Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.
The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.

Characterization and expression of the cDNA encoding a new kind of phospholipid transfer protein, the phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylinositol transfer protein from Aspergillus oryzae: evidence of a putative membrane targeted phospholipid transfer protein in fungi. (1/11419)

The full-length cDNA of a phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) was isolated from Aspergillus oryzae by a RACE-PCR procedure using degenerated primer pool selected from the N-terminal sequence of the purified phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylglycerol transfer protein (PG/PI-TP). The cDNA encodes a 173 amino acid protein of 18823 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence from position 38 to 67 is 100% identical to the N-terminal sequence (first 30 amino acids) of the purified PG/PI-TP. This amino acid sequence is preceded by a leader peptide of 37 amino acids which is predicted to be composed of a signal peptide of 21 amino acids followed by an extra-sequence of 16 amino acids, or a membrane anchor protein signal (amino acid 5-29). This strongly suggests that the PG/PI-TP is a targeted protein. The deduced mature protein is 138 amino acids long with a predicted molecular mass of 14933 Da. Comparison of the deduced PG/PI-TP sequence with other polypeptide sequences available in databases revealed a homology with a protein deduced from an open reading frame coding for an unknown protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (36% identity and 57% similarity). Apart from this homology, the PG/PI-TP is unique and specific to the filamentous fungi on the basis of comparison of PLTP protein sequences. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from A. oryzae cultures grown on glucose or glucose supplemented with phospholipids suggests that the PG/PI-TP is transcribed by only one RNA species and allows us to show that expression of the protein is regulated at the messenger RNA level.  (+info)

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (2/11419)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Relocating the active site of activated protein C eliminates the need for its protein S cofactor. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer study. (3/11419)

The effect of replacing the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain of activated protein C (APC) with that of prothrombin on the topography of the membrane-bound enzyme was examined using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The average distance of closest approach (assuming kappa2 = 2/3) between a fluorescein in the active site of the chimera and octadecylrhodamine at the membrane surface was 89 A, compared with 94 A for wild-type APC. The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain substitution therefore lowered and/or reoriented the active site, repositioning it close to the 84 A observed for the APC. protein S complex. Protein S enhances wild-type APC cleavage of factor Va at Arg306, but the inactivation rate of factor Va Leiden by the chimera alone is essentially equal to that by wild-type APC plus protein S. These data suggest that the activities of the chimera and of the APC.protein S complex are equivalent because the active site of the chimeric protein is already positioned near the optimal location above the membrane surface to cleave Arg306. Thus, one mechanism by which protein S regulates APC activity is by relocating its active site to the proper position above the membrane surface to optimize factor Va cleavage.  (+info)

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (4/11419)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

Efficient binding of regulated secretory protein aggregates to membrane phospholipids at acidic pH. (5/11419)

Some regulated secretory proteins are thought to be targeted to secretory granules through an acidic-dependent aggregation in the trans-Golgi network. In this report we use pancreatic zymogens, a paradigm of regulated proteins, to test this hypothesis, because they qualitatively aggregate upon acidification in vitro. Pig zymogens were found to start to aggregate significantly at pH approximately 6.0, a pH slightly lower than that at which rat zymogens aggregate, but still compatible with the pH of the cell-sorting compartments. When pig zymogen granule membranes were mixed with the zymogens in the aggregation assay, membranes that normally floated on 1 M sucrose were observed to be pelleted by the aggregating zymogens. Rat membranes were pelleted by pig zymogens and vice versa. Igs, typical constitutively secreted proteins, which needed chemical cross-linking to serve as an aggregated protein control, pelleted membranes almost independently of pH. Corresponding cross-linked zymogen-binding ability and pH dependence was unaffected by the chemical modification. Membranes treated with sodium carbonate, pH 11, or with protease K, were still pelleted by zymogens, suggesting that the aggregated zymogens bound to membrane lipids. This hypothesis was confirmed by the efficient pelleting of unilamellar vesicles composed of granule membrane lipids. Vesicles composed of single classes of phospholipids were also pelleted, but with various efficacies. We conclude that pancreatic zymogen aggregates, formed under the acidic conditions of the secretory pathway sorting compartments, have the capacity to bind firmly to membranes through their phospholipid constituents.  (+info)

The Npc1 mutation causes an altered expression of caveolin-1, annexin II and protein kinases and phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and annexin II in murine livers. (6/11419)

We have previously demonstrated (1) an increased expression of caveolin-1 in murine heterozygous and homozygous Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) livers, and (2) an increased concentration of unesterified cholesterol in a detergent insoluble caveolae-enriched fraction from homozygous livers. To define further the relationship between caveolin-1 function and the cholesterol trafficking defect in NPC, we examined the expression and distribution of additional caveolar and signal transduction proteins. The expression of annexin II was significantly increased in homozygous liver homogenates and the Triton X-100 insoluble floating fraction (TIFF). Phosphoamino acid analysis of caveolin-1 and annexin II from the homozygous TIFF demonstrated an increase in serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, respectively. To determine the basis for increased phosphorylation of these proteins, the expression and distribution of several protein kinases was examined. The expression of PKCalpha, PKCzeta and pp60-src (protein kinases) were significantly increased in both heterozygous and homozygous liver homogenates, while PKCdelta was increased only in homozygous livers. Of the protein kinases analyzed, only CK IIalpha was significantly enriched in the heterozygous TIFF. Finally, the concentration of diacylglycerol in the homozygous TIFF was significantly increased and this elevation may modulate PKC distribution and function. These results provide additional evidence for involvement of a caveolin-1 containing cellular fraction in the pathophysiology of NPC and also suggest that the Npc1 gene product may directly or indirectly, regulate the expression and distribution of signaling molecules.  (+info)

Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (7/11419)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

Platelet high affinity low density lipoprotein binding and import of lipoprotein derived phospholipids. (8/11419)

The binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the platelet cell membrane could facilitate the transfer of phospholipids from LDL to the platelets. A polyclonal antibody against the platelet glycoproteins IIb/IIIa inhibited the high affinity binding of 125I-LDL by up to 80%. The transfer of pyrene (py)-labeled sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from LDL to the platelets was unaffected by the antibody. The lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reduced the binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by approximately 80%. In contrast, the lectin stimulated the transfer of SM from LDL into the platelets by about three-fold. WGA also specifically augmented the transfer of py-SM between lipid vesicles and the platelets, the stimulation being abolished in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine. Dextran sulfate (DS) increased the specific binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by up to 2.8-fold. On the other hand, the import of LDL-derived py-phospholipids was unaffected by DS. Together, the results indicate that the phospholipid transfer from LDL to the platelets is independent of the high affinity LDL binding to the platelets and is specifically stimulated by WGA. Thus, the interactions of platelets with LDL phospholipids differ markedly from those with the apoprotein components of the lipoproteins.  (+info)

Background: Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting. Materials and methods: We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours. Results: A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4-Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incorporation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid into various bacterial phospholipids. AU - Watanabe, Kazuo. AU - Ishikawa, Chikako. AU - Inoue, Hitomi. AU - Cenhua, Deng. AU - Yazawa, Kazunaga. AU - Kondo, Kiyosi. PY - 1994/3. Y1 - 1994/3. N2 - Incorporation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into bacterial phospholipids was examined as a method for DHA-linked phospholipid production. The cultivation of 23 bacterial strains in medium with DHA showed that an eicosapentaenoic acid-producing bacterium Shewanella sp. strain SCRC-2738 (strain SCRC-2738), Bacillus subtilis W23, B. cereus, an Antarctic marine bacterium strain S-7 (strain S-7), photosynthesis bacterium (PSB) Rhodopseudomonas capsulatus utilized for the production of larval marine fish, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli K12 all incorporated DHA into their polar lipids. The polar lipids of the strain SCRC-2738, strain S-7, PSB and E. coli K12 were identified to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina. AU - Lin, D. S.. AU - Anderson, Gregory. AU - Connor, W. E.. AU - Neuringer, Martha. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Purpose. To characterize the molecular species composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EGP) in the primate retina and to examine the effects of different dietary fats, the authors fed rhesus monkeys diets containing widely ranging amounts of n-3 fatty acids. Methods. From birth, infant monkeys were fed either a control soybean oil diet, containing 8% of total fatty acids as 18:3(n-3), or a safflower oil-based n-3 fatty acid deficient diet containing AB - Purpose. To characterize the molecular species composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EGP) in the primate retina and to examine the effects of different dietary fats, the authors fed rhesus monkeys diets containing widely ranging amounts of n-3 fatty acids. Methods. From birth, infant monkeys were fed ...
Physiological pregnancy is associated with an increase in lipids from the first to the third trimester. This is a highly regulated response to satisfy energy and membrane demands of the developing fetus. Pregnancy disorders, such as pre-eclampsia, are associated with a dysregulation of lipid metabolism manifesting in increased maternal plasma lipid levels. In fetal placental tissue, only scarce information on the lipid profile is available, and data for gestational diseases are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the placental lipid content in control versus pre-eclamptic samples, with the focus on tissue phospholipid levels and composition. We found an increase in total phospholipid content as well as changes in individual phospholipid classes in pre-eclamptic placental tissues compared to controls. These alterations could be a source of placental pathological changes in pre-eclampsia, such as lipid peroxide insult or dysregulation of lipid transport across the syncytiotrophoblast.
