  • The photosynthetic reaction center is a type of pigment-protein complex found widely in photosynthetic bacteria, algae and higher plants. (asu.edu)
  • The central photochemical reaction in photosystem II of green algae and plants and the reaction center of some photosynthetic bacteria involves a one-electron transfer from a light-activated chlorin complex to a bound quinone molecule. (pnas.org)
  • Algae and photosynthetic bacteria have been doing the same for even longer, all with remarkable efficiency and resiliency. (anl.gov)
  • In nature, plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria use just one of them - and scientists had no idea why. (anl.gov)
  • Cyanobacteria and plants both contain Photosystem II while photosynthetic bacteria contain the bacterial reaction center. (proteopedia.org)
  • Photolithotrophs are divided between those that use water as their electron donor (Cyanobacteria and the photosynthetic eukaryotes) and those that use a different electron donor (the anoxygenic photolithotrophs, all of them Bacteria). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Recently 3D structural models of the photosystem II (PSII) core dimer complexes of higher plants (spinach) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus) have been derived by electron [Rhee et al. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Small molecules accommodated in proteins such as pigments and metal ions and assisting protein function. (or.jp)
  • The reaction center contains two pigments that serve to collect and transfer the energy from photon absorption: BChl and Bph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pigmentation is a common feature of bacteria of different phylogenetic and environmental origins There are several groups of bacterial pigments which are in general noncovalently bound to proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • In the latest results, Fleming and his group have found that in the tightly packed complex formed by pigments and proteins, the light-induced energy excitations in the pigment molecules also set off the vibrational modes of the proteins. (lbl.gov)
  • Rather than simply serving as a static structure that holds the pigments in the proper geometry for efficient energy transfer to the reaction centers, as was anticipated, we find that the protein environment in the reaction centers plays a dynamic role in optimizing the efficiency of the energy transfer. (lbl.gov)
  • The light energy absorbed by protein bound pigments in these complexes is transferred via an exciton mechanism to the photosynthetic reaction center where it drives the photochemical reactions. (igi-global.com)
  • The protein holds the pigments in optimal orientation for excitation energy transfer and creates an energy sink by shifting the local transition energies of the pigments. (igi-global.com)
  • The photons of the sunlight are absorbed by so-called antenna pigments (chlorophylls, bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids) and the excitation energy is transferred to the photosynthetic reaction centre (RC), where transmembrane charge transfer reactions are driven. (igi-global.com)
  • The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, each step being facilitated by a specific enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bengis, C and Nelson, N (1975) Purification and properties of photosystem I reaction center from chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Chua, N-H and Schmidt, GW (1979) Transport of proteins into mitochondria and chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Cline, K (1986) Import of proteins into chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Photosystem II is a membrane bound protein complex that in plants is associated with the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. (proteopedia.org)
  • Subcellular localization analysis revealed that 51% of the crotonylated proteins identified were localized in chloroplasts. (mcponline.org)
  • PSII is composed of pigment-protein complexes that densely pack the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts. (pnas.org)
  • Both ATP and NADPH are subsequently used in the light-independent reactions to convert carbon dioxide to glucose using the hydrogen atom extracted from water by PSII, releasing oxygen as a by-product. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • PSII is a multisubunit protein-pigment complex containing polypeptides both intrinsic and extrinsic to the photosynthetic membrane [ PMID: 12518057 , PMID: 15100025 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The PSII oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) oxidises water to provide protons for use by PSI, and consists of OEE1 (PsbO), OEE2 (PsbP) and OEE3 (PsbQ). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • PsbH is necessary for the photoprotection of PSII, being required for: (1) the rapid degradation of photodamaged D1 core protein to prevent further oxidative damage to the PSII core, and (2) the insertion of newly synthesised D1 protein into the thylakoid membrane [ PMID: 12909614 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In the chlorotica 2014 mutant, whose hybrids are low productive, the interaction between PSI and PSII complexes was weakened, but no other difference from the parental variety was observed. (deepdyve.com)
