Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile
Evoked Potentials, Visual
Electric Stimulation Therapy
Deep Brain Stimulation
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Evoked Potentials, Motor
Sympathetic Nervous System
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. (1/15800)It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results. (+info)
The neuronal basis of a sensory analyser, the acridid movement detector system. I. Effects of simple incremental and decremental stimuli in light and dark adapted animals. (2/15800)1. The response of the movement detector (MD) system to proportionally constant incremental and decremental stimuli has been studied at various degrees of light and dark adaptation. Action potentials in the descending contralateral movement detector neurone were taken as the indicator of response. 2. Over a range of at least six log10 units of adapting luminance, the MD system behaves as an ON/OFF unit, giving responses to both incremental and decremental changes in the illumination of a 5 degrees target. 3. With increasing amplitudes of stimuli, both the ON and OFF responses saturate rapidly. Saturation is reached sooner at higher levels of light adaptation. At all levels of light adaptation, the OFF response is greater than the ON. The ratio for saturating stimuli is approximately constant at around 3:2. 4. At the brightest adapting luminances used (20 000 cd/m2) the ON response is reduced but not lost. At the lowest (0-004 cd/m2) the OFF response to a 5 degrees disc fails, but can be regained by increasing the test area to 10 degrees. 5. From what is known of the retina of locusts and other insects, it is thought that light and dark adaptation in the MD system can be adequately explained by events at the retinula cell. (+info)
MST neuronal responses to heading direction during pursuit eye movements. (3/15800)As you move through the environment, you see a radial pattern of visual motion with a focus of expansion (FOE) that indicates your heading direction. When self-movement is combined with smooth pursuit eye movements, the turning of the eye distorts the retinal image of the FOE but somehow you still can perceive heading. We studied neurons in the medial superior temporal area (MST) of monkey visual cortex, recording responses to FOE stimuli presented during fixation and smooth pursuit eye movements. Almost all neurons showed significant changes in their FOE selective responses during pursuit eye movements. However, the vector average of all the neuronal responses indicated the direction of the FOE during both fixation and pursuit. Furthermore, the amplitude of the net vector increased with increasing FOE eccentricity. We conclude that neuronal population encoding in MST might contribute to pursuit-tolerant heading perception. (+info)
Eye movement deficits following ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi in monkeys II. Pursuit, vestibular, and optokinetic responses. (4/15800)The eyes are moved by a combination of neural commands that code eye velocity and eye position. The eye position signal is supposed to be derived from velocity-coded command signals by mathematical integration via a single oculomotor neural integrator. For horizontal eye movements, the neural integrator is thought to reside in the rostral nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (nph) and project directly to the abducens nuclei. In a previous study, permanent, serial ibotenic acid lesions of the nph in three rhesus macaques compromised the neural integrator for fixation but saccades were not affected. In the present study, to determine further whether the nph is the neural substrate for a single oculomotor neural integrator, the effects of those lesions on smooth pursuit, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), vestibular nystagmus (VN), and optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) are documented. The lesions were correlated with long-lasting deficits in eye movements, indicated most clearly by the animals' inability to maintain steady gaze in the dark. However, smooth pursuit and sinusoidal VOR in the dark, like the saccades in the previous study, were affected minimally. The gain of horizontal smooth pursuit (eye movement/target movement) decreased slightly (<25%) and phase lead increased slightly for all frequencies (0.3-1.0 Hz, +/-10 degrees target tracking), most noticeably for higher frequencies (0.8-0.7 and approximately 20 degrees for 1.0-Hz tracking). Vertical smooth pursuit was not affected significantly. Surprisingly, horizontal sinusoidal VOR gain and phase also were not affected significantly. Lesions had complex effects on both VN and OKN. The plateau of per- and postrotatory VN was shortened substantially ( approximately 50%), whereas the initial response and the time constant of decay decreased slightly. The initial OKN response also decreased slightly, and the charging phase was prolonged transiently then recovered to below normal levels like the VN time constant. Maximum steady-state, slow eye velocity of OKN decreased progressively by approximately 30% over the course of the lesions. These results support the previous conclusion that the oculomotor neural integrator is not a single neural entity and that the mathematical integrative function for different oculomotor subsystems is most likely distributed among a number of nuclei. They also show that the nph apparently is not involved in integrating smooth pursuit signals and that lesions of the nph can fractionate the VOR and nystagmic responses to adequate stimuli. (+info)
Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (5/15800)Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission. (+info)