Studies of dietary ω-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer risk are inconsistent; however, recent large prospective studies have found increased risk of prostate cancer among men with high blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([LCω-3PUFA] 20:5ω3; 22:5ω3; 22:6ω3]. This case-cohort study examines associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and prostate cancer risk among participants in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial.. ...
Membrane bound phospholipids require a distinct fatty acid composition. This is achieved through the deacylation-reacylation cycle that involves the breakdown of the parent phospholipid to a fatty acid and its lysophospholipid derivative by a phospholipase A activity. Subsequently, phospholipids are resynthesized through the action of an acyltransferase that attaches acyl-Coenzyme A thioesters to the lysophospholipid. This cycle must be carefully regulated so that the correct fatty acid composition of the phospholipids are maintained, otherwise the normal functioning of the membrane and membrane bound enzymes could be jeopardized. Thyroid hormones have profound effects on the heart. Since it is established that thyroid hormones regulate many lipid metabolizing enzymes, it is possible that the deacylation-reacylation cycle of certain phospholipids may also be regulated by thyroid hormones. The effect of a thyroid condition on phospholipid fatty acid metabolism was examined in isolated rat hearts ...
Oil palm calyx is a solid waste in the oil palm industry which is yet to find economic usage. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of recovering phospholipids from the oil palm calyx. Preliminary functional property of calyx phospholipids was determined using emulsion stability. Results indicated that oil palm calyx had 14% total lipids when extracted with methanol and 62.3% of lipids were acetone insoluble lipids (phospholipids). Methanol extracted phospholipids showed that the highest concentration of total phospholipids (1971 mg/L) with phosphatidylcholine (PC) have been the predominant phospholipid. The calyx phospholipids stabilized oil in water emulsion at 2% concentration. The study serves as a foundation on the positive usage of oil palm calyx in producing industrial phospholipids. Key words: Oil palm, lecithin, phospholipids, waste, palm calyx oil.
1. The [32P]phosphate incorporated into the phospholipids of isolated rat hepatic cells is present in phosphatidic acid and to a smaller extent in phosphatidylinositol. 2. The ability to synthesize nitrogen-containing phospholipids is restored by adding a liver supernatant fraction, and it is suggested that the metabolic deficiency is caused by the leakage of cytoplasmic enzymes of the synthetase system from the cells. 3. Fortified cell preparations were pulse-labelled with [32P]phosphate, [Me-14C]choline, [2-14C]ethanolamine and [U-14C]inositol and the subsequent fate of the labelled microsomal and mitochondrial phospholipids followed. 4. A fall in the specific radioactivity of microsomal phospholipids and a rise in that of mitochondrial phospholipids is interpreted as providing evidence of a transfer of labelled phospholipid molecules from the synthetic site (endoplasmic reticulum) to the mitochondrial membranes in the intact cells. 5. The formation of the phospholipids of mitochondrial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phospholipid fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation of duck spermatozoa. AU - Surai, PF. AU - Brillard, JP. AU - Speake, BK. AU - Blesbois, E. AU - Seigeurin, F. AU - Sparks, NHC. N1 - 643019. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - Acid. KW - Composition. KW - Content. KW - Fatty. KW - Fatty Acid. KW - Lipid. KW - Lipid Peroxidation. KW - Peroxidation. KW - Phospholipid. KW - Spermatozoa. KW - Susceptibility. KW - Vitamin. KW - Vitamin E. M3 - Article. VL - 53. SP - 1025. EP - 1039. JO - Theriogenology. JF - Theriogenology. SN - 0093-691X. ER - ...
This study was performed to determine the early and delayed metabolic effects of myocardial ischemia on the major membrane phospholipids and to reassess the potential role of lysophospholipids in the genesis of malignant dysrhythmias induced by ischemia. Samples taken from in situ hearts before ant at various intervals up to 40 minutes after abrupt ligation of LAD were extracted by the classical Folch technique with modifications to avoid artifactual lysophospholipid production and losses. Following thin layer chromatography of lipid extracts, phospholipid fractions were quantified by phosphorus estimation and lysophospholipids by a more sensitive method employing gas liquid chromatography. The total phospholipid content with the exception of lysophospholipids remained essentially constant throughout the early phases of acute ischemia, but fell by 6 and 14% after 8 and 24 ours, respectively. At 8 minutes, lysophospholipid levels n ischemic myocardium were significantly increased by 60% compared ...
In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: Section 1 presents an overview of the relationship between structures and biological activities (pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory) of several phospholipids with respect to inflammation. Sections 2 and 3 are dedicated to the structures, functions, compositions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. To date, there is very limited work published on meat phospholipids, undoubtedly due to the negative perception that meat consumption is an unhealthy option because of its putative associations with several chronic diseases. These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. ...
How deep can drugs penetrate into your skin?. We presented our new skin penetration study with saturated phospholipids at the 11th PBP world meeting, on 22 March, 2018 in Granada.. The Phospholipid Research Center and Lipoid GmbH tracked topically applied phospholipids among other skin lipids - with the help of Lipotype lipidomics.. Many dermatological products contain phospholipids whose properties change with their saturation. Saturated lipids are gel-like at body temperature, while unsaturated lipids are more liquid. This influences drug delivery and interactions with skin.. Download poster (PDF) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes. T2 - Selective increase of dihomogammalinolenic acid. AU - Chapkin, Robert S.. AU - Somers, Scott D.. AU - Erickson, Kent L. PY - 1988/8. Y1 - 1988/8. N2 - Because alterations in the dietary content of fatty acids are an important method for modulating macrophage eicosanoid production, we have quantitated the levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peritoneal macrophage individual phospholipids from mice fed diets (3 wk) with either safflower oil (SAF), predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage (BOR) containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish (MFO) containing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and borage/fish mixture (MIX) containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Dietary n-3 fattya cids were readily incorporated into macrophage phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The increase in n-3 fatty acid levels was accompanied by a decrease in the absolute ...
SUMMARY: The metabolism of phospholipids in Vibrio costicola, a moderately halophilic bacterium, has been investigated in relation to sudden changes in salinity. Both the absqlute and relative rates of biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine depend on the salt concentration of the medium; a sudden rise in salt concentration ha? an instantaneous inhibitory effect on phospholipid biosynthesis, but this inhibition lessens as, the bacteria adapt to the higher salinity. There is no turnover of phospholipids during isotonic growth, nor when the salt concentration is suddenly altered. The alterations in biosynthetic rates of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine that occur after sudden changes in salt concentration are consistent with the known compositional changes. We conclude that the mechanisms of changes in phospholipid composition during adaptation to raised or lowered salt concentrations are not necessarily the same.
The FA composition of skeletal muscle phospholipids is altered in both humans (2, 3, 27) and rats (24, 32, 44) after chronic (≥4 wk) exercise training. Here we provide novel data describing the effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species profile using ESI-MS. This investigation characterized relative changes in the phospholipid profile of both oxidative (RVL) and glycolytic (WVL) muscle fibers with low and high-intensity exercise training. We have also characterized, for the first time, differences in the profile of phospholipid molecular species between these two muscle fiber types.. Previous studies have reported that long-chain n-3 PUFAs are higher in the insulin-sensitive type I and type IIa fibers (32) and that type I fibers have a preference for stearic acid (18:0) over palmitic acid (16:0) (7, 17). The results of the present study reveal that these differences are also manifest in whole phospholipid PA and PE species (Table 3). Even though the ...
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Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimers disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients with Alzheimers disease. Thirty-four drug-naive patients with mild Alzheimers disease (Mini Mental State Examination score ≥20) were enrolled in this exploratory, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Before and after 4-week intervention with Souvenaid or an isocaloric control product, phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed to assess surrogate measures of phospholipid synthesis and breakdown (phosphomonoesters [PME] and phosphodiesters [PDEs]), neural integrity (N-acetyl aspartate), gliosis (myo-inositol), and choline metabolism (choline-containing compounds [tCho]). The main outcome parameters were PME and PDE signal intensities and the PME/PDE ratio. MRS data from 33
The last several years have been witness to significant developments in understanding transcriptional regulation of the yeast phospholipid structural genes. The response of most phospholipid structural genes to inositol is now understood on a mechanistic level. The roles of specific activators and repressors are also well established. The knowledge of specific regulatory factors that bind the promoters of phospholipid structural genes serves as a foundation for understanding the role of chromatin modification complexes. Collectively, these findings present a complex picture for transcriptional regulation of the phospholipid biosynthetic genes. The INO1 gene is an ideal example of the complexity of transcriptional control and continues to serve as a model for studying transcription in general. Furthermore, transcription of the regulatory genes is also subject to complex and essential regulation. In addition, databases resulting from a plethora of genome-wide studies have identified regulatory ...
