Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.PhosphoproteinsTyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Phosphothreonine: The phosphoric acid ester of threonine. Used as an identifier in the analysis of peptides, proteins, and enzymes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.PhosphopeptidesPrecipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.MaleimidesIsoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)DiglyceridesPhorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesIndoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.ChromonesOkadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.MorpholinesInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Casein Kinase I: A casein kinase that was originally described as a monomeric enzyme with a molecular weight of 30-40 kDa. Several ISOENZYMES of casein kinase I have been found which are encoded by separate genes. Many of the casein kinase I isoenzymes have been shown to play distinctive roles in intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5: A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Janus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Phosphorylation and possible regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (14): 8063-70. doi:10.1074/jbc ... Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26) also known as GTPase Regulator Associated with Focal Adhesion Kinase (GRAF) is a ... "An SH3 domain-containing GTPase-activating protein for Rho and Cdc42 associates with focal adhesion kinase". Mol. Cell. Biol. ... the GTPase-activating protein for rho associated with focal adhesion kinase. ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MKK1) is negatively regulated by threonine phosphorylation". Mol Cell Biol. 14 (3): ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • nucleotide binding. • MAP kinase kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. • protein ... MAP2K1 is also known as MEK1 (see Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). MEK1 is a meiotic chromosome-axis-associated kinase ... "Entrez Gene: MAP2K1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1".. *^ a b Goldfarb T, Lichten M (2010). "Frequent and efficient ...
"Phosphorylation of PHAS-I by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Identification of a site phosphorylated by MAP kinase in ... "Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo". Mol. ... a novel protein kinase regulated by the p38 MAP kinase". EMBO J. 17 (12): 3372-3384. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.12.3372. PMC 1170675 ... Seeley TW, Wang L, Zhen JY (1999). "Phosphorylation of human MAD1 by the BUB1 kinase in vitro". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. ...
2005). "Phosphorylation of Ser28 in histone H3 mediated by mixed lineage kinase-like mitogen-activated protein triple kinase ... Dai J, Sultan S, Taylor SS, Higgins JM (2005). "The kinase haspin is required for mitotic histone H3 Thr 3 phosphorylation and ... "Novel mitosis-specific phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr11 mediated by Dlk/ZIP kinase". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (3): 878-85. ... 2001). "Methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 creates a binding site for HP1 proteins". Nature. 410 (6824): 116-20. doi:10.1038/ ...
"Short-chain fatty acids induce acute phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/heat shock protein 27 pathway ... 2003). "The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic ... Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the FFAR2 gene. FFAR2 mRNA is expressed in adipose ... 1997). "A cluster of four novel human G protein-coupled receptor genes occurring in close proximity to CD22 gene on chromosome ...
... cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase ... Chen Z, Cobb MH (May 2001). "Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2". J. Biol ...
"ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase binding, phosphorylation, and regulation of the PDE4D cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases. ... "Phosphorylation and activation of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Involvement of serine ... The PDE4D gene is complex and has at least 9 different isoforms that encode functional proteins. These proteins degrade the ... "mAKAP assembles a protein kinase A/PDE4 phosphodiesterase cAMP signaling module". The EMBO Journal. 20 (8): 1921-30. doi: ...
2005). "Phosphorylation of Ser28 in histone H3 mediated by mixed lineage kinase-like mitogen-activated protein triple kinase ... 2004). "Regulation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, MLTK by PKN". J. Biochem. 133 (2): 181-7. doi:10.1093/ ... 2004). "A novel role for mixed-lineage kinase-like mitogen-activated protein triple kinase alpha in neoplastic cell ... Yang JJ (2002). "Mixed lineage kinase ZAK utilizing MKK7 and not MKK4 to activate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and playing a ...
Livingstone C, Patel G, Jones N (Apr 1995). "ATF-2 contains a phosphorylation-dependent transcriptional activation domain". The ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase ... virus type 1 and its coat protein gp120 induce apoptosis and activate JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases in human ...
Yang TT, Xiong Q, Enslen H, Davis RJ, Chow CW (Jun 2002). "Phosphorylation of NFATc4 by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases ... Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFATC4 gene. The product of ... NFATC4 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... Other members of this family of nuclear factors of activated T cells also participate in the formation of this complex. The ...
... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". J. Biol. Chem ... and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK).[28] Messages are translated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) and ... CaMKII activates the Ras proteins, which go on to activate p42/44 MAPK, which drives AMPAR insertion directly into the ...
... kinase 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and regulates its nuclear activity by sustaining its phosphorylation levels». ... de 1997). «Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ... Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... de 2000). «Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase». J ...