  • The analysis of PSI and PSII photochemical activities, as well as estimates of light-harvesting antenna size and the number of reaction centers revealed that the chlorotica 2004 mutant is deficient in the number of PSI reaction centers by a factor of 1.7. (deepdyve.com)
  • PSII is the most sensitive protein complex of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The D1 and D2 proteins constituting the PSII reaction center heterodimer are targets of UV-B radiation and can be used as an in situ sensor for UV penetration into photosynthetic tissue. (plantphysiol.org)
  • PSII-associated label is bound to three minor components of LHCII, identified as LHCIIa (two species) and LHCIIc, as shown by protein sequencing of tryptic fragments of purified complexes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The difference in the chlorin ring deformation appears to directly refer to the difference in "the local steric protein environment" rather than the redox potential value in PSII. (elsevier.com)
  • This clearly indicated that besides the disruption of oxygen evolving complex (OEC) by 40 degrees C heat exposure for 24 hr, the PSII reaction centers were impaired by in vivo heat stress. (bvsalud.org)
  • Metribuzin and oscillatorin affected towards the donor side and brought about identical changes in polypeptide composition of PSII complex. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, absorption spectroscopy reveals that the enhancement of PSI antenna size during state 1 to state 2 transition (∼20%) is not commensurate to the decrease in PSII antenna size (∼70%), leading to the possibility that a large part of the phosphorylated LHCIIs do not bind to PSI, but instead form energetically quenched complexes, which were shown to be either associated with PSII supercomplexes or in a free form. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we model light harvesting at the several-hundred-nanometer scale of the PSII membrane, while preserving the dominant quantum effects previously observed in individual complexes. (pnas.org)
  • A reaction center is laid out in such a way that it captures the energy of a photon using pigment molecules and turns it into a usable form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the light energy has been absorbed directly by the pigment molecules, or passed to them by resonance transfer from a surrounding light-harvesting complex, they release two electrons into an electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coupling to the environment (for example, to solvent molecules or a protein binding pocket) leads to dephasing of these coherences across the molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • Indeed, this treatment induced changes in the LH2 absorption spectrum related to the disruption of the interaction of B800 molecules with the LH2 protein. (asm.org)
  • The spectroscopic data are analyzed by state-of-the-art quantum-chemical methods to determine the electronic and geometrical structures (distances and orientations) of the molecules involved in the biological process, including their conformational changes during the reaction. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The main goal of the research projects is to better understand the complex physical and chemical interactions between nanoscale protein molecules and liquid solvents or solid sugar-glass matrices in which they are embedded. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Quantum-mechanical effects enable a plant's photosystem to simultaneously sample all the potential energy pathways from pigment molecules to reaction centers and choose the most efficient one. (lbl.gov)
  • From our investigation, we conclude that the protein environment in the reaction center works collectively to keep the fluctuations of excited electronics states of pigment molecules in phase, and therefore protects quantum coherence," says Hohjai Lee, a member of Fleming's research group and co-author of a recent paper in S c ience describing their work. (lbl.gov)
  • In the high-frequency/high-field EPR region, sub-micromolar concentrations of nitroxide spin-labeled molecules are now sufficient to characterize reaction intermediates of complex biomolecular processes. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • This ET reaction has been mimicked by using organic "diad" molecules consisting of a covalently linked, light-activated electron donor, such as a porphyrin, and an electron acceptor, such as a quinone, for several decades with considerable success ( 7 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The pigment molecules cluster together in what is called a photosynthetic unit. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The preface of this book sets out the tenet that biological reactions cannot be understood except through the structure of participating molecules. (quantum-mind.co.uk)
  • Protein molecules are polymers built up out of the 20 amino acids. (quantum-mind.co.uk)
  • Where there are holes in the interior of the protein , these are usually occupied by closely bound water molecules, which are here regarded as integral parts of the protein . (quantum-mind.co.uk)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins (D12): 246 new descriptors were added. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins are formed out of chains of amino acids known as polypeptide chains that fold into three dimensional structures. (quantum-mind.co.uk)
