Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Retinal DiseasesRetinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Photogrammetry: Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Optic Disk Drusen: Optic disk bodies composed primarily of acid mucopolysaccharides that may produce pseudopapilledema (elevation of the optic disk without associated INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION) and visual field deficits. Drusen may also occur in the retina (see RETINAL DRUSEN). (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p355)Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Transillumination: Passage of light through body tissues or cavities for examination of internal structures.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Dermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Dermoscopy: A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Retinal Drusen: Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Hospital-Patient Relations: Interactions between hospital staff or administrators and patients. Includes guest relations programs designed to improve the image of the hospital and attract patients.Geographic Atrophy: A form of MACULAR DEGENERATION also known as dry macular degeneration marked by occurrence of a well-defined progressive lesion or atrophy in the central part of the RETINA called the MACULA LUTEA. It is distinguishable from WET MACULAR DEGENERATION in that the latter involves neovascular exudates.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Subretinal Fluid: An exudate between the RETINA and CHOROID from various sources including the vitreous cavity, SUBARACHNOID SPACE, or abnormal vessels.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Pathology, Surgical: A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.Choroid Diseases: Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Epiretinal Membrane: A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Retinitis Pigmentosa: Hereditary, progressive degeneration of the neuroepithelium of the retina characterized by night blindness and progressive contraction of the visual field.Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Gonioscopy: Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).

Evaluation of lidocaine as an analgesic when added to hypertonic saline for sclerotherapy. (1/1386)

PURPOSE: The efficacy of sclerosing agents for the treatment of telangiectasias and reticular veins is well established. The injection of these agents is often associated with pain, and it is not uncommon for sclerotherapists to include lidocaine with the sclerosants in an attempt to reduce the pain associated with treatment. However, there are concerns that this may reduce the overall efficacy of the treatment because of dilution of the sclerosant. Patient comfort and overall outcome associated with treatment using HS with lidocaine (LIDO) versus that using HS alone was compared. METHODS: Forty-two patients were prospectively entered into the study and randomized blindly to sclerotherapy with 23.4% HS or 19% LIDO. Study subjects and treating physicians were blinded to the injection solution used. Injection sites were chosen for veins ranging in size from 0.1 to 3 mm. Photographs of the area to be treated were taken, and the patients rated their pain. They were then observed at regular intervals for four months, and clinical data was collected. Thirty-five subjects completed the full follow-up period, and photographs of the injected area were taken again. Three investigators blinded to the treatment assignment then evaluated the photographs and scored the treatment efficacy according to a standardized system. RESULTS: In the HS group, 61.9% (13 of 21) patients rated their pain as none or mild, whereas 90.5% (19 of 21) of patients in the LIDO group had no or mild discomfort. This difference is significant, with a P value of.034. There was no difference in the overall efficacy of treatment between the two groups. The groups had similar rates of vein thrombosis and skin necrosis. CONCLUSION: Although lidocaine is often used with sclerosing agents, there are no previous reports in the literature to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing the pain experienced by the patient. In this study, patients receiving LIDO experienced significantly less discomfort at the time of injection than patients who received HS alone. There were no differences in the effectiveness of treatment or in the incidence of complications between the two groups.  (+info)

Blood flow influences vascular growth during tumour angiogenesis. (2/1386)

Many factors play a role in tumour angiogenesis. We observed growing tumour vessels in vivo to study the relationship between blood flow and vascular enlargement. Mammary adenocarcinoma was implanted into Fisher-344 rat with dorsal skin-fold transparent chambers. Vascular growth was observed and recorded on videotape through a microscope for 6 h. Vascular networks were photographed and traced every 30 min to identify changes over time. Tumour sections were stained with Masson's trichrome and anti-Factor VIII-related antigen. Tumour growth was rapid enough for differences to be seen each hour. Vessels with a high blood flow showed an increase in diameter within a few hours and new branches formed from these vessels. In contrast, vessels without an increase in blood flow showed no change in diameter. Vessels within the interstitium surrounding the tumour were lined by endothelium that was positive for anti-Factor VIII-related antigen staining. Vessels in the tumour had extremely rare endothelial cells detectable by Masson's trichrome or anti-Factor VIII-related antigen staining. In conclusion, increased blood flow may cause vascular enlargement and some primitive vessels seem to lack endothelium.  (+info)

Reflective meniscometry: a non-invasive method to measure tear meniscus curvature. (3/1386)

