A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A condition of abnormally high level of PHOSPHATES in the blood, usually significantly above the normal range of 0.84-1.58 mmol per liter of serum.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.
A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Inorganic salts or organic esters of phosphorous acid that contain the (3-)PO3 radical. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
A family of gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria in the order Oceanospirillales. Members of the family have been isolated from temperate and Antarctic saline lakes, solar salt facilities, saline soils, and marine environments.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Polyamines are organic compounds with more than one amino group, involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and found to be increased in certain diseases including cancer.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.

22-oxacalcitriol suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism without inducing low bone turnover in dogs with renal failure. (1/3106)

BACKGROUND: Calcitriol therapy suppresses serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with renal failure but has several drawbacks, including hypercalcemia and/or marked suppression of bone turnover, which may lead to adynamic bone disease. A new vitamin D analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), has been shown to have promising characteristics. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of OCT on serum PTH levels and bone turnover in states of normal or impaired renal function. METHODS: Sixty dogs were either nephrectomized (Nx, N = 38) or sham-operated (Sham, N = 22). The animals received supplemental phosphate to enhance PTH secretion. Fourteen weeks after the start of phosphate supplementation, half of the Nx and Sham dogs received doses of OCT (three times per week); the other half were given vehicle for 60 weeks. Thereafter, the treatment modalities for a subset of animals were crossed over for an additional eight months. Biochemical and hormonal indices of calcium and bone metabolism were measured throughout the study, and bone biopsies were done at baseline, 60 weeks after OCT or vehicle treatment, and at the end of the crossover period. RESULTS: In Nx dogs, OCT significantly decreased serum PTH levels soon after the induction of renal insufficiency. In long-standing secondary hyperparathyroidism, OCT (0.03 microg/kg) stabilized serum PTH levels during the first months. Serum PTH levels rose thereafter, but the rise was less pronounced compared with baseline than the rise seen in Nx control. These effects were accompanied by episodes of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. In animals with normal renal function, OCT induced a transient decrease in serum PTH levels at a dose of 0.1 microg/kg, which was not sustained with lowering of the doses. In Nx dogs, OCT reversed abnormal bone formation, such as woven osteoid and fibrosis, but did not significantly alter the level of bone turnover. In addition, OCT improved mineralization lag time, (that is, the rate at which osteoid mineralizes) in both Nx and Sham dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though OCT does not completely prevent the occurrence of hypercalcemia in experimental dogs with renal insufficiency, it may be of use in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism because it does not induce low bone turnover and, therefore, does not increase the risk of adynamic bone disease.  (+info)

Identification of a novel group of bacteria in sludge from a deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor. (2/3106)

The microbial diversity of a deteriorated biological phosphorus removal reactor was investigated by methods not requiring direct cultivation. The reactor was fed with media containing acetate and high levels of phosphate (P/C weight ratio, 8:100) but failed to completely remove phosphate in the effluent and showed very limited biological phosphorus removal activity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA was used to investigate the bacterial diversity. Up to 11 DGGE bands representing at least 11 different sequence types were observed; DNA from the 6 most dominant of these bands was further isolated and sequenced. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA sequences suggested that one sequence type was affiliated with the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria, one was associated with the Legionella group of the gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria, and the remaining four formed a novel group of the gamma subclass of the Proteobacteria with no close relationship to any previously described species. The novel group represented approximately 75% of the PCR-amplified DNA, based on the DGGE band intensities. Two oligonucleotide rRNA probes for this novel group were designed and used in a whole-cell hybridization analysis to investigate the abundance of this novel group in situ. The bacteria were coccoid and 3 to 4 microm in diameter and represented approximately 35% of the total population, suggesting a relatively close agreement with the results obtained by the PCR-based DGGE method. Further, based on electron microscopy and standard staining microscopic analysis, this novel group was able to accumulate granule inclusions, possibly consisting of polyhydroxyalkanoate, inside the cells.  (+info)

Combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and microautoradiography-a new tool for structure-function analyses in microbial ecology. (3/3106)

A new microscopic method for simultaneously determining in situ the identities, activities, and specific substrate uptake profiles of individual bacterial cells within complex microbial communities was developed by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and microautoradiography. This method was evaluated by using defined artificial mixtures of Escherichia coli and Herpetosiphon aurantiacus under aerobic incubation conditions with added [3H]glucose. Subsequently, we were able to demonstrate the potential of this method by visualizing the uptake of organic and inorganic radiolabeled substrates ([14C]acetate, [14C]butyrate, [14C]bicarbonate, and 33Pi) in probe-defined populations from complex activated sludge microbial communities by using aerobic incubation conditions and anaerobic incubation conditions (with and without nitrate). For both defined cell mixtures and activated sludge, the method proved to be useful for simultaneous identification and analysis of the uptake of labeled substrates under the different experimental conditions used. Optimal results were obtained when fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were applied prior to the microautoradiographic developing procedure. For single-cell resolution of FISH and microautoradiographic signals within activated sludge flocs, cryosectioned sample material was examined with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The combination of in situ rRNA hybridization techniques, cryosectioning, microautoradiography, and confocal laser scanning microscopy provides a unique opportunity for obtaining cultivation-independent insights into the structure and function of bacterial communities.  (+info)

Reduced cytosolic acidification during exercise suggests defective glycolytic activity in skeletal muscle of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy. An in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (4/3106)

Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder due to mutations in the dystrophin gene, resulting in reduced size and/or content of dystrophin. The functional role of this subsarcolemma protein and the biochemical mechanisms leading to muscle necrosis in Becker muscular dystrophy are still unknown. In particular, the role of a bioenergetic deficit is still controversial. In this study, we used 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31p-MRS) to investigate skeletal muscle mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP production in vivo in 14 Becker muscular dystrophy patients. Skeletal muscle glycogenolytic ATP production, measured during the first minute of exercise, was similar in patients and controls. On the other hand, during later phases of exercise, skeletal muscle in Becker muscular dystrophy patients was less acidic than in controls, the cytosolic pH at the end of exercise being significantly higher in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. The rate of proton efflux from muscle fibres of Becker muscular dystrophy patients was similar to that of controls, pointing to a deficit in glycolytic lactate production as a cause of higher end-exercise cytosolic pH in patients. The maximum rate of mitochondrial ATP production was similar in muscle of Becker muscular dystrophy patients and controls. The results of this in vivo 31P-MRS study are consistent with reduced glucose availability in dystrophin-deficient muscles.  (+info)

Myocardial creatine kinase kinetics in hearts with postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. (5/3106)

This study examined whether alterations in myocardial creatine kinase (CK) kinetics and high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels occur in postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR). Myocardial HEP and CK kinetics were examined in 19 pigs 6 wk after myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation, and the results were compared with those from 9 normal pigs. Blood flow (microspheres), oxygen consumption (MVO2), HEP levels [31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)], and CK kinetics (31P MRS) were measured in myocardium remote from the infarct under basal conditions and during dobutamine infusion (20 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv). Six of the pigs with LVR had overt congestive heart failure (CHF) at the time of study. Under basal conditions, creatine phosphate (CrP)-to-ATP ratios were lower in all transmural layers of hearts with CHF and in the subendocardium of LVR hearts than in normal hearts (P < 0.05). Myocardial ATP (biopsy) was significantly decreased in hearts with CHF. The CK forward rate constant was lower (P < 0.05) in the CHF group (0.21 +/- 0.03 s-1) than in LVR (0.38 +/- 0.04 s-1) or normal groups (0.41 +/- 0.03 s-1); CK forward flux rates in CHF, LVR, and normal groups were 6.4 +/- 2.3, 14.3 +/- 2.1, and 20.3 +/- 2.4 micromol. g-1. s-1, respectively (P < 0.05, CHF vs. LVR and LVR vs. normal). Dobutamine caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in the LVR and normal groups, whereas CHF hearts failed to respond to dobutamine. CK flux rates did not change during dobutamine in any group. The ratios of CK flux to ATP synthesis (from MVO2) under baseline conditions were 10.9 +/- 1.2, 8. 03 +/- 0.9, and 3.86 +/- 0.5 for normal, LVR, and CHF hearts, respectively (each P < 0.05); during dobutamine, this ratio decreased to 3.73 +/- 0.5, 2.58 +/- 0.4, and 2.78 +/- 0.5, respectively (P = not significant among groups). These data demonstrate that CK flux rates are decreased in hearts with postinfarction LVR, but this change does not limit the response to dobutamine. In hearts with end-stage CHF, the changes in HEP and CK flux are more marked. These changes could contribute to the decreased responsiveness of these hearts to dobutamine.  (+info)

Effect of zinc on adenine nucleotide pools in relation to aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. (6/3106)

The adenylic acid systems of Aspergillus parasiticus were studied in zinc-replete and zinc-deficient media. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels of the fungus were high during exponential phase and low during stationary phase in zinc-replete cultures. On the other hand, the levels of adenosine 5'-diphosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate were low during exponential phase of growth and high during stationary phase. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels during exponential phase may indicate higher primary metabolic activity of the fungus. On the other hand, high adenosine 5'-monophosphate levels during stationary phase may inhibit lipid formation and may enhance aflatoxin levels. The inorganic phosphorus content was low in a zinc-replete medium throughout the growth period, thereby favoring aflatoxin biosynthesis. The energy charge during the exponential phase was high but low during the stationary phase. In general the energy charge values were lower because of high adenosine 5'-monophosphate content.  (+info)

Human muscle performance and PCr hydrolysis with varied inspired oxygen fractions: a 31P-MRS study. (7/3106)

The purpose of this study was to use 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine the relationships among muscle PCr hydrolysis, intracellular H+ concentration accumulation, and muscle performance during incremental exercise during the inspiration of gas mixtures containing different fractions of inspired O2 (FIO2). We hypothesized that lower FIO2 would result in a greater disruption of intracellular homeostasis at submaximal workloads and thereby initiate an earlier onset of fatigue. Six subjects performed plantar flexion exercise on three separate occasions with the only variable altered for each exercise bout being the FIO2 (either 0.1, 0.21, or 1.00 O2 in balance N2). Work rate was increased (1-W increments starting at 0 W) every 2 min until exhaustion. Time to exhaustion (and thereby workload achieved) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater as FIO2 was increased. Muscle phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration, Pi concentration, and pH at exhaustion were not significantly different among the three FIO2 conditions. However, muscle PCr concentration and pH were significantly reduced at identical submaximal workloads (and thereby equivalent rates of respiration) above 4-5 W during the lowest FIO2 condition compared with the other two FIO2 conditions. These results demonstrate that exhaustion during all FIO2 occurred when a particular intracellular environment was achieved and suggest that during the lowest FIO2 condition, the greater PCr hydrolysis and intracellular acidosis at submaximal workloads may have contributed to the significantly earlier time to exhaustion.  (+info)

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in growing kittens is related to dietary intake of cholecalciferol. (8/3106)

Vitamin D synthesis by growing kittens exposed to ultraviolet light is ineffective. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in plasma (the most useful index of vitamin D status) was measured in six groups each of seven kittens given a purified diet (12 g calcium and 8 g phosphorus/kg, calculated metabolizable energy = 20 kJ/g) that contained either 0.0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 18.75 or 25 microg of cholecalciferol/kg diet. All kittens received these diets from 9 to 22 wk of age, and the two groups given the 0.0 and 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg treatments continued to receive the diets until they were 34 wk old. Total and ionizable calcium and phosphorus in plasma were not affected by treatments. No adverse clinical changes were observed or found on radiographic examination of the kittens at 22 or 34 wk of age. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD was linearly related (r2 = 0.99, P < 0.001) to dietary intake of cholecalciferol. Plasma concentration of 25-OHD in kittens given the diet without added vitamin D was significantly less at 22 wk than at 9 wk, whereas kittens receiving the diet containing 3.125 microg cholecalciferol/kg had significantly higher 25-OHD concentrations at 22 and 34 wk than at 9 wk of age. Kittens given the 6.25 microg cholecalciferol/kg diet had plasma 25-OHD concentrations at 22 wk > 50 nmol/L which is considered replete for humans. An allowance of 6. 25 microg (250 IU) of cholecalciferol/kg diet is suggested to provide a margin of safety.  (+info)

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

Dietary Phosphorus is a mineral that is an essential nutrient for human health. It is required for the growth, maintenance, and repair of body tissues, including bones and teeth. Phosphorus is also necessary for the production of energy, the formation of DNA and RNA, and the regulation of various physiological processes.

In the diet, phosphorus is primarily found in protein-containing foods such as meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, legumes, and nuts. It can also be found in processed foods that contain additives such as phosphoric acid, which is used to enhance flavor or as a preservative.

The recommended daily intake of phosphorus for adults is 700 milligrams (mg) per day. However, it's important to note that excessive intake of phosphorus, particularly from supplements and fortified foods, can lead to health problems such as kidney damage and calcification of soft tissues. Therefore, it's recommended to obtain phosphorus primarily from whole foods rather than supplements.

Phosphorus compounds refer to chemical substances that contain phosphorus (P) combined with one or more other elements. Phosphorus can form a variety of compounds due to its ability to exist in several oxidation states, most commonly +3 and +5.