In in vitro binding assays, D6PK could bind to polyacidic PIs and PtdOH in a K-rich motif-dependent manner. In vivo manipulation of PI or PtdOH metabolism led to the intracellular accumulation of YFP:D6PK and impaired its polar plasma membrane distribution but only manipulation of PtdIns4P synthesis affected YFP:D6PK solubility. At the same time, K-rich motif mutations in D6PK led to increased solubilization of the protein. This suggests that the intact K-rich domain is required for interactions with polyacidic phospholipids in different membranes and that the specific phospholipid composition in a given membrane might determine D6PK recruitment to different membranes. The D6PK interaction with multiple polyacidic phospholipids through ionic interactions resembles previously reported mechanisms for protein-phospholipid ionic interactions and is distinct from interactions mediated between phospholipids and globular protein domains (Hammond and Balla, 2015; Li et al., 2014).. PtdOH biosensors have ...
Several groups of mature male rats were maintained for 4 months on fat-free, hydrogenated coconut oil- or safflower oil-containing diets with or without 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB). Gross examination of liver sections revealed no evidence of tumors in any of the groups. The liver microsomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation, the phospholipids extracted and separated into classes by silicic acid and aluminum oxide chromatography, and the fatty acid composition of each class determined by gas-liquid chromatography.. The various experimental diets produced marked differences in the fatty acid compositions of all the microsomal phospholipid classes. DAB administration resulted in no change in the total phospholipid content or proportion of any of the phospholipid classes in the microsomes, but in rats on the fat-free diet did produce an increased percentage of oleic acid and decreased stearic acid in the choline-containing phospholipids, particularly in the lecithins. A similar pattern was ...
A modified RP-HPLC-MS approach has been proposed for a single run separation and identification of the molecular species of different phospholipid classes in a complex extract. This approach has been applied to the analysis of glycero- and sphingolipid composition of human erythrocytes and a number of ceramide fractions have been identified; these fractions was missed in previous studies employing similar methods. The fine experimental design leads to the decrease in the number of procedures needed for a complete phospholipid profiling of the sample ...
MCLIP : The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are formed from phospholipids. Anionic phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylserine) are found on the cytoplasmic surface and neutral phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylcholine) predominate on the external surface. Membrane phospholipids participate in several important cellular functions including exchanging metabolites across membranes, transferring molecular signals and serving as a platform for the assembly of protein-lipid complexes.(1) Cellular activation is often accompanied by the translocation of anionic phospholipids to the external membrane surface. For example, during platelet-mediated blood coagulation, phosphatidylserine is translocated from the inner platelet membrane and provides a surface for the assembly of the prothrombinase enzyme complex that catalyzes the formation of thrombin.   Complexes of negatively charged (anionic) phospholipids and endogenous plasma proteins provide epitopes recognized by natural autoantibodies.(2) Plasma from
Dietary fatty acids (FA) are the major determinants of blood lipids, and measurements of plasma phospholipid FA (PL-FA) composition that reflect the dietary intake of FA may provide insights into the relationships between diet and CHD. We assessed CHD mortality associations with PL-FA (SFA, PUFA and MUFA) levels measured in a nested case-control study of 116 cases of CHD death and 239 controls that were frequency-matched for age and employment grade. The participants had plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol, apo B and apo A1, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen recorded. SFA levels were significantly positively correlated with total cholesterol, LDL-C, apo B, CRP protein and fibrinogen. By contrast, phospholipid-PUFA were inversely associated with CRP, but not with any of the lipids. A higher SFA content (top v. bottom quarter) was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of CHD (OR and 95 % CI: OR 2.12; 95 % CI: 1.13, 3.99), and an equivalent difference in PUFA
This two day event was organized for the third time by the Phospholipid Research Center Heidelberg. The symposium was held at the University of Heidelberg (facilities provided by Prof. Gert Fricker) and visited by 170 scientists from academia, pharmaceutical industry, authorities etc. from all over the world. Sixty posters and sixteen lectures were presented. This year event started with lectures on the physico-chemical properties of phospholipids, followed by a systemic review of the administration route specific use of phospholipid. The second day of the event was devoted to the latest advances in application of phospholipids, followed by a session on the future use of phospholipids comprising oral presentations of selected posters, and a lecture on the appreciation of liposomes as nanotechnology. The symposium was concluded with an award ceremony of the three best posters.. Keywords: Phospholipids, Excipients, Drug Delivery, Nanotechnology. The symposium was opened on September 16, 2013 by ...
The effects of low concentrations of cholesterol in mixtures of a negatively charged phospholipid (phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol) and another phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin or phosphatidylethanolamine) have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Only mixtures which showed a gel phase miscibility gap have been employed. It was demonstrated that in mixtures with ... read more phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol was preferentially associated with the negatively charged phospholipid, regardless whether this species represented the component with the high or with the low transition temperature in the mixture. In mixtures of a negatively charged phospholipid and phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol associated with the negatively charged phospholipid; when the phosphatidylcholine was the species with the low transition temperature, cholesterol had an affinity for the phosphatidylcholine and for the negatively charged phospholipid as well. Cholesterol, in a ...
Analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to assess variation in community structure and total microbial biomass in two boreal peatlands in Sweden, The total PLFA concentration in peat ranged from 0.16 to 7.0 nmol g of wet peat(-1) L (median. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acid-soluble precursors and derivatives of phospholipids increase after stimulation of quiescent swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with serum. AU - Warden, Craig H. AU - Friedkin, M.. AU - Geiger, P. J.. PY - 1980/5/30. Y1 - 1980/5/30. N2 - Automated phosphate analysis of acid-soluble pools of phosphate esters was employed to reveal possible biochemical changes during the transition of Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts from quiescence to active replication of DNA. After 12 hours of stimulation with 10% fetal bovine serum the most notable were 3-fold increases in pools of phospholipid precursors and derivatives. These included glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine. Concurrent but less dramatic increases in pools of ATP, CTP and fructose 1,6-diphosphate were also obtained.. AB - Automated phosphate analysis of acid-soluble pools of phosphate esters was employed to reveal possible biochemical changes during the transition of Swiss 3T3 mouse ...
The current studies demonstrate that in both ECs and macrophages, ox-PAPC inhibits the ability of bacterial lipids that target TLR4 and TLR2 to increase synthesis of chemokines. Furthermore, we identify KOdiA-PC and POVPC as the major, specific phospholipids in ox-PAPC responsible for this inhibition.. Our studies addressed the mechanism of this inhibition and concluded that the inhibition of LPS action by ox-PAPC in these cell types was mediated by effects at the cellular level. This conclusion was based on the observation that pretreatment of cells with ox-PAPC followed by exposure to LPS was as effective as cotreatment to inhibit LPS action (Figure 3). To determine the cellular target of ox-PAPC inhibition, we first examined the effect of ox-PAPC on intracellular signaling from MyD88 to NF-κB activation. Our results indicate that ox-PAPC does not inhibit the pathway from MyD88 to NF-κB activation (Figures 2B and 2C), because no effect on IL-1β action, which shares this pathway, was ...
The effect of low-salt diet on phospholipid composition and remodeling was examined in rat colon which represents a mineralocorticoid target tissue. To elucidate this question, male Wistar rats were fed a low-salt diet and drank distilled water (LS, low-salt group) or saline instead of water (HS, high-salt group) for 12 days before the phospholipid concentration and fatty acid composition of isolated colonocytes were examined. The dietary regimens significantly influenced the plasma concentration of aldosterone which was high in LS group and almost zero in HS group. Plasma concentration of corticosterone was unchanged. When expressed in terms of cellular protein content, a significantly higher concentration of phospholipids was found in LS group, with the exception of sphingomyelin (SM) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) accounted for more than 70% of total phospholipids in both groups. A comparison of phospholipid distribution in LS and HS ...
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In yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), the expression of genes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis is regulated by a mechanism that responds Phospholipids are major constituents of the membranes that separate cells from their environment and compartmentalize eukaryotic cells into functional units. This pathway is carried out in different ways in animals than in many other organisms, making the pathway a common target for antibiotics and other anti-infective drugs. Biosynthesis of Fatty acid. Outreach. endstream In human joints phospholipids (PLs) are produced and released by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The synthesis pathway starts by reducing dihydroxyacetone phosphate Phospholipids are secreted into the bile to aid in the digestion and absorption of dietary fat. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. notes to the book perfect health diet perfect health diet. ), 2.5% pro- tein fraction and ...
The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on the NO-synthase way of NO generation and phospholipids composition of erythrocyte membranes of rats with streptozotocine-induced diabetes has been studied. It has been shown that the activation of iNOS activity, cNOS activity inhibition and increase of the stable NO metabolites content takes place in the red blood cells (RBC) of diabetic rats. The alterations were also found in the RBC membrane phospholipid content: a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomieline content and increase of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine lysoforms level. The NSE suspension administration (50 mg/kg of body weight) to diabetic rats (3 months after the diabetes induction) resulted in iNOS activity inhibition, recove-ring of cNOS activity and normalization of NO stable metabolites level in RBC. The decrease of phospholipids lysoform levels, normalization of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine ...
Phospholipids are one of the major structural elements of biological membranes. Due to their amphiphilic character, they can adopt various molecular assemblies when dispersed in water, such as bilayer vesicles or micelles, which give them unique interfacial properties and render them very attractive in terms of foam or emulsion stabilization. This article aims at reviewing the properties of phospholipids at the air/water and oil/water interfaces, as well as the recent advances in using these natural components as stabilizers, alone or in combination with other compounds such as proteins. A discussion regarding the challenges and opportunities offered by phospholipids-stabilized structure concludes the review.
