The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used for experiments in molecular genetic studies in plant physiology and development.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC
Ribulose substituted by one or more phosphoric acid moieties.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of ATP, pyruvate, and orthophosphate to form AMP plus phosphoenolpyruvate plus pyrophosphate. EC
A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
The absence of light.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The stonecrop plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that grow in warm, dry regions. The leaves are thick. The flower clusters are red, yellow, or white.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A form-genus of spherical to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. They contain THYLAKOIDS and are found in a wide range of habitats.
A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A plant family of the order Nepenthales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, notable for leaves with sticky gland-tipped hairs that entrap insects.
The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The small pointed seeds are grown for hay in North America and western Europe and important as food in China and other Asian countries.
A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is used for forage.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The metal-free blue phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of blue-green algae. It functions as light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A plant family of the order Hydrocharitales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
Proteins found within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of photosynthetic organisms such as PLANTS and PHYTOPLANKTON. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS and the generation of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
At low concentrations, this compound inhibits reduction of conventional hydrophilic electron acceptors, probably acting as a plastoquinone antagonist. At higher concentrations, it acts as an electron acceptor, intercepting electrons either before or at the site of its inhibitory activity.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
A form-genus of unicellular coccoid to rod-shaped CYANOBACTERIA, in the order Chroococcales. Three different clusters of strains from diverse habitats are included.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE dependent enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of GLYCINE with the transfer of an aminomethyl group to the LIPOIC ACID moiety of the GLYCINE DECARBOXYLASE COMPLEX H-PROTEIN. Defects in P-protein are the cause of non-ketotic hyperglycinemia. It is one of four subunits of the glycine decarboxylase complex.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
A family of zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They play an important role in the transport of CARBON DIOXIDE from the tissues to the LUNG. EC
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of snakeroot is also used for POLYGALA; SANICULA; ARISTOLOCHIA and others.
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genus of marine planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order PROCHLOROPHYTES. They lack PHYCOBILISOMES and contain divinyl CHLOROPHYLL, a and b.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The roots are used as food.
Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.
A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. There are no true petals; each flower has two to six sepals. They produce betacyanin and betaxanthin pigments and lack anthocyanins.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
A plant family of the order Proteales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. Cluster roots, bottlebrush-like clusters of rootlets which form in response to poor soil, are common in this family.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Physical changes in the growth patterns of a plant brought on by sustained absence of light. These changes are characterized by lengthened internodes which produce long weak stems, fewer leaves, and pale yellow color (chlorosis). The physiological basis for etiolation is induction of the phytohormone, AUXIN.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain beta-glucosidases and trypsin inhibitors.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain benzophenones.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A large family of proteins that have been traditionally classified as the light-harvesting proteins of the photosynthetic reaction complex. Chlorophyll binding proteins are also found in non-photosynthetic settings where they may play a photoprotective role in response to light stress.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A genus of obligately aerobic marine phototrophic and chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE.
A genus of green nonsulfur bacteria in the family Chloroflexaceae. They are photosynthetic, thermophilic, filamentous gliding bacteria found in hot springs.
A plant family of the order Primulales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The flowers have both stamens and pistil, and the fruits are capsules.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (1/4284)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

A functional model for O-O bond formation by the O2-evolving complex in photosystem II. (2/4284)

The formation of molecular oxygen from water in photosynthesis is catalyzed by photosystem II at an active site containing four manganese ions that are arranged in di-mu-oxo dimanganese units (where mu is a bridging mode). The complex [H2O(terpy)Mn(O)2Mn(terpy)OH2](NO3)3 (terpy is 2,2':6', 2"-terpyridine), which was synthesized and structurally characterized, contains a di-mu-oxo manganese dimer and catalyzes the conversion of sodium hypochlorite to molecular oxygen. Oxygen-18 isotope labeling showed that water is the source of the oxygen atoms in the molecular oxygen evolved, and so this system is a functional model for photosynthetic water oxidation.  (+info)

Prochlorococcus, a marine photosynthetic prokaryote of global significance. (3/4284)

The minute photosynthetic prokaryote Prochlorococcus, which was discovered about 10 years ago, has proven exceptional from several standpoints. Its tiny size (0.5 to 0.7 microm in diameter) makes it the smallest known photosynthetic organism. Its ubiquity within the 40 degrees S to 40 degrees N latitudinal band of oceans and its occurrence at high density from the surface down to depths of 200 m make it presumably the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth. Prochlorococcus typically divides once a day in the subsurface layer of oligotrophic areas, where it dominates the photosynthetic biomass. It also possesses a remarkable pigment complement which includes divinyl derivatives of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chl b, the so-called Chl a2 and Chl b2, and, in some strains, small amounts of a new type of phycoerythrin. Phylogenetically, Prochlorococcus has also proven fascinating. Recent studies suggest that it evolved from an ancestral cyanobacterium by reducing its cell and genome sizes and by recruiting a protein originally synthesized under conditions of iron depletion to build a reduced antenna system as a replacement for large phycobilisomes. Environmental constraints clearly played a predominant role in Prochlorococcus evolution. Its tiny size is an advantage for its adaptation to nutrient-deprived environments. Furthermore, genetically distinct ecotypes, with different antenna systems and ecophysiological characteristics, are present at depth and in surface waters. This vertical species variation has allowed Prochlorococcus to adapt to the natural light gradient occurring in the upper layer of oceans. The present review critically assesses the basic knowledge acquired about Prochlorococcus both in the ocean and in the laboratory.  (+info)

Interpretation of the spatial charge displacements in bacteriorhodopsin in terms of structural changes during the photocycle. (4/4284)

We have recently introduced a method, made possible by an improved orienting technique using a combination of electric and magnetic fields, that allows the three-dimensional detection of the intramolecular charge displacements during the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. This method generates electric asymmetry, a prerequisite for the detection of electric signal on the macroscopic sample, in all three spatial dimensions. Purple membrane fragments containing bacteriorhodopsin were oriented so that their permanent electric dipole moment vectors were perpendicular to the membrane plane and pointed in the same direction. The resulting cylindrical symmetry was broken by photoselection, i. e., by flash excitation with low intensity linearly polarized light. From the measured electric signals, the three-dimensional motion of the electric charge center in the bacteriorhodopsin molecules was calculated for the first 400 microseconds. Simultaneous absorption kinetic recording provided the time-dependent concentrations of the intermediates. Combining the two sets of data, we determined the discrete dipole moments of intermediates up to M. When compared with the results of current molecular dynamics calculations, the data provided a decisive experimental test for selecting the optimal theoretical model for the proton transport and should eventually lead to a full description of the mechanism of the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump.  (+info)

Light-induced oxidation-reduction reactions of cytochromes in the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Prosthecochloris aesturarii. (5/4284)

The light-induced oxidation-reduction reactions of cytochromes in intact cells, starved cells, and chlorobium vesicle fractions of the green sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Prosthecochloris aesturarii were studied under anaerobic conditions. On the basis of both kinetic and spectral properties, at least three cytochrome species were found to be involved in the light-induced oxidation-reduction reactions of intact cells. These cytochromes were designated according to the positions of alpha-band maxima as C555 (rapid and slow components) and C552 (intermediate). By comparing the light-minus-dark difference spectra with the reduced-minus-oxidized difference spectra of purified cytochromes of this organism, rapid component C555 and intermediate component C552 are suggested to correspond to the purified cytochromes c-555(550) and c-551.5, respectively. Although the identity of the slow-phase component is uncertain, one possibility is that the slow phase is due to the bound form of c-555(550). In substrate-depleted (starved) cells, only one cytochrome species, C555 remained in the reduced state in the dark and oxidized upon actinic illumination. This corresponds to the rapid C555 component in intact cells. In the case of chlorobium vesicle fractions, one cytochrome species having an alpha-band maximum at 554 nm was oxidized by actinic light. The effects of several inhibitors on the absorbance changes of intact cells were studied. Antimycin A decreased the rate of the dark reduction of rapid C555 component. The complex effects of CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone) on the oxidation-reduction reactions of cytochromes were interpreted as the results of inhibition of the electron donation to oxidized C552 and C555 (slow), and a shift of the dark steady-state redox levels of cytochromes. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the rapid C555 component is located in a cyclic electron transfer pathway. The other two cytochromes, C552 and C555 (slow), may be located in non-cyclic electron transfer pathways and receive electrons from exogenous substrates such as sodium sulfide. A tentative scheme for the electron transfer system in Prosthecochloris aestuarii is presented and its nature is discussed.  (+info)

Photosystem I is indispensable for photoautotrophic growth, CO2 fixation, and H2 photoproduction in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (6/4284)

Certain Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants deficient in photosystem I due to defects in psaA mRNA maturation have been reported to be capable of CO2 fixation, H2 photoevolution, and photoautotrophic growth (Greenbaum, E., Lee, J. W., Tevault, C. V., Blankinship, S. L. , and Mets, L. J. (1995) Nature 376, 438-441 and Lee, J. W., Tevault, C. V., Owens, T. G.; Greenbaum, E. (1996) Science 273, 364-367). We have generated deletions of photosystem I core subunits in both wild type and these mutant strains and have analyzed their abilities to grow photoautotrophically, to fix CO2, and to photoevolve O2 or H2 (using mass spectrometry) as well as their photosystem I content (using immunological and spectroscopic analyses). We find no instance of a strain that can perform photosynthesis in the absence of photosystem I. The F8 strain harbored a small amount of photosystem I, and it could fix CO2 and grow slowly, but it lost these abilities after deletion of either psaA or psaC; these activities could be restored to the F8-psaADelta mutant by reintroduction of psaA. We observed limited O2 photoevolution in mutants lacking photosystem I; use of 18O2 indicated that this O2 evolution is coupled to O2 uptake (i.e. respiration) rather than CO2 fixation or H2 evolution. We conclude that the reported instances of CO2 fixation, H2 photoevolution, and photoautotrophic growth of photosystem I-deficient mutants result from the presence of unrecognized photosystem I.  (+info)

Acclimation of Arabidopsis leaves developing at low temperatures. Increasing cytoplasmic volume accompanies increased activities of enzymes in the Calvin cycle and in the sucrose-biosynthesis pathway. (7/4284)

Photosynthetic and metabolic acclimation to low growth temperatures were studied in Arabidopsis (Heynh.). Plants were grown at 23 degrees C and then shifted to 5 degrees C. We compared the leaves shifted to 5 degrees C for 10 d and the new leaves developed at 5 degrees C with the control leaves on plants that had been left at 23 degrees C. Leaf development at 5 degrees C resulted in the recovery of photosynthesis to rates comparable with those achieved by control leaves at 23 degrees C. There was a shift in the partitioning of carbon from starch and toward sucrose (Suc) in leaves that developed at 5 degrees C. The recovery of photosynthetic capacity and the redirection of carbon to Suc in these leaves were associated with coordinated increases in the activity of several Calvin-cycle enzymes, even larger increases in the activity of key enzymes for Suc biosynthesis, and an increase in the phosphate available for metabolism. Development of leaves at 5 degrees C also led to an increase in cytoplasmic volume and a decrease in vacuolar volume, which may provide an important mechanism for increasing the enzymes and metabolites in cold-acclimated leaves. Understanding the mechanisms underlying such structural changes during leaf development in the cold could result in novel approaches to increasing plant yield.  (+info)

The membrane-attached electron carrier cytochrome cy from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is functional in respiratory but not in photosynthetic electron transfer. (8/4284)

Rhodobacter species are useful model organisms for studying the structure and function of c type cytochromes (Cyt c), which are ubiquitous electron carriers with essential functions in cellular energy and signal transduction. Among these species, Rhodobacter capsulatus has a periplasmic Cyt c2Rc and a membrane-bound bipartite Cyt cyRc. These electron carriers participate in both respiratory and photosynthetic electron-transfer chains. On the other hand, until recently, Rhodobacter sphaeroides was thought to have only one of these two cytochromes, the soluble Cyt c2Rs. Recent work indicated that this species has a gene, cycYRs, that is highly homologous to cycYRc, and in the work presented here, functional properties of its gene product (Cyt cyRs) are defined. It was found that Cyt cyRs is unable to participate in photosynthetic electron transfer, although it is active in respiratory electron transfer, unlike its R. capsulatus counterpart, Cyt cyRc. Chimeric constructs have shown that the photosynthetic incapability of Cyt cyRs is caused, at least in part, by its redox active subdomain, which carries the covalently bound heme. It, therefore, seems that this domain interacts differently with distinct redox partners, like the photochemical reaction center and the Cyt c oxidase, and allows the bacteria to funnel electrons efficiently to various destinations under different growth conditions. These findings raise an intriguing evolutionary issue in regard to cellular apoptosis: why do the mitochondria of higher organisms, unlike their bacterial ancestors, use only one soluble electron carrier in their respiratory electron-transport chains?  (+info)