In biological systems, phosphorus is an essential element for life, playing crucial roles in energy transfer, metabolism, and structural components of cells. Some common examples of phosphorus compounds include:

1. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4): A weak triprotic acid that forms salts called phosphates when combined with metal ions or basic radicals.
2. Phosphates (PO4^3-): The salt or ester form of phosphoric acid, widely found in nature and essential for various biological processes such as bone formation, energy metabolism, and nucleic acid synthesis.
3. Phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5): A pungent, white crystalline solid used in organic chemistry as a chlorinating agent.
4. Phosphorus trichloride (PCl3): A colorless liquid with a suffocating odor, used in the production of various chemical compounds, including pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.
5. Dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4): A calcium salt of phosphoric acid, commonly found in mineral supplements and used as a dietary supplement for animals and humans.
6. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): A high-energy molecule that stores and transfers energy within cells, playing a critical role in metabolic processes such as muscle contraction and biosynthesis.

Phosphorus compounds have numerous applications across various industries, including agriculture, food processing, pharmaceuticals, and chemical manufacturing.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

Phosphorus metabolism disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the body's ability to properly regulate the levels and utilization of phosphorus. Phosphorus is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many biological processes, including energy production, bone formation, and nerve function.

Disorders of phosphorus metabolism can result from genetic defects, kidney dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, or other medical conditions. These disorders can lead to abnormal levels of phosphorus in the blood, which can cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, bone pain, seizures, and respiratory failure.

Examples of phosphorus metabolism disorders include:

1. Hypophosphatemia: This is a condition characterized by low levels of phosphorus in the blood. It can be caused by various factors, such as malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, and kidney dysfunction.
2. Hyperphosphatemia: This is a condition characterized by high levels of phosphorus in the blood. It can be caused by kidney failure, tumor lysis syndrome, and certain medications.
3. Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets: This is a genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to regulate vitamin D and phosphorus metabolism. It can lead to weakened bones and skeletal deformities.
4. Oncogenic osteomalacia: This is a rare condition that occurs when tumors produce substances that interfere with phosphorus metabolism, leading to bone pain and weakness.

Treatment for phosphorus metabolism disorders depends on the underlying cause of the disorder and may include dietary changes, supplements, medications, or surgery.

6-Phytase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), a major storage form of phosphorus in plants, into inorganic phosphate and lower molecular weight myo-inositol phosphates. This enzymatic reaction releases phosphate and micronutrients, making them more available for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of monogastric animals, such as pigs, poultry, and fish. The "6" in 6-Phytase refers to the position of the phosphate group that is cleaved from the myo-inositol ring. This enzyme has significant applications in animal nutrition and feed industry to improve nutrient utilization and reduce phosphorus pollution in the environment.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

Hyperphosphatemia is a medical condition characterized by an excessively high level of phosphate (a form of the chemical element phosphorus) in the blood. Phosphate is an important component of various biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and ATP, and it plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy metabolism and signal transduction.

In healthy individuals, the concentration of phosphate in the blood is tightly regulated within a narrow range to maintain normal physiological functions. However, when the phosphate level rises above this range (typically defined as a serum phosphate level greater than 4.5 mg/dL or 1.46 mmol/L), it can lead to hyperphosphatemia.

Hyperphosphatemia can result from various underlying medical conditions, including:

* Kidney dysfunction: The kidneys are responsible for filtering excess phosphate out of the blood and excreting it in the urine. When the kidneys fail to function properly, they may be unable to remove enough phosphate, leading to its accumulation in the blood.
* Hypoparathyroidism: The parathyroid glands produce a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate calcium and phosphate levels in the body. In hypoparathyroidism, the production of PTH is insufficient, leading to an increase in phosphate levels.
* Hyperparathyroidism: In contrast, excessive production of PTH can also lead to hyperphosphatemia by increasing the release of phosphate from bones and decreasing its reabsorption in the kidneys.
* Excessive intake of phosphate-rich foods or supplements: Consuming large amounts of phosphate-rich foods, such as dairy products, nuts, and legumes, or taking phosphate supplements can raise blood phosphate levels.
* Tumor lysis syndrome: This is a complication that can occur after the treatment of certain types of cancer, particularly hematological malignancies. The rapid destruction of cancer cells releases large amounts of intracellular contents, including phosphate, into the bloodstream, leading to hyperphosphatemia.
* Rhabdomyolysis: This is a condition in which muscle tissue breaks down, releasing its contents, including phosphate, into the bloodstream. It can be caused by various factors, such as trauma, infection, or drug toxicity.

Hyperphosphatemia can have several adverse effects on the body, including calcification of soft tissues, kidney damage, and metabolic disturbances. Therefore, it is essential to diagnose and manage hyperphosphatemia promptly to prevent complications. Treatment options may include dietary modifications, medications that bind phosphate in the gastrointestinal tract, and dialysis in severe cases.

Phosphorus isotopes are different forms of the element phosphorus that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei, while the number of protons remains the same. The most common and stable isotope of phosphorus is 31P, which contains 15 protons and 16 neutrons. However, there are also several other isotopes of phosphorus that exist, including 32P and 33P, which are radioactive and have 15 protons and 17 or 18 neutrons, respectively. These radioactive isotopes are often used in medical research and treatment, such as in the form of radiopharmaceuticals to diagnose and treat various diseases.

Dietary calcium is a type of calcium that is obtained through food sources. Calcium is an essential mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, including bone formation and maintenance, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

The recommended daily intake of dietary calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For example, the recommended daily intake for adults aged 19-50 is 1000 mg, while women over 50 and men over 70 require 1200 mg per day.

Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt; leafy green vegetables like broccoli and kale; fortified cereals and juices; and certain types of fish, such as salmon and sardines. It is important to note that some foods can inhibit the absorption of calcium, including oxalates found in spinach and rhubarb, and phytates found in whole grains and legumes.

If a person is unable to get enough calcium through their diet, they may need to take calcium supplements. However, it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, as excessive intake of calcium can lead to negative health effects.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Eutrophication is the process of excessive nutrient enrichment in bodies of water, which can lead to a rapid growth of aquatic plants and algae. This overgrowth can result in decreased levels of oxygen in the water, harming or even killing fish and other aquatic life. The primary cause of eutrophication is the addition of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, from human activities such as agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater discharge, and air pollution.

In advanced stages, eutrophication can lead to a shift in the dominant species in the aquatic ecosystem, favoring those that are better adapted to the high-nutrient conditions. This can result in a loss of biodiversity and changes in water quality, making it difficult for many organisms to survive.

Eutrophication is a significant global environmental problem, affecting both freshwater and marine ecosystems. It can lead to harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can produce toxins that are dangerous to humans and animals. In addition, eutrophication can impact water use for drinking, irrigation, recreation, and industry, making it a critical issue for public health and economic development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Phytic acid, also known as phytate in its salt form, is a natural substance found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. It's a storage form of phosphorus for the plant and is often referred to as an "anti-nutrient" because it can bind to certain minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc in the gastrointestinal tract and prevent their absorption. This can potentially lead to mineral deficiencies if a diet is consistently high in phytic acid-rich foods and low in mineral-rich foods. However, it's important to note that phytic acid also has antioxidant properties and may have health benefits when consumed as part of a balanced diet.

The bioavailability of minerals from phytic acid-rich foods can be improved through various methods such as soaking, sprouting, fermenting, or cooking, which can help break down some of the phytic acid and release the bound minerals.

Hypophosphatemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally low levels of phosphate (phosphorus) in the blood, specifically below 2.5 mg/dL. Phosphate is an essential electrolyte that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions such as energy production, bone formation, and maintaining acid-base balance.

Hypophosphatemia can result from several factors, including malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, alcoholism, hormonal imbalances, and certain medications. Symptoms of hypophosphatemia may include muscle weakness, fatigue, bone pain, confusion, and respiratory failure in severe cases. Treatment typically involves correcting the underlying cause and administering phosphate supplements to restore normal levels.

Fertilizers are substances that are added to soil to provide nutrients necessary for plant growth and development. They typically contain macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in forms that can be readily taken up by plants. These three nutrients are essential for photosynthesis, energy transfer, and the production of proteins, nucleic acids, and other vital plant compounds.

Fertilizers may also contain secondary nutrients like calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) as well as micronutrients such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), and molybdenum (Mo). These elements play crucial roles in various plant metabolic processes, including enzyme activation, chlorophyll synthesis, and hormone production.

Fertilizers can be organic or synthetic. Organic fertilizers include materials like compost, manure, bone meal, and blood meal, which release nutrients slowly over time as they decompose. Synthetic fertilizers, also known as inorganic or chemical fertilizers, are manufactured chemicals that contain precise amounts of specific nutrients. They can be quickly absorbed by plants but may pose environmental risks if not used properly.

Proper fertilization is essential for optimal plant growth and crop yield. However, overuse or improper application of fertilizers can lead to nutrient runoff, soil degradation, water pollution, and other negative environmental impacts. Therefore, it's crucial to follow recommended fertilizer application rates and practices based on the specific needs of the plants and local regulations.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

Calcitriol is the active form of vitamin D, also known as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. It is a steroid hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the body to maintain healthy bones. Calcitriol is produced in the kidneys from its precursor, calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D), which is derived from dietary sources or synthesized in the skin upon exposure to sunlight.

Calcitriol promotes calcium absorption in the intestines, helps regulate calcium and phosphate levels in the kidneys, and stimulates bone cells (osteoblasts) to form new bone tissue while inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which resorb bone. This hormone is essential for normal bone mineralization and growth, as well as for preventing hypocalcemia (low calcium levels).

In addition to its role in bone health, calcitriol has various other physiological functions, including modulating immune responses, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Calcitriol deficiency or resistance can lead to conditions such as rickets in children and osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Phosphites" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a term more frequently used in chemistry and biochemistry, where it refers to salts or esters of phosphorous acid in which the phosphorus has an oxidation state of +3. If you're looking for information on a medical topic, could you please provide more context or clarify what you're asking? I'm here to help!

Nephrocalcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium salts in the renal parenchyma, specifically within the tubular epithelial cells and interstitium of the kidneys. This process can lead to chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and ultimately impaired renal function if left untreated.

The condition is often associated with metabolic disorders such as hyperparathyroidism, distal renal tubular acidosis, or hyperoxaluria; medications like loop diuretics, corticosteroids, or calcineurin inhibitors; and chronic kidney diseases. The diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis is typically made through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or X-ray. Treatment usually involves addressing the underlying cause, modifying dietary habits, and administering medications to control calcium levels in the body.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a condition characterized by an overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands due to hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood). This condition is usually a result of chronic kidney disease, where the kidneys fail to convert vitamin D into its active form, leading to decreased absorption of calcium in the intestines. The body responds by increasing PTH production to maintain normal calcium levels, but over time, this results in high PTH levels and associated complications such as bone disease, kidney stones, and cardiovascular calcification.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique used in materials science and geology to analyze the chemical composition of materials at very small scales, typically on the order of microns or less. In this technique, a focused beam of electrons is directed at a sample, causing the emission of X-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. By analyzing the energy and intensity of these X-rays, researchers can determine the concentration of different elements in the sample with high precision and accuracy.

EPMA is typically performed using a specialized instrument called an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), which consists of an electron column for generating and focusing the electron beam, an X-ray spectrometer for analyzing the emitted X-rays, and a stage for positioning and manipulating the sample. The technique is widely used in fields such as mineralogy, geochemistry, metallurgy, and materials science to study the composition and structure of minerals, alloys, semiconductors, and other materials.

One of the key advantages of EPMA is its ability to analyze the chemical composition of small regions within a sample, even in cases where there are spatial variations in composition or where the sample is heterogeneous. This makes it an ideal technique for studying the distribution and behavior of trace elements in minerals, the microstructure of alloys and other materials, and the composition of individual grains or phases within a polyphase material. Additionally, EPMA can be used to analyze both conductive and non-conductive samples, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of applications.

Polyphosphates are compounds consisting of many phosphate groups linked together in the form of chains or rings. They are often used in various medical and healthcare applications, such as:

* Dental care products: Polyphosphates can help prevent the formation of dental plaque and calculus by binding to calcium ions in saliva and inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause tooth decay.
* Nutritional supplements: Polyphosphates are sometimes used as a source of phosphorus in nutritional supplements, particularly for people who have kidney disease or other medical conditions that require them to limit their intake of phosphorus from food sources.
* Medical devices: Polyphosphates may be used in the manufacture of medical devices, such as contact lenses and catheters, to improve their biocompatibility and resistance to bacterial growth.

It's worth noting that while polyphosphates have various medical uses, they can also be found in many non-medical products, such as food additives, water treatment chemicals, and cleaning agents.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Rickets is a medical condition characterized by the softening and weakening of bones in children, primarily caused by deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. It leads to skeletal deformities, bone pain, and growth retardation. Prolonged lack of sunlight exposure, inadequate intake of vitamin D-rich foods, or impaired absorption or utilization of vitamin D can contribute to the development of rickets.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Food additives are substances that are added to food or drink during manufacturing or processing to perform various functions such as preservation, coloring, flavoring, enhancing taste and texture, and increasing nutritional value. These additives can be natural or synthetic and must be approved by regulatory authorities before they can be used in food products. Examples of food additives include salt, sugar, vinegar, spices, artificial flavors, preservatives, emulsifiers, and food dyes. It is important to note that some people may have allergies or sensitivities to certain food additives, and excessive consumption of some additives may have negative health effects.

Renal dialysis is a medical procedure that is used to artificially remove waste products, toxins, and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This process is also known as hemodialysis.

During renal dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special machine called a dialyzer or an artificial kidney, which contains a semi-permeable membrane that filters out waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Renal dialysis is typically recommended for patients with advanced kidney disease or kidney failure, such as those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is a life-sustaining treatment that helps to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, prevent the buildup of waste products and toxins, and control blood pressure.