AIMS: To devise a method to measure tear meniscus curvature by a non-invasive specular technique. METHODS: A photographic system was devised. The system consisted of a camera and an illuminated target with a series of black and white stripes oriented parallel to the axis of the lower tear meniscus. The target was mounted on a flash gun close to the objective of a Brown macrocamera and calibrated using a graduated series of glass capillaries of known diameter, ground down to expose the inner wall. It was then applied to normal human eyes (n = 45) to measure the tear meniscus curvature. A video system was also assessed which provided qualitative online information about the tear meniscus. RESULTS: Using the photographic system, measured values for capillary radii were in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations (r2 = 0.996, p < 0.0001). The radii of curvature of lower tear menisci in normal human subjects (mean 0.365 (SD 0.153) mm, range 0.128-0.736; n = 45) were similar to those reported in the literature. Both systems demonstrated variations in meniscus shape. The video system provided stable images of human menisci over prolonged periods of time and promises to be useful for the analysis of dynamic changes in meniscus volume. CONCLUSIONS: Reflective meniscometry is a non-invasive technique providing quantitative information about tear meniscus shape and volume and of potential value in the study of ocular surface disease.  (+info)

Comparison of the cost-effectiveness of three approaches to screening for and treating sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. (4/1386)

The purpose of this study was to analyse and compare the costs involved in screening for and treating sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in three different clinical settings. In the first setting, diabetologists screened using ophthalmoscopy and color photography, according to the St. Vincent Declaration guidelines, and selected patients for further assessment by a visiting ophthalmologist and for treatment in another hospital. In the second setting, all patients were regularly referred to ophthalmologists, either in the same hospital or elsewhere, for all aspects of eye care. In the third setting, screening was done again with ophthalmoscopy alone by diabetologists who followed the St. Vincent Declaration guidelines; however, further assessment and treatment were carried out in the eye department of the same hospital. Costs to the Italian National Health Service and to patients were calculated per screening performed and per patient subjected to laser treatment as a result of screening. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to simulate the costs of standardised patient populations going through the three different settings. It is concluded that absolute costs would be lower, both for the Italian National Health Service and for patients, if screening, assessment and treatment were all carried out in the same hospital. Equipping a diabetic clinic specially for screening would not be more expensive than delegating eye care to external parties, even for a hospital without an eye department. Moreover, delegating eye care more than doubles costs for patients. Screening for, assessing and treating sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy may be a cost-effective procedure for society as a whole in Italy.  (+info)

Inter- and intraobserver variation in the analysis of optic disc images: comparison of the Heidelberg retina tomograph and computer assisted planimetry. (5/1386)

AIMS: The development of imaging and measurement techniques has brought the prospect of greater objectivity in the measurement of optic disc features, and therefore better agreement between observers. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the variation between observers using two measurement devices. METHODS: Optic disc photographs and images from the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) of 30 eyes of 30 subjects were presented to six observers for analysis, and to one observer on five separate occasions. Agreement between observers was studied by comparing the analysis of each observer with the median result of the other five, and expressed as the mean difference and standard deviation of differences between the observer and the median. Inter- and intraobserver variation was calculated as a coefficient of variation (mean SD/mean x 100). RESULTS: For planimetry, agreement between observers was dependent on observer experience, for the HRT it was independent. Agreement between observers (SD of differences as a percentage of the median) for optic disc area was 4.0% to 7.2% (planimetry) and 3.3% to 6.0% (HRT), for neuroretinal rim area it was 10.8% to 21.0% (planimetry) and 5.2% to 9.6% (HRT). The mean interobserver coefficient of variation for optic disc area was 8.1% (planimetry) and 4.4% (HRT), for neuroretinal rim area it was 16.3% (planimetry) and 8.1% (HRT), and (HRT only) for rim volume was 16.3%, and reference height 9.1%. HRT variability was greater for the software version 1.11 reference plane than for version 1.10. The intraobserver coefficient of variation for optic disc area was 1.5% (planimetry) and 2.4% (HRT), for neuroretinal rim area it was 4.0% (planimetry) and 4.5% (HRT). CONCLUSIONS: Variation between observers is greatly reduced by the HRT when compared with planimetry. However, levels of variation, which may be clinically significant, remain for variables that depend on the subjective drawing of the disc margin.  (+info)

Digital photography of digital imaging and communications in medicine-3 images from computers in the radiologist's office. (6/1386)