The large flowers of orchids make them popular as cultivated plants. Seven species of orchids in the genus Cymbidium (Orchidaceae) have been crossbred to create more than 220 hybrids that serve as popular cultivated ornamentals. The present study examined the daily variation in the patterns of the net photosynthetic rate and the photosynthetic response of wild Cymbidium faberi in the Qinling Mountains in northwestern China. The photosynthetic characteristics of this species were studied under natural conditions with a portable photosynthesis system. Double peaks were observed in the net photosynthetic rate with one around 09:00 and another around 17:00 in spring, as well as one around 11:00 and another around 15:00 in winter. Midday depression of photosynthesis was observed in wild C. faberi plants around 13:00 in both spring and winter. The net photosynthetic rate was strongly positively correlated with both stomatal conductance (R = 0.913) and the transpiration rate (R = 0.659) and weakly negatively
A physiologically based steady-state model of whole leaf photosynthesis (WHOLEPLOT) is used to analyze observed net photosynthesis daily time course of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves. Observations during two time periods of the 1978 growing season are analyzed and compared. After adjustment of the model for soybean, net photosynthesis rates are calculated with the model in response to measured incident light intensity, leaf temperature, air carbon dioxide concentration, and leaf diffusion resistance. The steady-sate calculations closely approximate observed net photosynthesis. Results of the comparison reveal a decrease in photosynthetic capacity in leaves sampled during the second time period, which is associated with decreasing ability of leaves to respond to light intensity and internal air space carbon dioxide concentration, increasing mesophyll resistance, and increasing stomatal resistance.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Net photosynthesis, respiration, and production of the moss Sanionia uncinata on a glacier foreland in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. AU - Uchida, Masaki. AU - Muraoka, Hiroyuki. AU - Nakatsubo, Takayuki. AU - Bekku, Yukiko. AU - Ueno, Takeshi. AU - Kanda, Hiroshi. AU - Koizumi, Hiroshi. PY - 2002/8. Y1 - 2002/8. N2 - As part of the study on carbon cycling in a deglaciated area in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79°N), we examined the effects of abiotic factors on the net photosynthesis and dark respiration rates of the dominant moss Sanionia uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske. The rates of net photosynthesis (Pn) and dark respiration (R) were measured using an open-flow gas exchange system with an infrared gas analyzer in the snow-free season of 2000. High photosynthetic activities were observed only in rainy days or soon after rainfall, when moss water content was high. Under a sufficiently humid condition, Pn determined at near light saturation was almost constant over ...
These are not exact test questions, just topics that cover the material: What is photosynthesis? 8.2 photosynthesis an overview answer key. How much energy is utilized in the synthesis of one gram mole of glucose 673 kcal 686 kcal 666 kcal 696 kcal Answer: 2 Q2. There are 26 questions. Photosynthesis starts with- Test (BIO) Questions and Study ... photosynthesis starts with worksheet answer key.pdf FREE PDF DOWNLOAD NOW!!! Answers in as fast as 15 minutes. SCIENCE 1 - Spring 2016. The number of light quanta required for evolution of one molecule of oxygen is called Oxygen yield Photosynthetic yield Quantum yield Organic yield Answer: 3 Q3. What is the primary function of photosynthesis? Source #2: photosynthesis starts with worksheet answer key.pdf FREE PDF DOWNLOAD Photosynthesis - Song with Free Worksheets and Activities ... knowledge of photosynthesis, answer the following questions. Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire ) Photosynthesis and respiration model ...
Introduction. Experiment To find out if the intensity (brightness) of light will have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis in green pond weed called ELODEA Research on photosynthesis Photosynthesis is processes by chlorophyll (green in the leaf).The three things that is needed in photosynthesis are sunlight from the sun, energy form the roots coming form the soil nitrate and carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast cells where it contains chlorophyll and other things. Bacteria comes from the sunlight which then turns into chemical energy. What happens is Carbon dioxide + water +light energy glucose + oxygen Glucose is some kind of sugar. The three things that affect photosynthesis is when the temperature gets lower, amount of carbon dioxide and if the light is kept away from the plant. Diagram A bulb water Apparatus Pond weed called Elodea 60 watt bulb with a holder Cold water form the school pond A ruler A stop watch Boiling Making the experiment a fair test: The way Im ...
Accurate estimation of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) remains a challenge despite its importance in the global carbon cycle. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been recently adopted to understand photosynthesis and its response to the environment, particularly with remote sensing data. However, it remains unclear how ChlF and photosynthesis are linked at different spatial scales across the growing season. We examined seasonal relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis at the leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales and explored how leaf-level ChlF was linked with canopy-scale solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in a temperate deciduous forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. Our results show that ChlF captured the seasonal variations of photosynthesis with significant linear relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis across the growing season over different spatial scales (R2 = 0.73, 0.77, and 0.86 at leaf, canopy, and satellite scales, respectively; P , 0.0001). We ...
Photosynthesis of a tree canopy is driven by the total leaf area (LAI), photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) and CO2 concentration (i.e. photosynthesis usually increases with an increment in these - at least up to a point). Low air humidity (VPD), low air temperature and low soil moisture (REW) restrict photosynthesis. The individual effects are explained in detail in the modelling section.. In the summer, the daily pattern of photosynthesis mainly follows the changes in light (i.e. uptake is intense in light and prevented in the dark). However, other environmental factors may restrict the light prescribed rate of photosynthesis. For example, photosynthesis in a warm summer morning may rise together with the light intensity, but in the afternoon, the air humidity becomes too low for the plant. To prevent excessive evaporation, the plant closes the stomata, which limits the flow of carbon dioxide in the leaves; thereby photosynthesis. In that case, photosynthesis is lower in the ...
Cucumber is generally a thermophilic species; however, cultivars have been selected for higher yield during winter cultivation in unheated glasshouses in temperate regions. We tested whether photosynthesis in these varieties had greater chilling tolerance. There was no difference in the instantaneous reduction of photosynthesis at low temperature between four winter glasshouse and four summer field cultivars. After 5 d of 10°C and 100 µmol m-2 s-1 photon flux density, the four field cultivars had a sustained depression of photosynthesis after returning to clement conditions. This inhibition was associated with reduced rates of CO2 fixation and photosystem II (PSII) electron transport in the light, but not with sustained PSII photoinhibition. However, photosynthesis in the glasshouse genotypes was nearly identical to the pre-chill rates. Chill impacts on light-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, such as the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ϕPSII), correlated well with overall ...
DILAR English: PHOTOSYNTHESIS, Plant Life Cycle Activities: Writing About Science & A …, What Is The Importance Of Chlorophyll For Photosynthesis?, 3 Simple Techniques To Guide Your Learners Attention …, What Are The Main Types Of Grow Lights? (A Simple Guide), File:Chloroplast II.svg Wikipedia, Chlorophyll In Plants For Kids, Chlorophyll In Plants For Kids, Chlorophyll Lesson For Kids Video & Lesson Transcript …, Leaf Chromatography Experiment , HowStuffWorks, Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll Definition For Kids HRF, Chlorophyll In Plants For Kids, 25+ Best Ideas About Photosynthesis Activities On …, Photosynthesis Vocabulary Terms And Definitions, Chlorophyll Facts For Kids ,, Plant Solar Cells Have Chlorophyll Like Compound To …, Chlorophyll In Plants For Kids, Chlorophyll In Plants For Kids, Chlorophyll In Plants For Kids, Photosynthesis: Science Lesson: Activity 1 Of 3 , TV411, Plant Food Photosynthesis Jakes Nature Blog, Important Science Diagrams From All Chapters ...
Since the publication of the previous editions of the Handbook of Photosynthesis, many new ideas on photosynthesis have emerged in the past decade that have drawn the attention of experts and researchers on the subject as well as interest from individuals in other disciplines. Updated to include 37 original chapters and making extensive revisions to the chapters that have been retained, 90% of the material in this edition is entirely new. With contributions from over 100 authors from around the globe, this book covers the most recent important research findings. It details all photosynthetic factors and processes under normal and stressful conditions, explores the relationship between photosynthesis and other plant physiological processes, and relates photosynthesis to plant production and crop yields. The third edition also presents an extensive new section on the molecular aspects of photosynthesis, focusing on photosystems, photosynthetic enzymes, and genes. New chapters on photosynthesis in lower
Photosynthesis/nutrient relationships of proximally growing forest and savanna trees were determined in an ecotonal region of Cameroon (Africa). Although area-based foliar N concentrations were typically lower for savanna trees, there was no difference in photosynthetic rates between the two vegetation formation types. Opposite to N, area-based P concentrations were-on average-slightly lower for forest trees; a dependency of photosynthetic characteristics on foliar P was only evident for savanna trees. Thus savanna trees use N more efficiently than their forest counterparts, but only in the presence of relatively high foliar P. Along with some other recent studies, these results suggest that both N and P are important modulators of woody tropical plant photosynthetic capacities, influencing photosynthetic metabolism in different ways that are also biome specific. Attempts to find simple unifying equations to describe woody tropical vegetation photosynthesis-nutrient relationships are likely to ...
LabBench Activity Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis. by Theresa Knapp Holtzclaw. Introduction. In photosynthesis, plant cells convert light energy into chemical.. Learn similarities and differences between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration and how they complement each other in a mutually beneficial relationship.. Paul Andersen explains how a respirometer can be used to measure the respiration rate in peas, germinating peas and the worm. KOH is used to solidify CO2 produced by.. Pearson, as an active contributor to the biology learning community, is pleased to provide free access to the Classic edition of The Biology Place to all educators.. Figure 1: Composite diel cycles show that photosynthesis and daytime. strong inhibition of aboveground respiration by light and sustained photosynthetic efficiency. We have thus far described only the period between the completion of.. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Elodea Background Concepts: Plants can carry out both photosynthesis and respiration ...
Essay On An Owl In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. 29/10/2010 Purdue OWL Engagement Welcome to effect of light intensity on photosynthesis experiment, the Purdue OWL This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue . ( When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. Contributors:Elyssa Tardiff, Allen Brizee. Summary: This resource describes why outlines are useful, what types of outlines exist, suggestions for developing effective outlines, and how outlines can be used as an provident malaysia invention strategy for writing. On Photosynthesis. Four Main Components for. 0 , Arabic numerals , Decimal 1163 Words , 5 Pages. Snowy Owls Snowy Owls 2012 Com156 12/9/2012 A snowy owl will live out the entire course of its life in Pressure and Agressive, the . open artic in most cases, while others will migrate out of the arctic tundra. They will hunt, eat, mate, reproduce, and on photosynthesis experiment, die where they reside.. The largest ...
C4 plants have evolved a special, energy-requiring pathway to create high, local concentrations of CO2 for the Calvin-Benson Cycle. C4 plants initially fix CO2 at low intracellular CO2 concentrations in mesophyll cells as 4-carbon compounds, using the energy from the hydrolysis of 1 ATP for each CO2 fixed. CO2 is then released in the bundle sheath cells where the Calvin-Benson Cycle reactions occur. The path of CO2 from air, to initial fixation in mesophyll cells, to release in bundle sheath cells and entry into the Calvin-Benson Cycle is shown in the following diagram: ...
We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring-a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H2S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H2S and irradiance; (iii) O2 production is inhibited by H2S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis ...
Developed by Chantier 7 project team members Instructional goals: Students will be able to: 1. They use it to produce carbohydrates , proteins, and fats. They can take in carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen into the air. Bowes G, Salvucci E. 1989. Aquatic Plants and Photosynthesis. Even though many other organisms are using the oxygen, there is an oxygen surplus. These types of aquatic plants do not require special adaptations to perform photosynthesis. Aquatic plants may take in carbon dioxide from the air or water, depending on whether their leaves float or are under water. This are the modifications and regulations which takes place in aquatic plants, that helps them to perform photosynthesis. Plants, including aquatic plants, produce oxygen, and they also use oxygen. Do aquatic plants produce their own food through photosynthesis? Cacti perform photosynthesis using adaptations to their environment, like crassulacean acid metabolism and sturdy green stems. Photosynthesis of Aquatic ...
To understand the effect of heat and drought on three major cereal crops, the physiological and biochemical (i.e., metabolic) factors affecting photosynthesis were examined in rice, wheat, and maize plants grown under long-term water deficit (WD), high temperature (HT) and the combination of both stresses (HT-WD). Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis prevailed under WD for the C3 species, rice and wheat. Conversely, biochemical limitations prevailed under WD for the C4 species, maize, under HT for all three species, and under HT-WD in rice and maize. These biochemical limitations to photosynthesis were associated with Rubisco activity that was highly impaired at HT and under HT-WD in the three species. Decreases in Rubisco activation were unrelated to the amount of Rubisco and Rubisco activase (Rca), but were probably caused by inhibition of Rca activity, as suggested by the mutual decrease and positive correlation between Rubisco activation state and the rate of electron transport. Decreased
Photosynthesis is the most fundamental process in plants because it provides raw material for growth and stores energy for later use in vital functions. In photosynthesis, the energy of solar radiation is converted into chemical form using atmospheric carbon dioxide and soil water. Meanwhile, oxygen is released into the air. The exchange of gases between the plant and the atmosphere happens via the stomata.. Photosynthesis of a tree canopy is driven by the total leaf area (LAI), photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) and CO2 concentration (i.e. photosynthesis usually increases with an increment in these - at least up to a point). Low air humidity (VPD), low air temperature and low soil moisture (REW) restrict photosynthesis. The individual effects are explained in detail in the article called How to model photosynthesis.. ...
Accurately quantifying the timing and magnitude of respiration and photosynthesis by high-latitude ecosystems is important for understanding how a warming climate influences global carbon cycling. Data-driven estimates of photosynthesis across Arctic regions often rely on satellite-derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI); we find that satellite observations of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provide a more direct proxy for photosynthesis. We model Alaskan tundra CO2 cycling (2012-2014) according to temperature and shortwave radiation and alternately input EVI or SIF to prescribe the annual seasonal cycle of photosynthesis. We find that EVI-based seasonality indicates spring green-up to occur 9 days prior to SIF-based estimates, and that SIF-based estimates agree with aircraft and tower measurements of CO2 . Adopting SIF, instead of EVI, for modeling the seasonal cycle of tundra photosynthesis can result in more accurate estimates of growing season duration and net carbon uptake by ...
Introduction. How does changing the temperature affect the rate of Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a necessary process which occurs in green plants, where the plant produces oxygen and makes food, taking place in the chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll. The chlorophyll absorbs the sunlight, and with that sunlight, water and carbon dioxide combine to make sugar and oxygen. The formula for this process is: 6CO2 + 6H2O , C6H1206 + 602 This process, photosynthesis, requires several important elements in order to occur. The factors which must be controlled are: temperature, light intensity, pH, light colour, H20, concentration of CO2 and amount of chlorophyll. When or if one of these factors is increased, the rate of photosynthesis will increase, though only to a certain point - the rate of photosynthesis though, could still increase, but not due to an increase in that same factor. In order for glucose to be made during photosynthesis, waters split into oxygen and hydrogen molecules. This is ...
The photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate, Hill reaction activity of seedlings and photosynthetic parameter, Pn-Ci curve and some source-sink metabolism-related enzyme activities, and substance content of flag leaves were measured by using two wheat near isogenic lines with significant differences in the photosynthetic rate of the 154 (high photosynthetic rate) and 212 (low photosynthetic rate) lines as materials. The results showed that the maximal carboxylation efficiency (Vcmax) and Hill reaction activity were higher in line 154 than that of line 212. The Pn in flag leaves of line 154 was significantly higher than that of line 212 during the anthesis to grain-filling stage. Higher leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity, grain sucrose synthase activity, and grain ADPG pyrophosphorylase activity ensured that the photosynthate of line 154 could be transported to grains and translated into starch in a timely and effective manner, which also contributed to the maintenance of its high ...
