The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.
A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive cold. In humans, a fall in skin temperature triggers gasping, hypertension, and hyperventilation.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES in the RHIZARIA group. They are small endoparasites of marine invertebrates. Spores are structurally complex but without polar filaments or tubes.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.
The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The functions and activities of living organisms that support life in single- or multi-cellular organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.
Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.

Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (1/1549)

This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics.  (+info)

The localisation of 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate and inhibition of Rubisco in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (2/1549)

A recent controversial report suggests that the nocturnal inhibitor of Rubisco, 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CAIP), does not bind to Rubisco in vivo and therefore that CA1P has no physiological relevance to photosynthetic regulation. It is now proved that a direct rapid assay can be used to distinguish between Rubisco-bound and free CA1P, as postulated in the controversial report. Application of this direct assay demonstrates that CA1P is bound to Rubisco in vivo in dark-adapted leaves. Furthermore, CA1P is shown to be in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. Thus, CA1P does play a physiological role in the regulation of Rubisco.  (+info)

Intrapreoptic microinjection of GHRH or its antagonist alters sleep in rats. (3/1549)

Previous reports indicate that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is involved in sleep regulation. The site of action mediating the nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS)-promoting effects of GHRH is not known, but it is independent from the pituitary. GHRH (0.001, 0. 01, and 0.1 nmol/kg) or a competitive antagonist of GHRH (0.003, 0.3, and 14 nmol/kg) was microinjected into the preoptic area, and the sleep-wake activity was recorded for 23 hr after injection in rats. GHRH elicited dose-dependent increases in the duration and in the intensity of NREMS compared with that in control records after intrapreoptic injection of physiological saline. The antagonist decreased the duration and intensity of NREMS and prolonged sleep latency. Consistent alterations in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and in brain temperature were not found. The GHRH antagonist also attenuated the enhancements in NREMS elicited by 3 hr of sleep deprivation. Histological verification of the injection sites showed that the majority of the effective injections were in the preoptic area and the diagonal band of Broca. The results indicate that the preoptic area mediates the sleep-promoting activity of GHRH.  (+info)

Hypoglycemia and torpor in Siberian hamsters. (4/1549)

We tested whether reduced blood glucose concentrations are necessary and sufficient for initiation of torpor in Siberian hamsters. During spontaneous torpor bouts, body temperature (Tb) decreases from the euthermic value of 37 to <31 degrees C. Among hamsters that displayed torpor during maintenance in a short-day length (10 h light/day) at an air temperature of 15 degrees C, blood glucose concentrations decreased significantly by 28% as Tb fell from 37 to <31 degrees C and increased during rewarming so that by the time Tb first was >36 degrees C, glucose concentrations had returned to the value preceding torpor. Hamsters did not display torpor when maintained in a long-day length (16 h light/day) and injected with a range of insulin doses (1-50 U/kg body mass), some of which resulted in sustained, pronounced hypoglycemia. We conclude that changes in blood glucose concentrations may be a consequence rather than a cause of the torpid state and question whether induction of torpor by 2-deoxy-D-glucose is due to its general glucoprivic actions.  (+info)

Phenotypic differences in the GnRH neuronal system of deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus under a natural short photoperiod. (5/1549)

The neural mechanisms by which short photoperiod induces gonadal regression among seasonally breeding mammals are not well understood. One hypothesis suggests that the proximate cause of seasonal gonadal regression is a photoperiod-induced modification in GnRH secretion. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by our recent findings using immunocytochemistry which identified specific photoperiod-induced adjustments in the number and morphology of GnRH containing neurones between reproductively competent and reproductively regressed laboratory housed male deer mice. Herein, we report that the GnRH neuronal system is similarly affected in reproductively responsive and nonresponsive wild male deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus exposed to a natural short photoperiod. The distribution of immunoreactive (IR)-GnRH neurones was nearly identical in field caught animals and those housed under artificial photoperiod in the laboratory. Compared with reproductively nonresponsive males, reproductively responsive mice from the field population possessed a greater total number of IR-GnRH neurones, a greater number of IR-GnRH neurones within the lateral hypothalamus, and a greater proportion of bipolar IR-GnRH neurones. Each of these distributional and morphological characters was consistent with our findings in laboratory housed male deer mice exposed to an artificial short photoperiod. Taken together, these data underscore the validity of using an artificial photoperiod to evaluate seasonal adjustments in reproductive function in the laboratory.  (+info)

Annual cycle in LH and testosterone release in response to GnRH challenge in male woodchucks (Marmota monax). (6/1549)

Testosterone and LH concentrations were determined in serum samples obtained before and 15 min after injections of GnRH (1 microgram kg-1) administered at 4-7 week intervals over 20 months to groups of male woodchucks (n = 6-7) born and maintained in Northern Hemisphere (boreal) versus Southern Hemisphere (austral) simulated natural photoperiods, beginning at 18-24 months of age. Nadir and peak unstimulated testosterone (0.1 +/- 0.01 and 7.0 +/- 0.1 ng ml-1, respectively) and LH (0.8 +/- 0.2 and 8.1 +/- 1.1 ng ml-1, respectively) concentrations did not differ in boreal versus austral males. In the five boreal and five austral males that were confirmed to be photoentrained, basal (pre-GnRH) concentrations of LH and testosterone were lowest in summer, increased simultaneously in late autumn or early winter, and declined in the spring. GnRH stimulated some LH release throughout the year except for a 1-4 month period in the summer. The initial annual increase in the LH response to GnRH occurred in early autumn, and in 17 of 20 cycles it occurred 1-2 months before the initial increase in basal LH was detected. In the three free-running males not entrained to the photoperiod, the endocrine patterns were similar but were advanced by several months. The results demonstrate that in woodchucks there is a late autumn increase in LH secretion associated with the onset of testicular recrudescence, and an early autumn increase in pituitary response to GnRH before a detectable increase in serum testosterone.  (+info)

Abnormal photoresponses and light-induced apoptosis in rods lacking rhodopsin kinase. (7/1549)

Phosphorylation is thought to be an essential first step in the prompt deactivation of photoexcited rhodopsin. In vitro, the phosphorylation can be catalyzed either by rhodopsin kinase (RK) or by protein kinase C (PKC). To investigate the specific role of RK, we inactivated both alleles of the RK gene in mice. This eliminated the light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin and caused the single-photon response to become larger and longer lasting than normal. These results demonstrate that RK is required for normal rhodopsin deactivation. When the photon responses of RK-/- rods did finally turn off, they did so abruptly and stochastically, revealing a first-order backup mechanism for rhodopsin deactivation. The rod outer segments of RK-/- mice raised in 12-hr cyclic illumination were 50% shorter than those of normal (RK+/+) rods or rods from RK-/- mice raised in constant darkness. One day of constant light caused the rods in the RK-/- mouse retina to undergo apoptotic degeneration. Mice lacking RK provide a valuable model for the study of Oguchi disease, a human RK deficiency that causes congenital stationary night blindness.  (+info)

Long-day up-regulation of a GAMYB gene during Lolium temulentum inflorescence formation. (8/1549)

Long-day exposure of the grass Lolium temulentum may regulate flowering via changes in gibberellin (GA) levels. Therefore, we have examined both GA levels and expression of a MYB transcription factor that is specific to the GA signal transduction pathway in monocots. This MYB gene from L. temulentum shows over 90% nucleotide identity with the barley and rice GAMYB genes, and, like them, gibberellic acid (GA3) up-regulates its expression in the seed. Furthermore, cDNAs of both the barley and L. temulentum GAMYB show the same simple patterns of hybridization with digests of L. temulentum genomic DNA. Compared with vegetative shoot apices of L. temulentum, the in situ mRNA expression of LtGAMYB does not change during the earliest steps of "floral" initiation at the apex. However, by 100 h (the double-ridge stage of flowering) its expression increased substantially and was highest in the terminal and lateral spikelet sites. Thereafter, expression declined overall but then increased within stamen primordia. Prior to increased LtGAMYB expression, long-day exposure sufficient to induce flowering led to increased (5- to 20-fold) levels of GA1 and GA4 in the leaf. Thus, increases first in GA level in the leaf followed by increased expression of LtGAMYB in the apex suggest important signaling and/or response roles in flowering.  (+info)