In most eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycerophospholipids are the main membrane lipid constituents. Besides serving as general membrane building blocks, glycerophospholipids play an important role in determining the physical properties of the membrane, which are crucial for proper membrane function. To ensure optimal physical properties, membrane glycerophospholipid composition and synthesis ... read more are tightly regulated. This review will summarize our current knowledge of factors and processes determining the membrane glycerophospholipid composition of the reference eukaryote S. cerevisiae at the level of molecular species. Extrapolating from relevant model membrane data, we also discuss how modulation of the molecular species composition can regulate membrane physical properties. show less ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biostability and biocompatibility of a surface-grafted phospholipid monolayer on a solid substrate. AU - Kim, Kwangmeyung. AU - Kim, Chulhee. AU - Byun, Youngro. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - We have previously demonstrated phosphorylcholine monolayer chemically grafted onto a methacryloyl-terminated solid substrate by in situ polymerization. The in situ polymerization was carried out at the interface between a pre-assembled acrylated phospholipid monolayer produced by vesicle fusion and a methacryloyl-terminated substrate using a water-soluble initiator, 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPD). Herein, we examined the biostability and biocompatibility of a surface-grafted phospholipid monolayer (poly-PC) on a methacryloyl-terminated substrate using a wash off test, in vitro protein adsorption and in vivo cage implantation for time intervals of 4, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. In order to compare the biostability and biocompatibility of phospholipid ...
These amphiphilic lipids insert in cell membranes and form into a sheet two molecules thick with the fat-soluble portions inside, shielded on both sides by the water-soluble portions. Chem. Lipogenesis is the process of synthesizing these fats. Gurunanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Sc. A phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule which means it has both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic component. Phospholipid synthesis occurs in the cytosolic side of ER membrane that is studded with proteins that act in synthesis (GPAT and LPAAT acyl transferases, phosphatase and choline phosphotransferase) and allocation (flippase and floppase). A single phospholipid molecule has a phosphate group on one end, called the head, and two side-by-side chains of fatty acids that make up the lipid tails. Synthesis of phospholipids in M. buryatense 5G(B1) appears to follow the E. coli paradigm where a phosphatidic acid precursor is synthesized from glycerol 3-phosphate and FA precursors (Yao and Rock, 2012). This stable ...
Reported by: Dr. Venkat S. Karra, Ph.D. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition caused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart, causing the affected person to experience pain, usually on exertion (angina). A complete occlusion of the vessel by deposits causes a heart attack…
Previous studies have shown that amine groups are ototoxic. The interaction between different polyamines and phospholipid vesicles was studied using vesicle aggregation and fluorescence techniques (DPH and ANS as the fluorescence probes). The results showed that the interaction between polyamines (spermine, spermidine and 1,3-diaminopropane) and acidic phospholipids (PS, PE, PI and PIP2) is an ionic one. The polyamine with the highest positive charges and the phospholipid with the highest content of negative groups showed the strongest ionic interaction. There was no indication of any hydrophobic interaction within the phospholipid bilayer. The strong interaction between amine groups and PIP2 support the proposal that the latter is crucially involved in aminoglycoside toxicity in the inner ear and kidney.
Inquiry For [email protected] About Phospholipids Industry. The overviews, SWOT analysis and strategies of each vendor in the Phospholipids market provide understanding about the market forces and how those can be exploited to create future opportunities. The Phospholipids market comprises series of reputed vendors, organizations, manufacturer, and firms. The global market report gives a scrupulous summary of the common competitors who hold major places in terms of demand, revenue, and sales through their post-sale procedures, reliable services, and products. The Phospholipids market report provides a systematic examination of the primary boosters that are identified based on restraining elements, end user demands, regulatory compliance, and variable market changes.. The Phospholipids market report also offers thorough predictions based on current business fashions and analytical techniques. The segments (Phosphatidylserine, ...
The lactose carrier was extracted from membranes of Escherichia coliand transport activity reconstituted in proteoliposomes containing different phospholipids. Two different assays f for carrier...
Phospholipids are lipid molecules which have a phosphate group attached. They are highly abundant in cell membranes, where they form a lipid bilayer, due to the amphiphatic nature of their hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails[1]. The majority of atoms in the hydrophobic tails are nonpolar and have no charge, this is what makes them insoluble when dissolved in water. However, the hydrophilic heads are soluble in water due to the presence of either charged groups which are electrostatically attracted to the water molecules, or polar groups which enable hydrogen bonds to be form between the heads and the water molecules[2]. The most common constituent of any lipid bilayer making up a cell membrane is the phospholipid. Phospholipids are amphiphilic. They have a polar head and two hydrocarbon tails, which are nonpolar. The phospholipids that make up the cell membranes of plants, bacterial or animal cells often have fatty acids tails. Of these two fatty acid tails one is unsaturated (contains ...
The most common constituent of any lipid bilayer making up a cell membrane is the phospholipid. Phospholipids are amphiphilic. They have a polar head and two hydrocarbon tails, which are nonpolar. The phosopholipids that make up the cell membranes of plant, bacterial or animal cells often have fatty acids tails. Of these two fatty acid tails one is unsaturated (contains double bonds) and the other is saturated. This difference causes variation in the length of the tails and thus alters the fluidity of the membrane [3]. The chemical make up of the tails can differ. This means that there are many different phospholipids that can make up a cell membrane. The main type found in mammalian cells are phosphoglycerides such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine. These differ in the fact that they have choline, serine and ethanolamine (respectively) attatched to their phosphate groups. phosphatidylserine is the only one that carries a negative chage and all the other ...
Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds to isoprenoid lateral chains. Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by extension, of all cellular membranes) was enigmatic and called for accurate evolutionary studies. In this paper we review some recent phylogenomic studies that have revealed a modified mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors in archaea and suggested that this domain uses an atypical pathway of synthesis of fatty acids devoid of any acyl carrier protein, which is essential for this activity in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, we show new or updated phylogenetic analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis from glycerol phosphate, isoprenoids, and polar head groups. These results support that most of these enzymes can be
Phospholipids constitute a catalytic surface for the enzymatic activation of coagulation factors. Lupus circulating anticoagulants are heterogeneous autoantibodies of the IgG and IgM type directly directed against a variety of anionic phospholipids such as cardiolipin, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylinositol or against proteins having the capacity to bind to phospholipids such as β2-glycoprotein I (β2 -GPI ...
Pfannkuche, Olaf; Boetius, Antje; Lundgreen, Ulrich; Lochte, Karin; Thiel, Hjalmar (1999): Phospholipids at multicorer station M21/1_MC391. PANGAEA,, In supplement to: Pfannkuche, O et al. (1999): Responses of deep-sea benthos to sedimentation patterns in the North-East Atlantic in 1992. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 46(4), 573-596,
Phospholipid Definition. A phospholipid is a type of lipid molecule that is the main component of the cell membrane.Lipids are molecules that include fats, waxes, and some vitamins, among others. Each phospholipid is made up of two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a glycerol molecule. When many phospholipids line up, they form a double layer that is characteristic of all cell membranes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The fatty acid compostition of brain phospholipids from chicken and duck embryos. AU - Maldjian, A. AU - Cristofori, C. AU - Noble, RC. AU - Speake, BK. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. KW - Brain. KW - Chickens. KW - Embryo. KW - Fatty acid composition. KW - Phospholipid. M3 - Article. VL - 115B. SP - 153. EP - 158. JO - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. JF - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. SN - 0010-406X. ER - ...
Serum cholesterol (free, esters and total) and serum phospholipids were determined in 97 men who had experienced coronary heart disease prior to the age of 40, 146 healthy nonhospitalized men of comparable age and a group of 97 men who were matched to the coronary disease group. The mean values for serum cholesterol (total) were 286 mg. per 100 cc., 224 mg. per 100 cc., and 247 mg. per 100 cc. for the coronary disease group, control group and matched control group, respectively. The serum phospholipids were highest in the coronary disease group. It is demonstrated that the interrelationships of the lipids in coronary heart disease are more important than any one of the constituents taken by itself. The theoretic implications of the total cholesterol: phospholipids ratio are considered.. ...
PEG phospholipid (mPEG-phospholipid, polyglycerin-phospholipid, functionalized-phospholipid, terminal activated-phospholipid) ... Phospholipids can act as emulsifiers, enabling oils to form a colloid with water. Phospholipids are one of the components of ... The result is often a phospholipid bilayer: a membrane that consists of two layers of oppositely oriented phospholipid ... Liposomes are often composed of phosphatidylcholine-enriched phospholipids and may also contain mixed phospholipid chains with ...
This family contains acyltransferases involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and proteins of unknown function. This family also ...
In humans, phospholipid scramblases (PLSCRs) constitute a family of five homologous proteins that are named as hPLSCR1-hPLSCR5 ... Phospholipid redistribution is triggered by increased cytosolic calcium and seems to be scramblase-dependent, resulting in a ... Phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1), a lipid-binding protein that enters the nucleus via the nonclassical NLS (257)GKISKHWTGI( ... Phospholipid+Scramblase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (CS1: long volume value, ...