A multi-year research on the influence of donor-acceptor relations between photosynthetic and assimilate-consuming organs on regulation of plant photosynthesis has been summarized. Cause and effect relationships between chloroplast photochemical reactions, CO|sub|2|/sub| assimilation and oxygen photosynthetic metabolism, transport of sugars in the phloem, apoplastic invertase and leaf stomata activity have been established. A concept, according to which the regulation of photosynthesis at the level of an assimilate donor leaf with the change of illumination or export of products of photosynthesis is effectuated as follows, has been introduced. In case of deficiency of products of chloroplast photochemical reactions there occurs incomplete regeneration of resulting primary CO|sub|2|/sub| fixation products and rapid accumulation of oxygenated substances in cells, vacuoles and the apoplast of the leaf. Apoplastic fluid pH decrease activates the invertase and intensifies the sucrose splitting in the
Dec 28, 2020 - Ch 1: PHOTOSYNTHESIS - PowerPoint Presentation, Science, Class 7, CBSE Class 7 Notes , EduRev is made by best teachers of Class 7. Learn new and interesting things. View Photosynthesis PPTs online, safely and virus-free! These organelles contain a green-coloured pigment called chlorophyll, which is responsible for the characteristic green colouration of the leaves. 10 PHOTOSYNTHESIS.ppt. All life needs a constant input of energy This video is highly rated by Class 10 students and has been viewed 250 times. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Share yours for free! Besides green plants, other organisms that perform photosynthesis contain various other forms of chlorophyll such as chlorophyll-c1, chlorophyll-c2, chlorophyll-d and chlorophyll-f. At the cellular level, the photosynthesis process takes place in cell organelles called chloroplasts. Chlorophyll is a mixture of chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b. Note the presence of the thylakoid. The word photosynthesis is ...
Photosynthesis is the foundation of plant productivity. Increased photosynthesis will lead to increased CO2 fixation, and consequently higher carbohydrate production and an increased potential for a higher harvest index. However, photosynthesis is an extremely difficult trait for breeding due to its dynamic character as well its physiological and genetic complexity. Advanced developments in plant phenotyping now allow detailed and high-throughput (HTP) measurements of photosynthesis represented as ΦPSII (photosynthesis efficiency) and other growth parameters. Following HTP photosynthesis phenotyping, genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in our lab using natural population of 352 Arabidopsis accessions, that were grown under various abiotic stress conditions: low phosphate nutrition, low nitrate nutrition, fluctuations in temperature, and fluctuations in irradiance. Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified but so far they remained largely unexplored. In ...
Photosynthetic activities of the sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) were studied to find out its sensitivity to changes in ambient air temperature. The minimum ambient air temperature designed for the experiment was 25-29 °C, while the higher end was 29-33 °C. Several photosynthetic parameters were studied to support our analysis in sago photosynthetic activity, including diurnal leaf gas exchange, assimilation rate vs. CO2 concentration, leaf greenness, leaf chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rate vs. irradiance. We found that sago palm photosynthetic activity tends to be more sensitive to minimum than to maximum ambient air temperature. The plants exposed to higher air temperatures had dark green leaf color associated with higher rates of diurnal photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, and rubisco limited photosynthetic activity. They also exhibited higher trend in optimum irradiance absorption level. Consequently, maximum light energy dissipation occurred at higher temperatures.
Since virtually all other forms of life are directly or indirectly dependent on plants for food, photosynthesis is the basis for all life on earth. In order to read online Photosynthesis Bibliography textbook, you need to create a FREE account. The empirical equation representing the total process of photosynthesis for oxygen evolving organisms was then understood as: CO H O CH O O Light 2 2+ → +[ ]2 2 where [CH 2 O] represented a carbohydrate (e.g., glucose, a six-carbon sugar). __A__2. startxref n�3ܣ�k�Gݯz=��[=��=�B�0FX�+������t���G�,�}���/���Hh8�m�W�2p[����AiA��N�#8$X�?�A�KHI�{!7�. Advances in Photosynthesis - Fundamental Aspects. Regardless of politics or opinion, climate 2. how it is changing with our global climate, could hold the answers to many scientific The overall equation for photosynthesis is deceptively simple (eq 5.1). Photosynthesis can be summarized by the equation:CO 2 +2H 2 O → [CH 2 ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Light harvesting, excitation energy/electron transfer, and photoregulation in artificial photosynthetic systems. AU - Terazono, Yuichi. AU - Moore, Thomas A. AU - Moore, Ana L. AU - Gust, John Devens. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - This chapter summarizes recent research from our laboratory on multichromophoric molecules that perform as components of artificial photosynthetic systems. The basic scientific principles underlying the design of these molecules were drawn from natural photosynthetic energy conversion, but thematerials used to prepare them are synthetic. The systems consist of chromophores and electron and energy donors and acceptors that have been chemically linked to form artificial reaction centers and antennas, and to mimic some aspects of photosynthetic regulation and photoprotection. These chromophores include porphyrins, fullerenes, carotenoid polyenes, antenna moieties, and photochromic materials. We begin with an introduction to artificial photosynthesis ...
In both ecosystems, SIF was found to be more affected by environmental conditions than GPP. Annual cycles for GPP and SIF differed at the mixed forest due in part to the influence of the different footprint size of the two independent measurements. Diurnal cycles in GPP and SIF corresponded well under unstressed conditions and followed the incoming photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). However, depressions in SIF were found at both sites either at midday or in the afternoon during the growing season. At the cropland site, reductions in SIF occurred at high PPFD (PPFD , 1470 μmolm-2s-1, R2 = 0.62) and high VPD (VPD , 1590 Pa, R2 = 0.35). Whereas at the forest site, reductions in SIF were linked to high VPD (VPD , 1250 Pa, R2 = 0.25), but not to high PPFD (R2 = 0.84). The depression in SIF was also associated with an increase in non-photochemical quenching, as indicated by the photochemical reflectance index (R2 = 0.78), thus showing the complementarity between SIF and non-photochemical ...
C4 plants are more efficient at higher temperatures than C3 plants - WHY? Review Assignment - Photosynthesis Love Letters Irradiance Light saturation point - at this point, enzymes in the Calvin Cycle are completely saturated with substrates. Increasing irradiance wont increase rate of photosynthesis Light response curve Rate of Photosynthesis Oxygen - high oxygen levels = higher levels of photorespiration = lower levels of photosynthesis Sun Plants Vs. Shade Plants Shade plants - leaves are thinner, broader and greener (what makes them greener ...
In order to achieve a satisfactory level of biological literacy, it is fundamental that students develop the competence of providing complex causal explanations about biological phenomena, i.e., being able to explore multiple aspects of causes and effects and their interrelatedness. Previous research indicates that students from primary and lower secondary ... read more education causal reasoning is often based on simple linear levels of causation. These young students require special teaching and learning practices to aid them in developing the ability to reason causally about science subjects matter. In the present research, we investigated whether this is also the case considering pre-university biology students. Are upper-secondary students able to provide complex causal explanations about different biological phenomena? To answer this question, we chose a recently learned topic and a topic learned a few years ago, respectively: plants photosynthesis and flowering plants reproduction. ...
Some of these produce globules of sulfur as a waste product instead of oxygen, while others further oxidize it, producing sulfates. In general, photosynthesis requires a source of hydrogen with which to reduce carbon dioxide into carbohydrates. Van Neils proposal was confirmed 20 years later by using the O18 isotope of oxygen as a tracer label to follow the fate of oxygen atoms during photosynthesis.. Oxygen is not only a waste product of photosynthesis, it can even harm the photosynthetic process. This is because RubisCO, the primary CO2-fixing enzyme in most plants, also fixes oxygen, but this does not lead to useful sugar production. Rather, it results in the loss of both CO2 and nitrogen (in the form of ammonia, NH3) from the plant, in a process known as photorespiration. While some evidence indicates that photorespiration can help protect plants from damage due to very high light intensities, it is generally considered a wasteful process, in which as much as 50% of the plants fixed ...
Photosynthesis… there was something about it that stumped me as a teacher. It was important to me that my kids understood the big picture and that they were able to answer their questions, but teaching it didnt come naturally, because, well… photosynthesis. For you life science and bio teachers out there my BIGGEST piece of advice would be to focus on the big picture. Do not teach light reactions, followed by dark reactions. Teach them together, and then go back and fill in the details where you can.. Ive compiled 5 helpful tips for teaching photosynthesis:. 1. Photosynthesis can be a complex subject for students to learn. Scaffolding will provide optimal success: start off with the big picture and then work your way into the nooks and crannies.. 2. Students should be able to comprehend energy flow in photosynthesis, from sunlight to sugar, and everything in between. Use my Mouse Trap game analogy to help!. 3. Dark reactions and light reactions are dependent on each other through the ATP ...
Read Effect of knockout of α-carbonic anhydrase 4 gene on photosynthetic characteristics and starch accumulation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Mock, T. and Kroon, B. M. A. (2002): Photosynthetic energy conversion under extreme conditions: II The significance of lipids under light limited growth in Antarctic sea ice diatoms , Phytochemistry ...
High temperature and high light intensity is a common environment posing a great risk to organisms. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of sub-high temperature and high light stress (HH, 35°C, 1000 μmol∙m-2∙s-1) and recovery on the photosynthetic mechanism, photoinhibiton of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), and reactive oxygen (ROS) metabolism of tomato seedlings. The results showed that with prolonged stress time, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), Rubisco activity, maximal photochemistry efficiency (Fv/Fm), efficient quantum yield and electron transport of PSII [Y(II) and ETR(II)] and PSI [Y(I) and ETR(I)] decreased significantly whereas yield of non-regulated and regulated energy dissipation of PSII [Y(NO) and Y(NPQ)] increased sharply. The donor side limitation of PSI [Y(ND)] increased but the acceptor side limitation of PSI [Y(NA)] decreased. Content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were increased while activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase
A mechanistic leaf photosynthesis model was developed for C4 grasses based on a general simplified scheme of C4 plant carbon metabolism. In the model, the PEPcase-dependent C4-cycle was described in terms of CO2 concentration in the mesophyll space using Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the activity of PEPcase was related to the incident PAR to take account of the influence of light on the activity of C4-cycle processes. The CO2 refixation by Rubisco in the bundle sheath was described using a widely accepted C3 photosynthesis model. The model assumes a steady state balance among CO2 diffusion from surrounding atmosphere into the mesophyll space, CO2 transport into the bundle sheath by the C4-cycle, CO2 refixation by the C3-cycle in the bundle sheath, and CO2 leakage from the bundle sheath. The response to temperature of photosynthesis was incorporated via the temperature dependence of model parameters. The photosynthesis model was coupled with a stomatal conductance model in order to predict leaf ...
Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light into chemical energy. In green plants, light energy is captured by chlorophyll in the chloroplasts of the leaves and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds (simple and complex sugars) that are the basis of both plant and animal life. Photosynthesis consists of a number of photochemical and enzymatic reactions. Any acceleration in the process of photosynthesis will naturally result in the production of more organic compounds and consequently more plant growth. For this reason we want to do a research on factors affecting photosynthesis. ...
Although some of the steps in photosynthesis are still not completely understood, the overall photosynthetic equation has been known since the late 18th century. In the mid-1600s, Jan van Helmont laid the foundations of research on photosynthesis when he carefully measured the mass of the soil used by a plant and the mass of the plant as it grew. After noticing that the soil mass changed very little, he hypothesized that the mass of the growing plant must come from water, the only substance he added to the potted plant. His hypothesis was partially accurate: much of the gain in mass comes from carbon dioxide as well as water. However, van Helmont made the important discovery that the bulk of a plants biomass comes from the inputs of photosynthesis, not from the soil itself. In the 18th century, Joseph Priestley, a chemist and minister, discovered that oxygen is produced during photosynthesis. In a famous experiment, he isolated a volume of air under an inverted glass jar and burned a candle in ...
View Notes - Photosynthesis from BS 131 at University of the Sciences in Philadelphia. Photosynthesis A. Photosynthesis 1. 6CO2 + 12H2O light, Thylakoid C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Chlorophyll 2. Light a.
3. The two major sets of reactions involved in photosynthesis are A. Calvin cycle reactions and citric acid cycles. B. glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. C. light reactions and the electron transport chain. D. light reactions and Calvin cycle reactions.
In order to study the applicability of different light response models to the photoresponse curves of four species of Chamaenerion, four species of Chamaenerion collected from Serzilla were used as test materials. Four common photosynthetic models were used to fit the photosynthetic response curve of the leaves. The results show that: 1) The effect of different photosynthetic response models on photosynthetic response curve of the genus chromasia was different. The fitted value of the correction model of right angled hyperbola was closest to the measured value, the R2 was 0.998, and RE was 0.216. 2) In terms of fitting the photosynthetic parameters, the initial quantum efficiency, light compensation point and dark respiration rate were suitable for fitting with non-right angle hyperbolic model. In terms of fitting the photosynthetic parameters, the initial quantum efficiency, light compensation point and dark respiration rate were suitable for fitting with non-right angle hyperbolic model. 3) The
Asymmetrical effects of mesophyll conductance on fundamental photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from leaf gas exchange ...
How often have you ever heard that the phrase »photosynthesis » and wondered why what that term meant? Lots of men and women find it really tricky to comprehend exactly what photosynthesis is or how it worksout. It might be handy to really have an explanation of this approach.. You must first know the technical note »photosynthesis » and scientific vocabulary the moment it regards sciencefiction. One way to explain photosynthesis would be it is the practice of photosynthesis, which will be a means by and change these into food to the plant it is currently eating. All these nutrients, clearly, would be water and the co2 .. The carbon dioxide is absorbed by the plant from the air and carbonizes the nitrogen and phosphorous. The click here for info plant then uses much a lot more oxygen which is needed create blood glucose and to combine with the carbon dioxide to be produced by these 2 things. This sort of respiration occurs just about everywhere in the whole world. This is the reason why we ...
Simple Sustainable Process in Nature: Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae and bacteria to harness ghe energy of the sun and convert it into chemical energy. Photosynthetic processes can be of two types ; oxygenic photosynthesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis.During oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy reduces Carbon Dioxide and oxidizes water to…
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water - hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, light, and σύνθεσις ...
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The canopy net photosynthesis (Pn) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ev.Ambassador) was analyzed under controlled conditions simulating the winter glasshouse atmosphere. Prior to measurements the plants were grown in CO2-enriched air of 1000 μmol mol−1, at a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 280 μmol m2 s−1 (400-700 nm) and a day/night air temperature of 16/13 °C. Short-term changes in CO2 concentration significantly changed the initial gradient of the photosynthetic response to incident PPFD. Maximum photosynthetic efficiency of the crop increased from 0·041 mol CO2 mol photons−1 (equivalent to 8·2 μg CO2 J−1 and 9·4% on an energy basis) at 350 μmol mol−1 to 0·055 mol CO2 photons−1 (10·9 μg CO2 J−1 and 12·7% on an energy basis) at 1000 μmol mol−1. Transfer from low to high CO2 also lowered the light compensation point, but did not affect dark respiration. The large response of Pn to transient changes in CO2 indicated that the lettuce canopy did not ...
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By using the Photosynthesis Worksheet Answers that I provide, you will learn about photosynthesis and how it works. Part B. Download this printable PDF to hand out to your class and test their knowledge on the process of photosynthesis. PROCEDURE 1. It will categorically squander the time. Finding the Properties Of Water Worksheet Answers is easier than you think. The hard level covers structural vocabualry such as thylakoids, grana, and stroma. PDF Chapter 6 photosynthesis test answer key - the light reactions of photosynthesis is released. � � � ���� � � � 8. Such as whether you will be able to learn everything or not. photosynthesis whats in a leaf from Photosynthesis Worksheet Answers, source: ions worksheet answer key, Biology chapter 8 photosynthesis test answer key 9e (Marieb) Chapter 6 The Muscular System Short Answer Figure 6.1 Using. Pogil Activities For High School Biology Answer Key Cell Size. Acces PDF Photosynthesis Worksheet Answers ...