The transition of the apical meristem from vegetative to reproductive growth is a critical event in the life cycle of a plant. In rice, the timing of this transition affects the timing of heading. This timing, or heading date, is one of the critical traits considered for adapting rice to different cultivation areas and cropping seasons. Rice is a short-day (SD) plant; its heading is promoted by short photoperiods. The response of the plant to length of day (referred to as photoperiod sensitivity [PS]) and its basic vegetative growth determine the heading date of rice. Many genetic studies of heading date have been performed, and several genes controlling PS in rice have been genetically identified, including Se1 (Lm), Se3 to Se7, and E1 to E3 (Yokoo et al., 1980; Yamagata et al., 1986; Poonyarit et al., 1989; Sano, 1992; Yokoo and Okuno, 1993; Tsai, 1995; Kinoshita, 1998). However, only one gene involving photoperiod response in rice has been cloned, Se5 (Izawa et al., 2000). Little is known ...
Three pea (Pisum sativum) loci controlling photoperiod sensitivity, HIGH RESPONSE (HR), DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE), and STERILE NODES (SN), have recently been shown to correspond to orthologs of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) circadian clock genes EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), ELF4, and LUX ARRHYTHMO, respectively. A fourth pea locus, PHOTOPERIOD (PPD), also contributes to the photoperiod response in a similar manner to SN and DNE, and recessive ppd mutants on a spring-flowering hr mutant background show early, photoperiod-insensitive flowering. However, the molecular identity of PPD has so far remained elusive. Here, we show that the PPD locus also has a role in maintenance of diurnal and circadian gene expression rhythms and identify PPD as an ELF3 co-ortholog, termed ELF3b. Genetic interactions between pea ELF3 genes suggest that loss of PPD function does not affect flowering time in the presence of functional HR, whereas PPD can compensate only partially for the lack of HR. These results provide an ...
RIVERA LOZANO, María Teresa et al. Seasonal variation in ovulatory activity of nubian, alpine and nubian X criollo does under tropical photoperiod (22° N). Trop. subtrop. agroecosyt [online]. 2011, vol.14, n.3, pp.973-980. ISSN 1870-0462.. In the present study, seasonal variation in ovulatory activity of Nubian, Alpine and Criollo x Nubian goats in the semiarid region of central-northern Mexico (22° 14 N) was examined. The study was conducted under natural photoperiod and climate conditions during a whole year. Eight female goats per breed were grouped separately and exposed to visual, olfactory and audible signals of bucks. Blood samples were obtained twice per week and serum progesterone concentrations were determined. All goats presented a clear pattern of seasonal ovulatory activity based on serum progesterone profiles. Length of the ovulatory activity period did not differ between genotypes (P ,0.10), and had an average duration of 4.3 months. Nevertheless Criollo x Nubian goats ...
In Arabidopsis and other species, light and photoperiod signals are integrated at the level of FT expression. Late-flowering photoperiod pathway mutants in Arabidopsis such as gi, fkf1, and cry2 have reduced FT expression under LD conditions, whereas early-flowering mutants have increased FT expression. In pea, LATE1 is clearly necessary for induction of the FT homolog FTL (Fig. 5B), demonstrating that both the GI-FT regulatory interaction and the association between photoperiod-insensitive late flowering and low expression of FT homologs are conserved in pea. Our preliminary studies of other photoperiod response mutants, such as phyA and SD-grown wild-type plants, suggest that they also show altered FTL expression (V. Hecht and C. Knowles, unpublished data), in support of a role for FTL as a target of the photoperiod pathway.. In Arabidopsis and rice, effects of GI on FT expression are mediated at least in part through changes in the expression of CO genes (Suárez-López et al., 2001; Hayama ...
Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) are known for their plasticity in sex expression. DNA methylation status determines gene activity but is susceptible to environmental condition changes. Thus, DNA methylation-based epigenetic regulation may at least partially account for the instability of cucumber sex expression. Do temperature and photoperiod that are the two most important environmental factors have equal effect on cucumber sex expression by similar epigenetic regulation mechanism? To answer this question, we did a two-factor experiment of temperature and photoperiod and generated methylome and transcriptome data from cucumber shoot apices. The seasonal change in the femaleness of a cucumber core germplasm collection was investigated over five consecutive years. As a result, 71.3% of the 359 cucumber accessions significantly decreased their femaleness in early autumn when compared with spring. High temperature and long-day photoperiod treatments, which mimic early autumn conditions, are both unfavorable
Many plants are photoperiod sensitive and can measure day length changes to forecast the change in seasons and react accordingly. As a result, photoperiod sensitive plants will synchronize flowering time as a result of changes in day length, and the degree of sensitivity may change at different points in the developmental life cycle of the plant.. Many domesticated plants have lost their photoperiod sensitivity during the domestication process with a focused breeding effort giving farmers predictable plant life cycles they can rely on to ensure multiple harvests and consistent flowering times for a population. During recent domestication, and breeding steps, mutations in the genes that encoded the light sensing mechanism were introduced or incorporated as a result of crossbreeding with natural occurring autoflowering plants within the same species that eliminate the photoperiod sensitivity resulting in photoperiod insensitive plant.. Today, cannabis and hemp are being actively bred for ...
Seasonal timing is important for many critical life history events of vertebrates, and photoperiod is often used as a reliable seasonal cue. In mammals and birds, it has been established that a photoperiod-driven seasonal clock resides in the brain and pituitary, and is driven by increased levels of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and brain type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2), which leads to local increases in triiodothyronine (T3). In order to determine if a similar mechanism occurs in fish, we conducted photoperiod manipulations in anadromous (migratory) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that use photoperiod to time the preparatory development of salinity tolerance which accompanies downstream migration in spring. Changing daylength from short days (light:dark (LD) 10:14) to long days (LD 16:8) for 20 days increased gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, gill NKAα1b abundance and plasma growth hormone (GH) levels that normally accompany increased...
Although there is much theoretical and empirical data about the life history responses of time constrained organisms, little is known about the latitude compensating mechanism that enables northern populations developmental rates to compensate for latitude. To investigate the importance of photoperiod on development and growth, I collected adults and raised the offspring of the obligatory univoltine damselfly Lestes sponsa from two populations at different latitudes (53º N and 63º N). The offspring were raised in a common laboratory environment at 21º C and at the two photoperiods corresponding to the sites of collection. Field data showed that adult and egg sizes decreased towards the higher latitude. This adult size difference was a genetically fixed trait since the same size difference between populations was also found when larvae where reared in the laboratory. All studied individuals expressed shorter development time and faster growth rates under northern photoperiod regimes. Northern ...
The photoperiodic response in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the precise regulation of CONSTANS (CO) expression in relation to the light period during the day. In short days (SDs) levels of CO expression are normally low during the light period, and this results in delayed flowering compared with long days (LDs) when CO expression rises to high levels before the end of the light period. We identified a novel flowering time gene called DAY NEUTRAL FLOWERING (DNF) that acts in the same flowering pathway as CO. DNF is a membrane-bound E3 ligase that represses CO expression and plays an important role in maintaining low levels of CO expression in SDs. The effect of DNF on the rhythm of CO expression is essential for the photoperiodic response of Arabidopsis, enabling it to have a different flowering response in LDs and SDs.. ...
For a detailed description of how the model calculates and predicts crop stages as well as the parameter values used in this decision tool see Archontoulis et al. (2014). Briefly, the APSIM-soybean model (Robertson et al., 2002; Keating et al., 2003) divides the soybean crop cycle into seven major phases and uses a thermal time methodology modified by photoperiod to define growth phase targets. Air temperature and photoperiod (length of daylight) are the main drivers of soybean phenology. Calculation of thermal time in the model uses a 3-hour interpolation method and a specified temperature/thermal time relationship. The base temperature for development is 50۶ (10۳), the optimum is 86۶ (30۳) and the maximum is 104۶ (40۳). These parameters are generic for all cultivars. In contrast, the parameters describing photoperiod effects (critical [12.5-14.5 hours] and photoperiod sensitivity [0.15-0.30 hour-1]) are cultivar specific. The longer the maturity group, the more sensitive to photoperiod ...
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Reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod insensitivity (Ppd) allele associations with establishment and early growth of wheat in contrasting production systems ...
Effects of reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod insensitivity (Ppd) alleles on yield of wheat in contrasting production systems ...
A long-day plant is a plant that only flowers after being exposed to sun light for more than necessary. This is a photo of lettuce. Lettuce is a type of long-day plant.
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The plant flowering process represents the transition from vegetative to productive growth, and is controlled by complicated innergenetic regulation and the external environment. Flowering is closely related to the heading date and maturity crops, and has been studied for hundreds of years [1]. Currently, studies on Arabidopsis thaliana have revealed five pathways, the vernalization, photoperiod, gibberellin, autonomous, and endogenous pathways [1]. Initially, it was discovered that day length, namely photoperiod, could be perceived by higher plants and impacted their flowering. Over these years, different models have been put forward to explain the relationship between flowering and photoperiod [2,3]. Recently, a growing number of genes have been characterized as effectors of the natural condition or internal regulatory network, which has enhanced our knowledge of the regulators mediating the flowering pathway and plant circadian clock.. In the study of A. thaliana, a long-day model plant, ...
Red firespike (Odontonema strictum) is a tropical flowering plant that was selected as a potential flowering potted plant for its attractive red floral spikes. The objective of this study was to evaluate how light intensity, photoperiod, and temperature affect the growth and flowering of firespike. In Experiment 1, plants were grown under 0%, 45%, or 65% shade and two photoperiod conditions; long-day (LD = ≥14 h) and short-day (SD = 9 h), for 16 weeks. Plants grown under 45% shade + LD were tallest at 35.9 cm, while plants grown under 65% shade + SD were shortest at 22.8 cm. During the finishing stage, the number of inflorescences increased when plants were grown under 45% shade + SD, 45% shade + LD, and no shade, with 6, 7, and 9 inflorescences, respectively. In addition, the first open flower was observed in the 0% shade group (control) 92 days after starting the experiment. The time to first open flower increased when the plants were grown under 65% shade, either under SD or LD. In Experiment 2,
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Reduced height 8 (Rht8) is the main alternative to the GA-insensitive Rht alleles in hot and dry environments where it reduces plant height without yield penalty. The potential of Rht8 in northern-European wheat breeding remains unclear, since the close linkage with the photoperiod-insensitive allele Ppd-D1a is unfavourable in the relatively cool summers. In the present study, two near-isogenic lines (NILs) contrasting for the Rht8/tall allele from Mara in a UK-adapted and photoperiod-sensitive wheat variety were evaluated in trials with varying nitrogen fertiliser (N) treatments and water regimes across sites in the UK and Spain.. The Rht8 introgression was associated with a robust height reduction of 11% regardless of N treatment and water regime and the Rht8 NIL was more resistant to root-lodging at agronomically-relevant N levels than the tall NIL. In the UK with reduced solar radiation over the growing season than the site in Spain, the Rht8 NIL showed a 10% yield penalty at standard ...
Mate Preference of Female Blue Tits Varies with Experimental Photoperiod. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Dear Netters, Thank you for the wonderful response (I had over 10). This is a summary and conclusion of the response plus my investigation of most of the references. To start with I must clarify my objectives a little better than I did in my first message. I am a physiologist interested in characterizing growth responses to different environmental stresses. Since Arabidopsis is so small I was looking for conditions that would optimize growth conditions to produce the greatest amount of leaf biomass for analyses. (I think there might be a few people out there who might also be interested in this). I have found that growing plants hydroponically is by far the best way to get big plants (no root restriction, well-watered all the time, ample nutrient supply). We are also interested in delaying flowering to get larger plants. We are using both the Columbia and Ler ecotypes (hence my interest in photoperiod). Shorter days delay flowering in our two ecotypes and produce much larger plants before ...
In humans, changes in day length, shift-work or trans-meridian travel lead to deficits in mood and cognitive functions. Previously, these deficits were thought to arise exclusively from sleep deprivation and/or disruptions in circadian rhythms. Work from Dr. Samer Hattars laboratory has recently shown that light can directly affect mood and learning, even in the context of normal sleep and functional circadian activity. The goal of our project is to determine the retinal and brain circuits that underlie the effects of an aberrant light schedule on mood and cognitive functions, by employing a combination of anatomical, functional, and behavioral approaches. We will evaluate the effects of social and sensory stimulations as possible therapies to prevent the mood and learning deficits induced in mice exposed to aberrant light schedules. Results obtained from this work will uncover the connectivity and functions of new retinal-brain circuits that are required for regulating mood and cognitive ...
In humans, changes in day length, shift-work or trans-meridian travel lead to deficits in mood and cognitive functions. Previously, these deficits were thought to arise exclusively from sleep deprivation and/or disruptions in circadian rhythms. Work from Dr. Samer Hattars laboratory has recently shown that light can directly affect mood and learning, even in the context of normal sleep and functional circadian activity. The goal of our project is to determine the retinal and brain circuits that underlie the effects of an aberrant light schedule on mood and cognitive functions, by employing a combination of anatomical, functional, and behavioral approaches. We will evaluate the effects of social and sensory stimulations as possible therapies to prevent the mood and learning deficits induced in mice exposed to aberrant light schedules. Results obtained from this work will uncover the connectivity and functions of new retinal-brain circuits that are required for regulating mood and cognitive ...