There are two main types of renal dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is the most common type and involves using a dialyzer to filter the blood outside the body. Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, involves placing a catheter in the abdomen and using the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body.

Overall, renal dialysis is an essential treatment option for patients with kidney failure, helping them to maintain their quality of life and prolong their survival.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

Sewage is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and medicine. Sewage is the wastewater that is produced by households and industries, which contains a variety of contaminants including human waste, chemicals, and other pollutants. It can contain various pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can cause diseases in humans if they come into contact with it or consume contaminated food or water. Therefore, the proper treatment and disposal of sewage is essential to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and protect public health.

"Manure" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it is commonly referred to in agriculture and horticulture. Manure is defined as organic matter, such as animal feces and urine, that is used as a fertilizer to enrich and amend the soil. It is often rich in nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are essential for plant growth. While manure can be beneficial for agriculture and gardening, it can also pose risks to human health if not handled properly due to the potential presence of pathogens and other harmful substances.

Halomonadaceae is a family of halophilic (salt-loving) bacteria within the order Oceanospirillales. These bacteria are commonly found in saline environments such as salt lakes, marine solar salterns, and salted foods. They have the ability to grow in media with a wide range of salinities, from around 0.5% to saturated salt concentrations. Some members of this family can also tolerate or even require the presence of organic solvents. The type genus of Halomonadaceae is Halomonas.

Phosphorus radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element phosphorus that emit radiation. Phosphorus has several radioisotopes, with the most common ones being phosphorus-32 (^32P) and phosphorus-33 (^33P). These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as cancer treatment and diagnostic procedures.

Phosphorus-32 has a half-life of approximately 14.3 days and emits beta particles, making it useful for treating certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. It can also be used in brachytherapy, a type of radiation therapy that involves placing a radioactive source close to the tumor.

Phosphorus-33 has a shorter half-life of approximately 25.4 days and emits both beta particles and gamma rays. This makes it useful for diagnostic procedures, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where the gamma rays can be detected and used to create images of the body's internal structures.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks and in the shells of many marine animals. As a mineral, it is known as calcite or aragonite.

In the medical field, calcium carbonate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is also commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion.

Calcium carbonate works by reacting with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form water, carbon dioxide, and calcium chloride. This reaction helps to raise the pH level in the stomach and neutralize excess acid.

It is important to note that excessive use of calcium carbonate can lead to hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion, and muscle weakness. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

The parathyroid glands are four small endocrine glands located in the neck, usually near or behind the thyroid gland. They secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which plays a critical role in regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the blood and bones. PTH helps maintain the balance of these minerals by increasing the absorption of calcium from food in the intestines, promoting reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys, and stimulating the release of calcium from bones when needed. Additionally, PTH decreases the excretion of calcium through urine and reduces phosphate reabsorption in the kidneys, leading to increased phosphate excretion. Disorders of the parathyroid glands can result in conditions such as hyperparathyroidism (overactive glands) or hypoparathyroidism (underactive glands), which can have significant impacts on calcium and phosphate homeostasis and overall health.

Phosphocreatine (PCr) is a high-energy phosphate compound found in the skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle, and brain. It plays a crucial role in energy metabolism and storage within cells. Phosphocreatine serves as an immediate energy reserve that helps regenerate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the primary source of cellular energy, during short bursts of intense activity or stress. This process is facilitated by the enzyme creatine kinase, which catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphocreatine to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to form ATP.

In a medical context, phosphocreatine levels may be assessed in muscle biopsies or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) imaging to evaluate muscle energy metabolism and potential mitochondrial dysfunction in conditions such as muscular dystrophies, mitochondrial disorders, and neuromuscular diseases. Additionally, phosphocreatine depletion has been implicated in various pathological processes, including ischemia-reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative disorders, and heart failure.

Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRI) is a medical condition characterized by a gradual and progressive loss of kidney function over a period of months or years. It is also known as Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The main function of the kidneys is to filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood, which are then excreted in the urine. When the kidneys become insufficient, these waste products and fluids accumulate in the body, leading to various complications.

CRI is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 for three months or more, regardless of cause. GFR is a measure of kidney function that estimates how well the kidneys are filtering waste products from the blood. The condition is classified into five stages based on the severity of the disease and the GFR value.

Stage 1: GFR greater than or equal to 90 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 2: GFR between 60-89 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 3: GFR between 30-59 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 4: GFR between 15-29 ml/min/1.73m2
Stage 5: GFR less than 15 ml/min/1.73m2 or dialysis

CRI can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and other genetic or acquired disorders. Symptoms of CRI may include fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, swelling in the legs and ankles, shortness of breath, and changes in urination patterns. Treatment for CRI focuses on slowing down the progression of the disease, managing symptoms, and preventing complications. This may involve lifestyle modifications, medication, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

Renal osteodystrophy is a bone disease that occurs in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is characterized by abnormalities in the bones' structure and mineral composition due to disturbances in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. These metabolic disturbances result from the kidneys' decreased ability to maintain balance in the levels of these minerals and hormones.

Renal osteodystrophy can manifest as several bone disorders, including:

1. Osteitis fibrosa cystica: Increased bone turnover due to excessive parathyroid hormone (PTH) production, leading to high levels of alkaline phosphatase and increased resorption of bones.
2. Adynamic bone disease: Decreased bone turnover due to reduced PTH levels, resulting in low bone formation rates and increased fracture risk.
3. Mixed uremic osteodystrophy: A combination of high and low bone turnover, with varying degrees of mineralization defects.
4. Osteomalacia: Defective mineralization of bones due to vitamin D deficiency or resistance, leading to soft and weak bones.

Symptoms of renal osteodystrophy may include bone pain, muscle weakness, fractures, deformities, and growth retardation in children. Diagnosis typically involves laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone biopsies. Treatment focuses on correcting the metabolic imbalances through dietary modifications, medications (such as phosphate binders, vitamin D analogs, and calcimimetics), and addressing any secondary hyperparathyroidism if present.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that is crucial for the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body, which are essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It can be synthesized by the human body when skin is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight, or it can be obtained through dietary sources such as fatty fish, fortified dairy products, and supplements. There are two major forms of vitamin D: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), which is found in some plants and fungi, and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), which is produced in the skin or obtained from animal-derived foods. Both forms need to undergo two hydroxylations in the body to become biologically active as calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D. This activated form exerts its effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) found in various tissues, including the small intestine, bone, kidney, and immune cells, thereby influencing numerous physiological processes such as calcium homeostasis, bone metabolism, cell growth, and immune function.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

In the context of medicine, the term "elements" generally refers to the basic constituents or parts that make up a whole. These can include chemical elements, such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which are the building blocks of biological molecules like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.

However, "elements" can also refer more broadly to the fundamental components of a system or process. For example, in traditional humorism, one of the ancient medical systems, the four "elements" were considered to be black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood, which were believed to correspond to different temperaments and bodily functions.

In modern medicine, the term is less commonly used, but it may still refer to the basic components of a biological or chemical system, such as the elements of a chemical reaction or the building blocks of a cell.

The metacarpus is the medical term for the part of the hand located between the carpus (wrist) and the digits (fingers). It consists of five bones, known as the metacarpal bones, which are numbered 1 to 5 from the thumb side to the little finger side. Each metacarpal bone has a base, a shaft, and a head. The bases of the metacarpal bones articulate with the carpal bones to form the wrist joint, while the heads of the metacarpal bones form the knuckles at the back of the hand.

The metacarpus plays an essential role in hand function as it provides stability and support for the movement of the fingers and thumb. Injuries or conditions affecting the metacarpus can significantly impact hand function, causing pain, stiffness, weakness, or deformity.

"Lupinus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for the group of plants commonly known as lupines or bluebonnets. Some people may use "lupinus" in a medical context to refer to an allergy or sensitivity to lupine beans or other parts of the lupine plant, which can cause symptoms such as rash, itching, and digestive issues. However, this is not a widely recognized medical condition and reactions to lupines are relatively rare. If you have any concerns about a potential allergy or sensitivity to lupines, it is best to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

Hydroxycholecalciferols are metabolites of vitamin D that are formed in the liver and kidneys. They are important for maintaining calcium homeostasis in the body by promoting the absorption of calcium from the gut and reabsorption of calcium from the kidneys.

The two main forms of hydroxycholecalciferols are 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). 25-hydroxyvitamin D is the major circulating form of vitamin D in the body and is used as a clinical measure of vitamin D status. It is converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the kidneys by the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase, which is activated in response to low serum calcium or high phosphate levels.

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is the biologically active form of vitamin D and plays a critical role in regulating calcium homeostasis by increasing intestinal calcium absorption and promoting bone health. Deficiency in hydroxycholecalciferols can lead to rickets in children and osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults, characterized by weakened bones and increased risk of fractures.

Fluid waste disposal in a medical context refers to the proper and safe management of liquid byproducts generated during medical procedures, patient care, or research. These fluids can include bodily excretions (such as urine, feces, or vomit), irrigation solutions, blood, or other biological fluids.

The process of fluid waste disposal involves several steps:

1. Collection: Fluid waste is collected in appropriate containers that are designed to prevent leakage and contamination.
2. Segregation: Different types of fluid waste may require separate collection and disposal methods based on their infectious or hazardous nature.
3. Treatment: Depending on the type and volume of fluid waste, various treatments can be applied, such as disinfection, sterilization, or chemical neutralization, to reduce the risk of infection or harm to the environment and personnel.
4. Disposal: Treated fluid waste is then disposed of according to local regulations, which may involve transporting it to a designated waste management facility for further processing or disposal in a safe and environmentally friendly manner (e.g., deep well injection, incineration, or landfilling).
5. Documentation and tracking: Proper records should be maintained to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and to enable effective monitoring and auditing of the waste disposal process.

It is essential to handle fluid waste disposal carefully to minimize the risk of infection, protect the environment, and maintain regulatory compliance. Healthcare facilities must adhere to strict guidelines and regulations regarding fluid waste management to ensure the safety of patients, staff, and the community.

Calcium compounds are chemical substances that contain calcium ions (Ca2+) bonded to various anions. Calcium is an essential mineral for human health, and calcium compounds have numerous biological and industrial applications. Here are some examples of calcium compounds with their medical definitions:

1. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A common mineral found in rocks and sediments, calcium carbonate is also a major component of shells, pearls, and bones. It is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency and as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid.
2. Calcium citrate (C6H8CaO7): A calcium salt of citric acid, calcium citrate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is more soluble in water and gastric juice than calcium carbonate, making it easier to absorb, especially for people with low stomach acid.
3. Calcium gluconate (C12H22CaO14): A calcium salt of gluconic acid, calcium gluconate is used as a medication to treat or prevent hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels) and hyperkalemia (high blood potassium levels). It can be given intravenously, orally, or topically.
4. Calcium chloride (CaCl2): A white, deliquescent salt, calcium chloride is used as a de-icing agent, a food additive, and a desiccant. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or hyperkalemia, or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
5. Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6): A calcium salt of lactic acid, calcium lactate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is less commonly used than calcium carbonate or calcium citrate but may be better tolerated by some people.
6. Calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2): A mineral found in rocks and bones, calcium phosphate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It can also be used as a food additive or a pharmaceutical excipient.
7. Calcium sulfate (CaSO4): A white, insoluble powder, calcium sulfate is used as a desiccant, a plaster, and a fertilizer. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
8. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2): A white, alkaline powder, calcium hydroxide is used as a disinfectant, a flocculant, and a building material. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hyperkalemia or as an antidote for aluminum overdose.
9. Calcium acetate (Ca(C2H3O2)2): A white, crystalline powder, calcium acetate is used as a food additive and a medication. It can be used to treat hyperphosphatemia (high blood phosphate levels) in patients with kidney disease.
10. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A white, chalky powder, calcium carbonate is used as a dietary supplement, a food additive, and a pharmaceutical excipient. It can also be used as a building material and a mineral supplement.

Water quality, in the context of public health and environmental medicine, refers to the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water that determine its suitability for various uses, such as drinking, recreation, or industrial processes. The term encompasses a wide range of parameters, including but not limited to:

1. Microbial contaminants: Presence of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microorganisms that can cause waterborne diseases.
2. Chemical contaminants: Including heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), disinfection byproducts, and other potentially harmful substances.
3. Physical parameters: Such as temperature, turbidity (cloudiness), color, taste, and odor, which can affect the water's acceptability for different uses.
4. Radiological contaminants: Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive elements present in water sources.

Regulatory agencies establish guidelines and standards for water quality to protect public health and minimize potential adverse effects associated with exposure to contaminated water. Regular monitoring, treatment, and management of water sources are essential to ensure safe and reliable water supplies.

Ergocalciferols are a form of vitamin D, specifically vitamin D2, that is found in some plants. They are not produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Ergocalciferols can be converted into an active form of vitamin D in the body, which is important for maintaining healthy bones and calcium levels. However, vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), which is produced by the body in response to sunlight exposure, is generally considered to be more effective at raising and maintaining vitamin D levels in the body than ergocalciferols.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical substances that contain phosphorus bonded to organic compounds. They are used in various applications, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases), and solvents. In medicine, they are also used in the treatment of certain conditions such as glaucoma. However, organophosphorus compounds can be toxic to humans and animals, particularly those that affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Exposure to these compounds can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Familial Hypophosphatemia is a genetic disorder characterized by low levels of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia) due to impaired absorption of phosphates in the gut. This condition results from mutations in the SLC34A3 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called NaPi-IIc, responsible for reabsorbing phosphates from the filtrate in the kidney tubules back into the bloodstream.