  • The 20 amino acids are capable of being folded into more different proteins than there are atoms in the universe. (quantum-mind.co.uk)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • This inhibition could not be reversed by adding chemicals that donate electrons to photosystem I, indicating that carriers past the cytochrome b/f complex were not involved. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ionizing radiation produces electrons, hydroxyl radicals, and hydride radicals which are capable of altering biopolymers, for example, proteins and DNA. (hindawi.com)
  • PsbH may also regulate the transfer of electrons from D2 (Qa) to D1 (Qb) in the reaction core. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We are studying light-induced transport processes of electrons and ions in membrane-bound protein complexes, for example Reaction Centers from photosynthetic bacteria and plants, employing modern methods of pulsed paramagnetic electron spin resonance (EPR), electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy, in particular at high magnetic fields, as well as fast optical absorption spectroscopy. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The first near-atomic structure of the LH1-RC complex between the light-harvesting antenna core complex (LH1) and the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) precisely elucidated the architecture of protein subunits in the complex and the positions and orientations of cofactors (*3) such as bacteriochlorophyll (*2) bound to the complex. (or.jp)
  • Four different subunits were found to be important for the function of the photosynthetic reaction center. (wikipedia.org)
  • are in each monomer, with multiple extrinsic subunits associated with the oxygen evolving complex missing from this crystallization. (proteopedia.org)
  • In contrast, at least under low light conditions, photosystem II subunits are still present and assemble into a physiologically active complex. (nih.gov)
  • The low molecular mass subunits of the photosynthetic supracomplex, photosystem II. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The genes of the alpha and beta subunits of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein are located adjacent to each other in the human genome in a head-to-head orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The photosynthetic reaction center complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme has been isolated under anaerobic conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • 1991), photoactive yellow protein (PYP) from the purple photoautotropic bacterium, Ectothiorhodospila halophilia (McRee et al . (springer.com)
  • describe the structure of a homodimeric reaction center from an anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium. (sciencemag.org)
  • A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the light-harvesting-reaction centre (LH1-RC) complex of the photosynthetic bacterium Blastochloris viridis suggests factors that underlie the large redshift in the absorption spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll in the complex and that promote quinone-quinol translocation across the LH1 ring. (nature.com)
  • A) Molecular structure of the LH1-RC complex. (or.jp)
  • Matthews BW (1971) Determination of molecular weight from protein crystals. (springer.com)
  • Molecular excitations, either originating directly from sunlight or transferred as excitation energy via light-harvesting antenna systems, give rise to electron transfer reactions along the path of a series of protein-bound co-factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular biology and biochemistry of the complex are discussed in relation to the structure and function of the individual components. (springer.com)
  • We use a variety of approaches - molecular genetics, protein engineering, confocal fluorescence microscopy, liquid chromatography as well as structural and spectroscopic methods. (edu.au)
  • Besides giving insight into the suitability of these complexes for molecular-scale photovoltaics, our work suggests a new possible biological function for the vibrational environment of photosynthetic reaction centres, namely, to reduce the intrinsic current noise for regulatory processes. (rsc.org)
  • In discovering the signal that fingered quantum mechanics as the secret to the speed of photosynthetic energy transfer, he and his group used a technique they developed called two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES), which enabled them to follow the flow of light-induced excitation energy through molecular complexes with femtosecond temporal resolution. (lbl.gov)
  • PELDOR techniques applied to frozen-solution samples of doubly spin-labeled proteins allow for molecular distance measurements ranging up to about 100 Å. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Integral Membrane Proteins Significantly Decrease the Molecular Motion in Lipid Bilayers: A Deuteron NMR Relaxation Study of Membranes Containing Myelin Proteolipid Apoprotein, Proc. (bio-cat.ru)
  • VMD is a molecular graphics program designed for the display and analysis of molecular assemblies, in particular biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids. (uiuc.edu)
  • The reaction center found in Rhodopseudomonas bacteria is currently best understood, since it was the first reaction center of known structure and has fewer polypeptide chains than the examples in green plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer films of the Rhodopseudomonas viridis reaction center: determination of the order of the hemes in the cytochrome c subunit. (naver.com)