"Phosphorylation and activation of cell division cycle associated 5 by mitogen-activated protein kinase play a crucial role in ... 2006). "A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization". Nat. ... Sororin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDCA5 gene. Sororin is required for stable binding of cohesin to ... Transactivation of Sororin and its phosphorylation at Ser209 by ERK play an important role in lung cancer proliferation. GRCh38 ...
"Tumor necrosis factor-induced activation and increased tyrosine phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in ... At the time, interferon was still a poorly defined protein studied by only a handful of scientists across the world. In 1964, ... Lee, T.H.; Wisniewski, H.-G.; Vilcek, J. (1992). "A novel secretory tumor necrosis factor-inducible protein (TSG-6) is a member ... There, in 1959, he embarked on studies of interferon, a protein made in response to infection with viruses and other pathogens ...
... differences in vitro between the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and P38, and glycogen synthase ... 1996). "Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins MAP2 and MAP4 by the protein kinase p110mark. Phosphorylation sites ... 2003). "Aberrant glycosylation modulates phosphorylation of tau by protein kinase A and dephosphorylation of tau by protein ... 1995). "Microtubule-associated protein/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (p110mark). A novel protein kinase that regulates ...
... differences in vitro between the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and P38, and glycogen synthase ... A novel protein kinase that regulates tau-microtubule interactions and dynamic instability by phosphorylation at the Alzheimer- ... This gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family and encodes a protein with one protein kinase domain and two ... This protein is the catalytic member of a 16 subunit protein kinase complex which contains equimolar ratios of 4 subunit types ...
MKK3 and SEK activate p38 MAP kinase by phosphorylation at Thr-180 and Tyr-182. Activated p38 MAP kinase has been shown to ... P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are responsive to stress ... p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) P38mapkPathway p38 ... a novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor: preclinical analysis of efficacy and selectivity". J. Pharmacol. Exp. ...
... inhibits phosphorylation of Akt, p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and src. Additionally, honokiol ... "Anti-Inflammatory Bioactives of Honokiol through Inhibition of Protein Kinase C, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, and the NF- ... Honokiol can reduce calcium influx through inhibition of the fMLP, AlF4−, and thapsigargin G-protein pathways.[20] ... Honokiol disrupts the interfaces post synaptic density protein (PSD95) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS).[1] PSD95 and ...
The signaling pathway P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAP kinase) has also been identified as promoting expression ... kinase controls NF-kappaB transcriptional activation and tumor necrosis factor alpha production through RelA phosphorylation ... Ramesh G, Philipp MT (August 12-19, 2005). "Pathogenesis of Lyme neuroborreliosis: mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk1, Erk2 ... mediated by mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 in response to Borrelia burgdorferi antigens". Infect. Immun. 75 (1 ...
"Phosphorylation and activation of human tyrosine hydroxylase in vitro by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and MAP-kinase- ... MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating protein kinase) has a preference for Ser40, but also phosphorylates Ser19 ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ... two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at serine-31 in situ". ...
Regulation of sequential phosphorylation pathways involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun kinase". The Journal of ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase kinases 2 and 3 activate nuclear factor-kappaB through IkappaB kinase-alpha and ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K2 gene. The protein encoded ... "Regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase by MEKK-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases in rheumatoid arthritis". ...
Ren, X.; Mody, I. (2003). "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate reduces mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation via GABAB receptor ... GHB inhibits mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase action via the GABAB receptor mechanism. MAP kinase is imperative for ... Taurine is a non-protein sulfur amino acid that is found in high concentrations in human milk. It has been shown to have ... GABA acts via binding to its receptors which include the ligand gated ion channels, GABAA and GABAC and the G-protein couple ...
... lymphoid enhancer factor 1/T-cell factor by mitogen-activated protein kinase-related Nemo-like kinase-dependent phosphorylation ... 2003). "The TAK1-NLK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade functions in the Wnt-5a/Ca(2+) pathway to antagonize Wnt/beta- ... This enzyme is a member of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, although not explicitly designated as such (it ... Coulombe P, Meloche S (August 2007). "Atypical mitogen-activated protein kinases: structure, regulation and functions". Biochim ...
... gene encodes an intestinal serine/threonine kinase harboring a dual phosphorylation site found in mitogen-activating protein ( ... a mitogen-activated protein kinase-like TDY motif by autophosphorylation and cyclin-dependent protein kinase-activating kinase ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Intestinal cell kinase or ICK is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ICK gene. ... Eukaryotic protein kinases are enzymes that belong to a very extensive family of proteins which share a conserved catalytic ...