Photosynthetic organisms are able to sense energy imbalances brought about by the overexcitation of photosystem II (PSII) through the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, estimated as the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter 1-qL, also known as PSII excitation pressure. Plants employ a wide array of photoprotective processes that modulate photosynthesis to correct these energy imbalances. Low temperature and light are well established in their ability to modulate PSII excitation pressure. The acquisition of freezing tolerance requires growth and development a low temperature (cold acclimation) which predisposes the plant to photoinhibition. Thus, photosynthetic acclimation is essential for proper energy balancing during the cold acclimation process. Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) is an extremophile, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, but possessing much higher constitutive levels of tolerance to abiotic stress. This comparative study aimed to characterize the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Artificial photosynthesis. AU - Lewis, Nathan S. PY - 1995/11. Y1 - 1995/11. N2 - Photosynthesis is the primary source of energy for life on Earth. However, only three percent of the light energy that strikes a plant is actually stored as chemical fuel, due to the functional constraints on a plant. At present, scientists are investigating several approaches to developing artificial photosynthesis systems. In this article, some of the recent attempts at the development of photoelectrochemical cells that satisfy the natural constraints of the physical world, as well as the economic constraints of human society are reviewed.. AB - Photosynthesis is the primary source of energy for life on Earth. However, only three percent of the light energy that strikes a plant is actually stored as chemical fuel, due to the functional constraints on a plant. At present, scientists are investigating several approaches to developing artificial photosynthesis systems. In this article, some of the ...
ψw can be regarded as an indicator to effectively assess water status of plants (Lima et al., 2002). In the present study, ψw decreased with the degree and duration of drought stress treatments (Fig. 1). Gas exchange, which was PN, Gs and E decreased significantly and they were closely related to the degree and duration of drought stress (Fig. 2). These parameters were all found to have a strong relationship with ψw (Fig. 3). Besides the linear correlation between PN and ψw (Fig. 3A; Šimpraga et al., 2011; Sun et al., 2013), a simple positive regression correlation was also found between Gs or E and ψw (Fig. 3B,C). At the earlier stage of drought stress, the plummet in Gs suggests that a reduction in stomatal conductance can have protective effects because it allows the plant to save water and to improve its efficient use (Chaves et al., 2009). As some studies indicated before, the decrease in photosynthesis is usually caused by stomatal limitation under mild to moderate drought condition ...
Contents * sl {:toc} ## Idea Wikipedia defines it as: , **Photosynthesis** ( /foʊtoʊˈsɪnθəsɪs/; from the Greek φώτο- [photo-], light, and σύνθεσις [synthesis], putting together, composition) is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert the light energy captured from the sun into chemical energy that can be used to fuel the organisms activities. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of bacteria, but not in archaea. Photosynthetic organisms are called photoautotrophs, since they can create their own food. In plants, algae, and [[cyanobacteria]]. Composite image showing the global distribution of photosynthesis, including both oceanic phytoplankton and terrestrial vegetation: ![global photosynthesis]( ## References * [Photosynthesis](, Wikipedia. [[!redirects photosynthesis]] ...
The objective of studies was to compare the photosynthesis parameters of sweet pepper transplants under the emission of short-wavelength single-monochromatic solid-state lamps developed for supplementation of high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps used in winter time in greenhouses. Four types of solid-state lamps were made using advanced light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with peak emissions at blue 455, 470, cyan 505 and green 530 nm, and were installed in a greenhouse. The generated photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of each type of solid-state lamps was 15 μmol m-2 s-1 and of HPS lamps PPFD it was 100 μmol m-2 s-1. The transplants of sweet pepper cultivar Reda were grown in a greenhouse of phytotron complex under the illumination of HPS lamps and with supplementation of LED lamps. The reference transplants were grown under the illumination of HPS lamps (PPFD 110 μmol m-2 s-1). During transplant cultivation the photoperiod was maintained at 16 h, the day/night temperature was 19-23/15-18 °C. ...
Author(s): Shrestha, Arjina; Buckley, Thomas N; Lockhart, Erin L; Barbour, Margaret M | Abstract: . Mesophyll conductance (g m) has been shown to vary between genotypes of a number of species and with growth environments, including nitrogen availability, but understanding of g m variability in legumes is limited. We might expect g m in legumes to respond differently to limited nitrogen availability, due to their ability to fix atmospheric N2. Using online stable carbon isotope discrimination method, we quantified genetic variability in g m under ideal conditions, investigated g m response to N source (N2-fixation or inorganic N) and determined the effects of N source and water availability on the rapid response of g m to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and radiation wavelength in three genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Genotypes varied 2-fold in g m under non-limiting environments. N-fed plants had higher g m than N2-fixing plants in one genotype, while g m in the other two genotypes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sulfur starvation in rice. T2 - the effect on photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and oxidative stress protective pathways. AU - Lunde, Christina. AU - Zygadlo, Agnieszka. AU - Simonsen, Henrik Toft. AU - Nielsen, Per Lassen. AU - Blennow, Andreas. AU - Haldrup, Anna. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Sulfur-deficient plants generate a lower yield and have a reduced nutritional value. The process of sulfur acquisition and assimilation play an integral role in plant metabolism, and response to sulfur deficiency involves a large number of plant constituents. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the second most consumed cereal grain, and the effects of sulfur deprivation in rice were analyzed by measuring changes in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and antioxidants. The photosynthetic apparatus was severely affected under sulfur deficiency. The Chl content was reduced by 49% because of a general reduction of PSII and PSI and the associated light-harvesting antenna. The PSII efficiency was ...
Thus, in one aspect, the invention provides a method of cultivating photosynthetic microorganisms in a sealed photobioreactor to obtain a volatile product of photosynthesis generated by the microorganisms, the method comprising culturing a photosynthetic microorganism in a sealed photobioreactor, wherein the photobioreactor contains a lower aqueous phase comprising the photosynthetic microorganism, and an upper gaseous phase, wherein the upper gaseous phase has a CO.sub.2 concentration of at least 10%; introducing additional CO2 into the upper gaseous phase when the CO.sub.2 concentration drops below 10%; and collecting the volatile product that is sequestered into the gaseous phase and displaced by the additional CO.sub.2. In some embodiments, the photosynthetic microorganism is a recombinant organism that expresses at least one heterologous gene that produces the volatile hydrocarbon, such as isoprene. In some embodiments, the microorganism expresses an isoprene synthase gene. In some ...
The theme of the ePS-Young meeting broadly mirrors the main meeting:. Photosynthesis: physiology, structure and mechanisms.. Global photosynthesis: improving crops, forests and relationship between photosynthesis and climate. Solar fuels: Artificial photosynthesis, microbial photosynthetic products.. Two keynote lectures were given by Professor Ferdi Schüth, vice president of the Max-Planck-Society, and by Professor Michael R. Wasielewski, executive director of the Solar Fuels Institute at Northwestern University.. The meeting took place at the Ångström Laboratory in Uppsala. Oral presentations were selected from submitted abstracts. In order to provide more opportunities for young researchers to highlight their own science, there were also flash poster presentations (3 min each), followed immediately by poster sessions to encourage active discussions. An overview of the program is found in the PDF-file on this page. ...
Photosynthesis is a fundamental process that trees perform over fluctuating environmental conditions. This study of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) characterizes photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency in planted cultivars relative to wildtype trees. Red maple is common in cities, yet there is little understanding of how physiological processes affect the long-term growth, condition, and ecosystem services provided by urban trees. In the first year of our study, we measured leaf-level gas exchange and performed short-term temperature curves on urban planted cultivars and on suburban and rural wildtype trees. In the second year, we compared urban planted cultivars and urban wildtype trees. In the first year, urban planted trees had higher maximum rates of photosynthesis and higher overall rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance throughout the summer, relative to suburban or rural wildtype trees. Urban planted trees again had higher maximum rates of photosynthesis in the second
Photosynthesis (The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical…: Photosynthesis (The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH , The Calvin cycle uses ATP&NADPH to convert CO2 to sugar, Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food)
Plant scientists have observed that when levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere rise, most plants do something unusual. a doctoral student in biology. Scientists dont know why plants thicken.. The basic answer would be that they use photosynthesis to extract nutrients from the suns rays which they need to surviveâ ¦ I dont really know much about itâ ¦ look up photosynthesis on.. LAB 7 - Photosynthesis Introduction In order to survive, organisms require a source of energy and molecular building blocks to construct all of their biological molecules. The ultimate source of energy for almost all of life on Earth is the light that comes from the sun (see the box on the next page for an. And it wasnt just any kind of mud: It was samples from a hydrothermal vent field thousands of feet below the Atlantic.. Photosynthesis Quiz You got: % Correct. Getting Better Understanding Photosynthesis Yagi Studio / Getty Images Good work! You didnt get a perfect score on the quiz, but now you should ...
This review examines hypotheses addressing structural/functional changes occurring during the evolution of C4 Kranz anatomy from C3 species and the role of photorespiration in these processes.In this review, we examine how the specialized “Kranz†anatomy of C4 photosynthesis evolved from C3 ancestors. Kranz anatomy refers to the wreath-like structural traits that compartmentalize the biochemistry of C4 photosynthesis and enables the concentration of CO2 around Rubisco. A simplified version of Kranz anatomy is also present in the species that utilize C2 photosynthesis, where a photorespiratory glycine shuttle concentrates CO2 into an inner bundle-sheath-like compartment surrounding the vascular tissue. C2 Kranz is considered to be an intermediate stage in the evolutionary development of C4 Kranz, based on the intermediate branching position of C2 species in 14 evolutionary lineages of C4 photosynthesis. In the best-supported model of C4 evolution, Kranz anatomy in C2 species evolved ...
Further Information / Sources : Van Helmont concluded that the tree gained weight. Jan Baptista Van Helmont (1577?1644), a Flemish physician, chemist, and physicist who made an important early contribution to our understanding of photosynthesis. Von Helmont did not discover photosynthesis, but his famous experiment with the willow tree planted in a measured fixed amount of soil over several years gave a very. Why are they relevant to what we no know about photosynthesis. Van helmont photosynthesis Von Helmont did not discover photosynthesis, but his famous experiment with the willow tree planted in a measured fixed amount of soil over several years gave a very. Willows and Photosynthesis: Analyzing van Helmonts Classic Experiment Jean Baptista van Helmont (1577-1644) performed one of the classic experiments in. Jan Baptista Van Helmont (1577?1644), a Flemish physician, chemist, and physicist who made an important early contribution to our ...
While most oxygenic phototrophs harvest light only in the visible range (400-700 nm, VIS), anoxygenic phototrophs can harvest near infrared light (, 700 nm, NIR). To study interactions between the photosynthetic guilds we used microsensors to measure oxygen and gross oxygenic photosynthesis (gOP) in a hypersaline microbial mat under full (VIS + NIR) and VIS illumination. Under normal dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations (2 mM), volumetric rates of gOP were reduced up to 65% and areal rates by 16-31% at full compared with VIS illumination. This effect was enhanced (reduction up to 100% in volumetric, 50% in areal rates of gOP) when DIC was lowered to 1 mM, but diminished at 10 mM DIC or lowered pH. In conclusion, under full-light illumination anoxygenic phototrophs are able to reduce the activity of oxygenic phototrophs by efficiently competing for inorganic carbon within the highly oxygenated layer. Anoxygenic photosynthesis, calculated from the difference in gOP under full and VIS ...
Sub‐Saharan Africa is projected to see a 55% increase in food demand by 2035, where cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most planted crop and a major calorie source. Cassava yield has not increased significantly for 13 years. Improvement of genetic yield potential, the basis of the first Green Revolution, could be increased by improving photosynthetic efficiency. First, the factors limiting photosynthesis and their genetic variability within extant germplasm must be understood.. Biochemical and diffusive limitations to leaf photosynthetic CO2 uptake under steady‐state and fluctuating light in thirteen farm‐preferred and high‐yielding African cultivars were analyzed. A cassava leaf metabolic model was developed to quantify the value of overcoming limitations to leaf photosynthesis.. At steady‐state, in vivo Rubisco activity and mesophyll conductance accounted for 84% of the limitation whereas under non‐steady‐state conditions of shade to sun transition stomatal conductance was the ...
One of the great scientific challenges of the 21st Century is the development of a light-driven catalytic system that will convert carbon dioxide and water to fuel (hydrogen or hydrocarbon) and food ¿ ¿artificial photosynthesis¿. This research project aims to build and study light harvesting photosynthetic reaction centre mimics based on porphyrin arrays (artificial chlorophyll) and synthetic protein helices (maquettes), structurally simpler analogues of natural redox proteins. This will be the first stage in the development of artificial photosynthesis, the creation of an efficient light harvesting biomimetic material that could be used as a photocatalyst for splitting water, reducing carbon dioxide or driving solar cells ...
Natural photosynthesis provides a blueprint for a future technology that may deliver clean energy for a sustainable hydrogen and/or carbon based cycle. In natural photosynthesis various molecular components are properly assembled to accomplish light harvesting, charge separation and catalytic water splitting into hydrogen (NADH) and oxygen. Understanding the operating principles of the natural photosynthetic apparatus and designing artificial counterparts that accomplish the elemental steps of natural photosynthesis are therefore topics of considerable scientific interest [1,2]. In this lecture I will highlight recent achievements of my laboratory with regard to light harvesting and exciton transport in dye aggregates [3], symmetry-breaking charge separation in perylene bisimide cyclophanes [4] and photo-driven water oxidation by macrocycles bearing three ruthenium centers [5].. References:. ...
The proliferation of digital cameras co‐located with eddy covariance instrumentation provides new opportunities to better understand the relationship between canopy phenology and the seasonality of canopy photosynthesis. In this paper we analyze the abilities and limitations of canopy color metrics measured by digital repeat photography to track seasonal canopy development and photosynthesis, determine phenological transition dates, and estimate intra‐annual and interannual variability in canopy photosynthesis. We used 59 site‐years of camera imagery and net ecosystem exchange measurements from 17 towers spanning three plant functional types (deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, and grassland/crops) to derive color indices and estimate gross primary productivity (GPP). GPP was strongly correlated with greenness derived from camera imagery in all three plant functional types. Specifically, the beginning of the photosynthetic period in deciduous broadleaf forest and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of changes in water status and photosynthetic parameters in wild type and abscisic acid-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) exposed to sublethal and lethal salt stress. AU - Poór, Péter. AU - Borbély, Péter. AU - Czékus, Zalán. AU - Takács, Zoltán. AU - Ördög, Attila. AU - Popović, Boris. AU - Tari, I.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many salt stress-related processes of plants such as water balance, osmotic stress tolerance and photosynthesis. In this study we investigated the responses of wild type (WT) and the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) to sublethal and lethal salt stress elicited by 100 mM and 250 mM NaCl, respectively. Sitiens mutants displayed much higher decrease in water potential, stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation rate under high salinity, especially at lethal salt stress, than the WT. However, ABA deficiency ...
Gravity. 0. Learn the basics of how respiration helps animals and humans to survive. We will also learn about the chemical process, called Cellular Respiration that changes glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide, water, and energy (ATP) in the mitochondria of animal … Unit Test: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration (Review) DRAFT. 7th Grade Cellular Respiration And Photosynthesis Chart . Played 0 times. On the board I make a chart that shows photosynthesis and cellular respiration. If youre seeing this message, it means were having trouble loading external resources on our website. Teachers Lounge. Students will test their knowledge of these two processes. Students will test their knowledge of these two processes. Rags to Riches: Answer questions in a quest for fame and fortune. 10 minutes ago by. The total time allowed for this quiz is 35 minutes. Welcome. Learn. Cellular Respiration vs. Photosynthesis Notes (Google Slides) Photosynthesis Videos - Bill Nye - The Discovery of ...