  • To investigate the consequences of the acclimation strategies adopted by Arabidopsis thaliana, we have assessed the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus in plants with very different chloroplast compositions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Vibrational wave packets have been observed in photosynthetic proteins using femtosecond transient absorption experiments in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Most of the absorption of light is carried out by a complex called the chlorosome that then transfers the energy to the trimeric protein that in turn transfers to the reaction center. (scienceblog.com)
  • These short-term adaptations use redox-controlled, reversible phosphorylation of the lightharvesting complexes (LHCIIs) to regulate the relative absorption cross-section of the two photosystems (PSs), commonly referred to as state transitions. (elsevier.com)
  • RC is a trans-membrane protein complex with one characteristic: stationary and excited states have different absorption properties. (spie.org)
  • Nearly 35 years ago, when the first structure of these types of complexes was unveiled, scientists were surprised to discover that after the absorption of light, the electron transfer processes faced a dilemma: there are two possible pathways for the electron to travel. (anl.gov)
  • PSI is associated with electron transport and exists as a large, multi-subunit complex with dozens of transmembrane spanning domains. (nature.com)
  • Bengis, C and Nelson, N (1977) Subunit structure of chloroplast photosystem I reaction center. (springer.com)
  • These plastoquinones eventually move to a plastoquinone pool which travels to another large protein subunit, cytochrome b 6 / f. (proteopedia.org)
  • HADHB is a subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein and has thiolase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes the beta subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein, a catalyst of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction center abundances were calculated using averages of single-copy components of the different photosystems: anoxygenic RC2- pufM, pufL, H subunit, Cyt. (nih.gov)
  • The catalytic role of subunit IV of the cytochrome b6-f complex from spinach chloroplast. (naver.com)
  • In the model plant tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ), 12 out of the 21 proteins of the small ribosomal subunit that have homologs in Escherichia coli are encoded in the chloroplast genome, whereas the remaining 9 proteins are nuclear encoded. (plantcell.org)
  • Similarly, 9 out of 31 proteins of the large ribosomal subunit are encoded by plastid genes, whereas the other 22 are encoded by nuclear genes. (plantcell.org)
  • The latter sub-unit is not a general structural motif in photosynthetic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although water-soluble proteins can be crystallized and studied by X-ray structural analysis with relative success, membrane proteins remain problematic objects for analysis of their spatial structure. (iucr.org)
  • Even solid-state NMR, such as cross-polarization magic angle spin NMR, to compensate the anisotropy, has limited success in obtaining structural information about prosthetic groups in membrane proteins, such as retinal in bacteriorhodopsin (Harbison et al . (springer.com)
  • The need for large quantities of structural informations and the necessity to tackle more and more complex problems are a strong incenti ve to develop new methods in order to overcome the varfous bottlenecks of a structure determi nati on. (exlibris.ch)
  • The high efficiency and structural simplicity make the bacterial reaction center a paradigm for studying electron transfer in biomolecules. (asu.edu)
  • A structural model of a chromatophore vesicle featuring the three main light-harvesting proteins (see below). (uiuc.edu)
  • It is therefore likely that the structural variations across species are caused by the difference of the profile of curvature induced by the LH proteins in each species. (uiuc.edu)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1960s, Roderick Clayton was the first to purify the reaction center complex from purple bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The photosynthetic apparatus of purple bacteria is located in the internal (i.e. cytoplasmic) membrane and in chromatophores-intracellular vesicles that split off that membrane. (slideshare.net)
  • The photosynthetic apparatus of purple bacteria consists mostly of six different kinds of proteins: The light harvesting complexes, LH2 and LH1, absorb light and transfer the resulting excitation to the reaction center (RC), which subsequently initiates an electron transfer reducing quinone to hydroquinone. (uiuc.edu)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Iron-sulfur centers in the photosynthetic reaction center complex from Chlorobium vibrioforme. (elsevier.com)
  • Photosynthetic reaction centers are membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes that use light to catalyze a transmembrane electron transfer against a steep thermodynamic gradient. (elsevier.com)
  • It is essentially a lipid bilayer with transmembrane proteins floating in it. (slideshare.net)
  • The proteins of the ELIP family were proposed to function in photoprotection or assembly of thylakoid pigment-protein complexes and are further divided into subgroups with one to three transmembrane helices. (frontiersin.org)