In familial hypophosphatemia, the impaired function of NaPi-IIc leads to excessive loss of phosphate through urine, resulting in hypophosphatemia. This condition can cause rickets (a softening and weakening of bones) in children and osteomalacia (softening of bones) in adults. Symptoms may include bowed legs, bone pain, muscle weakness, and short stature.

Familial Hypophosphatemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition.

Phytoplankton are microscopic photosynthetic organisms that live in watery environments such as oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers. They are a diverse group of organisms, including bacteria, algae, and protozoa. Phytoplankton are a critical component of the marine food chain, serving as primary producers that convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and nutrients into organic matter through photosynthesis. This organic matter forms the base of the food chain and supports the growth and survival of many larger organisms, including zooplankton, fish, and other marine animals. Phytoplankton also play an important role in global carbon cycling and help to regulate Earth's climate by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releasing oxygen.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soybeans" are not a medical term. They are a type of legume that is commonly used in agriculture and food production. The medical community might discuss soybeans in the context of nutrition or allergies, but there isn't a formal medical definition for this term.

Here's some general information: Soybeans, scientifically known as Glycine max, are native to East Asia and are now grown worldwide. They are a significant source of plant-based protein and oil. Soybeans contain various nutrients, including essential amino acids, fiber, B vitamins, and minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc. They are used in various food products such as tofu, soy milk, tempeh, and miso. Additionally, soybeans are also used in the production of industrial products, including biodiesel, plastics, and inks. Some people may have allergic reactions to soybeans or soy products.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in various tissues of the body, commonly under the skin or in the muscles and tendons. These calcium deposits can form hard lumps or nodules that can cause pain, inflammation, and restricted mobility. Calcinosis can occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, kidney disease, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). In some cases, the cause of calcinosis may be unknown. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage calcium levels, physical therapy, and surgical removal of large deposits.

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. They bind to specific tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs) on the cell surface, leading to intracellular signaling cascades that regulate gene expression and downstream cellular responses. FGFs are involved in embryonic development, tissue repair, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). There are at least 22 distinct FGFs identified in humans, each with unique functions and patterns of expression. Some FGFs, like FGF1 and FGF2, have mitogenic effects on fibroblasts and other cell types, while others, such as FGF7 and FGF10, are essential for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during organ development. Dysregulation of FGF signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, fibrosis, and developmental disorders.

Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between fungi and the roots of most plant species. In a mycorrhizal association, fungi colonize the root tissues of plants and extend their mycelial networks into the surrounding soil. This association enhances the nutrient uptake capacity of the host plant, particularly with regards to phosphorus and nitrogen, while the fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant for their own growth and metabolism.

Mycorrhizal fungi can be broadly classified into two types: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae (or arbuscular mycorrhizae). Ectomycorrhizae form a sheath around the root surface, while endomycorrhizae penetrate the root cells and form structures called arbuscules, where nutrient exchange occurs. Mycorrhizal associations play crucial roles in maintaining ecosystem stability, promoting plant growth, and improving soil structure and fertility.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

Uremia is not a disease itself, but rather it's a condition that results from the buildup of waste products in the blood due to kidney failure. The term "uremia" comes from the word "urea," which is one of the waste products that accumulate when the kidneys are not functioning properly.

In uremia, the kidneys are unable to effectively filter waste and excess fluids from the blood, leading to a variety of symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, itching, mental confusion, and ultimately, if left untreated, can lead to coma and death. It is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention, often involving dialysis or a kidney transplant to manage the underlying kidney dysfunction.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Polyamines are organic compounds with more than one amino group (-NH2) and at least one carbon atom bonded to two or more amino groups. They are found in various tissues and fluids of living organisms and play important roles in many biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Polyamines are also involved in the regulation of ion channels and transporters, DNA replication and gene expression. The most common polyamines found in mammalian cells are putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. They are derived from the decarboxylation of amino acids such as ornithine and methionine. Abnormal levels of polyamines have been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

Dietary proteins are sources of protein that come from the foods we eat. Protein is an essential nutrient for the human body, required for various bodily functions such as growth, repair, and immune function. Dietary proteins are broken down into amino acids during digestion, which are then absorbed and used to synthesize new proteins in the body.

Dietary proteins can be classified as complete or incomplete based on their essential amino acid content. Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Examples of complete protein sources include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, soy, and quinoa.

Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids and are typically found in plant-based foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. However, by combining different incomplete protein sources, it is possible to obtain all the essential amino acids needed for a complete protein diet. This concept is known as complementary proteins.

It's important to note that while dietary proteins are essential for good health, excessive protein intake can have negative effects on the body, such as increased stress on the kidneys and bones. Therefore, it's recommended to consume protein in moderation as part of a balanced and varied diet.

A bioreactor is a device or system that supports and controls the conditions necessary for biological organisms, cells, or tissues to grow and perform their specific functions. It provides a controlled environment with appropriate temperature, pH, nutrients, and other factors required for the desired biological process to occur. Bioreactors are widely used in various fields such as biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and environmental science for applications like production of therapeutic proteins, vaccines, biofuels, enzymes, and wastewater treatment.

Food preservatives are substances added to foods to prevent or slow down spoilage caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, or to retard quality deterioration due to oxidation or other chemical reactions. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, preventing enzymatic reactions that cause spoilage, or scavenging oxygen that can lead to food degradation. Examples of commonly used food preservatives include sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sulfites, and nitrites. It is important to note that while food preservatives play a crucial role in maintaining the safety and quality of our food supply, excessive consumption of certain preservatives may have adverse health effects.

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). There are four small parathyroid glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. They release PTH into the bloodstream to help regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

In hyperparathyroidism, overproduction of PTH can lead to an imbalance in these minerals, causing high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). This can result in various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive issues.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a problem with one or more of the parathyroid glands, causing them to become overactive and produce too much PTH. Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops as a response to low calcium levels in the body due to conditions like vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or malabsorption syndromes.

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In primary hyperparathyroidism, surgery to remove the overactive parathyroid gland(s) is often recommended. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, treating the underlying condition and managing calcium levels with medications or dietary changes may be sufficient.

Water purification is the process of removing or reducing contaminants in water to make it safe and suitable for specific uses, such as drinking, cooking, irrigation, or medical purposes. This is typically achieved through physical, chemical, or biological methods, or a combination thereof. The goal is to eliminate or reduce harmful substances like bacteria, viruses, parasites, heavy metals, pesticides, and other pollutants that can cause illness or negatively impact human health, aquatic life, or the environment.

The specific purification methods used may vary depending on the nature of the contaminants and the desired level of purity for the intended use. Common techniques include filtration (using various types of filters like activated carbon, ceramic, or reverse osmosis), disinfection (using chemicals like chlorine or UV light to kill microorganisms), sedimentation (allowing particles to settle and be removed), and distillation (heating water to create steam, which is then condensed back into pure water).