The most dramatic phase change that flowering plants undergo is the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. For this transition to be successful, plants must integrate a variety of environmental signals with endogenous cues, such as plant age (Bernier, 1988).. In the facultative long-day plant Arabidopsis, the transition to reproductive growth occurs rapidly in long days but much more slowly in short days. Several flowering-time mutants, in which the timing of this transition is changed, have been isolated. Analysis of the responses of different mutants to the environment together with studies of their genetic interactions have resulted in a two-pathway model showing how the transition to flowering is regulated (Martínez-Zapater et al., 1994; Weigel, 1995; Peeters and Koornneef, 1996). According to this model, long days induce flowering via a facultative and fast pathway, whereas under noninductive photoperiods, an autonomous and much slower pathway is rate limiting. The latter ...
Read OsPhyA modulates rice flowering time mainly through OsGI under short days and Ghd7 under long days in the absence of phytochrome B, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A happy summer solstice to everyone. Im loving the longer days, especially how it allows me to be out in the garden till seven pm or later. More time to plant, fertilize, work on planting beds. And of course photograph the bounty of plants now in bloom. Theres still a wealth of flowers, from shrubs, new perennials, the last of the spring annuals, bulbs, vines (especially vines) and succulents. When you have 500 different species/varieties in your garden, theres always going to be something in bloom. Here are some, shot today, descriptions are top to bottom ...
Plants sense changes in day length (= photoperiod) as a reliable seasonal cue to regulate important developmental transitions such as flowering.
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The Umea Plant Centre scientists also looked at the genetics that signal fall growth cessation and bud set in trees. They discovered that CO accumulates in response to long days and initiates the formation of FT, and in the short days of fall, the pattern of CO accumulation changes so that FT is not activated. They also observed that the same species of tree at different latitudes would respond to local conditions in order to become dormant before the risk of frost damage. Because the short day-lengths occurring in fall induce bud set, the scientists wondered if FT and CO also controlled this process. When they grew trees originating from different latitudes in Europe in a growth chamber, the Umea Plant Centre team observed that this response was under strong genetic control and was maintained when trees were moved. However, they did observe that levels of CO and FT genes could be made to respond to artificially imposed day-length. Most importantly, they observed that under the same day-length, ...
Lookig over your specs it looks like you have a ton of light. What is your photoperiod set at? Just recently I cut my photoperiod down from 10 hours a day...
Get an answer for What are the major themes of Long Days Journey into Night? and find homework help for other Long Days Journey into Night questions at eNotes
Most organisms use daily light/dark cycles as timing cues to control many essential physiological processes. In plants, growth rates of the embryonic stem (hypocotyl) are maximal at different times of day, depending on external photoperiod and the internal circadian clock. However, the interactions …
Could you be more obvious about your desperation for attention and recognition please? Also, I dont see how calling Larry a math illiterate helps your case. You want scientists attention, work the science and stop trolling on useless discussions about misapplied math where it does not correspond. Your comments and your links to your scientific proposals have no relationship whatsoever. Your accusations of libel are also misplaced and useless to your apparent cause, which, in those links, seems to be a cause for some kind of new way of thinking about some problems as opposed to some other kind of thinking, where I detect a veiled straw-man you seem to be fighting against, which also deters from your point if you have any. The ad hominem is all yours. Giving you some well-deserved insults is not ad hominem, nor is it libel (you have no idea what a dictionary is, do you?). Also, I am not Larry. If you have something to tell me do so, and address me directly. Stop acting as if you had some kind ...
Welcome, John. The thing about the yellow ladybirds is their size - about the same as a match-head. I got a pair in cop yesterday, so that pic will be up later. ...
I bought a PuddleJumper from Aldi last week for $10. The last time we went swimming Jackson held onto an adult or sat on the edge the entire time, even though he had arm floaties and a tube float I was so proud of Jackson for actually swimming with the Puddle Jumper. This is the first time hes ever kicked and paddled simultaneously ...
The CONSTANS (CO) and CO-like gene family from cowpea. GSRs encoding the conserved DNA binding domains of CONSTANS (CO) and CO-like TFs were identified and asse
Long Day by Incarnate Nutrition, a intra-workout supplement, shares at least 75% of its ingredient profile with Longer Day by Incarnate Nutrition, a intra-workout supplement.
Lights are back on timer, so i have to keep up with turning on co2 12:00pm to 6:00pm photoperiod, i dial almost same timing for co2 on/off trinkle...
Quite a few websites state that you should keep your dog inside from dusk to dawn. Does anyone actually do this? We have researched getting the Scalibor...
My sweetheart is in the hospital. God-willing the doctors will be able to figure out whats wrong. I was sitting here listening to my iPod when this song came on...tonight, I dedicate it to my beloved. Lady Antebellum and Jim Brickman, Never Alone
The only problem we had is, I mentioned to his MA and to the doc himself about her hip. Since it was the first visit, there was a lot of medical history to get through. By the end of the appointment, we had both forgotten it and we left without him letting us know what he thought we should do. I called back as soon as I got home, and spoke to a nurse who at first told me that he would want to see her for it. I explained we were JUST in there and he did examine her, I just left without an order for an x-ray or an ultrasound. She said she would have him call me and I am still waiting for him to do so. Please, PLEASE, P-L-E-A-S-E do not make me bring her BACK in just to get an order! Ugh ...
Neuromuscular synaptic transmission in the ectothermal crab Carcinus maenas was used to assess the extent to which photoperiod affected the attainment of temperature acclimation. A separate series of experiments were carried out to determine thermotolerance to high temperature (CTMax) and its dependence on prior heat shock and heat shock proteins. Dactylopodite closer muscle resting potentials and the characteristics of evoked excitatory junction potentials in response to stimulation of the excitatory tonic axon were recorded with intracellular microelectrodes and the extent of acclimation to temperature under different photoperiodic regimes was measured. Animals were acclimated for at least two week to either 8 C or 25 C with short day (8hr: 16hr, L/D) or long day (16hr: 8hr, L/D) photoperiods. Photoperiod differences had a marked effect on acclimation to temperature as measured by muscle resting potential and excitatory junction potential amplitude and facilitation. In short day photoperiods ...
The capacity to develop tolerance to photoinhibition of photosynthesis was assessed in jack pine seedlings (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Photoinhibition induced at 5 degrees C in control jack pine seedlings grown at 20 degrees C was saturated above an irradiance of 1000 mu mol . m(-2). s(-1) but was detectable at an irradiance as low as 25 mu mol . m(-2). s(-1). However, 20 degrees C seedlings shifted to 5 degrees C were 2-fold more tolerant to photoinhibition than 20 degrees C unshifted control seedlings, as detected by either the light-dependent decrease in photochemical efficiency or the apparent quantum yield of O-2 evolution. The extent of this tolerance of photoinhibition was dependent upon time, photoperiod, and irradiance during exposure to the low-temperature shift. Furthermore, the tolerance of photoinhibition was correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in 20 degrees C grown seedlings shifted to 5 degrees C. In addition, seedlings shifted to 5 degrees C and an 8-h photoperiod exhibited a ...
Responsiveness of the reproductive system, metabolic rate, and other traits to changing photoperiods from summer to winter seasons is an important physiological trait in most temperate-zone mammals [1]. Seasonal changes in photoperiod, or day length, modify reproductive timing in many temperate-zone mammals including sheep, hamsters, rodents, horses, and ferrets by acting through the photoperiod pathway [2 - 4]. The photoperiod pathway transduces the photoperiod into a physiological signal beginning with the transduction of light or dark input from specialized photoreceptors and ganglion cells in the eye through the retinohypothalamic tract into two regions of the hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and later the paraventricular nucleus. A sympathetic norepinephrine signal from the SCN then passes to the hindbrain, the superior cervical ganglion in the spinal cord, and eventually to the pineal gland, which releases the indoleamine hormone melatonin [5]. Pinealoctyes within the ...
Melatonin and photoperiodic time measurement in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).: Artificial extension of the duration of nocturnally secreted circu
The project has three phases: In the first phase, chickpea genotypes were evaluated in the growth chambers for their flowering response under both long (16 h) and short days (10 h) and 22 0C and 16 0C day and night temperatures. Variability among the genotypes in their flowering response under either long or short days was identified. In the second phase of the study eight selected chickpea genotypes with extreme responses to photoperiod will be evaluated to determine the timing and duration of the photoperiod sensitive phase and the time of floral initiation and to establish whether photoperiod sensitivity ends at floral initiation or if it extends further into the phases of flower development. These same eight genotypes will be further characterized in a factorial combination of two photoperiods: 10 h and 16 h and three temperatures regimes: 16/8 0C, 20/12 0C and 24/16 0C (day/night). This study allows us to determine flowering response of chickpea genotypes grown in a range of thermal regimes ...
The project has three phases: In the first phase, chickpea genotypes were evaluated in the growth chambers for their flowering response under both long (16 h) and short days (10 h) and 22 0C and 16 0C day and night temperatures. Variability among the genotypes in their flowering response under either long or short days was identified. In the second phase of the study eight selected chickpea genotypes with extreme responses to photoperiod will be evaluated to determine the timing and duration of the photoperiod sensitive phase and the time of floral initiation and to establish whether photoperiod sensitivity ends at floral initiation or if it extends further into the phases of flower development. These same eight genotypes will be further characterized in a factorial combination of two photoperiods: 10 h and 16 h and three temperatures regimes: 16/8 0C, 20/12 0C and 24/16 0C (day/night). This study allows us to determine flowering response of chickpea genotypes grown in a range of thermal regimes ...
Flowering in many plant species is controlled by photoperiod, which represents the most reliable seasonal change in nature. The availability of crops with different photoperiod responses made it possible to extend their distribution range. The gene network controlling flowering is well studied in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is crucial for the acceleration of flowering. FT is part of a gene family that also includes the TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) gene, which inhibits flowering. Constitutive FT expression or loss of TFL1 function causes early flowering and transition of the shoot apex from vegetative to reproductive identity. FT proteins have a conserved role as mobile flowering signals in several different species and promote flowering in long or short days depending on the species. The induction of flowering by FT family members has been investigated in legumes such as pea, soybean and Medicago but the FT family has not yet been characterized in ...
Melatonin, better known as the hormone of darkness, is secreted by the pineal gland during the night and helps us fall asleep. Because its internal regulation depends on light, melatonin is part of chronobiology, the study of biological mechanisms and their adaptations to lunar and solar related rhythms (Klein et al. 1991). Therefore, photoperiod changes greatly impact melatonin concentration, influencing changes in neuronal and hormonal mechanisms of the photo neuro-endocrine systems, namely reproduction. Research has shown that a disruption in the circadian rhythm of melatonin due to photoperiod changes detrimentally affects the rhythmic function of the female reproductive cycle. Research from journals, articles, and printed books has shown that both exogenous and endogenous features contribute to the reproductive cycle and that the internal mechanisms are entrained by environmental cues. Photoresponsiveness of the reproductive system is mediated by the internal biological clock, transcriptional
BACKGROUND: There is not enough information about theeffects of heat stress and photoperiod on different lobes structure.OBJECTIVES: The present study aims at determining thehistological changes and the rate of changes in each lobes of ratprostate, affected by photoperiod changes and heat stress.METHODS:To this end, 15 adult male wistar rats were divided tothree groups: 1. the control group in which the rats were kept in12L: 12D and 25°C temperature condition, 2. the heat stressgroup in which the rats were kept in 12L: 12D and 42+1 °Ctemperature condition for 4 to 5 hours per day, and 3. thephotoperiod group in which the rats were kept in 16L: 8D and25°C temperature condition. After 30 days, samples were takenfrom different lobes and sections with 5 to 6μ thickness weremade and stained by H&E and PAS. RESULTS: The microscopicresults showed that histomorphometrical structure andhistochemical reactions of the different lobs of normal prostateof the rats are different. The proportion of parenchyma to
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337S is a novel bi-pole-photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line in wheat, and sensitive to both long day length/high temperature and short day length/low temperature condition. Although the regulatory function of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in reproductive development has been increasingly studied, their roles in pre-meiotic and meiotic cells formation of plants have not been clearly explored. Here, we explored the roles of miRNAs in regulating male sterility of 337S at short day length/low temperature condition. Small RNA sequencing and degradome analyses were employed to identify miRNAs and their targets in the 337S whose meiotic cells collapsed rapidly during male meiotic prophase, resulting in failure of meiosis at SL condition. A total of 102 unique miRNAs were detected. Noticeably, the largest miRNA family was MiR1122. The target CCR4-associated factor 1 (CAF1) of miR2275, a subunit of the Carbon Catabolite Repressed 4-Negative on TATA-less (CCR4-NOT) complex, contributes to the process of early
Looking for online definition of Day length dependent in the Medical Dictionary? Day length dependent explanation free. What is Day length dependent? Meaning of Day length dependent medical term. What does Day length dependent mean?
To ensure reproductive success, flowering time is sophisticatedly regulated by developmental processes that integrate various external and internal factors in plant. Recent studies showed that post-transcriptional control also plays important roles in flowering time regulation (Bezerra et al., 2004; Doyle et al., 2005; Kuhn et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2007b). In our study, AtBRNs regulate the flowering time through the post-transcriptional control of SOC1 activity. The atbrn1/atbrn2-3 double mutant flowered early under LD and SD conditions, and under SD conditions after vernalization treatment (Fig. 2a), and the early-flowering phenotype was associated with increased expression of AP1, LFY, and FT. Although these integrators have overlapping functions, SOC1 definitely regulates LFY expression (Lee & Lee, 2010). Consistently, the LFY transcript showed the highest rate of increase in these integrators. SOC1 RNA, which is not regulated by AtBRNs, could activate LFY expression in atbrn1/atbrn2-3. ...