  • Polarized Expression of a Chimeric Protein in Which the Transmembrane and Cytoplasmic Domains of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Have Been Replaced by Those of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus G Protein, Proc. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Basolateral Expression of a Chimeric Protein in Which the Transmembrane and Cytoplasmic Domains of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus G Protein Have Been Replased by Those of the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin, J. Biol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • The regulation of these processes requires joint action of multiple proteins. (bireme.br)
  • The predominant biogeochemical role of photosynthetic processes is, however, photolithotrophy: that is, the autotrophic assimilation of carbon dioxide using some inorganic reductant as the electron donor. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These processes are controlled by adjusting the matrix environment ("solvent", hydrogen-bonding networks, hydration level, temperature, pressure) of the cofactors in their protein binding sites. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The bc1 complexes and ATP synthase are not included in the construction depicted here as these studies focus mainly on primary excitation transfer processes. (uiuc.edu)
  • Diverse arrangement of photosynthetic gene clusters in aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Natural energy-transducing photosynthetic systems, such as Reaction Centers of anoxygenic bacteria and Photosystem I and Photosystem II of oxygenic bacteria and green plants represent important examples for such studies. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Type I reaction centers employ an interpolypeptide [4Fe-4S] cluster (F X ) as an intermediate electron acceptor and two [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur clusters (F A and F B ) as the terminal electron acceptors. (elsevier.com)
  • This article focuses on type I reaction centers with special attention paid to the spectroscopic properties of F X , F A , and F B , and to the biochemical properties of the polypeptides that bind these iron-sulfur clusters. (elsevier.com)
  • Iron-sulfur centers in the photosynthetic reaction center complex from Chlorobium vibrioforme. (elsevier.com)
  • In green sulfur bacteria, which live in extremely dim environments with scarce visible light, the membrane-attached Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) antenna protein serves as a sort of wire connecting the large peripheral chlorosome antenna complex with the organism's reaction center. (scienceblog.com)
  • Various quinones, such as p -benzoquinone and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, were then covalently attached to the protein through a cysteine sulfur addition reaction to the quinone ring. (pnas.org)
  • In the past few years, there has been remarkable progress in knowledge of the structures and organization of the protein complexes of photosynthetic membranes. (nih.gov)
  • Photosynthetic membranes, like other biological membranes, are dynamic systems. (nih.gov)
  • Recent technological advances are making it increasingly easy to probe the dynamics of photosynthetic membranes using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. (nih.gov)
  • This well-ordered sequence of alterations in the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes helps prepare the plant for the desiccated state and minimize ROS production. (bireme.br)
  • Cardona T, Battchikova N, Zhang P, Stensjö K, Aro EM, Lindblad P, Magnuson A. Electron transfer protein complexes in the thylakoid membranes of heterocysts from the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. (umassmed.edu)
  • The approaches for this proposed project will include - methods for isolation of photosynthetic membranes and pigment-protein complexes by centrifugation, spectroscopic methods for probing the energy transfer pathways and liquid chromatographic methods for determining pigment compositions. (edu.au)
  • Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer films of bacterial photosynthetic membranes and isolated reaction centers: preparation, spectrophotometric and electrochemical characterization. (naver.com)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our focus is on the characterization of protein structure, dynamics and interactions, using sophisticated EPR spectroscopy methods. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Purification and characterization of mSin3A-containing Brg1 and hBrm chromatin remodeling complexes. (harvard.edu)
  • The surface residues that react to the probe are then labeled, and we isolate the protein and characterize where the label is in the protein by using mass spectroscopy. (scienceblog.com)
  • The combination of labeling and mass spectroscopy enabled the researchers to determine which side of the protein was up, which down. (scienceblog.com)
  • Thus, multifrequency EPR spectroscopy plays an important role in better understanding paramagnetic species such as organic and inorganic radicals, transition metal complexes as found in many catalysts or metalloenzymes, transient species such as light-generated spin-correlated radical pairs and triplets occurring in protein complexes of photosynthetic reaction centers, electron-transfer relays, etc. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Type II reaction centers employ a mobile quinone as the terminal electron acceptor. (elsevier.com)