Elemental phosphorus was first isolated as white phosphorus in 1669. In white phosphorus, phosphorus atoms are arranged in ... Violet phosphorus is a form of phosphorus that can be produced by day-long annealing of red phosphorus above 550 °C. In 1865, ... Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 250 °C (482 °F) or by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight. ... Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, ...
Containing only phosphorus and nitrogen, this material is classified as a binary nitride. It is the first identified phosphorus ... Phosphorus mononitride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula PN. ... Triphosphorus pentanitride Turner, B. E.; John Bally (1987), "Detection of interstellar PN - The first identified phosphorus ... "A quantum chemical study on the formation of phosphorus mononitride", Chemical Physics, 363 (1-3): 49-58, Bibcode:2009CP....363 ...
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. Phosphorus may also refer to: Phosphorus (morning star), ... Phosphorus (beetle), a genus of longhorn beetles Phosphorus (Thrace), a town of ancient Thrace, now in Turkey Phosphorus( ... Doctor Phosphorus, a Batman villain Isotopes of phosphorus P (disambiguation) Phosphorous (disambiguation), adjectival form of ... Look up phosphorus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... with phosphorus All pages with titles containing phosphorus ...
The reaction of phosphorus tribromide and silver cyanide in diethyl ether produce phosphorus tricyanide too. Its thermal ... Phosphorus tricyanide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula P(CN)3. It can be produced by the reaction of ... Phosphorus tricyanide reacts with Re(CO)5FBF3 to form {P[CN-Re(CO)5]3}(BF4)3. Noeth, Heinrich; Vetter, Hans Joachim. ... Pentacarbonylrhenium Complexes with Phosphorus Tricyanide and Dicyanophosphide: Organometallic Lewis Acids, Part LIX". ...
... is formed by mixing phosphorus trifluoride with chlorine PF3 + Cl2 → PF3Cl2 The P-F bond length ... The central phosphorus atom has sp3d hybridization, and the molecule has an asymmetric charge distribution. It appears as a ... Phosphorus trifluorodichloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula PF3Cl2. The covalent molecule trigonal ... Phosphorus(V) compounds, Fluorine compounds, Chlorine(−I) compounds, Gases, All stub articles, Chemical compound stubs). ...
Phosphorus virescens (Olivier, 1795) Phosphorus unicolor Aurivillius, 1913 Biolib.cz - Phosphorus. Retrieved on 8 September ... Phosphorus is a genus of longhorn beetles of the subfamily Lamiinae, containing the following species: ...
Phosphorus was a town of ancient Thrace, inhabited during Roman times. Its site is located near Karataş Çiftliği in European ...
Phosphorus(V) compounds, Phosphorus iodides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs, Theoretical chemistry stubs). ... this claim is disputed and probably generated a mixture of phosphorus triiodide and iodine. Although phosphorus pentaiodide has ... Phosphorus pentaiodide is a hypothetical inorganic compound with formula PI5. The existence of this compound has been claimed ... Phosphorus pentaiodide was reported to be a brown-black crystalline solid melting at 41 °C produced by the reaction of lithium ...
... can refer to: Phosphorus pentoxide (phosphorus(V) oxide, phosphoric anhydride), P2O5 Phosphorus trioxide ( ... oxides of phosphorus, including P4O7, P4O8, P4O9, and P2O6 Gases: Phosphorus monoxide, PO Phosphorus dioxide, PO2 This set ... phosphorus(III) oxide, phosphorous anhydride), P2O3 Phosphorus tetroxide, P2O4 Several other, less common, ...
... (32P) is a radioactive isotope of phosphorus. The nucleus of phosphorus-32 contains 15 protons and 17 neutrons, ... one more neutron than the most common isotope of phosphorus, phosphorus-31. Phosphorus-32 only exists in small quantities on ... Phosphorus is found in many organic molecules and so phosphorus-32 has many applications in medicine, biochemistry, and ... DNA can therefore be tracked by replacing the phosphorus with phosphorus-32. This technique is extensively used in Southern ...
Phosphorus halides Phosphorus trichloride Phosphoryl chloride Phosphorus trifluorodichloride NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical ... Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5. It is one of the most important phosphorus chlorides/ ... Phosphorus pentachloride was first prepared in 1808 by the English chemist Humphry Davy. Davy's analysis of phosphorus ... On p. 148, Dulong presented the correct analysis of phosphorus pentachloride (which is 14.9% phosphorus and 85.1% chlorine by ...
... may refer to any of the following: Phosphorus trifluoride, PF3 Phosphorus pentafluoride, PF5 Diphosphorus ... P2F4 See phosphorus halides for a complete list of phosphorus halides. Rhee, Kee H.; Snider, A.Monroe; Miller, Foil A. (1973 ...
P4S3 is produced by the reaction of red or white phosphorus with sulfur. Excess sulfur gives phosphorus pentasulfide (P4S10). ... Unlike some other phosphorus sulfides, P4S3 is slow to hydrolyze and has a well-defined melting point. The molecule has C3v ... Phosphorus sesquisulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula P4S3. It was developed by Henri Sevene and Emile David ... Loosening of the teeth has also been reported which may have been due to phosphorus poisoning. Leung, Y. C.; Waser, J.; van ...
... refers to several chemical compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen: Phosphorus mononitride Tetraphosphorus ...
Phosphorus bromides, Phosphorus(V) compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Phosphorus-pentabromide Corbridge, D. E. C. (2013). Phosphorus: Chemistry, Biochemistry and ... Phosphorus pentabromide is a reactive, yellow solid of formula PBr5, which has the structure [PBr4]+Br− (tetrabromophosphonium ... It decomposes above 100 °C to give phosphorus tribromide and bromine: PBr5 → PBr3 + Br2 Reversing this equilibrium to generate ...
Solid phosphorus tetroxide (also referred to as phosphorus(III,V)-oxide) consists of variable mixtures of the mixed-valence ... Diphosphorus tetroxide, or phosphorus tetroxide is an inorganic compound of phosphorus and oxygen. It has the empirical ... Phosphorus tetroxide can be produced by thermal decomposition of phosphorus trioxide, which disproportionates above 210 °C to ... Careful reduction of phosphorus pentoxide with red phosphorus at 450-525 °C also produces phosphorus tetroxide. http://www. ...
... s are a relatively obscure group of compounds. There have been some studies of the phosphorus - selenium ... While some of phosphorus selenides are similar to their sulfide analogues, there are some new forms, molecular P2Se5 and the ... Phosphorus - selenium glasses have been examined using 31P-NMR and Raman spectroscopy. Glasses are formed in PxSe1−x over the ... Molecular P2Se5 has a norbornane like structure with two phosphorus atoms with oxidation state +3 bridged by two diselenide ...
... , PF5, is a phosphorus halide. It is a colourless, toxic gas that fumes in air. Phosphorus ... 5 AsCl3 Phosphorus pentafluoride can be prepared by direct combination of phosphorus and fluorine: P4 + 10 F2 → 4 PF5 Single- ... Phosphorus pentafluoride is a Lewis acid. This property is relevant to its ready hydrolysis. A well studied adduct is PF5 with ... Kwasnik, W. (1963). "Phosphorus(V) fluoride". In Brauer, G. (ed.). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. 1 (2nd ed ...
... is also generated in situ from red phosphorus and bromine. Phosphorus tribromide, like PCl3 and PF3, has ... PBr3 is prepared by treating red phosphorus with bromine. An excess of phosphorus is used in order to prevent formation of PBr5 ... Phosphorus bromides, Reagents for organic chemistry, Inorganic solvents, Fire suppression agents, Phosphorus(III) compounds). ... Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr3. The liquid fumes in moist air due to hydrolysis and has a ...
... is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae. It was described by Per Olof Christopher Aurivillius in ... BioLib.cz - Phosphorus unicolor. Retrieved on 8 September 2014. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
... may refer to: Phosphorus tribromide, PBr3 Phosphorus pentabromide, PBr5 Phosphorus heptabromide, PBr7 ... Phosphorus halides This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link ...
Nitrogen triiodide Diphosphorus tetraiodide Phosphorus trifluoride Phosphorus trichloride Phosphorus tribromide Phosphorus ... The phosphorus atom has an NMR chemical shift of 178 ppm (downfield of H3PO4). Phosphorus triiodide reacts vigorously with ... Phosphorus triiodide (PI3) is an inorganic compound with the formula PI3. A red solid, it is too unstable to be stored; it is, ... Note that phosphorus also forms a lower iodide, P2I4, but the existence of PI5 is doubtful at room temperature. PI3 has a low ...
Two vessels of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Phosphorus for phosphorus: HMS Phosphorus (1804) was the Dutch naval vessel ... HMS Phosphorus was an Admiralty drifter built by A.Hall & Co. in 1918. The Admiralty sold her in 1919. She was renamed Ocean ...
The phosphorus atom has a nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift of 97 ppm (downfield of H3PO4). Phosphorus trifluoride ... 2 C6H6 Phosphorus trifluoride is usually prepared from phosphorus trichloride via halogen exchange using various fluorides such ... Phosphorus trifluoride has an F−P−F bond angle of approximately 96.3°. Gaseous PF3 has a standard enthalpy of formation of −945 ... Phosphorus trifluoride (formula PF3), is a colorless and odorless gas. It is highly toxic and reacts slowly with water. Its ...
... (PO2) is a gaseous oxide of phosphorus. It is a free radical that plays a role in the chemiluminescence of ... and their role in the combustion of phosphorus and phosphine". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. doi:10.1021/j150667a022. Bing ... phosphorus and phosphine. It is produced when phosphates are heated to high temperatures. In the ground state the molecule is ...
All known molecular phosphorus sulfides contain a tetrahedral array of four phosphorus atoms. P4S2 is also known but is ... Phosphorus sulfides comprise a family of inorganic compounds containing only phosphorus and sulfur. These compounds have the ... Phosphorus sesquisulfide is prepared by treating red phosphorus with sulfur above 450 K, followed by careful recrystallization ... and phosphorus sesquisulfide (P4S3), used in the production of "strike anywhere matches". There are several other phosphorus ...
nimbata Lesne, 1914 Phosphorus virescens var. jansoni Chevrolat, 1861 Phosphorus virescens var. lambda Lesne, 1914 Phosphorus ... Phosphorus virescens var. congolanus Lesne, 1914 Phosphorus virescens var. angolator (Olivier, 1795) Phosphorus virescens var. ... bibudiensis Hintz, 1919 Phosphorus virescens var. gabonator Thomson, 1865 Phosphorus virescens var. albidipennis Breuning, 1942 ... Phosphorus virescens is a species of beetle in the family Cerambycidae. It was described by Olivier in 1795, originally under ...
An example of one crop that takes up large amounts of phosphorus is soy. In an effort to postpone the onset of peak phosphorus ... Means of commercial phosphorus production besides mining are few because the phosphorus cycle does not include significant gas- ... The peak phosphorus concept is connected with the concept of planetary boundaries. Phosphorus, as part of biogeochemical ... Review: Peak Phosphorus: Clarifying the Key Issues of a Vigorous Debate about Long-Term Phosphorus Security. Sustainability ...
Phosphorus tribromide Phosphorus pentabromide Breneman, G. L.; Willett, R. D. (1967). "The crystal structure of phosphorus ... Phosphorus heptabromide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula PBr7. It is one of the phosphorus bromides. At ... PBr7 can be prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of phosphorus pentabromide and bromine. PBr5 + Br2 → PBr7 The structure of ... Phosphorus bromides, Polyhalides, Quaternary phosphonium compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
... phosphorus phosphorus in Seitz A full description is provided by Rothschild, W. and Jordan, K. (1906) Parides phosphorus is a ... Two subspecies: - phosphorus Bates (3c) occurs in British Guiana and at the Lower Amazon. The green spot on the forewing of the ... Parides phosphorus is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is found in the Neotropical realm. The larvae feed ... P. p. phosphorus Guianas, eastern Venezuela, Brazil (Pará) P. p. gratianus (Hewitson, 1861) Colombia P. p. vavi Racheli, 1992 P ...
Elemental phosphorus was first isolated as white phosphorus in 1669. In white phosphorus, phosphorus atoms are arranged in ... Violet phosphorus is a form of phosphorus that can be produced by day-long annealing of red phosphorus above 550 °C. In 1865, ... Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 250 °C (482 °F) or by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight. ... Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, ...
White phosphorus has been found in at least 77 of the 1,416 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental ... Exposure to white phosphorus may cause burns and irritation, liver, kidney, heart, lung, or bone damage, and death. ... White phosphorus is a waxy solid which burns easily and is used in chemical manufacturing and smoke munitions. ... What is white phosphorus?. White phosphorus is a colorless, white, or yellow waxy solid with a garlic-like odor. It does not ...
White phosphorus is used industrially to manufacture chemicals used in fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds. ... White phosphorus is a toxic substance produced from phosphate-containing rocks. ... Phosphorus, white, dry (1381). Phosphorus, white, under water (1381). Phosphorus, white, in solution (1381). Phosphorus, yellow ... Phosphorus, yellow, under water (1381). Phosphorus, yellow, in solution (1381). Phosphorus, white, molten (2447) ...
Phosphorus standard is also known as black phosphorus. It has relatively few uses and is pretty cheap. ... Is phosphorus Ionic or convalent bond?. Phosphorus is a nonmetallic element so phosphorus-phosphorus bonds are covalent. ... What is the form of phosphorus?. Phosphorus is a solid. There are various forms, allotropes of phosphorus:-White phosphorus ... What is the Latin name for phosphorus?. the latin name for phosphorus is phosphorus ...
Phosphorus is a mineral that makes up 1% of a persons total body weight. It is the second most abundant mineral in the body. ... Whole-grain breads and cereals contain more phosphorus than cereals and breads made from refined flour. However, the phosphorus ... Phosphorus is a mineral that makes up 1% of a persons total body weight. It is the second most abundant mineral in the body. ... High levels of phosphorus in blood only occur in people with severe kidney disease or severe dysfunction of their calcium ...
Environmental: Detection of elemental phosphorus in environmental samples, as determined by NIOSH, and an elevated phosphorus ... Phosphorus. In: Harbison RD, ed. Hamilton and Hardys industrial toxicology. 5th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book; 1998:194-7 ... Biologic: No specific test for elemental white or yellow phosphorus is available; however, an elevated serum phosphate level ... Ingestion of elemental white or yellow phosphorus typically causes severe vomiting and diarrhea, which are both described as " ...
White phosphorus munitions are primarily used by the U.S. military to make smoke screens or mark targets as a signaling ... Key facts about white phosphorus weapons. In-Depth Coverage Nov 17 (Reuters) - The Pentagon has acknowledged using incendiary ... The Pentagon says white phosphorus is a conventional munition that is not outlawed or illegal or banned by any convention. It ... the Pentagon acknowledged using white phosphorus weapons against enemy fighters in a what they called a "shake-and-bake ...
Here, we report on a previously overlooked source of prebiotic phosphorus from interstellar phosphine (PH3) that produces key ... Here, the authors investigate the potential of phosphine-doped astrochemical analog ices to form phosphorus oxoacids as ... Extraterrestrial sources may have provided prebiotic phosphorus to the early Earth. ... an understanding of the facile synthesis of oxoacids is essential to untangle the origin of water-soluble prebiotic phosphorus ...
There are many tables of actual data on phosphorus compounds occurring in whole plants and parts of plants. The tables provide ... Comprehensive examination of phosphorus compounds found in plants Extensive tables listing types of compounds and their ... Two appendices cover other aspects including changes in phosphorus-containing compounds during germination and their ... with primary focus on the chemistry of phosphorus-containing compounds that occur naturally in the plant kingdom, and ...
... phosphorus is the most common and most reactive of the 3 allotropic forms of phosphorus. Because of its reactivity, white ... phosphorus has been used as an incendiary agent by the military or as an igniter for munitions. ... White (or yellow) phosphorus is the most common and most reactive of the three allotropic forms of phosphorus. [1] Because of ... Depression of the serum calcium level with an elevation in the serum phosphorus level (reversed calcium-phosphorus ratio) with ...
This WebElements periodic table page contains index for the element phosphorus ... Follow the "Link to definition of property" or "Link to data for property" of the element phosphorus.. Link to definition of ... Phosphorus - 15P Your user agent does not support the HTML5 Audio element. 🔊 ... This table has links to all the properties of phosphorus included within WebElements. ...
Take a short look at a low cost phosphorus removal water filter the USGS has been working on for several years. ...
Maryland needs a science-based method to identify areas most at risk for phosphorus pollution. ... Reducing Phosphorus Pollution in Maryland. Phosphorus is one of the three major pollutants affecting the health of the ... Phosphorus, like nitrogen and other nutrients, is vital to crops. However, like nitrogen, when there is more phosphorus in the ... One of the largest sources of phosphorus is manure. While Maryland is on track to meet its phosphorus reduction goals statewide ...