The results indicate that there has been a significant change in the complement of FT-like genes that function as the main sources of florigen in sorghum (SbCN8, SbCN12) and rice (Hd3a = SbCN15; RFT1, no sorghum ortholog), therefore regulation of flowering time could also differ, even though both grass species are short day plants. SbCO activates expression of SbCN8 and SbCN12, although SbCN12 was induced to a significantly greater extent. SbCO also increased expression of SbEHD1, an activator of Hd3a expression in rice. SbEHD1 expression is repressed by SbPRR37 and SbGhd7 and induced when photoperiod sensitive sorghum grown in LD is transferred to SD [1, 2]. Increases in SbEHD1 expression occur in parallel with increases in SbCN8 and SbCN12 expression, suggesting that SbEhd1 can induce the expression of these genes as shown in Figure 6. However, the extent and specificity of this proposed activity of SbEhd1 will require further analysis in backgrounds where SbCO has minimal influence on the ...
en] Sexually mature ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) maintained from hatch on a photoperiod of 14 h light : 10 h darkness (14L : 10D) and kept in isolation were transferred to 8L : 16D. This treatment resulted in a partial regression of the ovaries and testes and a fall in the concentration of plasma LH but not of plasma FSH. After 2--3 months exposure to 8L : 16D, the gonads regrew to their original size: this regrowth was accompanied by a parallel increase in the concentration of plasma LH. The responsiveness of the pituitary gland to LH releasing hormone in both sexes after 5 weeks of exposure to 8L : 16D (when the gonads were partially regressed) was similar to the response observed after 15 weeks exposure to this lighting schedule (when the gonads had regrown). It was concluded that the spontaneous recovery of gonadal size in ring doves exposed to 8L : 16D is controlled by the hypothalamus and does not involve changes in the functional capacity of the pituitary gland or of the gonads ...
Drosophila melanogaster, like most organisms, has an endogenous clock. This clock is mainly synchronized by light. To achieve this, D. melanogaster uses three photoreceptor organs: the compound eyes, the ocelli and the Hofbauer Buchner eyelet. Additionally, the fly has the blue light photoreceptor pigment chryptochrome and an unknown photoreceptor pigment in the dorsal neurons of the endogenous clock. To test the influence of those photoreceptors and pigments on the endogenous clock, the locomotor activity of various fly strains was recorded under long- and short-day conditions. This investigation revealed that cryptochrome is particularly important for the entrainment in short photoperiods. It mediates the after-effects of light on the endogenous clock, and it is responsible for period lengthening in long day scenarios. The compound eyes are important for the entrainment under short- and long-day conditions, yet more so in long days. Furthermore, they are responsible for the adjustment of the ...
Hazlerigg, DG, Ebling, FJP and Johnston, JD (2005) Photoperiod differentially regulates gene expression rhythms in the rostral and caudal SCN ...
Ehd2~RID1, OsCOL15, The rice CONSTANS-like protein OsCOL15 suppresses flowering by promoting Ghd7 and repressing RID1., Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of flowering regulator gene expression suggested that OsCOL15 suppresses flowering by up-regulating the flowering repressor Grain number, plant height and heading date 7 (Ghd7) and down-regulating the flowering activator Rice Indeterminate 1 (RID1), thus leading to the down-regulation of the flowering activators Early heading date 1, Heading date 3a, and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS ...
STONEHENGE, England - An estimated record number of people flocked to Stonehenge on the Salisbury Plain in southern England on Sunday to greet the Summer Solstice.
Fall dormancy is a determinant factor of alfalfa yield in northern climate but selection for that trait is often done to the detriment of freezing tolerance. Selection for low dormancy in the field is a tedious process that depends on unpredictable fall conditions allowing the identification of less dormant genotypes. Here we describe two screening methods entirely performed indoor for the selection for low dormancy in alfalfa without negative impact of freezing tolerance. One method is for semi-dormant cultivars and includes successive freezing stress to simultaneously improve freezing tolerance and the other is for winterhardy dormant cultivars. In both approaches, alfalfa is exposed to a critical photoperiod during four weeks that allows to discriminate between dormant and less-dormant genotypes. These approaches can be used to generate recurrently selected populations that are progressively less dormant.. ...
Animals and reagents. Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) were reared in the departmental insect rearing facility on an artificial diet on a long-day photoperiod regimen (17 hr light/7 hr dark) at 26°C, as described previously (Sanes and Hildebrand, 1976a). Metamorphic adult development proceeds over 18 stages, each stage lasting 1-4 d, beginning at the time of pupation and ending with the emergence of the adult moth. Pupae were staged by the criteria described by Tolbert et al. (1983) and Oland and Tolbert (1987), based on morphological changes in the structures visible through the cuticle under a dissecting microscope with bright illumination. Animals were anesthetized on ice before dissection. All chemicals and antibodies were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO) and Jackson ImmunoResearch (West Grove, PA), respectively, unless otherwise indicated.. Cloning and sequence analyses of cDNAs. Total RNA isolated from antennae or brains of stage 6 pupae was used as the template for ...
Provide adequate lighting. This should be at least 2W per US Gallon (3.8L) of fluorescent lighting over the length of the tank for a period of at least 10 hours a day. Cool white tubes are usually all that is required. If you can position the tank so that it can get a little sunlight for at least an hour a day, then do so (make sure water doesnt overheat). Diana recommends a mid-day siesta [1], and uses a 5 hour on, 4 hours off, 5 hours on photoperiod on her own tanks. The dark period allows CO2 levels to rise which promotes plant growth and inhibits algae growth ...
Provide adequate lighting. This should be at least 2W per US Gallon (3.8L) of fluorescent lighting over the length of the tank for a period of at least 10 hours a day. Cool white tubes are usually all that is required. If you can position the tank so that it can get a little sunlight for at least an hour a day, then do so (make sure water doesnt overheat). Diana recommends a mid-day siesta [1], and uses a 5 hour on, 4 hours off, 5 hours on photoperiod on her own tanks. The dark period allows CO2 levels to rise which promotes plant growth and inhibits algae growth ...
Among the many external changes to which organisms must adapt is the special class of changes that predictably recur in association with daily and seasonal cycles in the environment. In the course of...
Arctic, boreal and temperate latitudes are characterised by conspicuous shifts in photoperiod and temperature, which restricts ecosystem productivity and compels resident taxa to anticipate and coordinate physiological processes to the cyclic variability of environmental conditions. The increase in temperature of high latitude habitats due to climate change is likewise complicit in asserting a progressive phenological incongruence between photoperiod and temperature, the repercussions of which on circadian and seasonal rhythms remain veiled in uncertainty. An organisms capacity to physiologically adjust to a changing environment relies upon the induction of gene expression programmes quantifiable through steady-state mRNA level, which has long served as a proxy for transcription and functional inferences in ecophysiological studies, although it is ultimately determined by the integrated processes of nuclear transcription and nucleocytoplasmic degradation. There is consequently an inadequate ...
The distribution of responses to the question Why do you have sex at these times? is shown in Figure 2. Although the subjects were allowed to give multiple answers, most of them gave only one answer, and the few who chose Other actually wrote in one the four offered options. Consequently, the percentages of answers conveniently added up to 100%. Only 28% of the respondents gave an answer that would characterize an endogenous rhythm of sexual appetite (I feel more sexual at these times). In contrast, 33% of the respondents attributed the time selection to restrictions imposed by work/family schedule, and 23% attributed it to partner availability. The distribution of percentages does not differ significantly from a flat distribution (D = 0.090, p , 0.05), which indicates that none of the four responses was consistently chosen more frequently than the others. Thus, the response based on an endogenous rhythm of sexual appetite was chosen by only a quarter of the respondents. Even this ...
Multiple developmental pathways for flowering in Arabidopsis: photoperiodism, the autonomous (leaf number) and vernalization (low temperature) pathways, the energy (sucrose) pathway, and the gibberellin pathway. The photoperiodic pathway is located in the leaves and involves the production of a transmissible floral stimulus, FT protein.
Three groups of genes, Vrn, Ppd and Eps, control life-cycle duration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The duration of a developmental phase between two stages is important for freezing resistance, heading time, anthesis and ripening date as well as yield component generation. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of Vrn-D1 on wheat development. The vernalization genes Vrn-A1, -B1, -D1, -B3, photoperiod gene Ppd-1 and candidate genes Mot1 and FtsH4 for Eps in G883, Pumai 9 and their offspring, a group of sister lines (SLs) derived from an advanced generation, were genotyped using specific molecular markers. All detected loci were the same in the SLs and their parents except the Vrn-D1 locus. Three developmental traits, spike differentiation process, heading date and final leaf number on the main stem, were characterized in three sowing date treatments in the field. When temperatures increased, cultivars/lines carrying the dominant Vrn-D1 gene entered each spike differentiation ...
Cumpara O.B. ProComfort light days x 16 la pretul de 11.42 lei ✅ Comanda confidentiala, produse verificate de farmacisti reali, impachetare sigura.
Heading date in rice is an important agronomic trait controlled by several genes. In this study, flowering time of variety Dianjingyou 1 (DJY1) was earlier than a near-isogenic line (named NIL) carrie
he Summer Solstice, also known as Litha and St. Johns Eve/Day, marks the time when the Sun is at its strongest; the day is the longest and everything nurtured by it promises to bloom to its fullest. Best known for the gathering of Druids and Neo-Pagans at earliest light at Stonehenge, this holidays roots extend beyond, invading so many cultures. Around the world, Fire reigns for much of this evening and day. Bonfires are lit on shore and hill as the people encourage the Sun to shine on throug
Djungarian hamsters, or as them still name, drugarice, is one of the most popular breeds rodents for home maintenance and taming.
Wow Thanks everyone for chiming in. Im not about to get into an argument over which methods work best and try to blanket statement anything but Id...
Shadowrun: Dawn of the Artifacts 1: Dusk - The Adventure Begins... Sixth World scholars have long hypothesized the cyclical nature of magic. For years corporation
Heres a look at the science behind the summer solstice, the longest day of the year and the official start of summer in the Northern Hemisphere.
We have all been there. Late day. Long day. Maybe you even fell asleep on the sofa. When its time for bed, that nighttime routine just seems like too much to handle. So you crash out, dirty face and all.. Leaving the dirt, pollution, sunscreen, and makeup on your face to brew overnight as well as depriving your skin of some quality reparative and regenerative ingredients are just two of the reasons this is terrible for your skin. (It also makes you feel bad in the morning.). If youve been in to see me for a treatment and expressed this, youve already heard my advice.. Do it early. Six, seven, eight - whatever! After a particularly long day, I will often wash my face and apply all my potions RIGHT WHEN I GET HOME even though its only 7:45. While I am a firm believer in our circadian rhythms and the cycle of repair that happens at night, early is better than not at all.. Once more for those in the back. There is no rule that says your evening skincare routine has to occur moments before ...
Where to start? Wednesday night I was given a blow up bed. Its one of the stupidest things I have ever seen or heard. In 2013, when I was at Huntsman, they had me in a horrid blow-up bed that hurt like heck to get in and out of. The one this time had a…
Besides all of that, Brayden had an MRI today. Actually two MRIs, the brain and the abdomen. The brain MRI was about one hour and the abdomen about another hour. Thankfully they were able to get them done at the same time, total of 2.5 hours to include anesthesia. We have talked with neurologist here at the hospital (I have no idea who he is) about Braydens medical history and the vomiting. He was able to review the MRI and did not see anything that would be directly causing the vomiting from the brain. We will be getting a copy and send it on to Braydens neurologist at Childrens for her review as well ...
My running buddy(who I knew was going to be there but was sleeping in) showed up and started to run with me. He set the pace at 9 minutes/mile, which was much faster than my 11 minute/mile pace. I told him about my pains. Something cool happened as I increased my speed though, my pain decreased! He explained to me that he thinks lactic acid builds up on slower runs. He used to run long runs at a 10 minute/mile pace, but found he hurt a lot the next day, while he rarely hurt after a marathon. Convinced, he switched all his practice runs to 9 minutes/mile ...
We made it to Owen Sound Hospital at the time I was scheduled to be there, only to find their computers were down. Oh man, I waited an hour before I got my Xray done !!! I dont know what is going to happen to these places if the Computers ever went down permanently, as they didnt seem to have it really all together in the one Dept., as to what the backup plan was to be ...
More must be done to address the under-achievement of children from poor, white communities, MPs on the Commons Education Select Committee say.
Definition of week [wk] and its relation to other units of time and definitions of other units of time, and access to instant and tabular conversions
I am trying to run cluster analysis on a long stream of back trajectories. I have 5, 7, and 10 day lengths and at multiple heights. I have tried running the cluster analysis several times with my files and cant seem to get them to read. I have tried using a few different sets of trajectory files. The groups all start at the same height and within the same year. No matter which ones I use, I receive one of two error messages ...
Nine days past ovulation today. Nine. Gulp. My destiny will be revealed in a few short days and I just cant bear the thought of another negative HPT test. Or having to tell my DH, that this cycle didnt work. Or facing my thirty-second birthday childless and pregnant -less…I am really trying hard to not go there in…
In those 12 short days, she made a powerful impact on her owners, forever changing the way they view love, responsibility, life and death.
It definitely takes some time to sort out everything here. I am washing just 1x a day in the morning and I dont even touch my face with my hands. My showerhead has mild-to-medium pressure, and thats enough to wash stuff off. Besides, Im never oily in the morning, as I think my skin absorbs stuff during the night. Maybe I should change this to washing before bed - but that seems to make me get oily during the day. Oilyness is not so bad, but by the end of a long day I can get kind of ...
It was one of those lazy evenings, just watching TV after a long day. I was tired but kept on thinking about a vulnerability I found earlier...
It has been a long-time ritual of mine (close to 10 years) to climb into bed after a long day at work and indulge in some good, wholesome ATS posts. There truly is no better way to fall asleep than to be lulled into an insomnia-ridden daze whilst reading the juicy doom porn you all have provided over the years ...