To fully take advantage of the widespread use of digital imaging systems and to update and eliminate redundant steps involved in medical radiographic publication, we present our experience of processing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-3 digital images from the point of acquisition to the point of publisher-ready radiographic images without intervening hardcopies.  (+info)

Digital image capture and automated analysis of posterior capsular opacification. (7/1386)

PURPOSE: To develop and validate a digital imaging and analysis technique for assessing the extent of posterior capsular opacification after cataract surgery. METHODS: Retroillumination images of the posterior capsule were obtained by using a digital camera mounted on a slit lamp. The images were analyzed using an available image analysis software program. The image acquisition and analysis techniques were tested for face validity, reproducibility, and the ability to detect progression of capsular opacity over time. RESULTS: Digital retroillumination images were obtained without patient discomfort. Automated analysis of images correlated well with clinical grading both at slit lamp examination and when looking at the images themselves (Spearman's correlation coefficient >0.7). Analysis of images taken at different times showed high reproducibility (intraclass correlation >0.9), and the system was able to identify progression of capsular opacity over a 2-year period with a mean increase of 15.8% in progressors versus an increase of 0.6% in nonprogressors (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Digital retroillumination images of the posterior capsule can be obtained reliably, and automated analyses correlate well with clinical assessment. The system presented here uses commercially available instruments and software, and it is practical for use in longitudinal studies of posterior capsule opacification. It is reliable, easy to use, and can detect small changes in the percentage area covered by posterior capsule opacification over time.  (+info)

Measuring geographic atrophy in advanced age-related macular degeneration. (8/1386)

PURPOSE: To present a method developed for measuring areas of geographic atrophy (GA) in advanced age-related macular degeneration, METHODS: A microfilm reader projected the 30 degrees fundus photograph of the macula. Retinal landmarks, atrophic areas, and spared areas within the atrophy were traced, without access to drawings of other years. The total atrophic area was calculated, as was the atrophy within a four-disc-area circle entered on the estimated foveal center. The configuration of the atrophy was documented. RESULTS: Avoidable sources of discrepancy included variability in peripapillary atrophy seen on the photograph, and variability seen in the extent of the field. Reproducibility studies found a median absolute difference of 0.19 Macular Photocoagulation Study disc areas (DA) in total atrophy between repeat drawings, with 75% of repeat drawings having a difference of less than 0.33 DA. For central atrophy measures, there was a median difference of 0.08 DA, with 75% of pairs having a difference of less than 0.18 DA. Features making the definition of borders of GA difficult include the presence of drusen and pigmentary alteration, a fundus in which choroidal vessels are easily visible, and variation in the appearance of GA within a single area of atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: This method provides a reliable means of measuring the size of atrophic areas in GA and will be useful for measuring longitudinal change. It may be difficult to determine whether central spared areas are present, and correlation with visual acuity and macular perimetry may be helpful.  (+info)