Homeopathic Phosphorus indications, uses & symptoms from 12 cross linked materia medicas. Available 6C-30C, 200C, 12X-30X, 1M- ... Filter Phosphorus symptoms:. Below are the main rubriks (i.e strongest indications or symptoms) of Phosphorus in traditional ... Compare: Tuberculinum Tuberculinum follows Phosphorus well and complements its action. Phosphorus Hydrogenatus (crumbling teeth ... Phosphorus Phosphurus, Phosphorous, Phosphor, Phosphur, Phosph, Phos.. Available in 6C-30C, 200C, 12X-30X, 1M-10M from $6.59. ...
Phosphate is often referred as "phosphorus," a practice that is inaccurate and misleading. The elemental phosphorus is only ... encoded search term (Phosphate (Phosphorus)) and Phosphate (Phosphorus) What to Read Next on Medscape ... Phosphate (Phosphorus) Updated: Nov 21, 2019 * Author: Alina G Sofronescu, PhD, NRCC-CC, FAAC; Chief Editor: Eric B Staros, MD ... Phosphorus, in the form of mono- and divalent phosphates (H2 PO4 - and HPO42-), is part of multiple compounds in the human body ...
Concentration of Phosphorus. 7 Any analysis performed to determine the concentration of phosphorus for the purposes of these ... 5 The concentration of phosphorus in any household dish-washing compound must not exceed 1.1% by weight expressed as phosphorus ... 3 The concentration of phosphorus in any household laundry detergent must not exceed 1.1% by weight expressed as phosphorus ... by weight expressed as phosphorus pentoxide or 2.2% by weight expressed as elemental phosphorus. ...
Soil test phosphorus levels and the time elapsed between a surface application of manure or other phosphorus fertilizer and a ... Consider implementing phosphorus-based management of manure and other conservation practices to reduce phosphorus loss from the ... It is best to wait at least three months after a phosphorus application to allow time for applied phosphorus to equilibrate ... Phosphorus-based manure management required. Additional land conservation practices to reduce phosphorus loss from this field ...
Learn about Calcium Phosphorus Powder for Animal Use including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and ... Calcium Phosphorus supplies calcium and phosphorus in a ratio similar to the AAFCO recommendations for cats and dogs. The ratio ... Calcium Phosphorus Powder. This page contains information on Calcium Phosphorus Powder for veterinary use.. The information ... Calcium Phosphorus is a palatable cheese-flavored source of supplemental calcium and phosphorus for dogs and cats. When your ...
Phosphorus overview for health professionals. Research health effects, dosing, sources, deficiency symptoms, side effects, and ... Home , Health Information , Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets , Phosphorus , Phosphorus - Health Professional. Phosphorus. Fact ... Phosphorus is available in dietary supplements containing only phosphorus, supplements containing phosphorus in combination ... Phosphorus is a component of bones, teeth, DNA, and RNA [1]. In the form of phospholipids, phosphorus is also a component of ...
Find out how poly aluminum chloride outperforms aluminum chloride and aluminum sulfate, removing up to 80% of phosphorus. ... Discover the most effective coagulant for phosphorus removal in water purification. ... Comparison of Three Aluminum Coagulants for Phosphorus Removal () Junling Wang, Jian Song, Jun Lu, Xin Zhao Beijing Municipal ... That phosphorus has been removed more from water in purification process can result in higher grade of biological stability of ...
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This page contains information on the chemical Phosphorus pentachloride including: 30 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of ... PHOSPHORUS CHLORIDE (PCL5) *Phosphorus Pentachloride*Phosphorus pentachloride [UN1806] [Corrosive]*Phosphorus perchloride* ... Phosphore(pentachlorure de) *Phosphore(pentachlorure de) (FRENCH) *Phosphore(pentachlorure de) [French]*Phosphoric chloride* ... Phosphorus pentachloride. Identifications. *Formula: Cl5P*Formula: PCl5. Elements: Chlorine, Phosphorus. *CAS Number: 10026-13- ...
The heating rate of high phosphorus oolitic iron ore was studied. Crystallinity of hematite was characterized before and after ... The influence of microwave treatment on the liberation of iron ore from the high phosphorus oolitic iron ore from Aswan region ... "Microwave Assisted Liberation of High Phosphorus Oolitic Iron Ore" written by Mamdouh Omran, Timo Fabritius, Nagui Abdel-Khalek ... Separation of P phase and Fe phase in high phosphorus oolitic iron ore by ultrafine grinding and gaseous reduction in a rotary ...
The use of incendiary bombs - designed to start fires using materials such as napalm, white phosphorus or other dangerous ... White phosphorus reports: Ukraine military dropped incendiary bombs on Slavyansk .mediaplayer { min-height: 150px; } . ... about the reported use of white phosphorus bombs by Kievs army. But when cornered, she let it slip that she was quite clueless ... "its very likely that white phosphorus" was used, Shoebridge added. "Its very difficult to fabricate the video we saw ...
We start by enumerating phosphorus-bearing molecules (P-molecules) that could potentially be detected spectroscopically in ... We start by enumerating phosphorus-bearing molecules (P-molecules) that could potentially be detected spectroscopically in ... it is important to spectroscopically detect the presence of phosphorus-bearing atmospheric molecules that could be involved in ... it is important to spectroscopically detect the presence of phosphorus-bearing atmospheric molecules that could be involved in ...
PHOSPHORUS. Phosphorus. Phosphorus irritates, inflames and degenerates mucous membranes, irritates and inflames serous ... Phosphorus hydrogenatus (crumbling teeth; hyper sthesia; locomotor ataxia); Amphisb na (right jaw swollen and painful). Thymol ... Blood extravasations; fatty degenerations, cirrhosis, caries, are pathological states often calling for Phosphorus. Muscular ... seem to be under the special influence of Phosphorus. Great susceptibility to external impressions, to light, sound, odors, ...
Reducing phosphorus at its source saves municipalities the millions of dollars it would cost to remove phosphorus from storm ... Riverkeeper Helps Pass Statewide Phosphorus Bill Algae Blooms - Photo courtesy Laurie Seeman. View more images on our Flickr ... Tags: algae, algae blooms, fertilizers, phosphorus, and water supply. News Types: Latest Developments. ... Paterson signed into law new legislation banning the use of phosphorus in dish-washing detergents and lawn fertilizers ...
Nutrient management at many water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) can be efficiently achieved through the use of technologies that focus on the recovery and beneficial use of nutrients. This webinar...
... through the intermediates phosphorus chlorides and the two phosphorus sulfides: phosphorus pentasulfide, and phosphorus ... Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 250°C (482°F) or by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight. ... Due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element in nature. One form of phosphorus (white phosphorus) ... Phosphorus is a key element in all known forms of life. Inorganic phosphorus in the form of the phosphate PO43- plays a major ...
  • In minerals, phosphorus generally occurs as phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elemental phosphorus was first isolated from human urine, and bone ash was an important early phosphate source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphate is needed to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil, and its annual demand is rising nearly twice as fast as the growth of the human population. (wikipedia.org)
  • White phosphorus is a toxic substance produced from phosphate-containing rocks. (cdc.gov)
  • Although phosphate production is a by-product of elemental phosphorus metabolism in humans, a normal phosphate concentration does not rule out an elemental phosphorus exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus can build up slightly in naturally, but is manufactured from phosphate rocks. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphate is often referred as "phosphorus," a practice that is inaccurate and misleading. (medscape.com)
  • Many different types of foods contain phosphorus, mainly in the form of phosphates and phosphate esters [ 1 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Although phosphorus status is not typically assessed, phosphate can be measured in both serum and plasma [ 10 ]. (nih.gov)
  • However, plasma and serum phosphate levels do not necessarily reflect whole-body phosphorus content [ 1 , 11 ]. (nih.gov)
  • A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group , phosphorus is commonly found in inorganic phosphate rocks . (wikidoc.org)
  • This process is similar to the first synthesis of phosphorus from calcium phosphate in urine. (wikidoc.org)
  • Phosphorus is pretty far down the list of things we're going to suddenly run out of," Steven Van Kauwenbergh, principal scientist and leader of the Phosphate Research and Resources Initiative at IFDC, an international food security and agriculture organization, tells The Salt. (wunc.org)
  • Most of the phosphorus used in fertilizer comes from phosphate rock, a finite resource formed over millions of years in the earth's crust. (phys.org)
  • When experts debate peak phosphorus, what they are usually debating is how long the phosphate rock reserves, i.e. the resources that can economically be extracted, will hold out. (phys.org)
  • And, according to Sanchez, new research shows that the amount of phosphorus coming to the surface by tectonic uplift is in the same range as the amounts of phosphate rock we are extracting now. (phys.org)
  • The duration of phosphate rock reserves will also be impacted by the decreasing quality of the reserves, the growing global population, increased meat and dairy consumption (which require more fertilized grain for feed), wastage along the food chain, new technologies, deposit discoveries and improvements in agricultural efficiency and the recycling of phosphorus. (phys.org)
  • The authors noted that studies have shown that niacin lowers serum phosphorus by inhibiting the expression of type IIb sodium-phosphate co-transporters, which are responsible for absorption of phosphate through the gastrointestinal tract. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The results showed that the dominant water quality parameters affecting estuarine water quality were salinity, total organic matter, nitrogen content, either in the form of ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite, and phosphorus content, especially phosphate. (who.int)
  • As the amount of phosphorus you eat rises, so does the need for calcium. (mountsinai.org)
  • The amount of phosphorus coming from those types has gone down a lot, and now what we are left with is agricultural and urban runoff from the landscape," he said. (wisc.edu)
  • The number of the hydroxyl groups bonded to the vanadium and titanium species decreased readily with increasing amount of phosphorus. (lu.se)
  • however, the influence of phosphorus was relatively small irrespective of the large amount of phosphorus addition. (lu.se)
  • Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elemental phosphorus was first isolated as white phosphorus in 1669. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the perspective of applications and chemical literature, the most important form of elemental phosphorus is white phosphorus, often abbreviated as WP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ingestion of elemental white or yellow phosphorus typically causes severe vomiting and diarrhea, which are both described as "smoking," "luminescent," and having a garlic-like odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of elemental phosphorus in environmental samples, as determined by NIOSH, and an elevated phosphorus level in food, as determined by FDA, might also indicate that an exposure has occurred. (cdc.gov)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for elemental white or yellow phosphorus exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute elemental phosphorus poisoning in man: cardiovascular toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • The elemental phosphorus is only present as part of organic and inorganic compounds, and it is not present in a "free" form in the human body. (medscape.com)
  • 3 The concentration of phosphorus in any household laundry detergent must not exceed 1.1% by weight expressed as phosphorus pentoxide or 0.5% by weight expressed as elemental phosphorus. (gc.ca)
  • 4 The concentration of phosphorus in any commercial or industrial laundry detergent must not exceed 5% by weight expressed as phosphorus pentoxide or 2.2% by weight expressed as elemental phosphorus. (gc.ca)
  • 6 The concentration of phosphorus in any household cleaner, other than a laundry detergent, dish-washing compound, metal cleaner or de-greasing compound, must not exceed 1.1% by weight expressed as phosphorus pentoxide or 0.5% by weight expressed as elemental phosphorus. (gc.ca)
  • Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes , most commonly white, red and black. (wikidoc.org)
  • Elemental phosphorus is then liberated as a vapour and can be collected under phosphoric acid . (wikidoc.org)
  • Elemental phosphorus is a white or yellow, waxy substance that burns on contact with air. (mountsinai.org)
  • You should only take elemental phosphorus under the guidance of a qualified professional. (mountsinai.org)
  • The odour of combustion of this form has a characteristic garlic smell, and samples are commonly coated with white phosphorus pentoxide, which consists of P 4O 10 tetrahedra with oxygen inserted between the phosphorus atoms and at their vertices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast majority of phosphorus compounds mined are consumed as fertilisers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In soil, white phosphorus may stick to particles and be changed within a few days to less harmful compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Industries use white phosphorus to manufacture chemicals used in fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus is used by the military in various to less harmful compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Provides a high level reference source for scientists engaged in any aspect of plant research - chemistry, biochemistry or physiology - with primary focus on the chemistry of phosphorus-containing compounds that occur naturally in the plant kingdom, and specifically in the higher plants (Plantae). (google.com)
  • There are many tables of actual data on phosphorus compounds occurring in whole plants and parts of plants. (google.com)
  • The tables provide detailed data that is needed by the food industry, agriculture, etc as many of the phosphorus compounds are common to both plants and animals. (google.com)
  • Two appendices cover other aspects including changes in phosphorus-containing compounds during germination and their accumulation during growth and senescence. (google.com)
  • phosphorus and its compounds thereof are nutrients. (gc.ca)
  • Phosphorus triiodide reacts vigorously with water, producing phosphorous acid (H 3 PO 3 ) and hydroiodic acid (HI), along with smaller amounts of phosphine and P-P compounds. (wikidoc.org)
  • Excessively high levels of phosphorus in the blood, although rare, can combine with calcium to form deposits in soft tissues, such as muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • High levels of phosphorus in blood only occur in people with severe kidney disease or severe dysfunction of their calcium regulation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Maryland Department of Agriculture now confirms, with soil tests from all over the state, that only 18 percent of Maryland farm field acreage is polluting rivers and streams and the Chesapeake Bay due to excessive levels of phosphorus from manure. (cbf.org)
  • Some health conditions, such as diabetes, starvation, and alcoholism can cause levels of phosphorus in the body to fall. (mountsinai.org)
  • We should definitely start to approach questions about decreasing our global demand for phosphorus," says Tina Neset, an environmental researcher who studies phosphorus at Linköping University in Sweden. (wunc.org)
  • Moreover, climate change will affect the demand for phosphorus because agriculture will bear the brunt of changing weather patterns. (phys.org)
  • Along with increasing agricultural demand for phosphorus in fertilizer to feed the world, for which there is no substitute, there is also a growing demand for phosphorus in modern technology such as electronic devices. (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • When exposed to air, it spontaneously ignites and is oxidized rapidly to phosphorus pentoxide. (medscape.com)
  • With a melting point of 44 °C, white phosphorus is insoluble in water and above 30 °C, the particles spontaneously oxidize when in contact with the atmosphere forming phosphorus pentoxide a strong desiccant and dehydrating agent. (medscape.com)
  • White phosphorus emits a faint glow when exposed to oxygen - hence the name, taken from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning 'light-bearer' (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This problem is especially troubling on the Eastern Shore, where phosphorus-rich poultry litter from the area's growing poultry industry is extensively used as fertilizer. (cbf.org)
  • At the same time, not all agricultural producers will be negatively impacted by the new PMT regulations, and in fact, some will benefit from greater availability of manure fertilizer that they can readily use on fields that need additional phosphorus. (cbf.org)
  • She wanted to find out how much of the phosphorus that's mined and turned into supplements for animal feed or fertilizer to grow feed crops goes to the meat industry. (wunc.org)
  • Another reason to do so, she says, is that phosphorus and nitrogen from fertilizer runoff are responsible for a very current environmental problem: polluting waterways with too many plant nutrients. (wunc.org)