In enzymology, a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is phospholipid:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol O-acyltransferase. This enzyme is also called ... Dahlqvist A, Stahl U, Lenman M, Banas A, Lee M, Sandager L, Ronne H, Stymne S (June 2000). "Phospholipid:diacylglycerol ... the two substrates of this enzyme are phospholipid and 1,2-diacylglycerol, whereas its two products are lysophospholipid and ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLTP gene. The protein encoded by this gene is one ... "Entrez Gene: PLTP phospholipid transfer protein". Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C ( ... Pussinen PJ, Jauhiainen M, Metso J, Pyle LE, Marcel YL, Fidge NH, Ehnholm C (1998). "Binding of phospholipid transfer protein ( ... Jiang XC, D'Armiento J, Mallampalli RK, Mar J, Yan SF, Lin M (1998). "Expression of plasma phospholipid transfer protein mRNA ...
... may refer to: Methylene-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase Cyclopropane-fatty-acyl- ... phospholipid synthase This set index page lists enzyme articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here ...
... phospholipid out The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, H2O, and phospholipid, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and ... In enzymology, a phospholipid-translocating ATPase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + ... Suzuki H, Kamakura M, Morii M, Takeguchi N (1997). "The phospholipid flippase activity of gastric vesicles". J. Biol. Chem. 272 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (phospholipid-flipping). Other names in common use include ...
... product as plasma membrane phospholipid scramblase and chromosome mapping of the human MmTRA1b/phospholipid scramblase gene". ... Phospholipid scramblase 1 (PL scramblase 1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLSCR1 gene. PLSCR1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, ... Zhou Q, Zhao J, Stout JG, Luhm RA, Wiedmer T, Sims PJ (August 1997). "Molecular cloning of human plasma membrane phospholipid ...
The phospholipid membrane systems are comparable to the model membranes above but it only consists of one phospholipid which is ... The phospholipid bilayer is a two-layer structure mainly composed of phospholipids, which are amphiphilic molecules that have ... Phospholipids consist of two non-polar hydrocarbon chains with ester or ether bonds to the phosphate group which is also linked ... The phospholipid carries a negative charge due to the presence of the phosphate group. Its overall polarity depends on the ...
... also known as ATPase class V type 10A or aminophospholipid translocase VA is an enzyme that ... "ATP10A - Phospholipid-transporting ATPase VA - Homo sapiens (Human) - ATP10A gene & protein". Retrieved 9 ...
... phospholipid hydroperoxide-reducing), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase, ... In enzymology, a phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... Ursini F, Maiorino M, Gregolin C (1985). "The selenoenzyme phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase". Biochim. Biophys ...
Probable phospholipid-transporting ATPase IC is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP8B1 gene. This protein is ...
Phospholipids can be saponified, which releases the fatty acids contained in their diglyceride tail. Once the phospholipids of ... phospholipids are rapidly degraded and the remaining phospholipid content of the sample is assumed to be from living organisms ... Phospholipids can occur in many biological classes (such as in plant roots, fungi, as well as in soil bacteria), so care has to ... However, as the phospholipids of archaea are not ester linked as in bacteria, but are ether linked, they are not significantly ...
... phospholipid methylene fatty acid Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and phospholipid olefinic ... In enzymology, a methylene-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... Akamatsu Y, Law JH (1970). "Enzymatic alkylenation of phospholipid fatty acid chains by extracts of Mycobacterium phlei". J. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:unsaturated-phospholipid methyltransferase (methenylating ...
... phospholipid cyclopropane fatty acid Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and phospholipid ... In enzymology, a cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:unsaturated-phospholipid methyltransferase (cyclizing). ... Other names in common use include cyclopropane synthetase, unsaturated-phospholipid methyltransferase, cyclopropane synthase, ...
Taylor SS, Heath EC (1969). "The incorporation of beta-hydroxy fatty acids into a phospholipid of Escherichia coli B". J. Biol ... In enzymology, an acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-phospholipid O-acyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the ...
Jan 1962). "Phospholipids and coronary mortality. Use of ratio between phospholipid and cholesterol levels to determine ... In the human body, lysoPC (1-lysoPC and 2-lysoPC together) represent 5-20% of all phospholipids in the blood plasma. Taking ... 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines are a class of phospholipids that are intermediates in the metabolism of lipids. Because ... These differences have been attributed to the remodeling of membrane phospholipids in order to regulate membrane fluidity and ...
McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA (1990). "Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen ... Since cardiolipin is an important phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and very essential ... Gregor Cevc (1993-08-02). Phospholipids handbook. p. 783. ISBN 978-0-8247-9050-9. Antonio Ortiz; J. Antoinette Killian; Arie J ... Phosphatidylglycerol Pangborn M. (1942). "Isolation and purification of a serologically active phospholipid from beef heart". J ...
Augmentation by membrane phospholipids". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (2): 1101-1108. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(17) ... Annexin A1 belongs to the annexin family of Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins that have a molecular weight of ... a Ca2+ and phospholipid binding protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (17): 8037-8043. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18) ...
... is a surface-active complex of phospholipids and proteins formed by type II alveolar cells. The proteins ... It also has a higher compaction capacity than the other phospholipids, because the apolar tail is less bent. Nevertheless, ... 40% dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC); ~40% other phospholipids (PC); ~10% surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D ... Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is a phospholipid with two 16-carbon saturated chains and a phosphate group with ...
However, fatty acids are also important components of the phospholipids that form the phospholipid bilayers out of which all ... The effect of this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer ... phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters. In any of these forms, fatty acids are both important dietary sources of fuel for ... phospholipids etc.) and converts them to methyl esters, which are then separated by gas chromatography. or analyzed by gas ...
"Fluorescence SpectraViewer - Nile Red phospholipids". Thermo Fisher Scientific. 17 May 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2020. Fowler, S ... in phospholipids (polar lipids), Nile red has an excitation maximum of about 554 nm (green), and an emission maximum of about ...
Some phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, have good solubility in ethanol, whereas most other phospholipids do not ... In hydrolysed lecithins, a portion of the phospholipids have one fatty acid removed by phospholipase. Such phospholipids are ... Purified phospholipids are produced by companies commercially. To modify the performance of lecithin to make it suitable for ... It is a mixture of various phospholipids, and the composition depends on the origin of the lecithin. A major source of lecithin ...
Apart from the setae, phospholipids; fatty substances produced naturally in their bodies, also come into play. These lipids ... "Direct evidence of phospholipids in gecko footprints and spatula-substrate contact interface detected using surface-sensitive ...
ISBN 1-893997-42-1. Liu JJ, Nilsson A, Duan RD (April 2000). "Effects of phospholipids on sphingomyelin hydrolysis induced by ... Some have activity against nucleotides, some have activity against phospholipid and lysophospholipids. ENPP7 is the only enzyme ... phospholipids, and bile salt have been absorbed or up taken. It is also understandable that considerable amount of dietary ... phospholipids, fat and high concentrations of bile salts. It is thus understandable why SM digestion occurs most effectively in ...
It is found in phospholipids. For example, phosphatidylcholines, a major component of biological membranes, are a member of the ...
Of the phospholipids, the most common headgroup is phosphatidylcholine (PC), accounting for about half the phospholipids in ... Phospholipids with certain head groups can alter the surface chemistry of a bilayer and can, for example, serve as signals as ... When phospholipids are exposed to water, they self-assemble into a two-layered sheet with the hydrophobic tails pointing toward ... In phospholipid bilayers the phosphate group is located within this hydrated region, approximately 0.5 nm outside the ...
... (PE) is a class of phospholipids found in biological membranes. They are synthesized by the addition ... Phosphatidylethanolamines are found in all living cells, composing 25% of all phospholipids. In human physiology, they are ... Kelly, Karen (July 28, 2011). "Phospholipid Biosynthesis". The AOCS Lipid Library. Retrieved September 3, 2012. Kuge, Osamu; ... of all phospholipids. Phosphatidylethanolamines play a role in membrane fusion and in disassembly of the contractile ring ...
Salomon RG (2005). "Isolevuglandins, oxidatively truncated phospholipids, and atherosclerosis". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1043: 327 ...
In order to create a playlist on Sporcle, you need to verify the email address you used during registration. Go to your Sporcle Settings to finish the process ...
PhoLip_ATPase_N; Phospholipid-translocating ATPase N-terminal. pfam16212. Location:928 → 1173. PhoLip_ATPase_C; Phospholipid- ... PhoLip_ATPase_N; Phospholipid-translocating ATPase N-terminal. pfam16212. Location:965 → 1210. PhoLip_ATPase_C; Phospholipid- ... potential phospholipid-transporting ATPase IK. probable phospholipid-transporting ATPase IK. NP_001171473.1. *EC ... ATPase phospholipid transporting 8B3provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:13535 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000130270 MIM: ...
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Phospholipids belong to the lipid family of biological polymers. They are vital to the formation of cell membranes and ... "Phospholipids." ThoughtCo, Jul. 29, 2021, Bailey, Regina. (2021, July 29). Phospholipids. ... Phospholipids are a major component of cell membranes, which enclose the cytoplasm and other contents of a cell. Phospholipids ... Types of Phospholipids Not all phospholipids are the same as they differ in size, shape, and chemical makeup. Different classes ...
... and domain binding to phospholipids during protein trafficking and cell signaling. ...