  • Many travel photographers specialise in a particular aspect of photography such as travel portraits, landscape or documentary photography as well as shooting all aspects of travel. (
  • Much of today's Travel Photography style is derived from early work in Magazines such as National Geographic magazine from photographers such as Steve McCurry. (
  • Travel photography, unlike other genres like fashion, product, or food photography, is still an underestimated and relatively less monetized genre, though the challenges faced by travel photographers are lot greater than some of the genres where the light and other shooting conditions may be controllable. (
  • Traditionally travel photographers earned money through Stock photography, magazine assignments and commercial projects. (
  • Nowadays, the stock photography market has collapsed and more and more photographers are using more innovative methods of earning a living such as through blogging, public speaking, commercial projects and teaching. (
  • Photographers like Steve McCurry are often commissioned to shoot commercial advertising work using their skills from travel and documentary photography to produce powerful advertising images. (
  • There are hordes of photographers out there, working with back-to-basics pinhole cameras and pixeled images measured in gigabytes, with street photography taken by cell phones and massive photo "shoots" whose crews, complexity and expense resemble those of movie sets. (
  • The Compelling Image offers online photography schools and interactive courses for photographers and multimedia storytellers of all skill levels and interests - an affordable, convenient and inspiring way to learn and improve your photography. (
  • Szarkowski hoped thus to place contemporary creation at the center of the department's programming: "New Photography will occupy twice the space of our former one-man series, and will show three or four photographers whose work-individually and collectively-seems to represent the most interesting achievements of new photography. (
  • Many of the photographers and artists represented in this volume were first shown at MoMA in a New Photography exhibition, which also provided the occasion for their first works to be acquired by the Museum. (
  • We remain committed to championing the best in photography and are always looking for exceptional photographers with a unique visual style. (
  • As commercial photographers embrace digital photography, earlier methods become the terrain of fine art. (
  • Founded in 1910, NYIP is the oldest and largest photography school in the world, having successfully trained thousands of photographers over more than 100 years. (
  • This is not a good place to simply share cool photos or promote your work, but rather a place to discuss photography as an art and post things that would be of interest to other photographers. (
  • Wet plate collodion photography, invented in 1851, has experienced a resurge in recent years as photographers turn to this antiquated method for its moody, even haunting, images. (
  • In this image made by Euphus Ruth Jr. of Greenville, Miss., is Estill Baptist Church in Estill, Miss. Once a thriving church, it's no longer in use and slowly deteriorating at the edge of cotton fields, according to Ruth Jr.. Wet plate collodion photography, invented in 1851, has experienced a resurge in recent years as photographers turn to this antiquated method for its moody, haunting images and complicated, hands-on process. (
  • Infrared photography, however, is usually only attempted by skilled photographers, scientists, and technicians with a particular purpose in mind. (
  • Many photographers use photography to express their creativity, using lighting, composition, depth, color, and content to make their photographs into more than snapshots. (
  • The five Wix photographers behind these stunning shots have excellently mastered portrait photography, so we asked them to share some of their wisdom. (
  • For many long-time photographers, their photography license is metaphorical, obtained by building and maintaining a good reputation for quality work. (
  • However, it's good for professional photographers who work full-time or operate a photography business on the side to obtain a license for tax purposes. (
  • If you specialize in a specific type of photography, register with an association or organization of those photographers. (
  • The Photography Biennale of the contemporary Arab world is a cultural event, established by the Arab World Institute and the Maison européenne de la photographie (European Photography Institute) whose aim is to develop a unique panorama of the contemporary photographers operating in - and on - the Arab world since the early 2000s. (
  • Creating great portrait photography. (
  • Would love to be invited to some photography assignments so that I can broaden my experience, have always wanted to try portrait style, any offers or volunteers? (
  • Whether your dream is to capture that definitive portrait, to have your photos grace the pages of a leading fashion magazine or to take photos for the world's leading brands, Centennial College's two-year Photography program will help you achieve your goals. (
  • The National Museum of African American History and Culture displays-for the first time-the Emily Howland photography album containing a previously unknown portrait of abolitionist and Underground Railroad-conductor Harriet Tubman. (
  • Avalanche Photography provides premium creative wedding and portrait photography services. (
  • From the original "selfie" way back in 1839 to high school yearbook pictures, portrait photography is a notable experience for all parties involved. (
  • Because of its powerful effects, portrait photography is also one of the hardest genres to master. (
  • We asked French photographer Arthur Janin what, in his opinion, are the crucial skills when it comes to portrait photography. (
  • Max believes that providing warm, good vibes is an essential skill to master when it comes to portrait photography. (
  • It's often said that the key to portrait photography is simplicity. (
  • Due to advances in sensor technology, today's small-sensor digital cameras can rival the macro capabilities of a DSLR with a "true" macro lens, despite having a lower reproduction ratio, making macro photography more widely accessible at a lower cost. (
  • One of the earliest pioneers of macro photography was Percy Smith , born in 1880. (