Sit back and enjoy this Red Reviver cocktail at the end of a long day. Easy to make and lower in calories, thats one less thing to stress you out.
Modification by photoperiod. Biological Bulletin 101:71-83. Frank A. Brown, Jr. 1954. "Persistent Activity Rhythms in the ...
Modification by photoperiod. Biological Bulletin 101:71-83. Stephens, G.C. 1955. Induction of molting in the crayfish, Cambarus ... by modification of daily photoperiod. Biological Bulletin 108:235-241. Stephens, G.C. and R.A. Schinske. 1961. Uptake of amino ...
The photoperiod also significantly influences how fast the corms grow. Corms begin to develop much more slowly if the ... f.) Hensch) to photoperiod". The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 75 (1): 72-78. doi:10.1080/14620316.2000. ... photoperiod exceeds 12 hours. The corms are also the propagating material. Alternatively, transplants can be used. Machinery ...
The photoperiod also affects the oil content in sesame seed; increased photoperiod increases oil content. The oil content of ... Initiation of flowering is sensitive to photoperiod and sesame variety. ...
Overwintering is triggered by short photoperiod. Weed, A. S.; Casagrande, R. A. (2010). "Biology and larval feeding impact of ...
Moulting is affected by the photoperiod. Deer are also excellent jumpers and swimmers. Deer are ruminants, or cud-chewers, and ... doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1973.tb05044.x. Lincoln, G. A.; Guinness, F. E. (1972). "Effect of altered photoperiod on delayed ...
Day-neutral plants are those that flower regardless of photoperiod. Plants that flower in response to photoperiod may have a ... In general, a "short-day" is one in which the photoperiod is no more than 12 hours. A "long-day" is one in which the ... An obligate response means that the plant will only flower if grown under a certain photoperiod. Lux and lumens are commonly ... A facultative response means that a plant will eventually flower regardless of photoperiod, but will flower faster if grown ...
Hansen PJ, Kamwanja LA, Hauser ER (October 1983). "Photoperiod influences age at puberty of heifers". J Anim Sci. 57 (4): 985- ... He subsequently did studies that, for the first time, demonstrated that photoperiod modified the processes leading to puberty ...
American Elm is wholly insensitive to daylight length (photoperiod), and will continue to grow well into autumn until injured ... 30: 4-5. Downs, R. J.; Borthwick, H. A. (1956). "Effects of Photoperiod on Growth of Trees". Botanical Gazette. 117 (4): 310- ...
The effects of temperature, photoperiod and daily torpor. 1997 P.M. Meerlo: Behavioural and chronobiological consequences of ...
... photoperiod, drought, temperature, and other external environmental conditions; and exogenous sources of PGRs, e.g., externally ...
... photoperiod, drought, temperature, and other external environmental conditions; and exogenous sources of PGRs, e.g., externally ...
Masuda, Junichiro; Urakawa, Toshihiro; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi (2006-01-01). "Short Photoperiod Induces Dormancy in Lotus ...
In temperate regions, photoperiod is the most reliable cues of seasonal change. This informs entry into reproductive diapause ... Photoperiod is the most important stimulus initiating diapause. The initiation phase begins when morphological development ... Token stimuli can consist of changes in photoperiod, thermoperiod, or allelochemicals from food plants. These stimuli are not ... Sensitivity to certain stimuli which act to prevent termination of diapause, such as photoperiod and temperature, is increased ...
Photoperiod is controlled during sporolation and growth phases. A synthetic twine of about 2 - 6mm in diameter is placed on the ...
Response of California Annuals to Photoperiod and Temperature". American Journal of Botany. 32 (1): 1-12. doi:10.1002/j.1537- ... that of the response of 13 California annuals to photoperiod and temperature. Although they were not able to correlate the ...
For flowering, Capsicum is a non-photoperiod-sensitive crop. The flowers can self-pollinate. However, at extremely high ...
These refer to the day-length sensitivity of the plant and the type of photoperiod that induces flower formation. Day-neutral ... cultivars produce flowers regardless of the photoperiod. Strawberries may also be propagated by seed, though this is primarily ...
2003). Effects of photoperiod on brain GnRH plasticity and peripheral reproductive physiology in three species of cardueline ... Hahn, TP; Pereyra, ME; Sharbaugh, SM; Bentley, GE (2004). "Physiological responses to photoperiod in three cardueline finch ...
Photoperiod (the length of daylight) affects overall plant uptake. When the length of daylight gets shorter, grass undergoes ...
Photoperiod flowering is controlled by output gene Gigantea (GI). GI is activated at night and activates the expression of ...
To create artificial photoperiods, Bünning exposed plants to a light-dark cycle indicative of a specific season, such as the ... By entraining the plants to a spring or summer photoperiod, Bünning was able to induce flowering, even if the actual season ... In the early-1930s, Bünning proposed that organisms rely on a circadian rhythm of sensitivity to light to measure photoperiod. ... Bünning also demonstrated that an artificial photoperiod can induce flowering at inappropriate times, supporting his model of ...
doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1985.tb00532.x. Temte, J. L. (1994). Photoperiod control of birth timing in harbour seal (Phoca ...
Photoperiods affect the development period of larvae at 20 °C (68 °F) but not at 25 °C (77 °F) and 30 °C (86 °F). As ... Yi Chuan-Hui; Chen Xiao-Ming; Shi Jun-Yi; Zhou Cheng-Li (2008). "Influence of the Photoperiod on Larvae of Kallima inachus ... The low survival rate at 30 °C under most photoperiod gradients requires that artificial breeding of K. inachus be done below ... Increasing temperature also made an increase in the survival rate under different photoperiods. The survival rate of larvae at ...
Jackson, C. R.; Capozzi, M; Dai, H; McMahon, D. G. (2014). "Circadian Perinatal Photoperiod has Enduring Effects on Retinal ... Additionally, dopamine levels were significantly lower in short photoperiod mice. These findings suggest that seasonal light ... and how perinatal photoperiod affects the serotinergic system and anxious/depressive behavior. Alongside Dao-Qi Zhang, the lab ...
The timing of spawning varies based on temperature and photoperiod. Breeding males' bodies will turn a metallic blue with their ...
In his 1992 study "In short photoperiods, human sleep is biphasic", Thomas Wehr had seven healthy men confined to a room for ... Wehr, T. A. (June 1992). "In short photoperiods, human sleep is biphasic". Journal of Sleep Research. 1 (2): 103-107. doi: ...
Segmented sleep Wehr, T. A. (1992). "In short photoperiods, human sleep is biphasic". Journal of Sleep Research. 1 (2): 103-107 ...
Although not the only parameter, the changing length of the photoperiod ('daylength') is the most predictive environmental cue ... Hut RA, Beersma DG (July 2011). "Evolution of time-keeping mechanisms: early emergence and adaptation to photoperiod". ...
The canid genus is influenced by the photoperiod and generally reproduces in the springtime. Domestic dogs are not reliant on ... Feral dogs are influenced by the photoperiod with around half of the breeding females mating in the springtime, which is ... This interestrous period is not influenced by the photoperiod or pregnancy. The average duration of estrus is 9 days with ...
... Grant Cramer cramer at UNR.EDU Thu Jan 12 00:27:27 EST 1995 *Previous message: photoperiod findings ... We are using both the Columbia and Ler ecotypes (hence my interest in photoperiod). Shorter days delay flowering in our two ... First of all, there are many references regarding photoperiod effects. Most just choose arbitrary daylengths without reference ...
... Diana Horvath horvatd at ROCKVAX.ROCKEFELLER.EDU Thu Apr 11 08:52:05 EST 1996 *Previous message: FASEB ...
... : the requisite interplay between the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the ... The photoperiod, circadian regulation and chronodisruption. Study Abstract. The current scientific literature is replete with ... The photoperiod, circadian regulation and chronodisruption: the requisite interplay between the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the ...
A review on the effect of the photoperiod and melatonin on interactions between ghrelin and serotonin. *Kirsz K ...
... we determined the effect of photoperiod during growth of Chenopodium rubrummother plants on vegetative and reproductive ... Photoperiod during flowering induction of mother plants (the first 6 d after the germination) has the key influence on seed ... Using in vitro culture, we determined the effect of photoperiod during growth of Chenopodium rubrum mother plants on vegetative ... Effect of photoperiod during growth of Chenopodium rubrum mother plants on properties of offspring. ...
... Xiaodong Deng,1 ... Xiaodong Deng, Xinzhao Fan, Ping Li, and Xiaowen Fei, "A Photoperiod-Regulating Gene CONSTANS Is Correlated to Lipid ...
Publications about Experts and Doctors on photoperiod in United States ... Thus, photoperiod functions as an effective seasonal cue, stimulating sex ratio skews toward males when day lengths are short ... The persistence of photoperiod-induced affective behaviors in rodents supports the hypothesis that symptoms of human affective ... Einat H, Kronfeld Schor N, Eilam D. Sand rats see the light: short photoperiod induces a depression-like response in a diurnal ...
Birdsfoot trefoil flowering response to photoperiod length. (Plant Genetic Resources).(Statistical Data Included) by Crop ... The Ethiopian accessions flowered at a 13-h photoperiod, but not at a 10-h photoperiod. These findings extended the minimum 14- ... Not only did RG-BFT flower under all photoperiod conditions, but it also appeared to be photoperiod insensitive because the FRI ... All 68 accessions flowered at the 16-and 19-h photoperiod length treatments, but only 59% flowered in the 13-h photoperiod ...
Histological analysis indicated that ovarian development was significantly affected by photoperiod. The photoperiods tested ... and LL-DD photoperiods. Results from these comparisons detected a number of genes that may be involved in photoperiod-specific ... The photoperiods tested were as follows: LD (12 h light: 12 h dark), LL (24 h light:0 h dark) and DD (0 h light: 24 h dark). ... A number of genes that may be involved in photoperiod-specific regulation of ovarian development were observed. These findings ...
Wahidin S, Idris A, Shaleh SR (2013) The influence of light intensity and photoperiod on the growth and lipid content of ... The cultivation 12:12 (light:dark) photoperiod triggered higher production of lipids (23.0%) and chlorophylls (26.4 mg g− 1) by ... Yan C, Zheng Z (2013) Performance of photoperiod and light intensity on biogas upgrade and biogas effluent nutrient reduction ... Krzemińska I, Pawlik-Skowrońska B, Trzcińska M, Tys J (2014) Influence of photoperiods on the growth rate and biomass ...
Photo period revisited I know this question has been asked many times. In CO2 tanks, there is consensus to limit the photo ... I post this to explore the pros and cons of having longer photo period, and split photo periods, in low light CO2 system, and ... Question 3: If indeed plants shut down in 8 hours continuous photo period, wouldnt splitting a long photo period into two ... So longer photo period is normal in nature, and is supported by Walstad method.. Question 2: A few stem plants response is not ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod pathways, according to their Panther/Gene ... Antibodies for proteins involved in entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod pathways; according to their Panther/Gene ...
... photoperiod). The phytochrome and phytochrome interacting factor are involved in the repression of the CBF expression under ... The Influence of Light Quality, Circadian Rhythm, and Photoperiod on the CBF-Mediated Freezing Tolerance. Punyakishore Maibam † ... "The Influence of Light Quality, Circadian Rhythm, and Photoperiod on the CBF-Mediated Freezing Tolerance." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14 ... The Influence of Light Quality, Circadian Rhythm, and Photoperiod on the CBF-Mediated Freezing Tolerance. International Journal ...
The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved ... The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted ... photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed ... The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions ...
Photoperiod had no effect on FAMT or SRC mRNA level. The short-day photoperiod significantly increased Met mRNA levels. ... Thus, the photoperiod itself, rather than the shift in photoperiod, appears to be the critical stimulus. A similar point can be ... This trend was not evident under the long-day photoperiod. The number of neonates produced under the long-day photoperiod was ... Daphnia pulex were reared at 18°C under a long-day, non-permissive photoperiod and a short-day, permissive photoperiod. mRNA ...
... photoperiods. Photoperiod differences had a marked effect on acclimation to temperature as measured by muscle resting potential ... In short day photoperiods there was an acclimatory shift of muscle resting potential in crabs acclimated to 25 C compared with ... Furthermore photoperiod had a large effect on closer muscle tension in animals acclimated at low temperatures but little effect ... Neuromuscular synaptic transmission in the ectothermal crab Carcinus maenas was used to assess the extent to which photoperiod ...
The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and ... Patterns of Nucleotide Diversity at Photoperiod Related Genes in Norway Spruce [Picea Abies (L.) Karst] PLoS One. 2014 May 8;9( ... The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and ... the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod ...
... which flowered earlier than both fhy1 and the wild type in all photoperiods tested, still responded to an inductive photoperiod ... A Photoperiod-Insensitive Barley Line Contains a Light-Labile Phytochrome B. Mamatha Hanumappa, Lee H. Pratt, Marie-Michele ... A Photoperiod-Insensitive Barley Line Contains a Light-Labile Phytochrome B. Mamatha Hanumappa, Lee H. Pratt, Marie-Michele ... A Photoperiod-Insensitive Barley Line Contains a Light-Labile Phytochrome B Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
FLOYD, M.H y TYLER, N.C. Photostimulation of male broiler breeders to different photoperiods. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. ... Photostimulation photoperiod did not affect age at first semen production, sperm motility, morphology or predicted testis ... The effect of photostimulation of male broiler breeders (n = 144) to different photoperiods (8-h control and 9, 9.5, 10, 10.5, ... Males provided with the longer photostimulatory photoperiods had smaller testis weights at 51 weeks of age, although this was ...
Dietary protein ingested before and during short photoperiods makes an impact on affect-related behaviours and plasma ... Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod during early life stages increases body weight and alters plasma metabolomic ... Intake of an Obesogenic Cafeteria Diet Affects Body Weight, Feeding Behavior, and Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a Photoperiod ... Changes in photoperiod alter Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle of C57BL/6J mice. Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
2B). Neither photoperiod nor the interactions between photoperiod × time, photoperiod × temperature or photoperiod × ... 3). Photoperiod, temperature and the interactions temperature × time, photoperiod × time, temperature × photoperiod, and ... Photoperiod and temperature both affected pectoralis muscle cellular metabolic intensity in juncos, although photoperiod ... among temperature-photoperiod acclimation groups for dark-eyed juncos. Neither temperature nor photoperiod was included in the ...
1995), testing the two different conditions of short photoperiod (8L:16D) and long photoperiod (16L:8D), a shot photoperiod ... Also, FSHβ and LHβ mRNA expression in pituitary decreased more in long photoperiod treatment group than in natural photoperiod ... photoperiod is the main proximal factor in the timing of gonadal maturation. Photoperiod alternations are used to stimulate or ... Effects of Photoperiod Manipulation on Gonadal Activity of the Damselfish, Chromis notata. Chi-Hoon Lee,1 Young-Ju Park,1 and ...