Photosynthesis Worksheet Answer Key Best Of Synthesis and Respiration Model Worksheet Answer Key one of Chessmuseum Template Library - free resume template for word education on a resume example ideas, to explore this Photosynthesis Worksheet Answer Key Best Of Synthesis and Respiration Model Worksheet Answer Key idea you can browse by and . We hope your happy with this Photosynthesis Worksheet Answer Key Best Of Synthesis and Respiration Model Worksheet Answer Key idea. You can download and please share this Photosynthesis Worksheet Answer Key Best Of Synthesis and Respiration Model Worksheet Answer Key ideas to your friends and family via your social media account. Back to 50 Photosynthesis Worksheet Answer Key. ...
RIPE project aims to increase photosynthetic efficiency for sustainable yield increases.. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has received a five-year, $25-million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to improve the photosynthetic properties of key food crops, including rice and cassava. The project, titled RIPE - Realizing Increased Photosynthetic Efficiency, has the potential to benefit farmers around the world by increasing productivity of staple food crops. Illinois research will take place at the Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology (IGB), a state-of-the-art facility whose large shared laboratories accommodate multiple groups and encourage cross-discipline interaction.. This grant will be game changing, says Stephen Long, Project Director and Gutgsell Endowed Professor of Crop Sciences and Plant Biology at Illinois. This project represents a huge effort to determine and apply the mechanisms of photosynthesis that can contribute to the challenge of this ...
The degree of photoinhibition of photosynthesis was compared between vertical (leaf angle 80° from the horizontal) and horizontal (leaf angle 0°) winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) leaves subjected to midday strong light stress under field conditions.This was done by measuring the PSⅡ photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the apparent quantum yield (AQY).On a clear day with maximum light level above 1600 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 and maximum leaf temperature 37.6℃,the Fv/Fm and AQY of the horizontal leaves were much lower than those of the vertical leaves after exposure to midday strong light for 4 hours,showing a more severe photoinhibition developed in horizontal leaves.Since the differences in leaf water potential and leaf temperature were negligible between horizontal and vertical leaves,the light intensity was the only factor causing difference in the degree of photoinhibition.On clear days with maximum leaf temperature 34.5℃,no difference in the extent of photoinhibition was observed
Photosynthesis is a unique process that allows independent colonization of the land by plants and of the oceans by phytoplankton. Although the photosynthesis process is well understood in plants, we are still unlocking the mechanisms evolved by phytoplankton to achieve extremely efficient photosynthesis. Here, we combine biochemical, structural and in vivo physiological studies to unravel the structure of the plastid in diatoms, prominent marine eukaryotes. Biochemical and immunolocalization analyses reveal segregation of photosynthetic complexes in the loosely stacked thylakoid membranes typical of diatoms. Separation of photosystems within subdomains minimizes their physical contacts, as required for improved light utilization. Chloroplast 3D reconstruction and in vivo spectroscopy show that these subdomains are interconnected, ensuring fast equilibration of electron carriers for efficient optimum photosynthesis. Thus, diatoms and plants have converged towards a similar functional distribution ...
The aerial surface of plants, the phyllosphere, is colonized by numerous bacteria displaying diverse metabolic properties that enable their survival in this specific habitat. Recently, we reported on the presence of microbial rhodopsin harbouring bacteria on the top of leaf surfaces. Here, we report on the presence of additional bacterial populations capable of harvesting light as a means of supplementing their metabolic requirements. An analysis of six phyllosphere metagenomes revealed the presence of a diverse community of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, including the previously reported methylobacteria, as well as other known and unknown phototrophs. The presence of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria was also confirmed in situ by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The microscopic enumeration correlated with estimates based on metagenomic analyses, confirming both the presence and high abundance of these microorganisms in the phyllosphere. Our data suggest that the phyllosphere contains a ...
Cadmium is a potentially toxic heavy metal that hampers plant productivity by interfering with their photochemistry. Cd causes disturbances in a range of physiological processes of plants such as photosynthesis, water relations, ion metabolism and mineral uptake. Cd pronouncedly affects photosynthesis by alteration of its vital machinery in all aspects. Photosynthesis is a well organised and sequential process fundamental to all green plants and microorganisms which involves various components, including photosynthetic pigments and photosystems, the electron transport system and CO2 reduction pathways. Any damage at any level caused by Cd, critically affects overall photosynthetic capacity. Present review focuses on key effects of Cd on photosynthetic apparatus including chloroplast structure, photosynthetic pigments, Chl-protein complexes and photosystems resulting in overall decrease in efficiency of carbon assimilation pathway.
CO2 efflux from soil depends on the availability of organic substances respired by roots and microorganisms. Therefore, photosynthetic activity supplying carbohydrates from leaves to roots and rhizosphere is a key driver of soil CO2. This fact has been overlooked in most soil CO2 studies because temperature variations are highly correlated with solar radiation and mask the direct effect of photosynthesis on substrate availability in soil. This review highlights the importance of photosynthesis for rhizosphere processes and evaluates the time lag between carbon (C) assimilation and CO2 release from soil. Mechanisms and processes contributing to the lag were evaluated. We compared the advantages and shortcomings of four main approaches used to estimate this time lag: (1) interruption of assimilate flow from leaves into the roots and rhizosphere, and analysis of the decrease of CO2 efflux from soil, (2) time series analysis (TSA) of CO2 fluxes from soil and photosynthesis proxies, (3) analysis of ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Agnes Bolinska.. Historians and philosophers of science have long recognised that the generation of scientific knowledge is a social endeavour, and that traditional epistemologies, which focus on individual scientists, are unable to capture its dynamics. Historians have provided rich accounts of research groups and institutions, although more recently, epistemological questions have received less attention. Philosophers of science, on the other hand, have developed formalised models that are difficult to match with actual historical episodes. In this paper, I argue that an integrated HPS perspective helps to better understand the social epistemologies of scientific collectives.. I flesh out this claim by presenting episodes from the history of photosynthesis research in the late 19th to mid-20th century. In this period, photosynthesis became a subject of great interest for researchers from many different disciplines, while the underlying ...
inproceedings{41c8c41b-a2f5-4475-8be9-0341dfcd092f, abstract = {In northern Sweden, Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup dominates the ground layer vegetation in post fire successions by suppressing other plant species. Previous studies suggest that this negative effect by E. hermaphroditum may be explained, at least in part, by the release of phenolic compounds, particularly batatasin-III, from foliage to soil. In this pilot study, we evaluated the effect of batatasin-III on photosynthesis by applying the compound (0.1, 1.0, or 2.8 mM) directly to the transpiration stream of intact Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach) and Betula pendula L. (birch) leaves. Within the concentration range used, batatasin-III had a small, but significant, effect on photosynthesis. The strongest effect was found on CO2 assimilation, but there were also significant effects on respiration and on maximum quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv / Fm). In spinach leaves treated with 2.8 mM of batatasin-III, a 14 % decrease in ...
The N-use efficiency for photosynthesis was higher in a C4 plant, maize, than in a C3 plant, rice, including rbcS antisense rice with optimal ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) content for CO2-saturated photosynthesis, even when photosynthesis was measured under saturating CO2 conditions. The N cost for the C4 cycle enzymes in maize was not large, and the lower amount of Rubisco allowed a greater N investment in the thylakoid components. This greater content of the thylakoid components as well as the CO2 concentrating mechanism may support higher N-use efficiency for photosynthesis in maize.. ...
A University of Sheffield academic is part of a research team which has been awarded over €7 million to continue pioneering research into photosynthesis by the European Research Council (ERC).. Professor Neil Hunter, Krebs Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Sheffield, Professor Josef Komenda from the Institute of Microbiology at the Czech Academy of Sciences and Professor Dario Leister from the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, have been awarded an ERC Synergy Grant.. Photosynthesis is a fundamental process on Earth, harnessing the energy of sunlight to generate the oxygen we breathe and the food we eat. However, plants and other photosynthetic organisms absorb only a fraction of the available solar energy and incur further losses converting this energy into biomass.. The research funded with an ERC Synergy Grant, one of only 37 awarded in all subjects across Europe, will combine expertise in genetics, biochemistry and biophysics to design novel versions of photosynthesis. ...
Photosynthesis is most efficient at light wavelengths between 400 and 500 nanometers and 600 to 700 nanometers. The green pigment, chlorophyll, restricts the efficiency of photosynthesis....
Our laboratory studies the molecular strategies used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria to maximize their photosynthetic efficiency in an unpredictable and at times rapidly changing light environment. Photosystems are pigment-protein complexes that perform light harvesting and primary light-driven electron transport reactions of photosynthesis. Two spectrally and functionally distinct photosystems participate in the oxygen-evolving photosynthesis of plants, algae and cyanobactetia. Light quality gradients that favour one photosystem over the other initiate a remarkable acclimatory response known as the photosystem stoichiometry adjustment, wherein the relative abundance of the two photosystems is adjusted so as to correct the energy conversion at the rate-limiting photosystem. In this acclimatory response the photosynthetic electron transport provides a feedback regulatory signal that controls the expression of the nuclear-encoded photosystem II (PS II) antenna genes and the chloroplast-encoded ...
Photosynthesis is the process whereby biological systems convert sunlight into food and the source of all the fossil fuels we burn today. In a way it is the ultimate source of all energy supplies that we use. Glasgow scientists Professor Lee Cronin, Gardiner Chair of Chemistry, and Professor Mike Blatt, Regius Professor of Botany, will lead the UK efforts in two of four transatlantic research teams exploring ways to overcome limitations in photosynthesis which could then lead to ways of significantly increasing the yield of important crops for food production or sustainable bioenergy.. !ADVERTISEMENT!. Photosynthesis is a chemical process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of bacteria, but not in archaea. It is the source of energy for nearly all life on earth, either directly, through primary production, or indirectly, as the ultimate source of the energy in their food. ...
This technical book explores current and future applications of solar power as an unlimited source of energy that earth receives every day. Photosynthetic organisms have learned to utilize this abundant source of energy by converting it into high-energy biochemical compounds. Inspired by the efficient conversion of solar energy into an electron flow, attempts have been made to construct artificial photosynthetic systems capable of establishing a charge separation state for generating electricity or driving chemical reactions. Another important aspect of photosynthesis is the CO2 fixation and the production of high energy compounds. Photosynthesis can produce biomass using solar energy while reducing the CO2 level in air. Biomass can be converted into biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Under certain conditions, photosynthetic organisms can also produce hydrogen gas which is one of the cleanest sources of energy. ...
MICROBE Life Hydroponics Photosynthesis Plus Gal Microbe Life Hydroponics Photosynthesis Plus Gal (ML21228) Photosynthetic bacteria will promote photosynthesis in all plants, unlike endo and ecto fungi which only works on specific species. Use in addition to ALL nutrient and fertilizer programs for maximum yields! Not for sale in CA, LA, MS, OK, OR, SD, WI at this time. Manufacturers Product Information MSRP each $ 79.95 UPC 097121215550 Dimensions 4 x 10.7 x 7.5 Case Weight 36 Case Quantity 4 MICROBE Life Hydroponics: Photosynthesis Plus Gal [hf-ML21228] - Nutrients & Supplements - Gardening & Hydroponics Store -
The environment of the natural world in which plants live and have evolved and within which photosynthesis operates is one characterized by change. The time scales over which change occurs can range from seconds (or less) all the way to the geological scale. All of these changes are relevant for understanding plants and the vegetation they create. In this update review, we will focus on how photosynthesis responds to fluctuations in irradiance with time constants up to the range of tens of minutes.
The chemical equation for photosynthesis and cellular respiration how is the equation for photosynthesis explained quora talkchannels 10 cellular respiration is almost a mirror image of photosynthesis chemical equation 9 cellular respiration write the word equation mechanism of photosynthesis assignment help homework online print equation lesson for kids worksheet ...
Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria have the ability to transform light energy into biochemical amenable energy for their growth and motion. The collection of light and its transformation into chemical energy are mediated by the so-called photosynthetic apparatus. This complex system is composed of three multimeric transmembrane protein complexes: the light-harvesting (LH) complexes, the photochemical reaction center (RC), and the cytochrome bc 1 complex located in the intracytoplasmic membrane. Light collected by the peripheral LH complexes is transferred first to the LH1 complex, which absorbs at around 870 nm, and then to the RC, where a charge separation occurs. This initiates a cyclic electron transfer between the RC and cytochrome bc 1 via electron carrier proteins in the periplasmic space and quinone molecules in the membrane. This cyclic electron transfer is coupled to the translocation of protons and to the formation of a proton motive force across the inner membrane, ultimately used for ...
C4 photosynthesis is based on the division of labor between two distinct photosynthetically active cell types: mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. After conversion to HCO3−CO2 is initially fixed in mesophyll cells by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the form of either malate or Asp and then transported into bundle sheath cells. There CO2 is released, refixed by ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), and finally enters the Calvin-Benson cycle as it occurs in C3 plants. As a bifunctional enzyme, Rubisco is able to catalyze the carboxylation as well as the oxygenation of its substrate ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. The fixation of O2 leads to accumulation of phosphoglycolate, which is toxic for plant cells. To regenerate phosphoglycerate from phosphoglycolate, photorespiration is essential. However, this metabolic pathway leads to the loss of previously fixed CO2 and thus decreases the efficiency of photosynthesis. The high concentration of CO2 in the bundle sheath cells, caused ...
Under future climates, leaf temperature (T-l) will be higher and more variable. This will affect plant carbon (C) balance because photosynthesis and respiration both respond to short-term (subdaily) fluctuations in T-l and acclimate in the longer term (days to months). This study asks the question: To what extent can the potential and speed of photosynthetic acclimation buffer leaf C gain from rising and increasing variable T-l? We quantified how increases in the mean and variability of growth temperature affect leaf performance (mean net CO2 assimilation rates, A(net); its variability; and time under near-optimal photosynthetic conditions), as mediated by thermal acclimation. To this aim, the probability distribution of A(net) was obtained by combining a probabilistic description of short- and long-term changes in T-l with data on A(net) responses to these changes, encompassing 75 genera and 111 species, including both C3 and C4 species. Our results show that (a) expected increases in T-l ...
Seeing photosynthesis at the nanoscale: mapping physical properties of light-harvesting biomembranes by high-resolution microscopy and spectroscopy, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds
The use of plant activators offers an exciting new approach for the enhancement of growth and yield in crops and ornamental plants. During a previous study, the effect of a Lupinus albus L. seed suspension (SS), a novel plant activator, was tested on different crops. Field trials indicated that SS application could be linked to improved growth and yield of agricultural as well as horticultural crops. The aim of this study was thus to confirm the results of Van der Watt (2005) by studying the effects of SS on photosynthesis and gene expression in wheat. When applied to Thatcher + Lr34 wheat, chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements indicated that unstressed plants were not dramatically affected by SS application. However, when placed under water and heat stress, SS treatment improved the actual photosynthetic ability of the plants by reducing photo-inhibition as measured by heat loss as opposed to the control treatment. On molecular level, three different techniques were used to confirm the ...
Salinity is one of the main environmental stress for crops such as tomato which is widely spread in the Mediterranean region. It is now widely considered that in plant adaptation to salts, the time scale of the response is essential. During the initial phase of response to salinity, when the osmotic effect predominates, plant response to salts is regulated by hormones, and between them abscisic acid plays a crucial role. We showed that on tomato crops during the first phase (osmotic one) low CO2 conditioning treatment before photosynthetic response to carbon dioxide concentration (A-Ci curve) is not applicable because diffusional limitations to photosynthesis is not removed by low CO2 air concentration. Conditioning at low CO2 is not sufficient to remove diffusional limitation of photosynthesis in salt stressed tomatoes during osmotic phase.