  • Macro" lenses specifically designed for close-up work, with a long barrel for close focusing and optimized for high reproduction ratios, are one of the most common tools for macro photography. (
  • Extending the distance between the lens and the film or sensor, by inserting either extension tubes or a continuously adjustable bellows , is another equipment option for macro photography. (
  • Thinking small for a big impact with macro photography. (
  • Journey to a new world and make small subjects larger than life with macro photography tips. (
  • Pinkies from Food Chain: Encounters Between Mates, Predators and Prey by Catherine Chalmers Photographer Catherine Chalmers (who may be best known in biology circles for her portraits of genetically modified mice) goes beyond brutal accuracy in her animal photography. (
  • In the second part of VDF's collaboration with Zoomed In festival , photographer Iñigo Bujedo Aguirre explains his journey from photojournalism to architectural photography. (
  • In this hands-on photography diploma program, you'll be capturing images from day one and learning the technology, techniques and business theory for a lasting career as a professional photographer. (
  • Infrared photography is of interest to the amateur and commercial photographer and to scientists and technologists because it produces images that are not possible with conventional photographic films. (
  • Amateur Travel photography is often shared through sites like Flickr , 500px and 1x . (
  • A few landscape photos and candid street photography can also be viewed by visiting my galleries on Flickr and Facebook. (
  • Travel photography as a genre is one of the most open in terms of the subjects it covers. (
  • This genre of photography entails shooting a wide variety of subjects under varied available conditions, e.g. low light photography indoors, available ambient light photography for exteriors of buildings and monuments, shooting on the streets where sometimes conditions may be hostile, capturing moments which rarely recur, capturing the magic of light while shooting landscapes, etc. (
  • The New York Institute of Photography was just named one of Best Online College's top online photography schools. (
  • /r/photography is not /r/Instagram or /r/Facebook (or a place that's at all specific to any other platform), and as such it's not a place to make posts complaining about those platforms or whatever subjective content happens to be popular at the moment. (
  • And the establishment's seal of approval for photography has been renewed in two current museum exhibitions. (
  • In the 1980s, as more and more institutions and galleries became as interested in photography as they were in what was beginning to be referred to as "contemporary art," the main channel for contemporary photography at MoMA was the New Photography exhibitions, made up primarily of noncollection works. (
  • ePHOTOzine brings you a daily round up of all the latest photography news including camera news, exhibitions, events, special offers, industry news, digital photography news, announcements and launches. (
  • The introduction in 1851 of a so-called wet-collodion process for photography provided a means for producing a photographic negative as the basic element in the preparation of engravings. (
  • Computational photography research explores the power of AI and computer vision, pushing the limits of what is possible by helping people fully and easily utilize technology with innovative photography apps and services. (
  • In this course we will survey the converging technologies of digital photography, computational imaging, and image-based rendering, and we will explore the new imaging modalities that they enable. (
  • It is here that you'll become more focused online photography classes to the nuances of gestures and body language and how they might bring "moments" and emotions to the photos you capture. (
  • Winning photos will be published in future issues of Audubon and Nature's Best Photography magazines and will travel across the country in a special Audubon Photography Awards exhibit. (
  • Rules of etiquette are usually unwritten, but as we enter a time & place where there is no cultural standard for photographing and circulating photos of your genitals these aspects of etiquette have been written to be used as a guide to clarify the uncertainty of genital photography. (
  • Shop light wands for fill lighting and product photography, and Polaroid cameras and film for quick reference photos or for sharing photos with family and friends. (
  • A photography or paint triplet is set of three photos or paints usually related to one event or developing a theme or story. (
  • When four photos or paints are together, it is called photography quadruplet. (
  • Once you and your kids have mastered aerial photography shot from your RC plane, you can move onto aerial stereoscopy, where-in you produce 3D images of the earth from the sky. (
  • The need to develop films for specialized scientific applications eventually resulted in the availability of infrared films that could be put to more practical uses in a large number of other applications and fields, from medicine and law enforcement to aerial photography, fine art, and many others. (
  • In the third part of Virtual Design Festival's collaboration with Zoomed In festival , we streamed a discussion on architectural photography in the media with Anthony Coleman, Edmund Sumner , James Brittain and Robert Torday. (
  • Worked uniquely & in collaboration with a Stock Photography supplier to maximize imagery availability to the University. (
  • Explore our planet through photography and imagery, including climate change and water all the way back to the 1800s when the USGS was surveying the country by horse and buggy. (
  • In "Depth of Field"- the first installation in the new contemporary-photography galleries at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, on display through March 23-the fare includes Thomas Struth's hyperdetailed chromogenic print of the interior of San Zaccaria in Venice and Adam Fuss's exposure of a piece of photo paper floating in water to a simultaneous splash and strobe. (
  • Silver Eye Center for Photography is a nationally-recognized, non-collecting institution exclusively dedicated to contemporary photography. (
  • With our singular commitment to exhibiting and promoting contemporary photography and photo-based multimedia, we are unique in Pittsburgh and the region. (