  • unlike other reaction centers, it lacks a bound quinone. (sciencemag.org)
  • A unique quinone-binding site was engineered into the Escherichia coli cytochrome b 562 by introducing a cysteine within the hydrophobic interior of the protein. (pnas.org)
  • By using EPR and fast optical techniques, we show that, in the various chlorin-protein-quinone complexes, light-induced electron transfer can occur from the chlorin to the bound oxidized quinone but not the hydroquinone, with electron transfer rates in the order of 10 8 s -1 . (pnas.org)
  • Quinone binding is stabilized by hydrogen-bonding to the quinone carbonyl oxygen, van der Waal's contact between the protein and quinone head group and especially by hydrophobic binding of the large quinone phytol tail ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • The LH1 and RC complexes for dimeric RC-LH1-PufX supercomplexes, where PufX is a small polypeptide likely involved in regulating the quinone traffic. (uiuc.edu)
  • This photochemistry takes place in membrane-bound protein complexes called reaction centers (RCs). (pnas.org)
  • One way plants sense light is through the phytochromes, a small family of diverse photochromic protein photoreceptors whose origins have been traced to the photosynthetic prokaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • The group of homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants evolved the unique capability to survive severe drought stress without dismantling the photosynthetic machinery. (bireme.br)
  • They are found in plants and photosynthetic bacteria, and have evolved into two types. (elsevier.com)
  • The genome and the photosynthetic machinery are two important targets of UV-B radiation in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Plants respond to growth under different environmental conditions by adjusting the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Surprisingly, even plants with very low levels of light-harvesting complexes were able to undergo state transitions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Plastid genomes of higher plants contain a conserved set of ribosomal protein genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Candidates for nonessential plastid ribosomal proteins are ribosomal proteins identified as nonessential in bacteria and those whose genes were lost from the highly reduced plastid genomes of nonphotosynthetic plastid-bearing lineages (parasitic plants, apicomplexan protozoa). (plantcell.org)
  • The set of ribosomal protein genes retained in the plastid genome is highly conserved across seed plants. (plantcell.org)
  • This suggests that the gene transfer of ribosomal protein genes to the nuclear genome was largely completed before the evolutionary diversification of seed plants and that a relatively stable situation has now been reached. (plantcell.org)
  • There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II. (rush.edu)
  • At low water contents, inactivation and supramolecular reorganization of photosystem II becomes apparent, accompanied by functional detachment of light-harvesting complexes and interrupted access to plastoquinone. (bireme.br)
  • Photosystem II is linked to a variety of other proteins, including Photosytem I. These proteins ultimately produce NADPH and ATP that power the Calvin cycle. (proteopedia.org)
  • The photosystem II reaction centre is the photosynthetic complex responsible for oxygen production on Earth. (rsc.org)
  • this inhibits the protective dissipation of excess absorbed light energy (qE) by the light-harvesting apparatus of photosystem II (LHCII), suggesting that carboxyl amino-acid side chains within hydrophobic protein domains may be involved in qE. (ox.ac.uk)
  • cHxN)2(14)C was used to label thylakoids and photosystem II particles, so as to identify proteins which may be involved in the detection of lumen pH during qE induction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Effect of purified oscillatorin and some 'urea-triazine type' herbicides was studied on photosystem II activity and composition of pigment protein complex in spinach thylakoid membrane. (bvsalud.org)
  • The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center has been an important model to understand the structure and chemistry of the biological process of capturing light energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological membrane is composed of lipids and proteins. (slideshare.net)
  • Carotenoids: Electronic States and Biological Functions Part 2: Building the Light Harvesting Apparatus: Proteins 4. (routledge.com)
  • However, although quinones are common biological redox-active cofactors, we are not aware of any previous work using them as bound electron donor/acceptors in designed or engineered proteins. (pnas.org)
  • In this way, the excitation energy is directed with high efficiency (close to 100 %) to the reaction center. (igi-global.com)
  • We show that the diffusion length of excitation energy determines the way in which modifications to the membrane affect PSII's, and ultimately a plant's, photosynthetic efficiency. (pnas.org)
  • Antenna complexes absorb and transfer the nascent excitation energy to reaction centers, where long-term storage as chemical energy is initiated ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The macromolecular pigment-protein complex has the merit of high efficiency for light-energy capture and transfer after long-term photosynthetic evolution. (nature.com)