Correlated firing in rabbit retinal ganglion cells. (6/15800)A ganglion cell's receptive field is defined as that region on the retinal surface in which a light stimulus will produce a response. While neighboring ganglion cells may respond to the same stimulus in a region where their receptive fields overlap, it generally has been assumed that each cell makes an independent decision about whether to fire. Recent recordings from cat and salamander retina using multiple electrodes have challenged this view of independent firing by showing that neighboring ganglion cells have an increased tendency to fire together within +/-5 ms. However, there is still uncertainty about which types of ganglion cells fire together, the mechanisms that produce coordinated spikes, and the overall function of coordinated firing. To address these issues, the responses of up to 80 rabbit retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously using a multielectrode array. Of the 11 classes of rabbit ganglion cells previously identified, coordinated firing was observed in five. Plots of the spike train cross-correlation function suggested that coordinated firing occurred through two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, a spike in an interneuron diverged to produce simultaneous spikes in two ganglion cells. This mechanism predominated in four of the five classes including the ON brisk transient cells. In the second mechanism, ganglion cells appeared to activate each other reciprocally. This was the predominant pattern of correlated firing in OFF brisk transient cells. By comparing the receptive field profiles of ON and OFF brisk transient cells, a peripheral extension of the OFF brisk transient cell receptive field was identified that might be produced by lateral spike spread. Thus an individual OFF brisk transient cell can respond both to a light stimulus directed at the center of its receptive field and to stimuli that activate neighboring OFF brisk transient cells through their receptive field centers. (+info)
Evidence for an eye-centered spherical representation of the visuomotor map. (7/15800)During visually guided movement, visual coordinates of target location must be transformed into coordinates appropriate for movement. To investigate the representation of this visuomotor coordinate transformation, we examined changes in pointing behavior induced by a local visuomotor remapping. The visual feedback of finger position was limited to one location within the workspace, at which a discrepancy was introduced between the actual and visually perceived finger position. This remapping induced a change in pointing that extended over the entire workspace and was best captured by a spherical coordinate system centered near the eyes. (+info)
Visuomotor processing as reflected in the directional discharge of premotor and primary motor cortex neurons. (8/15800)Premotor and primary motor cortical neuronal firing was studied in two monkeys during an instructed delay, pursuit tracking task. The task included a premovement "cue period," during which the target was presented at the periphery of the workspace and moved to the center of the workspace along one of eight directions at one of four constant speeds. The "track period" consisted of a visually guided, error-constrained arm movement during which the animal tracked the target as it moved from the central start box along a line to the opposite periphery of the workspace. Behaviorally, the animals tracked the required directions and speeds with highly constrained trajectories. The eye movements consisted of saccades to the target at the onset of the cue period, followed by smooth pursuit intermingled with saccades throughout the cue and track periods. Initially, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for direction and period effects in the firing. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was used to fit the average firing from the cue and track periods to a cosine model. Directional tuning as determined by a significant fit to the cosine model was a prominent feature of the discharge during both the cue and track periods. However, the directional tuning of the firing of a single cell was not always constant across the cue and track periods. Approximately one-half of the neurons had differences in their preferred directions (PDs) of >45 degrees between cue and track periods. The PD in the cue or track period was not dependent on the target speed. A second linear regression analysis based on calculation of the preferred direction in 20-ms bins (i.e., the PD trajectory) was used to examine on a finer time scale the temporal evolution of this change in directional tuning. The PD trajectories in the cue period were not straight but instead rotated over the workspace to align with the track period PD. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations occurred. The PD trajectories were relatively straight during most of the track period. The rotation and eventual convergence of the PD trajectories in the cue period to the preferred direction of the track period may reflect the transformation of visual information into motor commands. The widely dispersed PD trajectories in the cue period would allow targets to be detected over a wide spatial aperture. The convergence of the PD trajectories occurring at the cue-track transition may serve as a "Go" signal to move that was not explicitly supplied by the paradigm. Furthermore, the rotation and convergence of the PD trajectories may provide a mechanism for nonstandard mapping. Standard mapping refers to a sensorimotor transformation in which the stimulus is the object of the reach. Nonstandard mapping is the mapping of an arbitrary stimulus into an arbitrary movement. The shifts in the PD may allow relevant visual information from any direction to be transformed into an appropriate movement direction, providing a neural substrate for nonstandard stimulus-response mappings. (+info)
Epilepsy, reflex is a type of epilepsy that is characterized by seizures that are triggered by a specific reflex or stimulus. These seizures are often sudden and may involve muscle spasms, loss of consciousness, or other symptoms. Reflex seizures are typically brief and may be triggered by a variety of stimuli, such as sudden movements, flashing lights, or certain sounds. They are usually not associated with any underlying brain damage or structural abnormalities, and they can often be successfully managed with medication.