  • Explore ways to artistically capture scenic views with tips on landscape photography. (
  • Master shallow depth of field with tips and advice from photography experts. (
  • Lift your sunset and sunrise compositions beyond the everyday using the simple tips provided in Low Light Photography. (
  • Every issue of Practical Photography is packed with expert advice and tips that will help YOU improve your photography. (
  • Explore the world of culinary photography with advice from industry professionals. (
  • Explore double exposure photography and learn how to create one yourself. (
  • Explore the possibilities of nature photography, from animals in motion to sprawling landscapes. (
  • - Photography Speaks II provides a thoughtful introduction to photography through the words and images of artists who have shaped the medium over the last 150 years. (
  • Use of a tripod may also allow for a more thoughtful approach to photography. (
  • Blumenkrantz taught photography workshops at the French Cultural Center in Nairobi, and conducted a training course in photography for former rebel soldiers in Eritrea. (
  • Workshops, portfolios and online appointment scheduling gives your photography site design an edge over the competition. (
  • All three pioneers, Niepce, Daguerre, and Talbot, along with Sir John Herschel -who in 1819 discovered the suitability of hyposulfite of soda, or "hypo," as a fixing agent for sensitized paper images and who is generally credited with giving the new medium its name-deserve to share the title Inventor of Photography. (
  • If you just want to share some great photography-related deals, please use /r/PhotographyDeals/ . (
  • Exhibition exploring the development (no pun intended) of photography during the Victorian age, when the pasttime became a major craze. (
  • In this program, Tony Sweet demonstrates many of the photography techniques, from the traditional to more creative options, that give his flower images a distinctive look. (
  • still photography, science and art of making permanent images on light-sensitive materials. (
  • The necessary first breakthrough in photography was in a different, not eye-centered area-that of making permanent photographic images. (
  • Posting images is only allowed as self-post using the photo as an example for the discussion, either to begin a general conversation about some aspects of the example or to ask a photography-related question. (
  • This photography program will prepare you for the aesthetic and technical demands that come with working in studio or on location to produce captivating images that tell a story. (
  • Over two years, you'll progressively build the skills to compete in the commercial photography industry, and learn what it takes to grow your brand and create stunning images for a variety of clients. (
  • Now in its fifth year, this international annual photography awards features print images, moving image, 3D and installations in categories including fine art, fashion, sport, portraiture and photojournalism. (
  • Multiple images chained together are called photography fold. (
  • Travel photography is a genre of photography that may involve the documentation of an area's landscape, people, cultures, customs and history. (
  • My main interests in photography up to now have been old things ruins, derelict buildings, landscape, some a bit more abstract, but will photograph anything that catches my eye. (
  • Landscape, Wildlife, & Outdoor Photography! (
  • - This best-selling, comprehensive guide to photography- featuring superb instructional illustrations- is the most cutting-edge photography book on the market. (
  • Whether you're into quick filters or detailed edits, these photography apps should help you get the most out of your snapshots. (
  • Many others are doubling up as educators in the field of ambient light photography. (
  • One of the first difficulties we encounter in photography is the measurement of the light and selecting the correct exposure. (
  • Founded in 1985, Silver Eye has been at the forefront of celebrating photography, both as an expressive art form and as a medium that brings to light the telling details and larger stories that influence and inform an understanding of ourselves and the world. (
  • Low Light Photography shows you how - with a minimum of jargon. (
  • These properties permit infrared photography to be used as an important adjunct to photography by normal light. (
  • The light sources commonly used in photography are also suitable for use with infrared materials. (
  • Apart from technical photography and film-based processes, where the size of the image on the negative or image sensor is the subject of discussion, the finished print or on-screen image more commonly lends a photograph its macro status. (
  • Designed in an accessible format that provides a brief biography, an artist's statement, and a representative image, this book offers a personalized history of photography through amusing anecdotes, introspective musings, conversations, war stories, and even verse. (
  • The feasibility of the method was demonstrated in about 1850, when a halftone image was produced by photography through a screen of loosely woven fabric. (
  • When you complete the Photography program, you'll have the skills to operate your own photography business or find employment in related occupations such as fine art printing, advertising, publishing, graphic design, and gallery and studio management. (
  • A report from the National Endowment for the Arts shows that photography and photo-finishing services contributed $10.2 billion to the US economy in 2015. (
  • A lot of my concert shots were taken with Canon 350D that in terms of photography at high ISO is very noisy and does not allow to choose value over 1600, and also without any fast zoom lens. (
  • Most modern macro lenses can focus continuously to infinity as well and can provide excellent optical quality for normal photography. (
  • True macro lenses, such as the Canon MP-E 65 mm f /2.8 or Minolta AF 3x-1x 1.7-2.8 Macro, can achieve higher magnification than life size, enabling photography of the structure of small insect eyes, snowflakes, and other minuscule objects. (
  • This exclusive photography by Monica Nouwens captures the razing of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art , as part of controversial plans to redevelop the site with a Peter Zumthor-designed building. (