... into plasma phospholipids (PLs), tumour tissue, and normal mucosa in young CRC patients. We also aimed to study differences in ... Phospholipids were eluted with methanol. After evaporation to dryness in a vacuum centrifuge, phospholipids were ... 6 fatty acids in diet and plasma phospholipids (PL) in colorectal cancer patients, separated by Dukes stage and (. )a. ... A. M. Hodge, J. A. Simpson, R. A. Gibson et al., "Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition as a biomarker of habitual dietary ...
Theubiquitously expressed iPLA2β catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PLs) to generate a fattyacid and a lysoPL. We ... Rescue of Hepatic Phospholipid Remodeling Defectin iPLA2β-Null Mice Attenuates Obese but Not Non-Obese Fatty Liver Biomolecules ... Theubiquitously expressed iPLA2β catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PLs) to generate a fattyacid and a lysoPL. We ... Keywords: PLA2G6; choline and methionine deficiency; diet-induced obesity; fatty liver; morbidly obesity; phospholipid ...
Covers the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. ... Phospholipid Bilayer Introduces the cell membrane where ... phospholipid molecules orient to provide qualities necessary to maintain a cell in a water-based environment.. ...
... By Jarvis A. Stobbs on 15-Oct-2021 12:26:36 ... The addition of phospholipids can help smaller chocolatiers achieve a more consistent and high-quality chocolate and help ... Arruda, D. H. & Dimick, P. S., Phospholipid composition of lipid seed crystal isolates from ivory. coast CB, J. Am. Oil Chem. ... The study investigated a particular class of lipid molecules, known as phospholipids, that could be used to induce the ...
Investigations of phospholipid/cholesterol and cholesterol derivative interactions in model membranes Author: Trevenen, ...
CIP4 Coordinates With Phospholipids and Actin-Associated Proteins to Localize to the Protruding Edge and Produce Actin Ribs and ... CIP4 Coordinates With Phospholipids and Actin-Associated Proteins to Localize to the Protruding Edge and Produce Actin Ribs and ... CIP4 coordinates with phospholipids and actin-associated proteins to localize to the protruding edge and produce actin ribs and ... CIP4 coordinates with phospholipids and actin-associated proteins to localize to the protruding edge and produce actin ribs and ...
Apolipoprotein M binds oxidized phospholipids and increases the antioxidant effect of HDL. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift ... Here, we report that apoM likely serves as an antioxidant in HDL by binding oxidized phospholipids, thus enhancing the ...
Phospholipid-based matrix effects are a major source of variability and inaccuracy in bioanalytical mass spectrometry (MS) ... Porvair Sciences have announced Microluteä PLR, a new product for phospholipid removal. The 96-well microplate is designed to ... dilute and shoot or liquid-liquid extraction methods do not completely remove phospholipids. Microlute PLR aims to ensure ... provide effective removal (,99%) of phospholipids and proteins with high levels of reproducibility from plasma and serum ...
2018) Structural insights into the voltage and phospholipid activation of the mammalian TPC1 channel Nature 556:130-134. ... Thank you for submitting your article "Structural mechanisms of phospholipid activation of the human TPC2 channel" for ... which reveal the structural basis of phospholipid binding as well as its activation mechanism. ...
Trans unsaturated fatty acids in plasma phospholipids and coronary heart disease: a case-control study. *. Lucy P.L. van de ... No significant correlations were found between percentages of TFAs in plasma phospholipids and plasma LDL or HDL cholesterol ... The proportion of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in serum triacylglycerols or platelet phospholipids as an objective ... Trans unsaturated fatty acids in plasma phospholipids and coronary heart disease: a case-control study ...
Phospholipid Transfer Protein) ELISA Kit from Gentaur Elisa Kits. Cat Number: G-EC-03237. USA, UK & Europe Distribution. ... Human PLTP (Phospholipid Transfer Protein) ELISA Kit , G-EC-03237. Rating * Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars ( ... Human PLTP (Phospholipid Transfer Protein) ELISA Kit , G-EC-03237. Gentaur Elisa ... Human PLTP (Phospholipid Transfer Protein) ELISA Kit , G-EC-03237 , Gentaur Elisa Kits ...
Phospholipids in sediment core M33/1_MC-07. PANGAEA,, In supplement to: Boetius, A; ... Boetius, Antje; Lochte, Karin (2000): Phospholipids in sediment core M33/1_MC-07. PANGAEA, ...
... all recognizing various combinations of phospholipids, phospholipid binding proteins or both. Objective: To eval ... all recognizing various combinations of phospholipids, phospholipid binding proteins or both. Objective:To evaluate the ... Anti-cardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein I (β2GP-I) antibody assays as screening for anti-phospholipid syndrome Article type: ...
... suggesting that phospholipid hydrolysis plays an important role in FFA production when phospholipid levels are increased. The ... This resulted in simultaneous increases of phospholipids by up to 2.8- fold and of FFAs by up to 40-fold compared with wild- ... resulted in a constrained lipid metabolic network in which fatty acid flux was directed to a large extent toward phospholipids ... suggesting that phospholipid hydrolysis plays an important role in FFA production when phospholipid levels are increased. The ...
Multivariate adjusted ORs and 95% CI for hypertension by quartile of plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition. ... Multivariate adjusted ORs and 95% CI for hypertension by quartile of plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition. ... Dougherty RM, Galli C, Ferro-Luzzi A and Iacono JM: Lipid and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma, red blood cells, ... Low levels of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid and high levels of arachidonic acid in plasma phospholipids are associated ...
Genomics and evolution of eukaryotic phospholipid biosynthesis. Published in:. Faseb Journal 21(6) , A976-A976 (Apr 2007) ...
We observed that the THC-induced suppression in acylation of the phospholipids by radiolabeled AA was up to 5-fold greater than ... The largest inhibitions of acylation were in phosphatidylinositol; the suppression of radioactivity in this phospholipid ... Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits arachidonic acid acylation of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in guinea pig cerebral ... Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits arachidonic acid acylation of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in guinea pig cerebral ...
Novel synthetic phospholipid compounds, the compounds having the structural formula: ##STR1## where X is a hydrogen or alkyl ... Justia Patents US Patent for Synthetic phospholipid compounds Patent (Patent # 4,426,330) Synthetic phospholipid compounds ... the combination of these new phospholipid analogs with natural phospholipids, especially in small sonicated phospholipid ... The phospholipids of the invention comprise synthetic phospholipids in which the linkage between the synthetic ethylene oxide ...
Seasonal variations of the fatty acid content of the neutral lipids and phospholipids in the female gonad of pecten maximus l. ... Changes in the fatty acid composition and the content of neutral lipids glycolipids and phospholipids during bud and leaf ... IV: Rates of free fatty acid formation from phospholipids and neutral lipids in anchovy (Engraulis capensis) stored at various ... cis-4,7,10,trans-1 3-22:4 fatty acid distribution in phospholipids of pectinid species Aequipecten opercularis and Pecten ...
This product is a tetraether monosaccharide phospholipid of high purity and is the main phospholipid (MPL) of Thermoplasma ... Main phospholipid (MPL) of Thermoplasma acidophilum (>95% pure) Home :: Product Categories :: Phospholipids :: Bacterial ... This product is a tetraether monosaccharide phospholipid of high purity and is the main phospholipid (MPL) of Thermoplasma ... Scientific Name:Main phospholipid (MPL) of Thermoplasma acidophilum (>95% pure). *Common Name:beta-L-gulopyranosyl- ...
A new silybin-vitamin E-phospholipid complex improves insulin resistance and liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty ... A new silybin-vitamin E-phospholipid complex improves insulin resistance and liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty ... 3 Silybin is a natural flavonoid that has been conjugated to vitamin E and phospholipids to improve its bioavailability, and ...
Role of beta 2-glycoprotein I and anti-phospholipid antibodies in activation of protein C in vitro. ... Role of beta 2-glycoprotein I and anti-phospholipid antibodies in activation of protein C in vitro. ...
Upscaling from rhizosphere to whole root system: modelling the effects of phospholipid surfactants on water and nutrient uptake ... Upscaling from rhizosphere to whole root system: modelling the effects of phospholipid surfactants on water and nutrient uptake ... Printed from /publications/upscaling-rhizosphere-whole-root-system-modelling-effects-phospholipid-surfactants-wate on 29/11/22 ...
Effects of Frozen Storage on Phospholipid Content in Atlantic Cod Fillets and the Influence on Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice. dc ... A large fraction of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in cod fillet is present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). ... Effects of Frozen Storage on Phospholipid Content in Atlantic Cod Fillets and the Influence on Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice. en ...