  • It is vital for food production since it is one of three nutrients (nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus) used in commercial fertilizer. (phys.org)
  • Today phosphorus is an essential component of commercial fertilizer. (phys.org)
  • Because industrial agriculture moves food around the world for processing and consumption, disrupting the natural cycle that returned phosphorus to the soil via the decomposition of plants, in many areas fertilizer must now be continually applied to enrich the soil's nutrients. (phys.org)
  • Applying a dynamic phosphorus (P) pool simulator under different socioeconomic scenarios, we find that cropland expansion can be avoided with less than 7% additional cumulative P fertilizer over 2006-2050 when comparing with cropland expansion scenarios, mostly targeted at nutrient-depleted soils of sub-Saharan Africa. (pbl.nl)
  • At the same time, inefficient fertilizer use in croplands has exacerbated phosphorus (P) and nitrogen losses to fresh and coastal waters, leading to eutrophication and the formation of coastal dead zones. (pbl.nl)
  • However, he noted, "We've turned that cycle into a straight line and that line runs into the water" when phosphorus in the form of fertilizer is applied to farm fields, golf courses and lawns. (wisc.edu)
  • Knowing the level of Phosphorus in the soil and applying fertilizer at agronomic rates at the right time for plant uptake will decrease the risk of loss. (msu.edu)
  • Knowing the proper management for the type of fertilizer being used (manure or commercial) and the application methods that help to keep the nutrients in the field and available for crop uptake also will decrease the risk of losing the phosphorus to the environment. (msu.edu)
  • Loss of phosphorus resulting from human activity occurs through fertilizer runoff from agricultural practices, golf courses, lawns, factories, gardens, as well as treated and untreated sewage discharge. (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • Human urine, for example, contains approximately 3-4 grams of phosphorus, which can be captured and turned into fertilizer rather than treated as a contaminant. (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • Cyanobacteria growth was enhanced in these conditions by the combined addition of ammonium nitrate, urea, and phosphorus fertilizer. (cdc.gov)
  • Growth also occurred when using either ammonium nitrate or urea fertilizer with no additional phosphorus input, suggesting that phosphorus was not limiting the cyanobacteria at the time of sample collection. (cdc.gov)
  • For this reason, white phosphorus that is aged or otherwise impure (e.g., weapons-grade, not lab-grade WP) is also called yellow phosphorus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute yellow phosphorus poisoning: smoking stool syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • White (or yellow) phosphorus is the most common and most reactive of the three allotropic forms of phosphorus. (medscape.com)
  • For this reason it is also called yellow phosphorus. (wikidoc.org)
  • Little information is available about the health effects that may be caused by white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • that may be caused by white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Maryland is on track to meet its phosphorus reduction goals statewide, soil phosphorus saturation and the potential for phosphorus runoff is not evenly distributed. (cbf.org)
  • One of the most important methods is reducing the amount of phosphorous applied to fields that have the highest risk of phosphorus runoff, which pollutes local waters, especially on the Eastern Shore. (cbf.org)
  • Enter the Phosphorus Management Tool (PMT), a science-based method of identifying the fields that contain the most phosphorous and have the highest risk of phosphorus runoff. (cbf.org)
  • Adopted in 2015, the PMT identifies hot spots where the soil is saturated with phosphorus and where other factors, such as networks of drainage ditches, signify a high risk of polluted runoff. (cbf.org)
  • more runoff can carry more phosphorus to a stream or lake. (missouri.edu)
  • A phosphorus index (P index) is one of the management tools that can be used to identify agricultural fields with a high potential for phosphorus losses in runoff. (missouri.edu)
  • In addition to the loss of this valuable nutrient, excess runoff can result in the eutrophication [2] of water bodies and algae buildup, where nitrogen and phosphorus from the runoff and discharge boosts development of organic matter leading to the degradation of aquatic environments over time. (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • Almost all foods contain phosphorus, but the amounts of phosphorus are greater in animal products and high-protein foods like meats, fowl, fish, eggs, and dairy. (dummies.com)
  • The EPA has determined that white phosphorus is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the phosphorus is stored in a form that is not absorbed by humans. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Oral ingestion of white phosphorus in humans has been demonstrated to result in pathologic changes to the liver and kidneys. (medscape.com)
  • In humans, phosphorus makes up about 1 to 1.4% of fat-free mass. (nih.gov)
  • Animals and humans excrete almost 100 percent of the phosphorus they consume in food. (phys.org)
  • Given the biological importance of phosphorus, a better understanding of its levels in the body and association with pathophysiological processes such as anemia would provide invaluable insights. (medscape.com)
  • Small amounts of white phosphorus were used in the past in pesticides and fireworks. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know what the effects are from eating or drinking very small amounts of white phosphorus-containing substances over long periods of time. (cdc.gov)
  • A diet that includes the right amounts of calcium and protein will also provide enough phosphorus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fruits and vegetables contain only small amounts of phosphorus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • the inhala tion exposure limit for white phosphorus in the workplace during an 8-hour workday at 0.1 milligram of Eating or drinking small amounts of white phosphorus white phospho rus per cubic meter of air (0.1 mg/m3). (cdc.gov)
  • Soil can be tested to determine how much phosphorus it contains, and is then classified as having "low," "medium," "optimum," or "excessive" amounts. (cbf.org)
  • The kidneys, bones, and intestines regulate phosphorus homeostasis, which requires maintenance of urinary losses at equivalent levels to net phosphorus absorption and ensuring that equal amounts of phosphorus are deposited and resorbed from bone [ 1 , 7 , 8 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Sodas and other drinks containing phosphoric acid may cause excessive amounts of phosphorus intake, which can interfere with proper calcium metabolism. (dummies.com)
  • According to Dr. Mavinic, hybrid car batteries contain significant amounts of phosphorus, for example, as do cell phones. (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • Agricultural: If white phosphorus releases as smoke, it is unlikely to contaminate agricultural products. (cdc.gov)
  • However, particles of white phosphorus that do not react with air may contaminate agricultural products. (cdc.gov)
  • This is linked to a legacy of phosphorus over-application and the fast drainage of agricultural fields to tidal waters through a network of drainage ditches. (cbf.org)
  • The phosphorus index promotes conservation practices that reduce phosphorus loss from agricultural fields. (missouri.edu)
  • Phosphorus loss from an agricultural field is determined by the interaction of many different characteristics of the field. (missouri.edu)
  • MU Extension publications G9181, Agricultural Phosphorus and Water Quality , and G9182, Managing Manure Phosphorus to Protect Water Quality , have additional information on the impact of excess phosphorus on stream and lake water quality and the factors affecting phosphorus loss from agricultural fields. (missouri.edu)
  • Government regulatory and cost-share programs require many farmers applying manure to assess the potential for phosphorus loss from their fields in an effort to reduce phosphorus loss from agricultural fields. (missouri.edu)
  • no single measurement or indicator is sufficient to predict phosphorus loss susceptibility of an agricultural field. (missouri.edu)
  • Reservoirs often receive excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) lost from agricultural land, and may subsequently influence N and P delivery to inland and coastal waters through internal processes such as nutrient burial, denitrification, and nutrient turnover. (springer.com)
  • The content of phosphorus and its fraction in the substrate mixture undergoing fermentation in the real agricultural biogas plant and in the digestate was determined. (mdpi.com)
  • It also explains the element's paradox-phosphorus brings agricultural plenty but can lead to devastation in waterways. (wisc.edu)
  • Assessing the phosphorus cycle in European agricultural soils: Looking beyond current national phosphorus budgets. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, phosphorus in seeds and unleavened breads is in the form of phytic acid, the storage form of phosphorus [ 2 ]. (nih.gov)
  • The bulk of phosphorus produced with this method is then converted to phosphoric acid that is used in agriculture for the production of fertilizers, rodenticides, fireworks and doping agent for silicon in the manufacturing of semiconductors. (medscape.com)
  • One of the largest sources of phosphorus is manure. (cbf.org)
  • This study aimed to determine the total organic contents, total Nitrogen, and Phosphorus in the estuary waters of Maros as a source of brackish water for fish pond aquaculture in Maros Regency. (who.int)
  • The P index is a systematic method for integrating a wide range of field characteristics into a prediction of the potential for phosphorus loss from the field. (missouri.edu)
  • Excess phosphorus contributes to dead zones-areas with low levels of oxygen where marine life cannot live-in creeks, rivers, and the Chesapeake Bay. (cbf.org)
  • However, like nitrogen, when there is more phosphorus in the soil than the crops can take up, the excess runs off the field and into nearby streams. (cbf.org)
  • In addition to how much excess phosphorus is in the soil, the Phosphorus Management Tool (PMT) takes into consideration the slope of the land, type of soil, and proximity of waters-all factors that affect the likelihood that excess phosphorus will find its way into local waterways. (cbf.org)
  • Future applications of manure will be limited in these areas and farmers will need to implement techniques that remove some of the excess phosphorus or draw it down slowly. (cbf.org)
  • Excess phosphorus also can reduce water clarity, cause fish kills, increase drinking water treatment costs and reduce the quality of drinking water. (missouri.edu)
  • This new statewide ban will help to protect waters from harmful algae blooms like those that occur in New York City's reservoirs from excess phosphorus pollution. (riverkeeper.org)
  • While phosphorus is a critical nutrient for life, it is also a problem in wastewater treatment plants and an environmental threat when excess phosphorus enters natural water systems. (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all crops, yet its excess negatively affects public health , the environment , and the economy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Depression of the serum calcium level with an elevation in the serum phosphorus level (reversed calcium-phosphorus ratio) with electrocardiographic changes including prolongation of the QT segment, ST-segment depression, T-wave changes, and bradycardia also have been observed. (medscape.com)
  • This page contains information on Calcium Phosphorus Powder for veterinary use . (drugs.com)
  • Calcium Phosphorus food supplement for dogs and cats. (drugs.com)
  • Calcium Phosphorus is a palatable cheese-flavored source of supplemental calcium and phosphorus for dogs and cats. (drugs.com)
  • When your pet requires additional calcium and phosphorus, PetAg Calcium Phosphorus provides these two minerals in a highly biologically available formulation. (drugs.com)
  • Calcium Phosphorus supplies calcium and phosphorus in a ratio similar to the AAFCO recommendations for cats and dogs. (drugs.com)
  • CALCIUM PHOSPHORUS is fortified with vitamin D necessary for calcium and phosphorus utilization by the animal. (drugs.com)
  • The following is a guideline for feeding Calcium Phosphorus. (drugs.com)
  • Calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D are essential nutrients for proper bone and teeth development. (drugs.com)
  • Next to calcium, phosphorus is the most abundant mineral in the body. (mountsinai.org)
  • The serum level of parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be measured. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, there is no consensus concerning the relationship of age to serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH levels. (who.int)
  • The military uses white phosphorus in various types of ammunition as an incendiary agent, because it spontaneously catches fire in air. (cdc.gov)
  • Nov 17 (Reuters) - The Pentagon has acknowledged using incendiary white-phosphorus munitions in a 2004 offensive against insurgents in the Iraqi city of Falluja. (globalsecurity.org)
  • White phosphorus munitions are primarily used by the U.S. military to make smoke screens or mark targets as a signaling mechanism, but also as an incendiary weapon, the Pentagon said. (globalsecurity.org)
  • [ 1 ] Because of its reactivity, white phosphorus has been used as an incendiary agent by the military or as an igniter for munitions. (medscape.com)
  • The use of incendiary bombs - designed to start fires using materials such as napalm, white phosphorus or other dangerous chemicals - is strictly prohibited by the UN. (rt.com)
  • On July 15, 2010, Gov. Paterson signed into law new legislation banning the use of phosphorus in dish-washing detergents and lawn fertilizers throughout New York. (riverkeeper.org)
  • White phosphorus skin exposure results in painful chemical burn injuries. (medscape.com)
  • Inhalation of white phosphorus smoke is presumed to be the least severe form of exposure, as it has not been shown to cause casualties. (medscape.com)
  • Title : Exposure to organic phosphorus sprays and occurrence of selected symptoms Personal Author(s) : Hayes, Wayland J.;Dixon, Ernest M.;Batchelor, Gordon S.;Upholt, William M. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus is a waxy solid which burns easily and is used in chemical manufacturing and smoke munitions. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus is a colorless, white, or yellow waxy solid with a garlic-like odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Munitions-quality white phosphorus is generally found as a waxy, yellow, transparent solid. (medscape.com)
  • White phosphorus is a yellow, waxy transparent solid. (wikidoc.org)
  • Phosphorus is so readily available in the food supply that deficiency is rare. (medlineplus.gov)
  • excesses of phosphorus may alter calcium balance, and phosphorus deficiency may lead to energy and metabolic problems. (dummies.com)
  • The serum phosphorus level may vary based on the etiology, trending towards higher values with reduced kidney function and lower values with vitamin D deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • This P 4 tetrahedron is also present in liquid and gaseous phosphorus up to the temperature of 800 °C (1,470 °F) when it starts decomposing to P 2 molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The β form of white phosphorus contains three slightly different P 4 molecules, i.e. 18 different P-P bond lengths between 2.1768(5) and 2.1920(5) Å. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorus forms individual P4 molecules. (answers.com)
  • To follow up this discovery and related future exoplanet biosignature detections, it is important to spectroscopically detect the presence of phosphorus-bearing atmospheric molecules that could be involved in the chemical networks producing, destroying or reacting with phosphine. (frontiersin.org)
  • We start by enumerating phosphorus-bearing molecules (P-molecules) that could potentially be detected spectroscopically in planetary atmospheres and collecting all available spectral data. (frontiersin.org)
  • White phosphorus (P 4 ) exists as individual molecules made up of four atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement, resulting in very high ring strain and instability. (wikidoc.org)
  • Carpenter SR (2005) Eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems: bistability and soil phosphorus. (springer.com)
  • In the last decade or so, inspired by the conversation about peak oil , a few environmental researchers began talking about the possibility of peak phosphorus and the dangers that a decline in such a critical resource would pose to food production. (wunc.org)
  • Peak phosphorus is a total myth, and I don't think it's anything to worry about in our lifetime," says Juan von Gernet , a senior consultant on fertilizers for CRU, a commodities research and consulting firm in London. (wunc.org)
  • Are we approaching peak phosphorus? (phys.org)
  • Phosphorus standard is also known as black phosphorus. (answers.com)
  • One of the forms of red/black phosphorus is a cubic solid. (wikidoc.org)
  • Black phosphorus has an orthorhombic structure (C mca ) and is the least reactive allotrope, it consists of many six-membered rings which are interlinked. (wikidoc.org)
  • [3] [4] A recent synthesis of black phosphorus using metal salts as catalysts has been reported. (wikidoc.org)
  • As part of the Chesapeake Clean Water Blueprint, Maryland is required to reduce phosphorus pollution 48 percent by 2025. (cbf.org)
  • Yet, there are no international organizations or regulations that manage global phosphorus resources. (phys.org)
  • The results indicated that the poly aluminum chloride is the preferred one that could remove phosphorus up to 80%, followed by aluminum chloride and aluminum sulfate. (scirp.org)