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  • [2] [3] One way of using natural photosynthesis is for the production of a biofuel , which is an indirect process that suffers from low energy conversion efficiency (due to photosynthesis' own low efficiency in converting sunlight to biomass), the cost of harvesting and transporting the fuel, and conflicts due to the increasing need of land mass for food production. (
  • The fourth project aims to harness the excess light energy that reaches photosynthetic organisms but cannot be used due to bottlenecks in natural photosynthesis. (
  • In higher plants and certain bacterial systems, the initial steps of natural photosynthesis harness light energy with an efficiency of 95% or more - values that we can only aspire to with artificial photocells. (
  • Three representative pigment protein complexes involved in natural photosynthesis. (
  • This first session will discuss the fundamental processes in biological solar energy conversion (e.g., natural photosynthesis) and the possibilities to exploit in vivo systems for solar fuel synthesis. (
  • Many systems now claim to exceed natural photosynthesis not only in terms of solar energy conversion efficiency, but also in catalytic rate. (
  • Natural photosynthesis isn't all that efficient, so maybe researchers can augment plants with nanomaterials to give photosynthesis a little boost. (
  • New device offers distinct advantages over previous attempts to improve upon natural photosynthesis. (
  • Natural photosynthesis, depending how you calculate it, has an efficiency of about 0.6 percent. (
  • We design and study chemical systems whose reactivity is inspired by natural photosynthesis, in which green plants convert sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbohydrates. (
  • Natural photosynthesis is the process by which green plants uses energy from the sun as well as water in the soil and carbon dioxide in the air to make food in the form of energy-dense glucose - a form of sugar. (
  • The artificial process uses the same green light portion of the visible light spectrum used by plants during natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into fuel. (
  • This review emphasizes recent experimental observations of long-lasting quantum coherence in photosynthetic systems and the implications of quantum coherence in natural photosynthesis. (
  • This is called oxygenic photosynthesis and is by far the most common type of photosynthesis used by living organisms. (
  • Although there are some differences between oxygenic photosynthesis in plants , algae , and cyanobacteria , the overall process is quite similar in these organisms. (
  • principally, oxygenic photosynthesis, any process by which plants and algae convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and waste oxygen using solar energy. (
  • The study of this alternative photosystems will not only give insights into the evolution of the process but could also provide clues on the environmental conditions where oxygenic photosynthesis first arose billions of years ago in the early Earth. (
  • T.G. Laughlin, A.N. Bayne, J.F. Trempe, D.F. Savage, and K.M. Davies, "Structure of the complex I-like molecule NDH of oxygenic photosynthesis. (
  • Until recently, scientists thought Chl a was the only photopigment used in oxygenic photosynthesis. (
  • According to NASA postdoc Steve Mielke, lead author of a new study, "It was assumed that, due to the stringent energy requirements for splitting water molecules, longer wavelengths of light (which have lower energy) could not be used for oxygenic photosynthesis. (
  • That assumption changed in 1996 when Hideaki Miyashita and colleagues discovered a cyanobacterium named Acaryochloris marina that uses chlorophyll d (Chl d ) instead of Chl a to perform oxygenic photosynthesis with photons from visible light through to wavelengths up to 740 nm in the near-infrared (NIR). (
  • However, could A. marina be regularly unsuccessful in using the longer wavelength photons, and could its ability to use NIR be inefficient, at the edge of what the molecular mechanisms of oxygenic photosynthesis are able to handle? (
  • For the first time, the team showed that oxygenic photosynthesis can operate well at longer wavelengths! (
  • Nancy Kiang of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) explains, "Chl d extends the useful solar radiation for oxygenic photosynthesis by 18% - meaning life can use more wavelengths of light (i.e. more types of light-producing stars) to survive. (
  • one includes oxygenic photosynthesis, which is most common and demonstrated through plants, algae and cyanobacteria while the other one is an-oxygenic photosynthesis. (
  • Plants, algae and cyanobacteria use a chemical reaction known as photosynthesis to create the materials they need from what's around them. (
  • While plants, algae and cyanobacteria all use oxygen-based photosynthesis , there is also a version of the reaction called anoxygenic photosynthesis. (
  • Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of bacteria, but not in archaea. (
  • Professor Janet Allen, Director of Research at BBSRC, said: "Photosynthesis has evolved in plants, algae and some other bacteria and in each case the mechanism does the best possible job for the organism in question. (
  • By attempting to transfer parts from algae and bacteria into plants, the researchers hope to make the environment in the plants' cells around Rubisco richer in carbon dioxide which will allow photosynthesis to produce sugars more efficiently. (
  • Early work on artificial photosynthesis was driven by progress in the understanding of natural systems and attempts to exploit in living organisms (e.g., algae). (
  • Canadian-Iranian designer Roya Aghighi has created clothes made from algae that turn carbon dioxide into oxygen via photosynthesis , as a more sustainable alternative to fast fashion. (
  • London-based architecture office EcoLogicStudio harnesses photosynthesis in algae to remove air pollution with this living curtain, designed to rest over building facades. (
  • The findings dovetail with research by University of Toronto biophysicist Greg Scholes, who found coherence in the photosynthesis of a common marine algae . (
  • Professor Brian Cox sees photosynthesis in action, investigating a unique type of jellyfish that have evolved to carry algae within their bodies and feed off the glucose the plants create. (
  • Almost all life on Earth depends on food made by organisms that can perform photosynthesis, such as green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. (
  • Researchers have taken an important step towards enhancing photosynthesis by engineering plants with enzymes from blue-green algae that speed up the process of converting carbon dioxide into sugars. (
  • In green plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in specialized cellular compartments called chloroplasts . (
  • Algae are a very diverse group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms that account for almost 50% of the photosynthesis that takes place on Earth. (
  • Algae have a wide range of antenna pigments to harvest light energy for photosynthesis giving different types of algae their characteristic colour. (
  • The processes of photosynthesis in algae and higher plants are very similar. (
  • As school children we learned that plants (as well as algae and cyanobacteria) perform the all important biological "magic trick" known as photosynthesis, which helps generate the atmospheric oxygen we use in every breath. (
  • Plants, algae and cyanobacteria alter our planet in a way that only life can: they use photosynthesis to completely change the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. (
  • Photosynthesis by plants, algae, and some bacteria supports nearly all living things. (
  • Photosynthesis by plants, algae, and some bacteria supports nearly all living things by producing food from sunlight, and in the process these organisms release oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide. (
  • The researchers investigated photosynthesis in a marine Synechococcus, a form of photosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria (formerly blue-green algae). (
  • Photosynthesis is the process where plants, algae, and bacteria convert light energy into chemical energy. (
  • Photosynthesis is a biochemical process by which the energy of light is converted into chemical energy in plants , algae , and certain bacteria . (
  • Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration , can later be released to fuel the organism's metabolic activities. (
  • Sunlight energy enters living systems when plants and some other organisms absorb light in the process of photosynthesis. (
  • Discoveries in Photosynthesis presents a sweeping overview of the history of photosynthesis investigations, and detailed accounts of research progress in all aspects of the most complex bioenergetic process in living organisms. (
  • The radiation could damage simple organisms' DNA, and even shut off photosynthesis entirely for at least the 10 second duration of the flash. (
  • DOE plans to fund research into organisms that make fuel without photosynthesis. (
  • Photosynthesis is, for lack of a better explanation, how plants and some other organisms 'eat. (
  • Photosynthesis is the conversion of the energy of sunlight into chemical energy by living organisms. (
  • Although oxygen is, strictly defined, a waste product of photosynthesis reactions, the majority of organisms, including plants, utilize oxygen for cellular respiration. (
  • This breakthrough in metabolic evolution greatly increased the free energy supply to living organisms: today, more than 10 17 kcal of free energy is stored annually by photosynthesis on earth, which corresponds to the fixation of more than 10 10 tons of carbon into carbohydrates and other organic compounds. (
  • All green plants and some bacteria conduct photosynthesis for the build-up of biomass, which then is available to other organisms as food. (
  • Organisms that conduct photosynthesis meet their energy requirements through absorption and conversion of the light energy of the sun. (
  • Photosynthesis by these organisms turns sunlight into cellular energy with exceptional efficiency. (
  • In fact, the cyanobacteria is just as efficient or more so in storing energy as organisms that rely on Chl a for photosynthesis. (
  • This discovery represents a paradigm shift in our view of photosynthesis by organisms in the vast, nutrient-starved areas of the open ocean", says Joe Berry of the Carnegie Institution's Department of Global Ecology. (
  • Photosynthesis in plants produces the oxygen we breath, the bread and wine, the fuels and fibers that support our everyday lives. (
  • Photosynthesis is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. (
  • There are also many varieties of anoxygenic photosynthesis , used mostly by certain types of bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen. (
  • Photocatalytic water splitting converts water into hydrogen and oxygen, and is a major research topic of artificial photosynthesis. (
  • In plant photosynthesis, water molecules are photo-oxidized to release oxygen and protons. (
  • Photosynthesis involves the use of light energy to convert water (H20) and carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen (O2) and high energy sugars (e.g. (
  • This 3D-printed concept wheel by tyre manufacturer Goodyear uses living moss to absorb moisture from the road, before converting it into oxygen through photosynthesis. (
  • Photosynthesis is the most important bioenergetic innovation in the history of the biosphere and it engendered Earth's most marked environmental change: the rise of oxygen. (
  • It could also be funneled into a fuel-cell setup, which would effectively reverse the photosynthesis process, creating electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen into water. (
  • When plants are alive and healthy, they engage in photosynthesis, absorbing sunlight and carbon dioxide to produce food for the plant, and generating oxygen as a by-product. (
  • This interactive feature from the NOVA: Methuselah Tree Web site details the process of photosynthesis and its role in the oxygen/carbon dioxide cycle. (
  • However, there are some classes of bacteria that utilize a form of photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen (anoxygenic photosynthesis). (
  • In plants, photosynthesis uses light energy to power the oxidation of water (i.e., the removal of electrons), to produce molecular oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electrons. (
  • Oxygen production is used to measure the rate of photosynthesis. (
  • Determine which conditions are ideal for photosynthesis, and understand how limiting factors affect oxygen production. (
  • Some species of single celled cyanobacteria, through photosynthesis, forever changed the atmosphere of the early Earth by filling it with oxygen, allowing a huge expansion in terms of what life was possible on the planet. (
  • in the advanced online edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution , examined the evolution origins of the D1 protein in cyanobacteria, which forms the heart of Photosystem II, the oxygen-evolving machine of photosynthesis. (
  • Photosystem II's role is to procure electrons for photosynthesis and it does this by ripping them out of water releasing oxygen as a byproduct. (
  • Like real photosynthesis , it turns energy , carbon dioxide , and water into food and oxygen . (
  • Oxygen is released into the atmosphere as a by-product of photosynthesis. (
  • In photosynthesis carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose and oxygen in the presence of light. (
  • Splitting of water molecules, during photosynthesis results in liberation of oxygen. (
  • Liberation of oxygen during photosynthesis is demonstrated by using hydrilla plant. (
  • The uptake of carbon dioxide and the photosynthetic activities didn't match, so we knew that something other than carbon dioxide was being consumed by photosynthesis, and it turned out to be oxygen. (
  • During the reaction carbon dioxide, water is converted into glucose and oxygen as shown below: Figure 1 (photosynthesis uses light energy to convert carbon dioxide into a carbohydrate) (The Chemical Equation of Photosynthesis. (
  • In plants, photosynthesis takes place in structures within their cells called chloroplasts. (
  • Adding carbon nanotubes to chloroplasts can enhance photosynthesis by a measurable amount, but scaling this augmentation up might be tricky. (
  • Use DCPIP as an electron acceptor for the reducing agents produced by chloroplasts in the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis. (
  • In the Preliminary Activity, you will use a spectrophotometer to measure color changes in DPIP due to photosynthesis by chloroplasts. (
  • After completing the Preliminary Activity, you will first use reference sources to find out more about photosynthesis by chloroplasts before you choose and investigate a researchable question dealing with photosynthesis. (