... by mitogen stimulation in intact cells and by mitogen-activated protein kinase in vitro". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (22): 13341-7. doi ... These interactions and, possibly, interactions with target mRNAs are affected by the phosphorylation state of TTP, as the ... protein can be posttranslationally modified by a large number of protein kinases. There is some evidence that the TTP ... Tristetraprolin (TTP), also known as zinc finger protein 36 homolog (ZFP36), is a protein that in humans, mice and rats is ...
"Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... 1995). "Activation of stress-activated protein kinase by MEKK1 phosphorylation of its activator SEK1". Nature. 372 (6508): 798- ... Deacon K, Blank JL (1997). "Characterization of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4)/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
Our recent study has shown that stimulation of Group I mGluRs upregulated FMRP and activated CREB in anterior cingulate cortex ... The transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) is involved in important neuronal functions, such ... Fragile X syndrome is caused by lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to silencing of the FMR1 gene. The ... sensitive calmodulin kinase pathway and a slow, less sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ...
2005) Phosphorylation-dependent degradation of p300 by doxorubicin-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in cardiac ... 1998) Repeated pulses of serotonin required for long-term facilitation activate mitogen-activated protein kinase in sensory ... 2003) A role for COX-2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase in long-term depression in the rat dentate gyrus in vitro. ... 1998) Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Hypertension 32:661-667, ...
Phosphorylation and possible regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (14): 8063-70. doi:10.1074/jbc ... Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26) also known as GTPase Regulator Associated with Focal Adhesion Kinase (GRAF) is a ... "An SH3 domain-containing GTPase-activating protein for Rho and Cdc42 associates with focal adhesion kinase". Mol. Cell. Biol. ... the GTPase-activating protein for rho associated with focal adhesion kinase. ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MKK1) is negatively regulated by threonine phosphorylation". Mol Cell Biol. 14 (3): ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • nucleotide binding. • MAP kinase kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. • protein ... MAP2K1 is also known as MEK1 (see Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). MEK1 is a meiotic chromosome-axis-associated kinase ... "Entrez Gene: MAP2K1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1".. *^ a b Goldfarb T, Lichten M (2010). "Frequent and efficient ...
Singhal PC, Bhaskaran M, Patel J, et al.: Role of P38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and Fas-FasL interaction ...
Duration of streptozotocin-induced diabetes differentially affects p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation ... mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) phosphorylation in kidneys and thoracic aorta. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats ( ... Duration of streptozotocin-induced diabetes differentially affects p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation ... At both 14-days and 28-days post diabetes blood samples were collected and kidney cortex, medulla and aorta were harvested from ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of splicing factor 45 (SPF45) regulates SPF45 alternative splicing site ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase feedback phosphorylation regulates MEK1 complex formation and activation during cellular ... Using genetically engineered kinases to screen for novel protein kinase substrates: phosphorylation of kinase-associated ... Using genetically engineered kinases to screen for novel protein kinase substrates: phosphorylation of substrates in cell ...
... pathways are activated by several stimuli and transduce the signal inside cells, generating diverse responses including cell ... Identification of the regulatory phosphorylation sites in pp42/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase). EMBO J 1991, 10, ... mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway suppresses cell survival by inducing dephosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein/ ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated by several stimuli and transduce the signal inside cells, ...
SAPKK3 MKK6 is a dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase that was first cloned by PCR using degenerate primers... ... MAP2K6; MAPKK6; MEK6; Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 6; PRKMK6; ... Precisely ordered phosphorylation reactions in the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. J Biol Chem. 2013;288(32 ... Regulation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MLTK by PKN. J Biochem. 2003;133(2):181-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
Suppression of UVB-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor kappa B by green tea ... Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit UVB-induced oxidative stress and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases ... Glycyrrhizic acid prevents ultraviolet-B-induced photodamage: a role for mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor ... EGb-761 prevents ultraviolet B-induced photoaging via inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and proinflammatory ...
Yang TT, Xiong Q, Enslen H, Davis RJ, Chow CW: Phosphorylation of NFATc4 by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Mol Cell ... Engelman JA, Berg AH, Lewis RY, Lin A, Lisanti MP, Scherer PE: Constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 ... Camp HS, Tafuri SR: Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity by mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play a pivotal role in many essential cellular ...
Previous studies have shown that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is phosphorylation-dependent and activated ... by different kinase proteins. Serine/threonine kinase plays a very important role in the MAPK pathway. In this study, we ... Proteins in gastric fluids can reduce smectites adsorption capacity for aflatoxins. The objective of this study was to ... The AreA protein contained a signatory zinc finger domain, which is extremely conserved across fungal species. Gene deletion ...