photoperiod soybean glycine soja arabidopsis co constans Pathways oryza sativa glycine max arabidopsis thaliana quantitative ... The mechanisms of photoperiod flowering in short day monocot model species Oryza sativa are introduced and described to ... Finally, the known components of soybean photoperiod flowering are introduced, and the question is raised whether CONSTANS a ... UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF THE PHOTOPERIOD FLOWERING PATHWAY IN SOYBEAN BY WILLIAM BRIAN PRICE THESIS Submitted in partial ...
Fifteen genotypes ranging in their photoperiod sensitivity and representing possible photo-period responses of cultivated ... Short-days (8h day-length) cycles from emergence to 35 DAE are sufficient to induce flowering in most photoperiod sensitive ... This study was designed to enhance generation advance in photoperiod and post-rainy sorghums under short days. The objectives ... N and S are highly photoperiod sensitive. Sorghum is a short-day plant and flowering is advanced under short-days. Techniques ...
... KROL, M ... The extent of this tolerance of photoinhibition was dependent upon time, photoperiod, and irradiance during exposure to the low ... ANTHOCYANIN, LIGHT ATTENUATION, LOW TEMPERATURE, PINUS BANKSIANA LAMB (JACK PINE), PHOTOSYNTHESIS, PHOTOINHIBITION, PHOTOPERIOD ... seedlings shifted to 5 degrees C and an 8-h photoperiod exhibited a 2-fold higher yield of photosystem II electron transport, ...
The effects of photoperiod on growth rate and circulating thyroid hormone levels in the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus: evidence ... To address this question, red drum were housed under a 12L:12D photoperiod and fed once daily at variable times before the ... Red drum raised under a long photoperiod (16L:8D) grew significantly larger and exhibited greater feed efficiency than their ... The first experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of long and short photoperiods on diurnal thyroid hormone rhythms ...
In both cases, there was no response to photoperiod, and a threshold response to temperature. Gonotrophic dissociation was ... In C. pipiens, gonotrophic dissociation occurred in response to a combination of low temperature and short photoperiod, but ... Pupae and adults were subjected to combinations of four photoperiods (10, 12, 14, and 16 hours) and four temperatures (10°, 15 ... 20°, and 25°C). C. pipiens females showed reduced blood-feeding activity in response to a combination of short photoperiod and ...
In non-seasonal male rodents, such as rats and mice, short-day photoperiod (SP) conditions or exogenous melatonin treatment ... In non-seasonal male rodents, such as rats and mice, short-day photoperiod (SP) conditions or exogenous melatonin treatment ... The reproduction of seasonal breeders is modulated by exposure to light in an interval of 24 h defined as photoperiod. The ... The reproduction of seasonal breeders is modulated by exposure to light in an interval of 24 hours defined as photoperiod. The ...
A fourth pea locus, PHOTOPERIOD (PPD), also contributes to the photoperiod response in a similar manner to SN and DNE, and ... ORCID: 0000-0003-2423-8286 2017 , EARLY FLOWERING3 redundancy fine-tunes photoperiod sensitivity , Plant Physiology, vol. 173 ... Three pea (Pisum sativum) loci controlling photoperiod sensitivity, HIGH RESPONSE (HR), DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE), and STERILE NODES ... recessive ppd mutants on a spring-flowering hr mutant background show early, photoperiod-insensitive flowering. However, the ...
  • Sixty-eight birdsfoot trefoil accessions (2n = 4x = 24) from the USDA-ARS NPGS collection were concurrently examined for flowering response at 10-, 13-, 16-, and 19-h photoperiod lengths in CMP3244 growth chambers (Conviron, Pembina, ND) set at 23[degrees]C day temperature and a 15[degrees]C night temperature. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Under normal temperature conditions, CBF expression is regulated by the circadian clock through the action of a central oscillator and also day length (photoperiod). (mdpi.com)
  • Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. (mdpi.com)
  • The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. (mdpi.com)
  • The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data. (mdpi.com)
  • Complementary roles of photoperiod and temperature in environmental sex determination in Daphnia spp. (biologists.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that photoperiod and temperature co-regulate male sex determination and that these environmental stimuli would activate elements of the male sex determination signaling cascade. (biologists.org)
  • Further, under photoperiod-induced permissive conditions, male sex determination was temperature dependent. (biologists.org)
  • The results indicate that male sex determination in daphnids is under the permissive control of photoperiod and the regulatory control of temperature. (biologists.org)
  • Neuromuscular synaptic transmission in the ectothermal crab Carcinus maenas was used to assess the extent to which photoperiod affected the attainment of temperature acclimation. (bl.uk)
  • Photoperiod differences had a marked effect on acclimation to temperature as measured by muscle resting potential and excitatory junction potential amplitude and facilitation. (bl.uk)
  • By contrast facilitation showed acclimatory changes to temperature in long day but not in short day photoperiods. (bl.uk)
  • Temperature and photoperiod are candidates for drivers of seasonal phenotypes, but their relative impacts on metabolic variation are unknown. (biologists.org)
  • We examined photoperiod and temperature effects on Ṁ sum , muscle masses and activities of key catabolic enzymes in winter dark-eyed juncos ( Junco hyemalis ). (biologists.org)
  • Temperature appears to be a primary driver of flexibility in Ṁ sum in juncos, but photoperiod-induced changes in M b and catabolic enzyme activities, likely associated with migratory disposition, interact with temperature to contribute to seasonal phenotypes. (biologists.org)
  • There are many studies of the influences of reproductive activity in fish, particularly the effects of photoperiod and water temperature on gonadal development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The extent of this tolerance of photoinhibition was dependent upon time, photoperiod, and irradiance during exposure to the low-temperature shift. (diva-portal.org)
  • A study was made of the influence of temperature and photoperiod on blood-feeding and related processes in an anautogenous strain of Culex pipiens from West Lafayette, Indiana and a strain of C. quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, Florida. (ajtmh.org)
  • Pupae and adults were subjected to combinations of four photoperiods (10, 12, 14, and 16 hours) and four temperatures (10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°C). C. pipiens females showed reduced blood-feeding activity in response to a combination of short photoperiod and low temperature when incandescent illumination was used, but under conditions of fluorescent illumination, showed no such response to photoperiod-only a graded blood-feeding response to temperature. (ajtmh.org)
  • In both cases, there was no response to photoperiod, and a threshold response to temperature. (ajtmh.org)
  • Gonotrophic dissociation was found to occur sporadically in C. quinquefasciatus under low temperature conditions, irrespective of photoperiod. (ajtmh.org)
  • In C. pipiens , gonotrophic dissociation occurred in response to a combination of low temperature and short photoperiod, but only when post-feeding incubation temperatures were low. (ajtmh.org)
  • 11·33 h d-1 at 24·1 and 28·1°C. In contrast, p was affected by temperature and photoperiod in all three genotypes. (www.gov.uk)
  • Differences between Tri -1 and Tri -2 populations were remarkable in both photoperiods at 25/35°C temperature regime. (scialert.net)
  • Currently, the literature is unavailable on the individual effects of salinity, temperature and photoperiod and their interactions on the seed germination of populations of wild wheat ( Aegilops L.) species. (scialert.net)
  • In order to investigate the respective roles of photoperiod and temperature in seasonal regulation of the life cycle, experiments were undertaken to measure the rate of growth of dragonfly larvae when maintained to emergence under constant conditions of light and temperature. (uncg.edu)
  • the effects of temperature could be analyzed where it was the variable and photoperiod was constant. (uncg.edu)
  • The final-instar larvae were collected from September, 1969, to May, 1970, and were subjected to the experimental conditions in order to observe the effect of seasonal variations in relation to photoperiod and temperature. (uncg.edu)
  • White Riesling was examined using controlled environments to establish the roles of photoperiod and temperature. (ajevonline.org)
  • The seasonality of reproduction in most mammals is dictated by photoperiod, temperature and nutrition. (udl.cat)
  • the photoperiod group in which the rats were kept in 16L: 8D and 25°C temperature condition. (ac.ir)
  • In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), major determinants of plant phenology are physiological responses to vernalization temperature, and day length (photoperiod), conditioned by VRN and the PPD genes, respectively. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Field studies were conducted with different pigeon pea in Kenya to determine the effect of photoperiod and temperature on flowering. (icrisat.org)
  • Variation in temperature was achieved by planting six genotypes at four locations varying in altitude where temperature decreased with increasing altitude, and variation in photoperiod was achieved through artificial lighting (approximately 12.6 h, natural daylength, 14.5 h and 16.0 h). (icrisat.org)
  • Equations that describe the rates of development (1/f) were used to determine rates of progress of each genotype towards flowering as influenced by temperature and photoperiod. (icrisat.org)
  • For photoperiods below 13 h, rates of progress towards flowering were influenced by temperature in five genotypes (ICPL 90011, ICPL 87091, ICP 7035, ICP 6927 and ICEAP 00040). (icrisat.org)
  • The effect of photoperiod and temperature on the development of Hepatopancreas was studied in laboratory for 30 days and divided into three different light regimes. (fisheriesjournal.com)
  • Do temperature and photoperiod that are the two most important environmental factors have equal effect on cucumber sex expression by similar epigenetic regulation mechanism? (biomedcentral.com)
  • To answer this question, we did a two-factor experiment of temperature and photoperiod and generated methylome and transcriptome data from cucumber shoot apices. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High temperature and long-day photoperiod treatments, which mimic early autumn conditions, are both unfavorable for female flower formation, and temperature is the predominant factor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The targeted cytosines shared in high-temperature and long-day photoperiod treatment showed the same change in DNA methylation level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Essentially, the photoperiod treatment preferentially and significantly influenced flower development processes, while temperature treatment produced stronger responses from phytohormone-pathway-related genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cucumber AGAMOUS was likely epicontrolled exclusively by photoperiod while CAULIFLOWER A and CsACO 3 were likely epicontrolled by both photoperiod and temperature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High temperature and long-day photoperiod might have the same effect on the methylome via the same mechanism of gene-TE interaction but resulted in different epicontrol sites that account for different mechanisms between temperature- and photoperiod-dependent sex expression changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the same suppressive effect, high temperature and long photoperiod don't have equal influence on cucumber sex expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It remains unknown about the interaction between temperature and photoperiod effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seasonal reductions in productivity of swine may be decreased or minimized if photoperiod is considered in combination with decreasing temperature and increasing nutrient density in diets during the summertime. (aasv.org)
  • In a fifth experiment, 10 females and 15 males were kept in an outdoor 3,000-L recirculation tank under natural photoperiod. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Higher spawn numbers and greater egg production were observed under controlled photoperiod, and higher numbers of juveniles and a higher survival rate were observed under natural photoperiod. (scielo.org.ar)
  • The egg production in the natural-photoperiod trials followed a polynomial curve model. (scielo.org.ar)
  • The study was conducted under natural photoperiod and climate conditions during a whole year. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Thirty-four Jinjiang bulls aged between 14 and 16 months were randomly assigned to two groups that were alternatively subjected to either natural daylight +4 h supplemental light (long photoperiod, LP) or natural daylight (natural photoperiod, NP) for 96 days. (animbiosci.org)
  • Pigs in the natural photoperiod had minimum light (7 hours and 51 minutes) in December and maximum light (16 hours and 35 minutes) in June. (aasv.org)
  • 1 The highest IGF-I concentrations occurred under decreasing daylength (October in the natural photoperiod and April in the reverse photoperiod). (aasv.org)
  • Lower IGF-I concentrations were observed under increasing daylength (March in the natural photoperiod and October in the reverse light program). (aasv.org)
  • The extra-short-duration genotype (ICPL 90011) was the least responsive to variation in photoperiod, while the two long-duration genotypes (ICEAP 00040 and T-7) were the most sensitive to photoperiod variation with flowering rate reduced by 0.001 d-1 per hour increase in daylength. (icrisat.org)
  • Being a short-day plant, the flowering time of maize is promoted by short photoperiods, i.e. the longer the period of day length is, the later maize plants flower. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • its heading is promoted by short photoperiods. (plantcell.org)
  • Subsequently, we tested the effect of photoperiod on GABA-induced excitation in the SCN neuronal network. (pnas.org)
  • This study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of prolonged photoperiod on the serum lipids, carcass traits, and meat quality of Jinjiang cattle during winter. (animbiosci.org)
  • DTF of individual plants was evaluated under 10 h and 14 h day lengths, and loci associated with photoperiod sensitivity were identified based on the delay in flowering under the 14 h photoperiod (DTF at 14 h minus DTF at 10 h). (cgiar.org)
  • The photoperiod, circadian regulation and chronodisruption: the requisite interplay between the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the pineal and gut melatonin. (wellnessresources.com)
  • its secretion is modulated by photoperiod duration, depends upon input from the SCN ( 6 , 7 ), and is considered an important factor for the control of reproduction in melatonin-proficient mammals. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to examine further the role of seasonal photoperiod on the circadian expression of clock genes, the present work first aimed to characterise diel profiles of Clock, Per1 and Per 2 expression in the brain together with plasma melatonin levels in II Atlantic salmon acclimated to either long day (LD), short day (SD), 12L:12D (referred to as experiment 1 throughout) and SNP (referred to as experiment 2 throughout). (stir.ac.uk)
  • Results showed circadian profiles of melatonin under all photoperiods. (stir.ac.uk)
  • However the amplitude of nocturnal melatonin was significantly elevated under LD (experiment 1) and the SNP long day photoperiod and 2010 autumnal equinox samples (experiment 2). (stir.ac.uk)
  • The Effects of Photoperiod and Melatonin on Seasonal Breeding in Goats. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Melatonin, mainly synthesized in the pineal gland, is generally accepted as the active mediator of photoperiod responses including reproduction. (udl.cat)
  • This review considers specific aspects of the effects of photoperiod and melatonin on reproduction in dairy cattle and discusses the clinical applications of melatonin. (udl.cat)
  • Photoperiod may govern the production of melatonin to influence reproduction. (aasv.org)
  • Distinct genetic mechanisms contribute to convergent evolution of photoperiod responses within sunflower, suggesting regulatory network architecture does not impose strong constraints on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. (labome.org)