  • A phospholipid is composed of two fatty acids, a glycerol unit, a phosphate group, and a polar molecule. (
  • 9,10,11,12,13 Minor components contain several classes of lipids (partial glycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids) making up around ~3% of the cocoa butter. (
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and hypertension in Japanese men. (
  • A large fraction of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in cod fillet is present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). (
  • Phospholipid-bound omega-3 fatty acids are water dispersible, which makes them gentler on the stomach and more readily absorbed by the body. (
  • We present a method and example to establish complete incorporation of hydrocarbons into membrane phospholipids (and their constituent individual fatty acids and polar headgroup) of putatively bioremediative bacteria. (
  • We assessed the relation between breast cancer risk and plasma levels of 60 phospholipid fatty acids in a nested case-control study of 2,718 postmenopausal women (905 breast cancer cases and 1,813 matched controls) enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort. (
  • It would be advantageous to replace the phospholipids with molecules with similar properties but with more accessible or easily modified chemical functions, such as fatty acids molecules. (
  • Phospholipids, such as lecithin, are amphipathic compounds in that they consist of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups or regions within the same molecule. (
  • In addition, the chemical and physical properties of lecithin are largely dependent on its composition of different kinds of phospholipids. (
  • Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), or lecithin, is functionally the principle phospholipid. (
  • Curcumin ( Curcuma longa ) Rhizome Extract (BCM-95 ® /Curcugreen ® ) enhanced with turmeric essential oil and standardized for curcuminoid complex (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin), phospholipids (from sunflower lecithin), supplying 250 mg of pure curcuminoids. (
  • Phospholipids also act as binding sites for proteins that bind to the cell membrane. (
  • It is the second most abundant cell membrane phospholipid. (
  • PS phospholipids play an important role in cell signaling as their presence on the outer membrane surface of dying cells signals macrophages to digest them. (
  • Introduces the cell membrane where phospholipid molecules orient to provide qualities necessary to maintain a cell in a water-based environment. (
  • Covers the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane. (
  • In contrast to dietary questionnaires, the FA composition of plasma cholesterol esters, phospholipids (PL), or the erythrocyte membrane is a reasonably accurate, objective measure that reflects dietary consumption and relevant biological processes ( 16 - 20 ). (
  • Bacteria are grown on minimal media containing a specified carbon source (in this case, C 16 and C 18 alkanes), either natural abundance (99% 12 C) or enriched (99% 13 C). After extraction (but no other prior separation) of the membrane lipids, electrospray ionization yields a negative-ion FT-ICR mass spectrum containing prominent phospholipid parent ions. (
  • The two leaflets of a mammalian cell's plasma membrane are made up from chemically distinct mixtures of phospholipids 1 . (
  • In particular, the binding affinity of GS14dK 4 varies markedly with the charge and to some extent with the polar headgroup structure of the phospholipid and with the cholesterol content of the model membrane. (
  • Finally, we demonstrate that the affinity of binding of GS14dK4 to various phospholipid bilayer membranes is much more strongly correlated with the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of this peptide than with its effect on the rate and extent of dye leakage in these model membrane systems. (
  • Phospholipids are a special sort of lipid (fat) that forms a part of every cell membrane layer and also aids to control particles as well as ions coming on and also out of the cell. (
  • 7 The attachment of phospholipid anchors could facilitate the encapsulation with a lipid bilayer membrane for improved bioavailability. (
  • sensitivity to membrane phospholipids--each of these activities has been attributed to Arf proteins. (
  • Annexin VI belongs to a family of calcium-dependent membrane and phospholipid binding proteins. (
  • Our previous study in FAP patients showed increased concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA, and decreased concentrations of linoleic acid (LA) and α -linolenic acid (ALA) in plasma phospholipids (PL) [ 16 ], opposite to the majority of findings of protective effect of DHA against development of colorectal adenomas [ 9 - 11 , 17 ]. (
  • Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits arachidonic acid acylation of phospholipids and triacylglycerols in guinea pig cerebral cortex slices. (
  • These effects are associated with increased DHA and EPA, and lower arachidonic acid (ARA) in cardiac phospholipids. (
  • and releases arachidonic acid from tissue phospholipids which mediate or modulate one or more cardiovascular effects of angiotensin Bay 65-1942 HCl II and has been implicated in hypertension. (
  • In water solutions, phospholipids form a lipid bilayer, the fat-soluble ends in the middle and the water-soluble facing out. (
  • When placed in water, phospholipids will orient themselves into a bilayer in which the non-polar tail region faces the inner area of the bilayer. (
  • Phospholipids form a lipid bilayer in which their hydrophillic head areas spontaneously arrange to face the aqueous cytosol and the extracellular fluid, while their hydrophobic tail areas face away from the cytosol and extracellular fluid. (
  • The interaction of phospholipase A2 with a phospholipid bilayer: coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. (
  • This process involves the co-assembly of a chemically active phospholipids bilayer within the ordered porosity of a silica matrix and holds promise as a novel application for controlled drug release or drug containers with a high level of specificity and throughput. (
  • We have previously studied the binding of GS14dK 4 to various phospholipid bilayer model membranes using isothermal titration calorimetry [Abraham, T. et al. (
  • Background:Antiphospholipid antibodies are a family of autoantibodies that exhibit a broad range of target specificities and affinities, all recognizing various combinations of phospholipids, phospholipid binding proteins or both. (
  • Role of beta 2-glycoprotein I and anti-phospholipid antibodies in activation of protein C in vitro. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Antibodies to phospholipids in human tuberculous sera. (
  • In APS, however, the body makes antibodies that mistakenly attack phospholipids?a type of fat. (
  • When antibodies attack phospholipids, cells are damaged. (
  • 99%) of phospholipids and proteins with high levels of reproducibility from plasma and serum samples, while maintaining maximum recovery of target analytes. (
  • How does smoking influence major phospholipids and proteins in lung surfactant? (
  • This work demonstrates the synthesis and characterization of novel nanoporous silicified phospholipid bilayers assembled inorganic powders. (
  • The materials are obtained by silicification process with silica precursor at the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. (
  • Silica-based surfaces of phospholipids on inorganic surfaces have been formed by the spreading or physicochemical adsorbing of vesicles from solution such as supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). (
  • In this work, we demonstrated the synthesis and characterization of nanoporous silicified phospholipid bilayers assembled inorganic powders as shown in the Scheme 1 . (
  • We find that in general, the ability of GS14dK 4 to bind to and to permeabilize phospholipid bilayers of different compositions are not well correlated. (
  • We provide tentative explanations for the observed lack of a correlation between the affinity and extent of GS14dK 4 binding to, and degree of disruption of the structure and integrity of, phospholipid bilayers membranes. (
  • Orientational dynamics of water in phospholipid bilayers with different hydration levels. (
  • We performed molecular dynamics computer simulations to study the orientational dynamics of water next to bilayers containing dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) phospholipids with different hydration levels from 2 to 32 water molecules per lipid . (
  • Phospholipids are very important molecules as they are a vital component of cell membranes. (
  • The binding of molecules to the phospholipid membranes also varies in relation to the net charge of phospholipid vesicles. (
  • Phospholipids are a major component of cell membranes, which enclose the cytoplasm and other contents of a cell . (
  • Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in cell membranes. (
  • In the present study, we compare the ability of GS14dK 4 to bind to and disrupt these same phospholipid model membranes by employing a fluorescent dye leakage assay to determine the ability of this peptide to permeabilize large unilamellar vesicles. (
  • Specifically, this peptide binds much more tightly to anionic than to zwitterionic phospholipids and much less tightly to cholesterol-containing than to cholesterol-free model membranes. (
  • Phospholipids and cholesterol are important components of the membranes of cells. (
  • Usually, these vesicles (in this case also known as "liposomes") are prepared from phospholipids, that also form cell membranes. (
  • Whole low-affinity CYP- catalysed pathway of reductive metabolism generates the dichloromethyl radical which likely elicits invoice to phospholipids in cell membranes. (
  • Phospholipids are found in all living cells and cell membranes, including blood cells and the lining of blood vessels. (
  • Krill oil is attached to phospholipids, instead of triglycerides (like in fish oil), permitting them to be better recognized by the body and gentler on the stomach, allowing for better assimilation into the cells. (
  • This is due to the fact that fifty percent of krill oil's EPA as well as DHA is affixed to 'phospholipids,' which are easier to absorb than the ordinary 'triglycerides' in fish oil. (
  • Treatment also recovered the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and vitamin A, C, and E and corrected fructose in seminal plasma of infertile men. (
  • When triglycerides from animal or vegetable sources are heated and chemically blended with alkaline substances, they can become phospholipids. (
  • It was loaded in special phospholipid vesicles, glycerosomes, which were modified by adding maltodextrin (glucidex) and a polymer (gelatin or hyaluronan). (
  • The net charge of phospholipid vesicles can be adjusted through the use of different phospholipids. (
  • In contrast, the ability of this peptide to permeabilize phospholipid vesicles is only weakly dependent on phospholipid charge, polar headgroup structure or cholesterol content. (
  • Large portions of the EPA and DHA levels commonly found in krill oil are in the form of phospholipids, with a phosphate on the end of the fatty acid. (
  • Milk contains a vast range of complex lipids and phospholipids known to positively influence brain and cognitive development processes in children. (
  • Arla Foods Ingredients offers two unique ingredients that provide a natural source of complex milk lipids and phospholipids suitable for formulating a range of health foods targeting brain health and cognitive benefits in infant's children, adults and seniors. (