... by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is inhibited by phosphorylation at a consensus mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate activator protein-1-dependent human inducible nitric-oxide synthase promoter ... Mitogen-activated kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), have been proposed to induce the ... through interactions with the protein kinases IκB kinase complex (IKK), 3 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), respectively (3 ...
"Phosphorylation of PHAS-I by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Identification of a site phosphorylated by MAP kinase in ... "Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo". Mol. ... a novel protein kinase regulated by the p38 MAP kinase". EMBO J. 17 (12): 3372-3384. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.12.3372. PMC 1170675 ... Seeley TW, Wang L, Zhen JY (1999). "Phosphorylation of human MAD1 by the BUB1 kinase in vitro". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. ...
2003) Deoxynivalenol-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and IL-6 expression in mice suppressed by fish ... This mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase has been shown to be activated around NFTs in AD (Zhu et al., 2001). ... 2006) Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid modulate mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in endothelium. Vascul ... 2001) Activation and redistribution of c-jun N-terminal kinase/stress activated protein kinase in degenerating neurons in ...
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-specific inhibition by Wortmannin reduces Stx2-induced intracellular Ca2+ indicating that the ... Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-specific inhibition by Wortmannin reduces Stx2-induced intracellular Ca2+ indicating that the ... 2014). Protection of human podocytes from shiga toxin 2-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and ... c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), ribosomal s6 kinase ...
Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK initiates feedback phosphorylation that disrupts the complex its own ... 14 Jul 2009. : ra34 Full AccessRestricted Access. Measurements of its spatial profile reveal the crucial role of asymmetric IP3 ... 14 Jul 2009. : ec237 Full AccessRestricted Access. Activation of the WNT/TCF signaling pathway is associated with brain and ... 14 Jul 2009. : ec240 Full AccessRestricted Access. Withdrawal from opioids in rats induces an increase in synaptic strength in ...
... showed the protein to have a molecular mass of 3228.5 Da, while automated Edman degradation showed the N-terminal sequence of ... Activation of a novel transcription factor through phosphorylation by WIPK, a wound-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase in ... Wu, M.; Heinrich, I.T.; Baldwin, J. Two mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases, MKK1 and MEK2, are involved in wounding- and ... Figure 1. (A) Tricine gel electrophoresis of proteins extracted from potatoes. Total proteins were extracted from potato tubers ...
The kinase activity of GRK2 relies on Lys220 (13). Phosphorylation of Ser670 in GRK2 by mitogen-activated protein kinases ( ... Inhibition of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) triggers the growth-promoting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ... Sustained activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase during recovery from simulated ischaemia mediates adaptive ... In addition to its role in terminating signaling mediated by activated G protein-coupled receptors, the kinase GRK2 also ...
Identification of regulatory phosphorylation sites in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-1a/ ... Phosphorylation of the c-Fos transrepression domain by mitogen-activated protein kinase and 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase. Proc. ... Protein phosphatases and the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 12:186-192. ... Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways: regulation and physiological functions. Endocr. Rev. 22:153-183. ...
... and inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase and focal adhesion kinase activation (12). Dopamine can also inhibit mobilization ... Dopamine in vivo inhibits VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, MAPK, and focal adhesion kinase in endothelial cells. Am J ... protein concentrations were determined using a BCA Protein Assay Reagent kit (Pierce Biotechnology). Protein lysates were ... 26, 27). Two DR1-like receptor subtypes (DR1 and DR5) couple to the G-protein Gs, activate adenylate cyclase, and increase cAMP ...
2001) Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase is associated with poor response to anti-hormonal therapy and ... 2000) Inhibition of HER2/neu (erbB-2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases enhances tamoxifen action against HER2- ... and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J. Clin. Oncol. 23, 2469-2476. ... Deregulation of kinase-mediated protein phosphorylation signaling pathways has been demonstrated to be involved in tumor ...
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) results in ERK phosphorylation (13). To elucidate the metabolic ... One of these proteins is extracellular regulated kinase (ERK). We confirmed that ERK phosphorylation is enhanced in the livers ... we studied proteins that are up-regulated or activated in the livers of mouse obesity models. ... S1C). Hepatic ERK phosphorylation, which is dependent on adenoviral titers (fig. S1D), was strongly enhanced on day 3 but had ...
Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 by vinblastine represent persistent forms of ... of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 ... A, phosphorylation of Bcl-2, cleavage of caspase-3, and up-regulated p53 and p21 protein expression in Bel-7402 cells treated ... and 36 h followed by protein extraction. Immunoblotting showed that cyclin B1 protein expression increased and cyclin D1 ...
"JNK2 contains a specificity-determining region responsible for efficient c-Jun binding and phosphorylation". Genes & ... a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 2.7.11.3). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... virus type 1 and its coat protein gp120 induce apoptosis and activate JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases in human ...