  • This study investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in ovarian transcriptomic responses in Nile tilapia under different photoperiod regimes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, high-throughput data for responses in female Nile tilapia under different photoperiod regimes were obtained using an Illumina sequencing 2500 platform. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fifteen genotypes ranging in their photoperiod sensitivity and representing possible photo-period responses of cultivated sorghum were used in this study. (www.gov.uk)
  • Photoperiod manipulation used at critical points during development may actually influence physiological responses later in life which may ultimately have impact on pig well-being, health and performance. (pork.org)
  • These data provide support that immune responses and performance/productivity of sows, neonates, and young pigs can be influenced by photoperiod. (pork.org)
  • It appears that the photoperiod treatment a sow is subjected to may influence early responses of her piglets. (pork.org)
  • To understand the influence of photoperiod on GABAergic function, we studied synaptic activity, using patch clamp, and GABAergic responses, using Ca 2+ imaging techniques, in the SCN of mice adjusted to long-day and short-day photoperiods. (pnas.org)
  • Responses to photoperiod. (google.com)
  • Disruption of photoperiod in young healthy rats for nine weeks did not alter key physiological variables that can impact on ischaemic damage, e.g. blood pressure and blood glucose immediately prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Our data demonstrate the interactive effects of CO 2 and photoperiod on the physiological characteristics of the green tide macroalga Ulva linza and indicate that future ocean acidification may hinder the stimulatory effect of long light periods on growth of Ulva species. (peerj.com)
  • Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) raised from eggs under two photoperiod and two feeding regimes were tested for physiological changes preparatory for transition from freshwater to seawater. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Photoperiod duration is one of the most potent environmental cues responsible for synchronizing daily variations in mammalian physiology, including factors that control the reproductive system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Animals adapt more readily to photoperiod cues than other environmental cues since photoperiod is more predictable and consistent over time. (pork.org)
  • Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. (duhnnae.com)
  • With this project, we will provide the mechanistic basis and a conceptual framework to understand how climatic and daylight/photoperiod cues jointly affects tree functioning. (wsl.ch)
  • Factorial combinations of four photoperiods (10, 11·33, 12·66 and 16 h d-1) and three mean diurnal temperatures (20·2, 24·1 and 28·1°C) were imposed on nodulated plants of three Nigerian bambara groundnut genotypes [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (www.gov.uk)
  • The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The reproduction of seasonal breeders is modulated by exposure to light in an interval of 24 h defined as photoperiod. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interestingly, the gradual seasonal changes in photoperiod under SNP did not elicit similar profiles of clock gene expression as compared to experimental seasonal photoperiods and clock gene expression differed between experimental photoperiod and SNP treatments. (stir.ac.uk)
  • By dynamically changing photoperiod during gestation, we tested how behavioral phenotypes (BPs) and physiology of juvenile cavies (Cavia aperea) adjust to seasonal differences in prenatal photoperiod. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In Arabidopsis, flowering is promoted in long-days (LD) by coincidence of light signaling and circadian clock output, thus allowing the plant to sense and respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seasonal changes in the photoperiod of the Earth's temperate zones affect the behavior and physiology of many organisms ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Reiter, RJ 1980, ' Photoperiod: Its importance as an impeller of pineal and seasonal reproductive rhythms ', International journal of biometeorology , vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 57-63. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Sorghum is grown between latitudes of 42 °N and 42°S. Many of the sorghums grown at low latitudes less than 14 °N and S are highly photoperiod sensitive. (www.gov.uk)
  • In contrast, energy sorghum hybrids are highly photoperiod sensitive with extended vegetative phases in long days, resulting in enhanced biomass accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genetics of its sensitivity to photoperiod are not completely understood, but Yasuda and Hyashi (1980) have identified four recessive ( ea, ea rly maturity) and three dominant genes at seven loci that influence flowering in barley. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Three pea (Pisum sativum) loci controlling photoperiod sensitivity, HIGH RESPONSE (HR), DIE NEUTRALIS (DNE), and STERILE NODES (SN), have recently been shown to correspond to orthologs of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) circadian clock genes EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), ELF4, and LUX ARRHYTHMO, respectively. (edu.au)
  • The major photoperiod sensitive loci qDPS10 responded to both short and long-day photoperiod environments and had opposite effects in different photoperiod environment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with days to flowering and photoperiod sensitivity in rice (Oryza sativa L. (cgiar.org)
  • This study was undertaken to identify putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with days to flowering (DTF) and photoperiod response in rice. (cgiar.org)
  • A number of genes that may be involved in photoperiod-specific regulation of ovarian development were observed. (frontiersin.org)
  • In mammals previous work has focused on the molecular switch for photoperiod response and regulation of thyroid hormone bioactivity via deiodinase mediated conversion of T4 to the biologically active form T3. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Importantly while both lean and adipose tissue were strongly regulated by photoperiod on a chow diet, this regulation was lost for adipose, but not lean tissue, on HFD. (brad.ac.uk)
  • This implies that a primary effect of photoperiod is the regulation of growth and lean mass accretion. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Photoperiod- and Triiodothyronine-Dependent Regulation of Reproductive Neuropeptides, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Peripheral Physiology in Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. (mdpi.com)
  • As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce. (nih.gov)
  • 2007. First demonstration of the influence of photoperiod on the thermal requirements for development in insects and in particular the Linden- bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). (innspub.net)
  • These results suggest that photoperiod is considered to be the most effective environmental factor in controlling the reproductive cycle of damselfish. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These data suggest that photoperiod and HFD influence body weight and body composition through independent mechanisms but in each case the role of the hypothalamic energy balance genes is not predictable based on their known function. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Photoperiod during flowering induction of mother plants (the first 6 d after the germination) has the key influence on seed germination and offspring growth, while offspring flowering and seed maturation is determined by photoperiod their mothers experienced during, and shortly after, flowering induction. (springer.com)
  • Birdsfoot trefoil flowering response to photoperiod length. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Photoperiod length can affect seed yields in that increased flowering occurs when plants grown for seeds are grown at higher latitudes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 1986). The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of photoperiod length and collecting site ecogeography on flowering of 68 birdsfoot trefoil accessions from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System collection. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. (mdpi.com)
  • Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. (mdpi.com)
  • Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) is a long-day plant whose flowering is enhanced when the photoperiod is supplemented with far-red light, and this promotion is mediated by phytochrome. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The mechanisms of photoperiod flowering in short day monocot model species Oryza sativa are introduced and described to illustrate conservation and divergence between the photoperiod flowering pathway components in the two model species. (illinois.edu)
  • Finally, the known components of soybean photoperiod flowering are introduced, and the question is raised whether CONSTANS a known flowering promoter in Arabidopsis and rice is conserved in soybean. (illinois.edu)
  • Short-days (8h day-length) cycles from emergence to 35 DAE are sufficient to induce flowering in most photoperiod sensitive genotypes. (www.gov.uk)
  • A fourth pea locus, PHOTOPERIOD (PPD), also contributes to the photoperiod response in a similar manner to SN and DNE, and recessive ppd mutants on a spring-flowering hr mutant background show early, photoperiod-insensitive flowering. (edu.au)
  • In bambara groundnut photoperiod-sensitivity therefore increases between the onset of flowering and the onset of podding. (www.gov.uk)
  • An understanding of the genetic determinism of photoperiod response of flowering is a prerequisite for the successful exchange of germplasm across different latitudes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Firstly, QTL analyses for flowering time and photoperiod sensitivity in maize were conducted in individual photoperiod environments separately, and then, the total genetic effect was partitioned into additive effect (A) and additive-by-environment interaction effect (AE) by using a mixed-model-based composite interval mapping (MCIM) method. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Most tropical maize germplasm show significant photoperiod sensitivity and delayed flowering in temperate zone, some tropical varieties even do not flower under temperate environmental regions [1] - [3] . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An understanding of the genetic determinism of flowering time in different photoperiod environment is a prerequisite for the usage of tropical maize germplasm in temperate areas. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sorghum CONSTANS is an activator of flowering that is repressed post-transcriptionally in long days by the floral inhibitor PRR37, contributing to photoperiod sensitive flowering in Sorghum bicolor , a short day plant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This growth protocol was used to decrease differences in size between plants at the time of harvest, and to prevent an early transition to flowering that would otherwise occur if plants were grown from germination in long photoperiods. (fairdomhub.org)
  • The effects of photoperiod on the rates of progress towards flowering were investigated only under sub-optimal temperatures. (icrisat.org)
  • The development and characteristics of UFV-M7, a mutant with photoperiod insensitivity to beginning of flowering, are described. (ufv.br)
  • Another pathway integrator, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 , is responsive to acute induction by photoperiod even in the presence of the floral repressor encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS C . We have discovered a large group of potential floral repressors that are down-regulated upon photoperiodic induction. (biologists.org)
  • Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. (nih.gov)
  • In the Atlantic salmon, Davie et al (2009) was the first to report the photoperiod dependent circadian expression of clock genes (Clock, Bmal and Per2 and Cry2) in the brain of the Atlantic salmon. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Similarly there was no interaction between the HFD and photoperiod at the level of the genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2, Dio3, TSHβ or NMU), which are important mediators of the photoperiodic response. (brad.ac.uk)
  • We have analyzed the genomic response to one type of floral inductive signal, photoperiod, to dissect the function of several genes transducing this stimulus, including CONSTANS , thought to be the major output of the photoperiod pathway. (biologists.org)
  • Using in vitro culture, we determined the effect of photoperiod during growth of Chenopodium rubrum mother plants on vegetative and reproductive development of offspring. (springer.com)
  • The response of the plant to length of day (referred to as photoperiod sensitivity [PS]) and its basic vegetative growth determine the heading date of rice. (plantcell.org)
  • Hymenaea courbaril, a widely distributed tropical leguminous tree, was used in two experiments to compare the effects of photoperiod on vegetative growth and leaf resin chemistry and to examine the role of photoperiod in ecotypic differentiation. (naver.com)
  • HEREDIA-GUZMAN, Paloma Adriana y PONCE-PALAFOX, Jesús T. . Reproductive performance of the Mesa silverside (Chirostoma jordani Woolman, 1894) under natural and controlled photoperiods. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Sorghum genotypes used for grain production in temperate regions are photoperiod insensitive and flower early avoiding adverse environments during the reproductive phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results showed that H. dimidiata completed their life cycle successfully and no reproductive diapauses were observed under both photoperiods. (innspub.net)
  • Prenatal photoperiod influences postnatal prolactin secretion and the timing of reproductive development in male red deer reared from birth in a constant equatorial photoperiod (12:12 light:dark). (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, clock gene expression differed in response to experimental photoperiod in the liver, and diel rhythm differed to that of the brain. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Weil Z, Workman J, Karelina K, Nelson R. Short photoperiods alter cannabinoid receptor expression in hypothalamic nuclei related to energy balance. (labome.org)
  • Dahl G. Effects of short day photoperiod on prolactin signaling in dry cows: a common mechanism among tissues and environments? (labome.org)
  • Moffatt Blue C, Sury J, Young K. Short photoperiod-induced ovarian regression is mediated by apoptosis in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). (labome.org)
  • Under short photoperiod lengths, birdsfoot trefoil plants produce fewer inflorescences and more sterile flowers when compared with plants grown under longer photoperiod lengths (Joffe, 1958). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Animals were acclimated for at least two week to either 8 C or 25 C with short day (8hr: 16hr, L/D) or long day (16hr: 8hr, L/D) photoperiods. (bl.uk)
  • In short day photoperiods there was an acclimatory shift of muscle resting potential in crabs acclimated to 25 C compared with those acclimated to 8 C. Such an acclimatory shift of muscle resting potential was not seen in animals from long day photoperiods. (bl.uk)
  • Wild-type plants grown under short photoperiods (12 h) with supplemental FR flower as early as plants grown in long days (24 h) without FR. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Dietary protein ingested before and during short photoperiods. (cambridge.org)
  • In mammals, short photoperiod is associated with high depression- and anxiety-like behaviours with low levels of the brain serotonin and its precursor tryptophan (Trp). (cambridge.org)
  • This study was designed to enhance generation advance in photoperiod and post-rainy sorghums under short days. (www.gov.uk)
  • The first experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of long and short photoperiods on diurnal thyroid hormone rhythms, growth rate, feed efficiency and food consumption. (nih.gov)
  • Red drum raised under a long photoperiod (16L:8D) grew significantly larger and exhibited greater feed efficiency than their short photoperiod (8L:16D) counterparts. (nih.gov)