  • Here bio-dyes of A. platensis photosystem I (PSI) and spinach light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) are spontaneously sensitized on three types of designed TiO 2 films, to assess the effects of pigment-protein complex on the performance of bio-dye sensitized solar cells (SSC). (nature.com)
  • a) Pigment-protein complexes are organized as photosynthetic units and consist either as photosynthetic reaction centers or as light-harvesting complexes. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on these data, we propose that OHP1 and OHP2 play an essential role in the assembly or stabilization of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, especially photosystem reaction centers, in the thylakoid membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • Assembling the photosynthetic complexes in the thylakoid membrane requires a tight coordination of protein synthesis and folding with pigment synthesis and delivery. (frontiersin.org)
  • The photosynthetic reactions take place within the membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes, light harvesting systems and reaction centre systems. (edu.au)
  • The approaches for this proposal will include - setting-up cyanobacterial cultures under different environments, pigmentation analysis (spectrophotometer and HPLC), pigment-protein complexes isolation technology and physical and biochemical characterisation. (edu.au)
  • Now a different team has found new evidence that points to a closely packed pigment-protein complex of the photosystem as the key to those quantum mechanical effects. (lbl.gov)
  • Reaction Centers: Structure and Mechanism 10. (routledge.com)
  • The minimal cost of bearing a rhodopsin-based phototrophic mechanism in comparison to maintaining a photochemical reaction center suggests that rhodopsin is the more abundant of the two. (nih.gov)
  • The cofactors are ≈10 Å apart so that the electron transfer (ET) reaction is nonadiabatic, occurring through a quantum tunneling mechanism ( 4 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • In both ohp1 and ohp2 mutants, the levels of numerous photosystem components were strongly reduced and photosynthetic electron transport was almost undetectable. (frontiersin.org)
  • Knockout of two ribosomal protein genes, rps15 and rpl36 , yielded homoplasmic transplastomic mutants, thus indicating nonessentiality. (plantcell.org)
  • The diffusion length is a single parameter that incorporates the enhancing effect of excited state delocalization on individual rates of energy transfer as well as the complex kinetics that arise due to energy transfer and loss by decay to the ground state. (pnas.org)
  • The data suggest that Centers I and II are bound to the pscB polypeptide. (elsevier.com)
  • Higher plant light-harvesting complexes LHCIIa and LHCIIc are bound by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide during inhibition of energy dissipation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The taco shell is a sort of "middleman" in the antenna system, sandwiched in between a larger antenna and a complex called the reaction center, where all the electron transfer chemistry takes place. (scienceblog.com)
  • The footprinting revealed that the energy will flow from the outer part of the antenna, through the mid-part and into the membrane where the reaction center is located. (scienceblog.com)
  • However, it is unclear how these mechanisms influence transfer across assemblies of antenna and thus the photochemical yield at reaction centers in the functional thylakoid membrane. (pnas.org)
  • We show that excitation moves diffusively through the antenna with a diffusion length of 50 nm until it reaches a reaction center, where charge separation serves as an energetic trap. (pnas.org)
  • We demonstrate that, for a bacterial reaction center protein, long-lived coherent spectroscopic oscillations, which bear canonical signatures of excitonic superpositions, are essentially vibrational excited-state coherences shifted to the ground state of the chromophores. (sciencemag.org)
  • An important additional advantage of EPR over NMR is the ability to detect and characterize even short-lived paramagnetic reaction intermediates (down to a lifetime of a few ns). (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Organization of Photosynthetic Membrane Proteins into Supercomplexes 11. (routledge.com)
  • The transition from darkness to light alters thylakoid membrane architecture and the organization of photosynthetic complexes. (nature.com)
  • In vitro these compounds function also as electron acceptors in diaphorase reactions catalyzed by ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we envision a photovoltaic device that places one of these complexes between electrodes and investigate how the mean current and its fluctuations depend on the microscopic interactions underlying charge separation in the pathway considered. (rsc.org)
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetric Studies of Lipid-Protein Interactions in Model Membrane Systems, Biochim. (bio-cat.ru)
  • A system level view of the interactions between the proteins that constitute the PSU. (uiuc.edu)
  • This was also significant for being the first 3D crytal structure of any membrane protein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • worked on the crystallisation of membrane proteins - essential for their structure elucidation by X-ray crystallography . (rug.nl)
  • Together with Michel and Huber, Deisenhofer determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria. (rug.nl)