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a type of epilepsy that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by sudden, involuntary muscle jerks or twitches (myoclonic jerks) that can occur in the face, arms, or legs. These jerks are usually brief and may be followed by a brief period of confusion or dizziness. JME is often associated with other types of seizures, such as generalized tonic-clonic seizures (also known as grand mal seizures) or absence seizures. It is usually treated with antiepileptic medications, which can help to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.
Myoclonus is a type of involuntary muscle twitching or jerking that occurs suddenly and without warning. It can affect any muscle in the body, but is most commonly seen in the arms, legs, and trunk. Myoclonus can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease, as well as metabolic disorders, infections, and drug reactions. It can also be a normal phenomenon that occurs during sleep or in response to certain stimuli. Myoclonus can be a distressing and disruptive symptom, and treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause or using medications to reduce its frequency and severity.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, which are sudden, unprovoked electrical disturbances in the brain. These seizures can cause a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered behavior, and sensory experiences such as tingling or flashing lights. Epilepsy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, brain injury, infection, or brain tumors. It can also be idiopathic, meaning that the cause is unknown. There are several types of epilepsy, including partial seizures, generalized seizures, and absence seizures. Treatment for epilepsy typically involves medication to control seizures, although surgery or other interventions may be necessary in some cases.
Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure used to treat certain neurological and movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor, and epilepsy. The procedure involves implanting a small device, called a neurostimulator, into the brain, which sends electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain to reduce symptoms of the disorder. During DBS surgery, a neurosurgeon makes a small incision in the scalp and skull to access the brain. They then use imaging techniques, such as MRI or CT scans, to guide the placement of electrodes into the targeted area of the brain. The electrodes are connected to the neurostimulator, which is typically placed under the skin near the collarbone. Once the device is implanted, it can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses to the targeted area of the brain at specific intervals. The frequency and intensity of the impulses can be adjusted as needed to optimize symptom control and minimize side effects. DBS is considered a highly effective treatment for certain neurological and movement disorders, with many patients experiencing significant improvements in their symptoms after surgery. However, the procedure is not without risks, and patients should carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before making a decision to undergo DBS.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
In the medical field, "cats" typically refers to Felis catus, which is the scientific name for the domestic cat. Cats are commonly kept as pets and are known for their agility, playful behavior, and affectionate nature. In veterinary medicine, cats are commonly treated for a variety of health conditions, including respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal issues, and dental problems. Cats can also be used in medical research to study various diseases and conditions, such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders. In some cases, the term "cats" may also refer to a group of animals used in medical research or testing. For example, cats may be used to study the effects of certain drugs or treatments on the immune system or to test new vaccines.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
Action potentials are electrical signals that are generated by neurons in the nervous system. They are responsible for transmitting information throughout the body and are the basis of all neural communication. When a neuron is at rest, it has a negative electrical charge inside the cell and a positive charge outside the cell. When a stimulus is received by the neuron, it causes the membrane around the cell to become more permeable to sodium ions. This allows sodium ions to flow into the cell, causing the membrane potential to become more positive. This change in membrane potential is called depolarization. Once the membrane potential reaches a certain threshold, an action potential is generated. This is a rapid and brief change in the membrane potential that travels down the length of the neuron. The action potential is characterized by a rapid rise in membrane potential, followed by a rapid fall, and then a return to the resting membrane potential. Action potentials are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. They allow neurons to communicate with each other and transmit information throughout the body. They are also involved in a variety of important physiological processes, including muscle contraction, hormone release, and sensory perception.