  • In order to contribute to resolve the genetic basis of photoperiod sensitivity in maize, a set of 201 recombinant inbred lines (RIL), derived from a temperate and tropical inbred line cross were evaluated in 5 field trials spread in short- and long-day environments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The QTL qDPS3, which had the greatest additive effect exclusively in the short-day environment, were photoperiod independent and should be classified in autonomous promotion pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We investigated GABAergic activity and observed mainly inhibitory action in SCN neurons of mice exposed to a short-day photoperiod. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that the narrow, synchronized phase distribution of active neurons during short-day photoperiods would result in increased synaptic activity during the day. (pnas.org)
  • Surprisingly, however, exposure to a short-day photoperiod decreased the frequency of spontaneous GABAergic synaptic events compared with the long-day photoperiod. (pnas.org)
  • Ca 2+ transients were measured in response to GABA stimulation in long-day and short-day photoperiods. (pnas.org)
  • The present study was conducted to check the effect of long photoperiod (16: 8) hours light: dark and short photoperiod (8: 16) hours light: dark on the biological parameters of H. dimidiata at 24 ±1 ⁰C with 60±5 % relative humidity fed on S. graminum aphid in growth chamber. (innspub.net)
  • The duration of first and second instar larvae was 2.43±0.09, 2.42±0.09 and 2.24±0.10, 2.28±0.11 days which was non significantly different from each other under both long and short photoperiods. (innspub.net)
  • In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. (duhnnae.com)
  • Gene expression of hypothalamic AgRP and CRH, but not NPY nor POMC, accorded with the energy balance status on long and short photoperiod. (brad.ac.uk)
  • Pigs under the short-day program received the reverse photoperiod: a photoperiod decreased by 10-15 minutes each week for 12 weeks to reach 9.5L:14.5D per day, and then increasing light weekly for 12 weeks to return to 12L:12D. (aasv.org)
  • The longer photoperiod (LL) was shown to induce ovary development earlier than LD and DD. (frontiersin.org)
  • The prenatal photoperiod, simulating spring or autumn, led to faster or slower maturation in females but the relative size rank in litter also exerted a major influence on the onset of maturation. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In addition, prenatal photoperiod strongly influenced BP and stress response in juvenile animals. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • These reports conflict with later reports of naturally adapted materials from Ethiopia at lower latitudes (Steiner and Poklemba, 1994), as does an induced photoperiod insensitive mutant that flowers when grown at a 10-h photoperiod length (Steiner and Beuselinck, 2001). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Furthermore, the tolerance of photoinhibition was correlated with anthocyanin accumulation in 20 degrees C grown seedlings shifted to 5 degrees C. In addition, seedlings shifted to 5 degrees C and an 8-h photoperiod exhibited a 2-fold higher yield of photosystem II electron transport, which was associated with an increased capacity to keep Q(A), the first stable quinone electron acceptor of photosystem II, oxidized at high irradiance. (diva-portal.org)
  • The emergentmacrophyte Glyceria maxima was subjected to different photoperiods and grown with ammonium or nitrate as nitrogen source in presterilized microcosms with spatially separated root and non-root compartments. (uu.nl)
  • In experiment 1, using natural light in the greenhouse, seedlings grown for one year under long photoperiod treatments (LP) had an average stem length twice that of seedlings grown under an eight-hour photoperiod treatment (SP). (naver.com)
  • In experiment 2, seedlings were grown under four photoperiods of nine hours of daylight in the greenhouse plus 50 ft-c light extensions. (naver.com)
  • A population of 143 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between CO39 and Moroberekan was grown under greenhouse conditions and exposed to two different photoperiod regimes. (cgiar.org)
  • The photoperiod-sensitive alleles Ppd-D1b and Ppd-A1b were present in 127 and 166 genotypes, respectively. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Genotypes with photoperiod-insensitive alleles had higher stability for days to anthesis, than photoperiod-sensitive genotypes. (uoguelph.ca)
  • A review on the effect of the photoperiod. (mendeley.com)
  • Furthermore photoperiod had a large effect on closer muscle tension in animals acclimated at low temperatures but little effect on animals acclimated at high temperatures. (bl.uk)
  • This study investigated the effect of different photoperiods (14L: 10D, 12L:12D and 10L:14D) on the gonadal development and GtH mRNA expression in the pituitary of damselfish. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Combining gradually decreasing temperatures and decreasing photoperiods was the most effective and caused increased hardiness of canes by 4.5°C and primary buds by 5.2°C, thus demonstrating a synergistic effect of these environmental factors. (ajevonline.org)
  • There was no effect of photoperiod disruption on infarct size after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that any potentially adverse effect of photoperiod disruption on stroke outcome may require additional factors such as high fat/high sugar diet or pre-existing co-morbidities. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Given the change in photoperiod length (longer nights and shorter days) and that bright-light therapy has an antidepressant effect, circadian rhythms have been hypothesized to contribute to the onset of SAD. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of photoperiod on biological attributes of Harmonia dimidiata (Fab) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) fed on Schizaphus graminum (Rond. (innspub.net)
  • The results showed that the effect of photoperiod was not extended to all stages. (innspub.net)
  • We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments 9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D, using blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus as a biological model. (duhnnae.com)
  • There was no effect of diet or photoperiod on hippocampal expression of the glial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein. (elsevier.com)
  • All studied individuals expressed shorter development time and faster growth rates under northern photoperiod regimes. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present study demonstrates the absence of a circadian rhythm in PGV content in hamsters "functionally pinealectomized" by maintenance under long photoperiod (L/D=14/10 h). (springer.com)
  • We have determined that both long-day (LD) photoperiod and gibberellin (GA) stimulate trichome formation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Three QTL for photoperiod sensitivity were identified on chromosome 4, 9 and 10, which had the similar position to QTL for DPS thermal time in the two long-day environment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Long photoperiods and gradually decreasing temperatures increased cane and primary bud hardiness by 1.8°C and 1.1°C, respectively. (ajevonline.org)
  • Our results indicate high developmental plasticity with respect to predicted optimal life history and suggest long-term plasticity in response to photoperiod. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Higher porewater N2O concentrations in the root compartments as compared to the non-root compartments, which were highest for the long photoperiod, were also indicative of a plant-induced stimulation of denitrification. (uu.nl)
  • Here, we report that entraining mice to a long-day photoperiod can modify the excitatory/inhibitory balance in the suprachiasmatic neuronal network by increasing GABAergic excitation. (pnas.org)
  • Remarkably, the GABAergic activity in a long-day photoperiod shifts from inhibition toward excitation. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, of all cells from the long-day photoperiod, 40% were excitatory and 36% were inhibitory. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, for female red deer raised in constant equatorial photoperiod, prenatal long day lengths did not advance timing of puberty. (elsevier.com)
  • We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. (duhnnae.com)
  • This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. (duhnnae.com)
  • however, they decreased by long photoperiod regime. (ac.ir)
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that long photoperiod has important effects on increasing the rat prostate parenchyma and its activity. (ac.ir)
  • Beginning at 57 days of age, gilts received 12 hours of light (L) and 12 hours of darkness (D). Under the long-day program, light was increased each week by 10-15 minutes for 12 weeks to reach a duration of 14.5 hours L:9.5 hours D. Photoperiod was then decreased 10-15 minutes per week for 12 weeks to return to 12L:12D by the end of the study. (aasv.org)
  • Nevertheless, the neuroendocrine mechanisms by which variations in photoperiod modulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis are not fully understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanisms that mediate and regulate photoperiod-induced phase distributions are currently not known. (pnas.org)
  • The objectives of this project was to develop 1): techniques to produce rapidly the seeds for generation advance in photoperiod sensitive sorghum and 2): more lines advanced to next generation in a cost effective and adaptable manner in limited time and space. (www.gov.uk)
  • The results showed that gonadosomatic index (GSI) was significantly lower in shot photoperiod (10L:14D), in comparison with other photoperiodic group during the spawning season. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We here investigated photoperiodic influences on the onset of puberty in female cavies (Cavia aperea) and show that photoperiod exerts a major influence. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Ross AW, Russell L, Helfer G, Thomson LM, Dalby M and Morgan PJ (2015) Photoperiod regulates lean mass accretion, but not adiposity, in growing F344 rats fed a high fat diet. (brad.ac.uk)
  • However, phytochrome B became light labile in BMDR-1 and this destabilization of phytochrome B appeared to make BMDR-1 insensitive to photoperiod. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The mechanism can be through changes in seed protein pattern which we found dependent on photoperiod experienced by mother plants. (springer.com)
  • Photoperiod dependent clocks were also investigated in peripheral tissues, namely in the fin and liver. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Overall results from these experiments suggested that the control of clock gene expression would be photoperiod dependent in the brain and the liver however photoperiod history is also likely to influence clock gene expression. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Consistent with this both hypothalamic GHRH gene expression and serum IGF-1 levels were photoperiod dependent. (brad.ac.uk)
  • The present findings suggest that, in female California mice, the differential effects of food restriction on acquisition and reversal learning are photoperiod-dependent. (elsevier.com)
  • Histological analysis indicated that ovarian development was significantly affected by photoperiod. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prolonged photoperiod significantly altered the growth performance, hormonal levels, gene expression and fat deposition in Jinjiang cattle. (animbiosci.org)
  • In the temperate fish, photoperiod is the main proximal factor in the timing of gonadal maturation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A positive correlation between photoperiod and developmental rate in this damselfly, and probably in many other temperate insect species, might be adaptive since it optimises the life history stage transitions and body size/mass at each latitude. (diva-portal.org)
  • We conclude that photoperiod plays an important role in gearing the onset of cavy reproduction to the seasons and that specific male stimuli rather than unspecific effects of stressors accelerate female maturation. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Photoperiod affected seawater survival only through its influence on the timing of male maturation, which decreased salinity tolerance. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • however, whether photoperiod is able to modulate the puberty onset or Kiss1 gene expression in mice is unknown. (frontiersin.org)
  • In salmonids photoperiod is widely known to synchronise physiology to the environmental conditions and as such photoperiod manipulation is routinely used by the salmon industry throughout the production cycle to control and manipulate spawning, smoltification and puberty. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Trillmich F, Mueller B, Kaiser S, Krause J. Puberty in female cavies (Cavia aperea) is affected by photoperiod and social conditions. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Photoperiod was a major factor responsible for the delay in puberty (Table 1). (aasv.org)
  • The previous investigation of L. sponsa phenology in natural conditions together with these laboratory results indicate the presence of the latitude compensating mechanism that is triggered by a response to photoperiod. (diva-portal.org)
  • A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling response to photoperiod, Hd1 , was identified by means of a map-based cloning strategy. (plantcell.org)
  • A sexually dimorphic response to photoperiod was observed in hematocrit for both mature and immature fish, with hematocrit of mature females declining in autumn and hematocrit of immature males increasing in autumn. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Out of 15 QTLs associated with DTF, only 4 were identified as influencing the response to photoperiod. (cgiar.org)
  • One rack of each accession was placed in a growth chamber calibrated to the desired photoperiod and the containers watered as needed to prevent water stress. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Microalgal metabolites were greatly affected by photoperiod and by phase of cell growth. (springer.com)
  • Wahidin S, Idris A, Shaleh SR (2013) The influence of light intensity and photoperiod on the growth and lipid content of microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. (springer.com)
  • The ratios of GA 3 / ABA,ZR / ABA and IAA / ABA decreased with increased photoperiod and those of the Norseman variety were the lowest: it had the slowest growth,the highest ABA level and the lowest GA 3 level. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Plants were then replanted with five seedlings per pot, transferred for 1 week to growth cabinets with an 8 h photoperiod (160 μmol m−2s−1, 20 °C throughout the day/night cycle) and then distributed into small growth cabinets with an 18, 12, 8 or 6 h photoperiod (160 μmol m−2s−1 and 20/18 °C in the day/night). (fairdomhub.org)
  • 2011. Photoperiod modifies thermal reaction norms for growth and development in the red poplar leaf beetle Chrysomela populi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (innspub.net)
  • In this study the effects of photoperiod and diet, and their interaction, were examined for their effects on growth and body composition in juvenile F344 rats over a 4-week period. (brad.ac.uk)
  • These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits. (duhnnae.com)
  • In addition, RT-PCR assays mRNA expression of GtH subunits (FSHβ, LHβ) in the pituitary gland under the artificial condition where photoperiod is controlled. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Summer SD and aMT treatment, to create artificial winter photoperiod conditions, induced a small advance in breeding activity: goats are not as responsive to these treatments as sheep. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Most North American birdsfoot trefoil cultivars require 16-to 18-h photoperiod lengths to flower (Beuselinck and Grant, 1995). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Sequencing analysis revealed a 43-bp deletion in the first exon of the photoperiod sensitivity 1 ( se1 ) mutant HS66 and a 433-bp insertion in the intron in mutant HS110. (plantcell.org)
  • Based on the results of typing of 15 soybean varieties for the microsatellite marker Satt100 of E7 gene of photoperiod sensitivity, it was determined availability of recessive or dominant allele of E7 gene. (fao.org)
  • Correlation between photoperiod and development rate in the damselfly Lestes sponsa (Hansemann) : A compensating mechanism across latitudes? (diva-portal.org)
  • A number of studies have found a correlation between photoperiod length and depression severity. (medscape.com)