  • Schematic of photosynthetic reaction center structure in membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1987). While electron microscopy (EM) has provided the overall shape of a protein including the number of helix strands, detailed information regarding secondary structure is not likely to be easily obtained from EM. (springer.com)
  • 2,3 The same chromophore-protein structure and energetic landscape promoting this quantum yield also favours a diode-like behaviour of all PRCs such that under an appropriate applied bias, electric current flows almost entirely in one direction. (rsc.org)
  • Photosynthetic gene cluster structure and arrangement in AAP species. (nih.gov)
  • The 2.2-angstrom resolution x-ray structure of the homodimeric reaction center-photosystem from the phototroph Heliobacterium modesticaldum exhibits perfect C 2 symmetry. (sciencemag.org)
  • Based on crystal structure data, the excitonic couplings are calculated taking into account also the polarizability of the protein. (igi-global.com)
  • Blankenship fondly refers to the FMO protein as the taco shell protein because of its structure: its ribbon-like backbone wraps around three clusters of seven chlorophylls, just like a taco shell around ground beef. (scienceblog.com)
  • There are also additional proteins found in chromatophore vesicles whose structure and function are not as well understood. (uiuc.edu)
  • Scientists have determined through decades of research the three-dimensional structure of many of the individual proteins that constitute the PSU from multiple species. (uiuc.edu)
  • The functional properties of protein depend on their three-dimensional structure. (quantum-mind.co.uk)
  • Predicting the three dimensional structure of folded proteins remains a major challenge. (quantum-mind.co.uk)
  • An individual protein can contain several of these domains, and this grouping is known as the quaternary structure. (quantum-mind.co.uk)
  • The protection system involves synthesis of LEA proteins, decrease of photosynthetic activity and activation of antioxidant systems. (bireme.br)
  • Oxidation of water leaves 2 H + on the lumenal side of the membrane, helping to establish the proton gradient essential for ATP synthesis in the CF 1 CF 0 -ATP sythase protein. (proteopedia.org)
  • While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. (nih.gov)
  • Because the elongation mode of peptidoglycan synthesis requires penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) and RodA in E. coli ( 7 , 28 ) and because PBP2 and RodA are thought to act in concert ( 7 , 14 ), it was suggested that FtsW similarly interacts with PBP3 during septal peptidoglycan synthesis ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • or anabolic - the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • By combining EPR and optical spectroscopies, we cover a wide time-scale of photochemical reactions, ranging from tens of femtoseconds to tens of seconds. (fu-berlin.de)
  • A variety in light-harvesting complexes exist between the photosynthetic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures of these supercomplexes are large, involving multiple light-harvesting complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We begin by discussing light- dependent (photosynthetic) generators. (slideshare.net)
  • Two small One-Helix Proteins (OHPs) are expressed constitutively in green plant tissues and their levels increase in response to light stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two considerations are that only half of the solar spectrum can be absorbed by chlorophylls and that bright light limits the capacity of photosynthetic reactions. (edu.au)
  • 14 A theoretical study along the lines of counting statistics for light-harvesting complexes has been carried out 15 but so far there has been no investigation of full counting statistics of charge transport in PRCs. (rsc.org)
  • Membrane Topology of Light-harvesting Protein B870-alpha of Rhodospirillum rubrum G-9, J. Biol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to the light environment: the relationship between photosynthetic function and chloroplast composition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We also show that apparent discrepancies between chloroplast composition and photosynthetic function can be attributed to varying degrees of light penetration through the leaf. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The core of the photosynthetic complex photosystem I had been assumed to require contact with its associated light-harvesting complex I to function. (nature.com)
  • A photosynthetic unit absorbs light energy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We have a tremendous opportunity here to open up completely new disciplines of light-driven biochemical reactions, ones that haven't been envisioned by nature. (anl.gov)
  • Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's ( DOE ) Argonne National Laboratory, working closely with collaborators at Washington University in St. Louis, recently solved a critical part of this age-old mystery, homing in on the initial, ultrafast events through which photosynthetic proteins capture light and use it to initiate a series of electron transfer reactions. (anl.gov)
  • Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. (umassmed.edu)
  • Various cofactors such as chlorophylls, carotenoids and hemes are employed in photosynthetic apparatuses. (or.jp)