  • It is suggested that the poly aluminum chloride should be the best option to remove phosphorus in water plant. (scirp.org)
  • Reducing phosphorus at its source saves municipalities the millions of dollars it would cost to remove phosphorus from storm water. (riverkeeper.org)
  • We sought to determine whether higher phosphorus levels are associated with anemia in a large diverse population without CKD and early CKD. (medscape.com)
  • Higher phosphorus levels were associated with a greater likelihood for anemia in a population with early CKD and normal kidney function. (medscape.com)
  • Costs and benefits will shift geographically based on the location of fields that can use additional phosphorus. (cbf.org)
  • Dosages for phosphorus, as well as other nutrients, are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The combination of high phosphorus intakes with low calcium intakes increases serum PTH levels, but evidence is mixed on whether the increased hormone levels decrease bone mineral density [ 2 , 4-6 ]. (nih.gov)
  • Several studies suggest that higher intakes of phosphorus are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (mountsinai.org)
  • article{eaaf270f-905c-4ba4-ae82-ccca87b541e2, abstract = {{To examine the influence of phosphorus on the commercial V2O5(WO3)/TiO2 SCR catalyst, measurements were carried out by means of infrared and Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and NO reduction measurement as a function of phosphorus loading. (lu.se)
  • Phosphorus (P) is the nutrient limiting algal production in many Missouri streams and lakes. (missouri.edu)
  • Yu, X., Zhang, X. and Wang, Z. (2003) Phosphorus as A Limiting Nutrient in Drinking Water Biological Treatment. (scirp.org)
  • Brett MT, Benjamin MM (2008) A review and reassessment of lake phosphorus retention and the nutrient loading concept. (springer.com)
  • Phosphorus is an essential macromineral, meaning to be healthy you must include this nutrient in your diet. (dummies.com)
  • Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral nutrient in the body, after calcium. (dummies.com)
  • Phosphorus is a nutrient that is essential for plant growth. (msu.edu)
  • Phosphorus (P) is a nutrient that stimulates plant growth. (msu.edu)
  • In addition to his U.B.C. position Dr. Mavinic is Chair of the Technical Advisory Board for Ostara Nutrient Recovery Technologies, a company founded in 2005 that further developed the U.B.C. invention into a widely adoptable commercial scale technology for capturing phosphorus from waste streams. (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • The results suggest further studies using more robust experimental designs are needed to explore lake-specific dual nutrient management strategies for preventing cyanobacterial blooms in this phosphorus-rich hypereutrophic lake and possibly other hypereutrophic lakes. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphorus is a highly reactive element with oxygen and is therefore found in combination with other minerals, in forms such as Apatite, rather than in free form. (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • Phosphorus signifies an essential element in molecular biology, yet given the limited solubility of phosphates on early Earth, alternative sources like meteoritic phosphides have been proposed to incorporate phosphorus into biomolecules under prebiotic terrestrial conditions. (nature.com)
  • In the air, white phosphorus reacts rapidly with oxygen to produce relatively harmless chemicals within minutes. (cdc.gov)
  • In water with low oxygen, white phosphorus may degrade to a highly toxic compound called phosphine, which eventually evaporates to the air and is changed to less harmful chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Pronounced hwt fs'fr-s) phosphine, which eventually evaporates to the White phosphorus is a colorless, white, or yellow air and is changed to less harmful chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • The most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilisers . (wikidoc.org)
  • Water quality deteriorates when too much phosphorus enters a stream or lake, a process called eutrophication. (missouri.edu)
  • More recently, phosphine was attributed as the source of the phosphorus signal in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko 16 . (nature.com)
  • Disorders of magnesium and phosphorus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phosphorus is also needed to help balance and use other vitamins and minerals, including vitamin D, iodine, magnesium, and zinc. (mountsinai.org)
  • Wastewater treatment plants typically have challenges in dealing with the buildup of magnesium, phosphorus and nitrogen, which form struvite scale and clog infrastructure (pipes, pumps, etc.) resulting in expensive and time-consuming maintenance and repair work. (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • In the form of phospholipids, phosphorus is also a component of cell membrane structure and of the body's key energy source, ATP. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is implementing amended rules requiring permitted concentrated animal feeding operations to assess phosphorus loss on all fields receiving manure. (missouri.edu)
  • In the past, as part of a natural cycle, the phosphorus in manure and waste was returned to the soil to aid in crop production . (phys.org)
  • Phosphorus and calcium are interrelated because hormones, such as vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH), regulate the metabolism of both minerals. (nih.gov)
  • The level of phosphorus is tightly regulated by three main hormones [parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23)], which affect the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of phosphorus and bone mineral metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • White phosphorus is used by the military in various types of ammunition, and to produce smoke for concealing troop movements and identifying targets. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphorus is a mineral that makes up 1% of a person's total body weight. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phosphorus, an essential mineral, is naturally present in many foods and available as a dietary supplement. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphorus is a required mineral. (dummies.com)
  • Phosphorus is an essential mineral for biological processes and structures that support life in plants and animals (in all living cells, proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, energy carriers, healthy bone and teeth development, and more). (sustainabilitytelevision.com)
  • Phosphorus plays a major role in physiological functioning, including energy production, cellular replication and bone mineral metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • And, she argues in a paper published in the journal Environmental Research Letters, the heavy phosphorus footprint of meat is good reason to eat less of it, given that phosphorous is a finite resource that might become scarce one day. (wunc.org)
  • When exposed to oxygen, white phosphorus glows in the dark with a very faint tinge of green and blue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Too much phosphorus is generally caused by kidney disease or by consuming too much dietary phosphorus and not enough dietary calcium. (mountsinai.org)
  • Phosphorus, like nitrogen and other nutrients, is vital to crops. (cbf.org)
  • This has been illustrated by calculations of the magnetically induced currents, which sum up to 29 nA/T, much more than in the archetypical aromatic molecule benzene (11 nA/T). Crystalline structures of some phosphorus allotropes White phosphorus exists in two crystalline forms: α (alpha) and β (beta). (wikipedia.org)
  • further heating results in the red phosphorus becoming crystalline. (wikidoc.org)
  • Most of the phosphorus in the body is found in the bones and teeth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The main function of phosphorus is in the formation of bones and teeth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About 85% of the body's phosphorus is in bones and teeth. (mountsinai.org)
  • b) the scope of its accreditation includes the analysis performed to determine the concentration of phosphorus. (gc.ca)
  • On a constaté une faible concentration sérique en 25-hydroxyvitamine D (25-OHD) chez 52,9 % des femmes. (who.int)
  • Chez les femmes préménopausées et postménopausées, la concentration sérique en 25-OHD, en phosphore et en calcium était stable dans la fourchette d'âge. (who.int)
  • Breathing white phosphorus for long periods may cause a condition known as "phossy jaw" which involves poor wound healing of the mouth and breakdown of the jaw bone. (cdc.gov)
  • The delicate balance between calcium and phosphorus is necessary for proper bone density and prevention of osteoporosis. (mountsinai.org)
  • Skin contact with burning white phosphorus may burn skin or cause liver, heart, and kidney damage. (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesized that phosphorus has an effect on anemia in both normal kidney function and early chronic kidney disease (CKD). (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) often leads to hyperphosphatemia, abnormalities in phosphorus levels have been observed in populations with and without kidney disease. (medscape.com)
  • Subsidizing not cropland but grassland that holds on to phosphorus and carbon and promoting biodiversity. (wisc.edu)
  • In white phosphorus, phosphorus atoms are arranged in groups of 4, written as P4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glow of phosphorus is caused by oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus - a process now called chemiluminescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two most common allotropes are white phosphorus and red phosphorus. (wikipedia.org)
  • White phosphorus is the least stable, the most reactive, the most volatile, the least dense and the most toxic of the allotropes. (wikipedia.org)
  • White phosphorus gradually changes to red phosphorus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This transformation is accelerated by light and heat, and samples of white phosphorus almost always contain some red phosphorus and accordingly appear yellow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Owing to its pyrophoricity, white phosphorus is used as an additive in napalm. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus has been found in at least 77 of the 1,416 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • What is white phosphorus? (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus reacts rapidly with oxygen, easily catching fire at temperatures 10 to 15 degrees above room temperature. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to white phosphorus when it enters the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus can enter the environment when it is made, used in manufacturing or by the military, or accidentally spilled during transport and storage. (cdc.gov)
  • In water, white phosphorus reacts with oxygen within hours or days. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus can build up slightly in the bodies of fish that live in contaminated lakes or streams. (cdc.gov)
  • In deep soil or sediments with little oxygen, white phosphorus may remain unchanged for many years. (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to white phosphorus? (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing contaminated air near a facility that is using white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • Eating contaminated fish or game birds from sites containing white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • Drinking or swimming in water that has been contaminated with white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • Touching soil contaminated with white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • If you work in industries that use or manufacture white phosphorus or munitions containing white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • How can white phosphorus affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • Most of what is known about the effects of breathing white phosphorus is from studies of workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of what is known about the effects of eating white phosphorus is from reports of people eating rat poison or fireworks that contained it. (cdc.gov)
  • Breathing white phosphorus for short periods may cause coughing and irritation of the throat and lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know whether or not white phosphorus can affect the ability to have children or cause birth defects in people. (cdc.gov)
  • How likely is white phosphorus to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • There are no studies available in people or animals that suggest white phosphorus causes cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to white phosphorus? (cdc.gov)
  • It has a match-like or garlic-like, acrid odor, but do not depend on odor for detection of white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • Indoor Air: White phosphorus can release into indoor air as smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • Water: White phosphorus can contaminate water. (cdc.gov)
  • Food: White phosphorus cannot be used to contaminate food. (cdc.gov)
  • Outdoor Air: White phosphorus can enter outdoor air as smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus absorbs into the body when inhaled, ingested, or through skin contact. (cdc.gov)
  • This is the standard form for white phosphorus. (answers.com)
  • The Pentagon says white phosphorus is a conventional munition that is not outlawed or illegal or banned by any convention. (globalsecurity.org)
  • In the November 2004 Marine-led offensive in Falluja that involved fierce urban fighting, the Pentagon acknowledged using white phosphorus weapons against enemy fighters in a what they called a "shake-and-bake technique. (globalsecurity.org)
  • White phosphorus reacts rapidly with oxygen, easily lakes or streams. (cdc.gov)
  • In soil, white phosphorus may stick to room temperature. (cdc.gov)
  • white phosphorus may remain unchanged for many years. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus can enter the environment when from sites containing white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • been contaminated with white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • munitions containing white phosphorus. (cdc.gov)
  • The EPA has listed white phosphorus as a Hazardous is from studies of workers. (cdc.gov)
  • The EPA requires that spills or accidental the effects of eating white phosphorus is from reports of releases into the environment of 1 pound or more of people eating rat poison or fireworks that contained it. (cdc.gov)
  • white phosphorus be reported to the EPA. (cdc.gov)
  • White phosphorus commonly is found in hand grenades, mortar and artillery rounds, and smoke bombs. (medscape.com)
  • Most injuries associated with white phosphorus are the result of accidents due to either human or mechanical error. (medscape.com)
  • White phosphorus can cause significant injury and death, and its use by the military has been highly criticized. (medscape.com)
  • White phosphorus is highly lipid soluble and, as such, is believed to have rapid dermal penetration once particles are embedded under the skin. (medscape.com)
  • Few studies have investigated the degree of tissue destruction associated with white phosphorus injuries. (medscape.com)
  • The ingestion of a small quantity of white phosphorus can cause gastrointestinal complaints such as nausea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting. (medscape.com)
  • During the latest news briefing, State Department spokesperson Jen Psaki veered away from answering an AP journalist's question about the reported use of white phosphorus bombs by Kiev's army. (rt.com)
  • According to the video, "it's very likely that white phosphorus" was used, Shoebridge added. (rt.com)
  • Red phosphorus may be formed by heating white phosphorus to 250°C (482°F) or by exposing white phosphorus to sunlight. (wikidoc.org)
  • Red phosphorus does not catch fire in air at temperatures below 240°C, whereas white phosphorus ignites at about 30°C. (wikidoc.org)
  • Burns frequently are second and third degree because of the rapid ignition and highly lipophilic properties of white phosphorus. (medscape.com)
  • Take a short look at a low cost phosphorus removal water filter the USGS has been working on for several years. (usgs.gov)
  • Differences in climate, soil type, phosphorus soil testing method, crop management and sensitivity of receiving water all contribute to make locally developed P indexes more effective than a single national or regional approach. (missouri.edu)
  • That phosphorus has been removed more from water in purification process can result in higher grade of biological stability of the effluent tap water, especially for the water plant when using surface water source. (scirp.org)
  • Auvray, F., Hullebusch, E.D., Deluchata, V. and Baudu, M. (2006) Laboratory Investigation of the Phosphorus Removal (SRP and TP) from Eutrophic Lake Water Treated with Aluminum. (scirp.org)
  • Feng, Q. (2007) Study on Advanced Treatment Technique of Phosphorus Removal in Drinking Water. (scirp.org)
  • Template:Chembox new Phosphorus triiodide (PI 3 ) is an unstable red solid which reacts violently with water. (wikidoc.org)
  • Some medications can cause phosphorus levels to drop, including some antacids and diuretics (water pills). (mountsinai.org)
  • When it rains, storm water can carry phosphorus-containing materials into lakes and streams, which can result in excessive algal growth, decreased water quality and harm to aquatic life. (msu.edu)
  • Water entering the estuary has an impact on high concentrations of total organic matter, increased concentrations of Total N, and phosphorus. (who.int)
  • Cyanobacteria growth in nitrogen- & phosphorus-spiked water from a hypereutrophic reservoir in Kentucky, USA. (cdc.gov)
  • By the 18th century it was known that in pure oxygen phosphorus does not glow at all, [8] there is only a range of partial pressure where it does. (wikidoc.org)