Acoustic Stimulation refers to the use of sound waves to stimulate or activate certain areas of the brain or body. This technique is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes, including: 1. Treating hearing loss: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to stimulate the auditory nerve and improve hearing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. 2. Treating tinnitus: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to reduce the perception of ringing or buzzing in the ears, which is commonly known as tinnitus. 3. Treating sleep disorders: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to promote relaxation and improve sleep in individuals with insomnia or other sleep disorders. 4. Treating neurological disorders: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to stimulate specific areas of the brain to improve symptoms of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Acoustic Stimulation is typically delivered through a device that emits low-level sound waves, which are then directed to the targeted area of the body or brain. The frequency and intensity of the sound waves can be adjusted to optimize the therapeutic effect.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Isoproterenol is a synthetic beta-adrenergic agonist that is used in the medical field as a medication. It is a drug that mimics the effects of adrenaline (epinephrine) and can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, heart failure, and bradycardia (a slow heart rate). Isoproterenol works by binding to beta-adrenergic receptors on the surface of cells, which triggers a cascade of events that can lead to increased heart rate, relaxation of smooth muscle, and dilation of blood vessels. This can help to improve blood flow and oxygen delivery to the body's tissues, and can also help to reduce inflammation and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways). Isoproterenol is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, inhalers, and intravenous solutions. It is typically administered as a short-acting medication, although longer-acting formulations are also available. Side effects of isoproterenol can include tremors, palpitations, and increased heart rate, and the drug may interact with other medications that affect the heart or blood vessels.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell proliferation. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, and its levels are regulated by various hormones and neurotransmitters. In the medical field, cAMP is often studied in the context of its role in regulating cellular signaling pathways. For example, cAMP is involved in the regulation of the immune system, where it helps to activate immune cells and promote inflammation. It is also involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, where it helps to regulate heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, cAMP is often used as a tool in research to study cellular signaling pathways. For example, it is commonly used to activate or inhibit specific signaling pathways in cells, allowing researchers to study the effects of these pathways on cellular function.
Atropine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of conditions, including bradycardia (slow heart rate), poisoning by certain drugs or toxins, and certain types of eye surgery. It is also used to treat symptoms of certain medical conditions, such as motion sickness and irritable bowel syndrome. Atropine works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in many bodily functions, including muscle contractions, heart rate, and digestion. This can cause a number of side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, and difficulty urinating. Atropine is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, injections, and eye drops. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking atropine, as the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific condition being treated.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Afferent pathways refer to the neural pathways that carry sensory information from the body's sensory receptors to the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These pathways are responsible for transmitting information about the external environment and internal bodily sensations to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent pathways can be further divided into two types: sensory afferent pathways and motor afferent pathways. Sensory afferent pathways carry information about sensory stimuli, such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure, from the body's sensory receptors to the CNS. Motor afferent pathways, on the other hand, carry information about the state of the body's muscles and organs to the CNS. Afferent pathways are essential for our ability to perceive and respond to the world around us. Any damage or dysfunction to these pathways can result in sensory deficits or other neurological disorders.
Intermittent photic stimulation
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain
Management of drug-resistant epilepsy
Photic sneeze reflex
Remote control animal
Samuel Ottmar Mast
Evaluation of a clinical glare test based on estimation of intraocular light scatter
EEG in Dementia and Encephalopathy: Overview, Dementia, Vascular Dementia
Benign Childhood Epilepsy: Overview, Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions, Benign Idiopathic Neonatal Convulsions
Gina Vincent's research topics | Profiles RNS
Separation in the visual field has divergent effects on discriminating the speed and the direction of motion.
Engage Therapeutics announces Phase 2a data from Staccato alprazolam study | Drug Discovery News
Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy: MedlinePlus Genetics
Lighting the Way - SRI Magazine 2013 - Sunnybrook Research Institute
John Libbey Eurotext - Epileptic Disorders - How to diagnose and classify idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsies
Switching between visuomotor mappings: Learning absolute mappings or relative shifts - Research Repository
Clonazepam Orally Disintegrating Tablets, USP
Subjects: Retina -- physiology - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine Search Results
J. David Glass | Kent State University
Functional Clusters of Neurons in Layer 6 of Macaque V1.