  • Theubiquitously expressed iPLA2β catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PLs) to generate a fattyacid and a lysoPL. (
  • Further deletion of phospholipase genes PLB1 and PLB2 resulted in a 46% decrease in FFA levels and 105% increase in phospholipid levels, suggesting that phospholipid hydrolysis plays an important role in FFA production when phospholipid levels are increased. (
  • Popular sample preparation techniques like protein precipitation, dilute and shoot or liquid-liquid extraction methods do not completely remove phospholipids. (
  • Surfactant recovered by alveolar wash from most mammals contains 70-80% phospholipids, 8-10% protein, and 10% neutral lipids, primarily cholesterol. (
  • The SP-B gene is on human chromosome 2, and its primary translation product is 40 kd, which is clipped to become an 8-kd protein in the type II cells before entering lamellar bodies to be cosecreted with phospholipids. (
  • Phospholipid biotinylation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for protein immobilization. (
  • South Korean krill oil manufacturer Biocorp has developed a 'hyper' version of high phospholipid content krill oil - where the phospholipid concentration is 61 per cent. (
  • Krill oil commonly contains about 40 per cent of phospholipids. (
  • In this case, the 61 per cent phospholipid krill oil contains 17 per cent and 9 per cent of EPA and DHA respectively. (
  • In contrast, the firm's other versions of krill oil - with phospholipid concentrations ranging from 40 per cent to 56 per cent have a lower percentage of EPA, DHA, and total omega-3. (
  • For example, its 'Natura' version of krill oil, which contains 40 per cent of phospholipids, contains 12 per cent and 6.5 per cent of EPA and DHA respectively, while total omega-3 is 23 per cent. (
  • In its 61 per cent phospholipid krill oil, there is about 100 ± 50 mg of astaxanthin in per kg of krill oil, whereas the amount of astaxanthin is higher in the 'Natura' version at 250 ± 50 mg per kg. (
  • In the Korean market, phospholipid content has been regarded as a key parameter of the krill oil quality. (
  • In fact, South Korea's Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) has recently proposed to follow the CODEX standards ​ for locally sold krill oil products - in which the phospholipid content will be set at a minimum of 30 per cent. (
  • The phospholipid content has been seen as a marker of krill oil quality as there has been instances where krill oil was mixed with vegetable oil and sold in the market. (
  • Kim added that the company has been planning to export its krill oil with 61 per cent of phospholipids to overseas markets, especially to North America, Europe, and China. (
  • Kim said that the freshness of krill was crucial in enabling a high concentration of phospholipids in krill oil. (
  • The benefit of the krill oil comes from the fact that EPA and DHA are bonded at the phospholipids. (
  • CoreSeries Krill Oil contains 400mg of Phospholipids per serving. (
  • Krill oil includes phospholipids that are thought to sustain healthy cholesterol levels within the normal array. (
  • Krill Oil Plus has 100mg of phospholipids in a typical serving. (
  • The fact phospholipid-rich food and feed source krill are sourced in the Antarctic has brought a level of scrutiny few fisheries have had to face. (
  • Another leading supplier has weighed into the debate over unscrupulous firms peddling 'krill oil' that contains "next to no phospholipids" but says the development of a monograph and better testing protocols might go some way to tackling the problem. (
  • This invention describes a new series of phospholipid compounds in which the polar-head-group region is modified by the covalent attachment of polyalkylene oxide polymers of various molecular weights. (
  • The attachment of the relatively hydrophilic polyalkylene oxide polymer, particularly the polyethylene oxide, alters the hydrophilic to hydrophobic balance within the phospholipid, in order to give unique solubility properties to the phospholipid compound in an aqueous environment. (
  • We compared the effects of dietary supplementation with the ω-3 PUFAs DHA and EPA on cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acid composition and Ca 2+ -induced MPTP opening. (
  • Rats were fed a standard lab diet with either normal low levels of ω-3 PUFA, or DHA or EPA at 2.5% of energy intake for 8weeks, and cardiac mitochondria were isolated and analyzed for Ca 2+ -induced MPTP opening and phospholipid fatty acyl composition. (
  • In summary, dietary supplementation with DHA but not EPA, profoundly altered mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acid composition and delayed Ca 2+ -induced MPTP opening. (
  • In addition, the maximum extent of binding of GS14dK 4 can also vary considerably with phospholipid composition in a parallel fashion. (
  • Deletion of the main fatty acid activation genes (the first step in β-oxidation), main storage lipid formation genes, and phosphatidate phosphatase genes resulted in a constrained lipid metabolic network in which fatty acid flux was directed to a large extent toward phospholipids. (
  • The results of all blood studies, including cholesterol triglyceride level, phospholipid levels, free fatty acid levels, glucose determinations, and lipoprotein serum fraction, are within the reference range in most verruciform xanthoma patients in whom these studies were carried out, with the following exceptions: one patient with diabetes mellitus, one patient with increased serum cholesterol levels, and one patient with a lipid storage disease. (
  • Ninety days later they were killed and the lung tissues were examined for histopathological changes, collagen, phospholipids, mucopolysaccharides, and sialic- acid. (
  • KA60 caused a significant increase in lung collagen, phospholipid, and sialic-acid content. (
  • Phospholipid-based matrix effects are a major source of variability and inaccuracy in bioanalytical mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. (
  • Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with a (CO 2 ) 6000 + gas cluster ion beam was used to detect intact phospholipids. (
  • MFGM and phospholipids in general have been the focus of intensive discussion during the last years. (
  • Different classes of phospholipids are determined by the type of molecule that is bound to the phosphate group. (
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) has the molecule ethanolamine attached at the phosphate head region of this phospholipid. (
  • Inositol is bound to the phosphate group in this phospholipid. (
  • The goal of this doctoral work was to observe and analyze the stability and dynamics of phospholipid-encapsulated microbubbles, and in particular the reaction to sudden submersion in a multi-gas medium. (
  • LNP include lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and polyethylene glycol (PEG), which increases LNP stability. (
  • The effects of carbamylcholine and atropine on the incorporation in vivo of 33 P i into individual phospholipids of rat brain were studied at 5, 15 and 30 minutes after intracisternal injection of the radionuclide. (
  • Novel synthetic phospholipid compounds, the compounds having the structural formula: ##STR1## where X is a hydrogen or alkyl group, n can vary from about 0 to 200, m can vary from 2 to 10, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are saturated or unsaturated acyl radicals. (
  • The nanoporous silicified phospholipids are obtained by a silicification process with a silica precursor of tetraethoxy orthosilicate on the hydrophilic domains of phospholipids. (
  • 3 Silybin is a natural flavonoid that has been conjugated to vitamin E and phospholipids to improve its bioavailability, and antioxidant and antifibrotic activity. (
  • Phospholipids belong to the lipid family of biological polymers . (
  • We therefore hypothesize that PUFA concentration in plasma phospholipid does not reflect dietary PUFA in young CRC patients. (
  • We performed a study in CHD patients, and measured the TFA concentration of the plasma phospholipid fraction. (
  • As phospholipid concentration becomes higher, the amount of omega-3 EPA and DHA will also increase at the same time. (
  • At the same time, the increase in phospholipids and omega-3 concentration also meant a lower concentration of astaxanthin. (
  • Most of the products sold in the Korean market have a phospholipid concentration of over 56 per cent. (
  • Kim added that high concentration phospholipids could aid the body's absorption of EPA and DHA. (
  • Such products have a lower phospholipid content due to the presence of vegetable oil. (
  • For both brands, their products are accredited with the 'WCS' and 'NCS' logos, which could only be used for products that have their phospholipid content tested using the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method. (
  • Phospholipids are important components of tissues and organs including the brain and heart . (
  • Thin-layer chromatography demonstrates one major and one minor phospholipid, and some neutral lipid. (
  • This resulted in simultaneous increases of phospholipids by up to 2.8- fold and of FFAs by up to 40-fold compared with wild-type levels. (
  • A growing number of food manufacturers are looking to harness the benefits of phospholipids when creating dietary products for infants. (
  • Here we present the cryo-EM structures of human TPC2 (HsTPC2) in both the ligand-bound and apo states, which reveal the structural basis of phospholipid binding as well as its activation mechanism. (
  • Single molecule tracking shows that the phospholipids are not covalently linked to PDMS polymer chains, but the surface functionalization is not removed by washing. (
  • Please get us if you meet this fills a download phospholipids smiley. (
  • Valio's Nutrition Research Manager Anu Turpeinen fills you in on the importance of phospholipids in early life and how they can be used in food manufacturing to develop new products and enter new markets. (
  • No significant correlations were found between percentages of TFAs in plasma phospholipids and plasma LDL or HDL cholesterol levels. (
  • The phospholipid profile of bovine milk has a profile that is very similar to the phospholipid pro-file of human milk and brain. (
  • Phospholipids are used in cell to cell communications as they are involved in signal mechanisms that trigger actions such as blood clotting and apoptosis . (
  • Specifically, they found that ABCA1 exports cellular phospholipids and cholesterol outside the cell for generating high-density lipoproteins, popularly called good cholesterol. (
  • Surfactant is a complex lipoprotein (see the image below) composed of six phospholipids and four apoproteins. (
  • We observed that the THC-induced suppression in acylation of the phospholipids by radiolabeled AA was up to 5-fold greater than the THC-elicited loss of AA from slices prelabeled before exposure to THC. (
  • the suppression of radioactivity in this phospholipid accounted for over 50% of the rise in unesterified [3H]AA. (
  • Here, we report that apoM likely serves as an antioxidant in HDL by binding oxidized phospholipids, thus enhancing the antioxidant potential of HDL. (
  • To obtain a better understanding of the action of cocaine in the nervous system, and the relation between phospholipids and memory, we have investigated whether phospholipids recover in the brain following cocaine removal using the fly model, Drosophila melanogaster. (