  • The reactions of photosynthesis occur in cellular subcompartments called chloroplasts, which themselves are further compartmentalized by inner and outer membranes separated by an intermembrane space. (
  • The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis. (
  • We suggest that the evolution of methane-based photosynthesis is at least as likely as the evolution of anoxygenic photosynthesis on Earth and may support the evolution of complex life. (
  • Although photosynthesis is performed differently by different species, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called reaction centres that contain green chlorophyll pigments. (
  • Photosynthesis is initiated by the excitation, through incident light, of electrons in pigment molecules - chromophores - such as chlorophyll. (
  • Photosynthesis in plants is dependent upon capturing light energy in the pigment chlorophyll , and in particular chlorophyll a. (
  • Chlorophylla-a is the primary pigment for photosynthesis in plants, but the range of light absorption is extended by chlorophyll-b, beta-carotene and other accessory pigments. (
  • In order to carry out photosynthesis, plants must first obtain sunlight, water, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll through an endergonic process. (
  • Because plants take in solar energy, water, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll to begin the energy process, photosynthesis is considered endergonic. (
  • To perform photosynthesis, the chlorophyll in leaves absorbs sunlight-most of which is used to create food for the plants or is lost as heat. (
  • Because this reemitted light is only produced when the chlorophyll in plants is also absorbing sunlight for photosynthesis, SIF can be used as a way to determine a plant's photosynthetic activity and productivity. (
  • a plant that contains chlorophyll is not necessarily undergoing photosynthesis. (
  • On a deeper level, other factors like amount of chlorophyll, availability of nutrients (eg Mg is needed for chlorophyll synthesis) will also affect the rate of photosynthesis, though these are rarely covered in discussion of this topic. (
  • The weak but nevertheless detectable SIF signal emerges naturally on sunlight-exposed leaves, when chlorophyll molecules are excited by absorbed photons, and is a proxy for plant photosynthesis. (
  • OCO-2 advances photosynthesis observation from space via solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence", Science . (
  • The most important pigment of photosynthesis is CHLOROPHYLL. (
  • Chlorophyll is one of the pigment, which helps in the process of photosynthesis to prepare carbohydrate. (
  • Special issue of Philosophical Transactions B - Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement, organised and edited by Christine H Foyer, Alexander V Ruban and Peter Nixon. (
  • Photosynthesis research was further recognized by the Prize in Biology (1991) awarded by the Emperor of Japan to Hatch and Slack (for unraveling the C 4 pathway of carbon metabolism in sugarcane and other plants). (
  • Schematic of photosynthesis in plants. (
  • Ironically, photosynthesis is also behind many of the world's fossil fuels, which formed from decayed prehistoric plants and animals. (
  • Photosynthesis The process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and water into food via sunlight is called photosynthesis, which comes from the Latin words for 'formation in light. (
  • Plants are able to transform the light energy from the sun into chemical energy through a process called photosynthesis. (
  • Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants capture sunlight and convert its kinetic energy into chemical energy by manufacturing complex sugar molecules or carbohydrates. (
  • We know now that photosynthesis is the process plants use to grow, but Aristotle did not know that. (
  • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which c. (
  • Photosynthesis is the manufacture of carbohydrates in plants. (
  • Knowing how plants and bacteria harvest light for photosynthesis so efficiently could provide a clean solution to mankind's energy requirements. (
  • Nature has developed photosynthesis, but if we're going to rely more heavily on solar energy, we're going to need to improve on plants or come up with other ways to create and store solar energy. (
  • For land plants, water availability can function as a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth . (
  • Chlorophylla-a is the primary pigment for photosynthesis in plants. (
  • If you turn off photosynthesis for 10 seconds, that's no big deal,' Thomas said -- plants are used to not being able to produce for hours at a time at night. (
  • Photosynthesis is the process in green plants by which they create carbohydrates (and the sugar glucose) by absorbing carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil. (
  • The energy source for this process comes from sunlight, which allows the chloraphyll in the plants (what makes them green) to utilize sunlight to fuel photosynthesis. (
  • That temperature is considered the optimum for many plants, and photosynthesis will not increase no matter how the temperature does. (
  • Additionally, plants are naturally accustomed to periods of cooler temperature during the night, so these should also be simulated in order to achieve maximum photosynthesis. (
  • This session will explain and show how and why we measure photosynthesis activity in plants with lasers. (
  • Dr. Wim van Ieperen, Assistant Professor Plant Physiology (WUR) provides an explaination and demonstration of the influence of different colours in LED light on photosynthesis and subsequently on plants. (
  • In nature there are plants which show a much more efficient photosynthesis than agricultural crops. (
  • Photosynthesis led to two more singularities-plants and animals appeared. (
  • Watching plants perform photosynthesis from space sounds like a futuristic proposal, but a new application of data from NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite may enable scientists to do just that. (
  • But photosynthesis does more than keep plants alive. (
  • Kok, B. On the interrelation of respiration and photosynthesis in green plants. (
  • A lab reaction that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis found in plants that produce glucose from water and carbon dioxide. (
  • Photosynthesis is vital for the life of plants and for all animals on the planet. (
  • Compare the rates of photosynthesis for plants in different light conditions. (
  • Of course, we are much more familiar with the idea of photosynthesis in plants. (
  • Photosynthesis is an essential part of the exchange between humans and plants. (
  • The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. (
  • They allow us to look into relationships between SIF and the gross primary production (GPP) - the amount of carbon fixed by plants through photosynthesis - at scales never explored before. (
  • Photosynthesis is a process that creates energy for plants to consume for fuel, which classifies it as an anabolic process and thus renders it constructive. (
  • The main advantages of artificial photosynthesis are that it cannot "die" like plants do. (
  • Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants manufacture their own nutrition in their green leaves. (
  • Whatever may be the food item ( rice, pulses, vegetables, fruits, nuts etc.,) we use in food (which come from plants) is prepared by photosynthesis. (
  • During photosynthesis, plants emit what is called fluorescence - a form of light invisible to the naked eye but detectable by satellites orbiting hundreds of miles above Earth. (
  • The research group has previously used LCLS to perform structural analyses of isolated photosynthesis complexes from plants' photosystem II at room temperature. (
  • Two major research projects at Umeå University are focusing on the development of artificial photosynthesis by imitating plants' very successful way of exploiting solar energy. (
  • In 2018, the alarm photosynthesis process was exhibited in A. hybridus plants under controlled CO2 starvation conditions. (
  • Photosynthesis is a process by which plants take the energy of the sunlight and the molecules from carbon dioxcide and create nutrients, glucose for them selves. (
  • This experiment considers the photosynthesis of aquatic plants and how various concentrations of CO2 effect this process. (
  • Introduction: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and specific types of bacteria in order to make their own food source from sunlight to chemical energy. (
  • Read up on photosynthesis and find out what plants eat for lunch in this life science passage. (
  • Think of it as an artificial photosynthesis process similar to the way plants convert carbon dioxide (CO2) and sunlight into food. (
  • Methods To determine the rates of photosynthesis for the 5-week-old bean plant and the 5-week-old corn plant, the QUBIT Systems, Inc. apparatus was employed. (
  • Several minerals are required for healthy plant growth and for maximum rates of photosynthesis. (
  • The study of photosynthesis has attracted the attention of a legion of biologists, biochemists, chemists and physicists for over 200 years. (
  • This user-friendly book provides a range of classical and modern techniques for the study of photosynthesis in a manner accessible to a broad spectrum of researchers. (
  • To adequately carry out photosynthesis, sunlight is not the only necessary energy input. (
  • 2) Suggest TWO structural features which enable this organ to carry out photosynthesis more efficiently. (
  • as the temperature increases, the enzymes get more energy so the rate of photosynthesis increases. (
  • The rate of photosynthesis increases with the increase in the number of stomata. (
  • Aim: To find out how different light intensities affect the rate of photosynthesis in the elodea. (
  • What factors affect the rate of photosynthesis? (
  • Can pH affect the rate of Photosynthesis? (
  • yes, pH could affect the rate of photosynthesis as most enzyme reactions are pH sensitive. (
  • How does the leaf's thickness affect the rate of photosynthesis? (
  • Explain how this would affect the rate of photosynthesis of the plant. (
  • You need light, water, and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis to occur, so the amount of each of these that is available will affect the rate of photosynthesis. (
  • Photosynthesis is performed by enzymes, so anything that affects enzyme function will affect the rate of photosynthesis. (
  • How Do Variations on Light Intensity Affects the Rate of Photosynthesis in Elodea? (
  • Immobilise a culture of an alga such as Scenedesmus in alginate beads and measure the rate of photosynthesis by monitoring their effect on hydrogencarbonate indicator. (
  • By increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis, we can dramatically boost agricultural output and indeed reach the required double yield. (
  • The second phase of plant photosynthesis (also known as the Calvin-Benson cycle ) is a light-independent reaction that converts carbon dioxide into glucose (fuel). (
  • During photosynthesis, light energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy in the form of molecules such as ATP and glucose. (
  • The Analysis of Spinach Pigmentation During Photosynthesis University of Alabama I. Introduction: 'Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or ot. (
  • In photosynthesis, the sun's energy is converted to chemical energy and stored in glucose molecules. (
  • However, instead of producing glucose as the food, artificial photosynthesis would produce acetic acid , more commonly known as vinegar . (
  • Catered to the fifth-grade science curriculum, this photosynthesis fill-in-the-blank worksheet features an in-depth look at plant biology. (
  • The ATP and NADPH molecules power the second part of photosynthesis by the transfer of electrons. (
  • Discovered decades ago, a large protein complex called NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH) helps regulate the steps of photosynthesis where solar energy is captured and stored in two types of cellular energy molecules, ATP and NADPH. (
  • During normal photosynthesis, light energy splits water molecules. (
  • [4] The purpose of artificial photosynthesis is to produce a fuel from sunlight that can be stored conveniently and used when sunlight is not available, by using direct processes, that is, to produce a solar fuel . (
  • Artificial photosynthesis has worked remarkably disconnected from other fields that also rely on light-driven processes. (
  • In Photosynthesis Research Protocols, well-known researchers describe in step-by-step detail a broad range of basic and advanced biochemical techniques for isolating, treating, and analyzing the photosynthetic materials and processes. (
  • Photosynthesis is one of the most highly integrated and regulated metabolic processes to maximize the use of available light, to minimize the damaging effects of excess light and to optimize the use of limiting carbon and nitrogen resources. (
  • 2. These will be used to act out the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. (
  • The Artificial Photosynthesis group is a close collaboration involving five principal investigators whose expertise covers various aspects of chemical science and who pursue the common goal of advancing fundamental knowledge of processes leading to efficient conversion of sunlight to viable chemical fuels. (
  • Are the proteins and processes involved in photosynthesis in one anything like the other? (
  • Students use puzzle pieces representing the components of the equations for photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration and answer questions about these processes. (
  • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are distinct processes, as they take place through different sequences of chemical reactions and in different cellular compartments. (
  • Kristiina Visakorpi, a doctoral researcher in Oxford's Department of Zoology, sheds light on her work studying insect herbivores and the effect that they have on plant processes such as photosynthesis, their carbon emission levels and the potential long-term implications for the environment. (
  • How Does Temperature Affect Photosynthesis? (
  • The dynamic pace and progress in artificial photosynthesis research justify the timeliness of this meeting, as we are now at a decisive stage where some of the fundamental questions have been answered and applications are becoming a reality. (
  • This Faraday Discussion meeting will bring together scientists with a broad set of expertise who will share knowledge and aim to find consensus on priorities in future development of artificial photosynthesis research. (
  • The solid-state NMR dept. at Leiden University applies NMR methods for natural and artificial photosynthesis research. (
  • photosynthesis captures energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrate . (
  • The term, artificial photosynthesis, is commonly used to refer to any scheme for capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel (a solar fuel ). (
  • Photosynthesis is a chemical process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. (