  • Our recent study has shown that stimulation of Group I mGluRs upregulated FMRP and activated CREB in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key region for brain cognitive and executive functions, suggesting that activation of Group I mGluRs may upregulate FMRP through CREB signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders, is caused by mutations of the FMR1 gene that encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP)[ 1 - 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NE-induced JNK phosphorylation was significantly inhibited by SP600125 and the conventional-type PKC (cPKC) inhibitor Gö6976, but not by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 or the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats (350-400 g) were randomized into three groups: sham (N = 6), 14-days diabetic (N = 6) and 28-days diabetic rats (N = 6). (ebscohost.com)
  • Results: The diabetic rats lost body weight at both 14-days (-10%) and 28-days (-13%) more significantly as compared to sham (+10%) group. (ebscohost.com)
  • Glucose levels were significantly elevated in the diabetic rats at both 14-days and 28-days post-STZ administration. (ebscohost.com)
  • NE increased the phosphorylation of JNK, which was greater in aortic smooth muscle from hypertensive rats than from normotensive rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Evidence in chronic nephropathy induced by renal mass reduction and in passive Heymann nephritis in rats revealed that excess uptake of plasma proteins in proximal tubular cells precedes because the early stage is subsequently associated with an inflammatory reaction ( 12 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Rutin inhibits UVB radiation-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS in hairless mouse skin: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential targets. (nih.gov)
  • In Xenopus extracts, RSK phosphorylates and inhibits Myt1, a p34 cdc2 inhibitory kinase ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, clathrin-mediated EGFR internalization induced by inflammatory cytokines and UV irradiation depends on MAPK14 -mediated phosphorylation of EGFR itself as well as of RAB5A effectors. (sdsc.edu)
  • Some nematodes can survive almost complete desiccation by entering an ametabolic state called anhydrobiosis requiring the accumulation of protective molecules such as trehalose and LEA proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Significantly, we showed that the focal adhesion kinase FAK2 was not only hyperphosphorylated but also transcriptionally up-regulated in tamoxifen resistant cells. (mcponline.org)
  • Of note, AMPARs cannot directly bind to the common synaptic protein PSD-95 owing to incompatible PDZ domains, although they do interact with PSD-95 via stargazin (the prototypical member of the TARP family of AMPAR auxiliary subunits). (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, isoproterenol stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPKα catalytic subunits (Thr172), that was associated to an increase in acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (Ser72) phosphorylation. (chemweb.com)
  • RPS6KA5 /MSK1 and RPS6KA4 /MSK2 can directly phosphorylate and activate transcription factors such as CREB1 , ATF1 , the NF-kappa-B isoform RELA /NFKB3, STAT1 and STAT3 , but can also phosphorylate histone H3 and the nucleosomal protein HMGN1 . (sdsc.edu)
  • J Biol Chem 276:43970-43979 Schmidt JC, Soares MJ, Goldenberg S, Pavoni DP, Krieger MA (2011) Characterization of TcSTI-1, a homologue of stress-induced protein-1, in Trypanosoma cruzi. (kramskoy.info)
  • Fluorescent micrograph of a dissected C. elegans adult hermaphrodite gonad showing chromosome (blue), activated dpMPK-1 (red), and membrane (green) morphology as germ cells progress through oogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Gastric carcinoma cells express a limited number of EBV genomes, similar to those in Burkitt's lymphoma, which are EBV-determined nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), two small nonpolyadenylated RNAs known as EBER1 and EBER2, the transcripts from the Bam HI-A region (BARF0), and latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) ( 13 , 37 ). (asm.org)
  • The conformation of the subunit protein in the plasma membrane caused controversy for some time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescent protein technology has evolved to include genetically-encoded biosensors that can monitor levels of ions, metabolites, and enzyme activities as well as protein conformation and even membrane voltage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Caveolin-1(Cav-1) is an essential constituent protein of specialized membrane invaginations, referred to as caveolae. (oncotarget.com)
  • One proposed function of trehalose is the stabilisation of proteins and membrane structures by formation of an organic glass, which 'freezes' the cell and its contents in time and space (reviewed in Crowe, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • We have previously shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) assembly occurs within regions of the host-cell surface membrane that are enriched in the protein caveolin-1 (cav-1). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Excess ROS can overwhelm a cell's antioxidant scavenging capacity, causing oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, and proteins, as well as concomitant cellular damage ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • Progressive nephropathies are characterized by both a highly enhanced glomerular permeability to proteins, in turn leading to proteinuria, and concomitant tubulointerstitial damage ( 1 ). (asnjournals.org)