Morten Møller - Research outputs - Employees
Selective attention to pain: a psychophysical investigation. - Department of Experimental Psychology
Autistic traits are linked to reduced adaptive coding of face identity and selectively poorer face recognition in men but not...
Wenjuan Zhang - Citation Index - NCSU Libraries
Alpha rhythm. Medical search
"Visual subcircuit-specific dysfunction and input-specific mispatternin" by Rachel B. Kay, Nicole A. Gabreski et al.
Clare Sutherland - Fingerprint - The University of Aberdeen Research Portal
Sabine Kastner - Research output - Princeton University
Spinoza Centre for Neuroimaging - Research output - Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW)
Radiology - Research output - University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Quantification of Oculomotor Responses and Accommodation through Instrumentation and Analysis Toolboxes - Fingerprint -...
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- Convulsions produced in rodents by pentylenetetrazol or, to a lesser extent, electrical stimulation are antagonized, as are convulsions produced by photic stimulation in susceptible baboons. (nih.gov)
- Photic stimulation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus via the non-visual optic system. (ku.dk)
- Myoclonus can occur when an affected person is at rest, and it is made worse by motion, excitement, or flashing light (photic stimulation). (medlineplus.gov)
- Photic stimulation may refer to: Intermittent photic stimulation as diagnostic procedure Any stimulation involving photons This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Photic stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
- Some recordings included photic stimulation and hyperventilation. (medscape.com)
- If a seizure disorder is suspected and the routine EEG is normal, maneuvers that electrically activate the cortex (eg, hyperventilation, photic stimulation, sleep, sleep deprivation) can sometimes elicit evidence of a seizure disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
- Tasaki, I. The strength-duration relation in photic stimulation of the dark-adapted human eye. (nih.gov)
- Bikson, M. Transcranial direct current stimulation and neurovascular modulation. (napapainconference.com)
- Participants were asked to detect the presence of a visual stimulus (yes/no task) either presented in isolation (i.e., unimodal visual stimulation) or simultaneously with auditory stimuli, which could be placed in the same spatial position (i.e., crossmodal congruent conditions) or in different spatial positions (i.e., crossmodal incongruent conditions). (edgehill.ac.uk)
- Photic stimulation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus via the non-visual optic system. (nih.gov)
- To block off the anxiety-inducing sights and sounds of hospital surroundings and create a pleasing environment, the therapeutic potential of visual stimulation as a nursing intervention was investigated. (nih.gov)
- Effects of Visual Stimulation. (nih.gov)
- Behavioral and neurophysiological studies have shown an enhancement of visual perception in crossmodal audiovisual stimulation conditions, both for sensitivity and reaction times, when the stimulation in the two sensory modalities occurs in condition of space and time congruency. (edgehill.ac.uk)
- The purpose of the present work is to verify whether congruent visual and acoustic stimulations can improve the detection of visual stimuli in people affected by low vision. (edgehill.ac.uk)
- This effect is selective for visual stimulation that occurs in the portion of visual field that is impaired, and disappears in the region of space in which vision is spared. (edgehill.ac.uk)
- However, a 2008 review of the BWE literature found that delta stimulation was associated with improvement in migraines and other headaches and reduction in short-term stress. (goodtherapy.org)
- Dr. Bikson co-invented High-Definition transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS), the first non-invasive, targeted, and low-intensity neuromodulation technology. (napapainconference.com)
- Cancel, L.M. Silas, D., Bikson, M., Tarbell, J.M. (2022) Direct current stimulation modulates gene expression in isolated astrocytes with implications for glia-mediated plasticity. (napapainconference.com)
- Combination of transcranial direct current stimulation with online cognitive training improves symptoms of Post-acute Sequelae of COVID-19: A case series. (napapainconference.com)
- Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in children with ADHD: A randomized, sham-controlled pilot study. (napapainconference.com)
- Photic stimulation may refer to: Intermittent photic stimulation as diagnostic procedure Any stimulation involving photons This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Photic stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
- He has published over 250 articles on medical device technology and brain stimulation. (napapainconference.com)
- There is tremendous research taking place which is showing that the brain is benefitting from different types of stimulation in order to shift its function into a more flexible state of functioning. (restorebehavioralhealth.com)