  • To counteract entropy (energy that is not available for work) during photosynthesis, this energy from sunlight is necessary. (
  • Our findings show that this novel cycle occurs in two major ocean basins and suggest that a substantial amount of energy from sunlight gets re-routed away from carbon fixation during photosynthesis. (
  • Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O 2 , and fixes CO 2 into sugar. (
  • Unlike solar panels, which can only store energy if they are attached to a battery, the artificial photosynthesis device uses splits water to store solar energy as hydrogen fuel. (
  • With a combination of a x-ray free-electron laser and spectroscopy, the team has managed to see the electronic structure of a manganese complex, a chemical compound related to how photosynthesis splits water. (
  • Photosynthesis is the process whereby biological systems convert sunlight into food and the source of all the fossil fuels we burn today. (
  • Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the biological conversion of light energy into chemical energy. (
  • A startling discovery by scientists at the Carnegie Institution puts a new twist on photosynthesis, arguably the most important biological process on Earth. (
  • Two studies conducted by research scientists at the Carnegie Institution have enhanced our understanding of photosynthesis which is the most important biological process on Earth. (
  • Photosynthesis is a biological process. (
  • Prof. Shen will give his lecture at the 9th International Conference on Photosynthesis and Hydrogen Energy Research for Sustainability in Baku, Azebaijan (December 17-18, 2018). (
  • The first European Congress on Photosynthesis Research ePS-1 was held June 25-28, 2018, Uppsala Sweden. (
  • Photosynthesis from Light to Life: An ISPR Meeting in Conjunction with Plant Biology 18 was held from July 14 to July 20, 2018 (the ISPR specific component was from July 17 to July 20) in Montreal, Canada. (
  • ISPR Conference on Microbial Photosynthesis was held August 9-12, 2018, University of British Columbia campus, Vancouver, Canada. (
  • The First Asia-Oceania International Congress on Photosynthesis was held August 19-23, 2018 Beijing, China. (
  • Photosynthesis is one of the six themes at the Company Day on 27 September 2018. (
  • Photosynthesis is the process that converts energy in. (
  • Artificial photosynthesis is a process that converts solar energy into a renewable fuel, a so-called solar fuel. (
  • A team including Hanson and plant physiologist Martin Parry of Rothamsted Research in Harpenden, UK, shuttled bacterial Rubisco genes into the genome of the chloroplast - the cellular organelle where photosynthesis takes place - in the tobacco plant ( Nicotiana tabacum ), a common model organism for genetic-engineering research. (
  • Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast. (
  • Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast. (
  • Remember back to that high school biology class when you first saw the equation for photosynthesis. (
  • Equation for Photosynthesis? (
  • Study the effect of light on photosynthesis. (
  • One of the simplest forms of photosynthesis, termed cyclic photophosphorylation, is carried out by the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rpal). (
  • A wonderful collection of the most interesting articles on all aspects of photosynthesis. (
  • Scientists have utilised different algal species, including algal mutants, to study different aspects of photosynthesis. (
  • All the food we eat and all the fossil fuels we use are products of photosynthesis. (
  • The main component of photosynthesis is sunlight, which is carried through the plant by electrons. (
  • The team's structural model will let scientists explore the inner workings of this key component of photosynthesis. (
  • We describe the possible chemical routes for photosynthesis starting from methane and show that less energy and lower energy photons could drive CH[subscript 4]-based photosynthesis as compared with CO[subscript 2]-based photosynthesis. (
  • Critchley, C., Molecular Adaptation to Irradiance: The Dual Functionality of Photosystem II, Concepts in Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis , Singhal, G.S. et al . (
  • The chemical reaction the research group aims to understand is the splitting of water in photosystem II, as this understanding is also key for developing artificial photosynthesis- that is, for building devices for producing hydrogen from sunlight and water. (
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is working on an artificial photosynthesis process that could produce hydrogen as a fuel. (
  • Instead of emitting pure hydrogen in the photosynthesis process, the photoelectrochemical cell could generate methanol fuel (CH 3 OH). (
  • The new machine, which mimics the process of photosynthesis , is capable of producing hydrogen fuel at twice the efficiency of previous technologies. (
  • One of the most important areas in all of biology is the evolution of photosynthesis. (
  • You have experience in biomolecular/solid-state NMR or in biophysical techniques in photosynthesis, and a genuine interest to perform research on the intersection between physics, chemistry and biology. (
  • But the mind-bending mechanics seems to be present in many everyday phenomena - including photosynthesis, the driving force behind life's harvest of solar energy. (
  • Compared to several wild plant species, crop photosynthesis is not impressive: crops on average use only 1% of the received solar energy. (
  • If we can directly store solar energy as a chemical fuel, like what nature does with photosynthesis, we could solve a fundamental challenge of renewable energy," said lead researcher Zetian Mi . (
  • The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP) is the nation's largest research program dedicated to the development of an artificial solar-fuel generation technology. (
  • The way they conduct photosynthesis has been tinkered with so they convert sunlight and carbon dioxide more efficiently into carbohydrates. (
  • Because photosynthesis is at the heart of plant bioenergetics, fundamental to plant productivity and biomass, and a major factor in global climate, it is widely studied across the many fields it embraces. (
  • This increase in carbon dioxide directly increases plant photosynthesis, but the size of the increase depends on the species and physiological condition of the plant. (
  • a few hours or days later, however, the rate might fall to the original level because photosynthesis produced more sucrose than the rest of the plant could use. (
  • However, sink regulation of photosynthesis is highly dependent on the physiology of the rest of the plant. (
  • This physiological state regulates photosynthesis through signal transduction pathways that co-ordinate the plant carbon : nitrogen balance, which match photosynthetic capacity to growth and storage capacity and underpin and can override the direct short-term controls of photosynthesis by light and CO2. (
  • Photosynthate supply and phytohormones, particularly cytokinins, interact with nitrogen supply to control the expression of photosynthesis genes, the development of leaves and the whole plant nitrogen distribution, which provides the dominant basis for sink regulation of photosynthesis. (
  • Generally speaking, photosynthesis of a plant will increase with an increase in temperature. (
  • The amount of water is also important, since too little or too much may kill the plant or stunt photosynthesis. (
  • It's part of the regular plant-based photosynthesis. (
  • Because the FMO complex is used as a model system for plant photosynthesis, Engels' findings suggest that coherence is everywhere in the leafy green world. (
  • Dr. Jeremy Harbinson , Department of Plant Sciences of WUR, will continue with exploring the potential of photosynthesis. (
  • Study the effect that the boiling of plant cells has on photosynthesis. (
  • Although water is needed as a raw material for photosynthesis, if water is short, it will cause the plant t … o wilt (and thereby lose its ability to capture sunlight) long before it limits photosynthesis at the biochemical level. (
  • Do plant-feeding insects affect photosynthesis? (
  • Home News Science Blog Do plant-feeding insects affect photosynthesis? (
  • Photosynthesis takes place in plant leaves, and in some small part, in the stem. (
  • Photosynthesis, the conversion of light to energy in plant cells, requires sunlight to properly function. (
  • This biochemical appendance of the photosynthetic machinery is a means to alleviate the perpetual plant dilemma of using atmospheric CO2 for photosynthesis and losing water vapor, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis. (
  • The alarm photosynthesis process was first evidenced in pigweed Amaranthus hybridus plant in 2016 when A. hybridus leaves were exposed to drought conditions or exogenous application of abscisic acid. (
  • If the pH is too acidic or too basic, the rate at which photosynthesis occurs will decrease. (
  • There are a number of other factors besides temperature that can affect photosynthesis, though -- such as the amount of carbon dioxide in the air for instance, and what nutrients are in the soil. (
  • 2) calculate the actual amount of carbon dioxide used by this leaf in photosynthesis in the same period. (
  • This means that even a small amount of damage caused by caterpillars on an individual leaf, adds up to a huge amount of carbon not being assimilated through photosynthesis across the whole tree. (
  • Amanda Ooten walks us through the process of photosynthesis, also discussing the relationship between photosynthesis and carbohydrates, starch, and fiber -- and how the air we breathe is related to the food we ingest. (
  • Researchers of artificial photosynthesis are developing photocatalysts that are able to perform both of these reactions. (
  • Last year, RIPE researchers demonstrated for the first time that it was possible to improve crop yields in the field by engineering photosynthesis. (
  • University of Cincinnati researchers describe a method of getting photosynthesis from a high-surface-area foam containing enzymes that produce sugar using light and CO2 (abstract). (
  • The researchers from Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, found that gold nanoparticles work particularly well as a catalyst in artificial photosynthesis. (
  • New York, April 26 (IANS) Researchers have found a way to trigger a process similar to photosynthesis in a synthetic material, turning greenhouse gases into clean air and producing energy -- all at the same time. (
  • Photosynthesis is arguably the most important biochemical pathway, since nearly all life depends on it. (
  • However, alarm photosynthesis, in contrast to these pathways, operates as a biochemical pump that collects carbon from the organ interior (or from the soil) and not from the atmosphere. (
  • Algal photosynthesis account for almost half of the photosynthetic carbon fixed every year. (
  • Algal photosynthesis is thought to increase when key nutrients such as N, P and Fe are available. (
  • If algal photosynthesis increased more carbon dioxide might be removed from the environment. (
  • Photosynthetic biofuel production still is a promising alternative form of energy supply, and algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for energy applications. (
  • General scheme of algal photosynthesis showing the separation of the electron transport chain and the Calvin cycle. (
  • Anemaet I, Bekker M and Hellingwerf KJ (2010) Algal photosynthesis as the primary driver for a sustainable development in energy, feed, and food production. (
  • The rate of photosynthesis is altered by differing carbon dioxide levels and light intensity. (
  • Broken into four sections, it explores the measurement of physiological photosynthetic parameters, quantifying photosynthetic enzyme abundance and catalytic activity, visualizing cellular and sub-cellular phenotypes, and photosynthesis-inspired energy generation. (
  • In general outline, photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration: while photosynthesis is a process of reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate, cellular respiration is the oxidation of carbohydrate or other nutrients to carbon dioxide. (
  • J.H. Zeilstra-Ryalls, M. Gomelsky, A.A. Yeiliseev, J.M. Eraso, and S. Kaplan , Transcriptional Regulation of Photosynthesis Operons in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 241 . (
  • S. Rodermel , Use of Antisense Mutants to Study Regulation of Photosynthesis During Leaf Development. (
  • Included among the rate-limiting steps of the dark stage of photosynthesis are the chemical reactions by which organic compounds are formed by using carbon dioxide as a carbon source. (
  • Some factors affecting photosynthesis are:,,« enzymes work in are (35 degrees ¡V 40 degrees). (
  • We present a cell-free artificial photosynthesis platform that couples the requisite enzymes of the Calvin cycle with a nanoscale photophosphorylation system engineered into a foam architecture using the Tngara frog surfactant protein Ranaspumin-2. (
  • At low temperatures the enzymes responsible for photosynthesis have very little energy so the rate of photosynthesis is very slow. (
  • It provides the enzymes responsible for photosyenthesis more energy, thus increasing the rate of photosynthesis. (
  • The inner membrane's interior space, called the stroma, is filled with a fluid whose rich supply of enzymes supports light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis occurring inside stacks of membranous flattened sacs (thylakoids). (
  • The two most common electron carriers (the intermediaries which transform energy through photosynthesis into carbon dioxide) are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). (
  • Because they do not capture this effect, standard approaches 12 , 13 overestimate ecosystem photosynthesis and daytime respiration in the first half of the growing season at our site, and inaccurately portray ecosystem photosynthetic light-use efficiency. (
  • NDH plays multiple roles in photosynthesis, but the most important is to balance the ratio of ATP and NADPH made by photosynthesis for maximum efficiency of carbon dioxide uptake. (
  • Which frequencies and type of light aided and affected the efficiency of photosynthesis or carbon dioxide consumption in a spinach leaf? (
  • If the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, more carbon dioxide could enter through a smaller opening of the stomata, so more photosynthesis could occur with a given supply of water. (
  • Does Photosynthesis Occur at Night? (
  • Photosynthesis does not occur during the night. (
  • Can Photosynthesis Occur Without Sunlight? (
  • Does Photosynthesis Occur at N. (
  • When Does Photosynthesis Occur? (
  • What Is Needed for Photosynthesis to Occur? (
  • In order for photosynthesis to occur light must first be trapped. (
  • White light contains all colors of the visible light spectrum, so as expected, it enabled to photosynthesis to occur. (

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