Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Phospholipid Transfer Proteins
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Chromatography, Thin Layer
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Amino Acid Sequence
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Cytidine Diphosphate Choline
Cytidine Diphosphate Diglycerides
Type C Phospholipases
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 220.127.116.11), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
Fatty Acids, Omega-3
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Rats, Inbred Strains
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Fatty Acids, Essential
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Platelet Activating Factor
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
beta 2-Glycoprotein I
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Protein Structure, Secondary
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins
A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
Group VI Phospholipases A2
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Bile Acids and Salts
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Characterization and expression of the cDNA encoding a new kind of phospholipid transfer protein, the phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylinositol transfer protein from Aspergillus oryzae: evidence of a putative membrane targeted phospholipid transfer protein in fungi. (1/11419)The full-length cDNA of a phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) was isolated from Aspergillus oryzae by a RACE-PCR procedure using degenerated primer pool selected from the N-terminal sequence of the purified phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylglycerol transfer protein (PG/PI-TP). The cDNA encodes a 173 amino acid protein of 18823 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence from position 38 to 67 is 100% identical to the N-terminal sequence (first 30 amino acids) of the purified PG/PI-TP. This amino acid sequence is preceded by a leader peptide of 37 amino acids which is predicted to be composed of a signal peptide of 21 amino acids followed by an extra-sequence of 16 amino acids, or a membrane anchor protein signal (amino acid 5-29). This strongly suggests that the PG/PI-TP is a targeted protein. The deduced mature protein is 138 amino acids long with a predicted molecular mass of 14933 Da. Comparison of the deduced PG/PI-TP sequence with other polypeptide sequences available in databases revealed a homology with a protein deduced from an open reading frame coding for an unknown protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (36% identity and 57% similarity). Apart from this homology, the PG/PI-TP is unique and specific to the filamentous fungi on the basis of comparison of PLTP protein sequences. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from A. oryzae cultures grown on glucose or glucose supplemented with phospholipids suggests that the PG/PI-TP is transcribed by only one RNA species and allows us to show that expression of the protein is regulated at the messenger RNA level. (+info)
High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (2/11419)Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability. (+info)
Relocating the active site of activated protein C eliminates the need for its protein S cofactor. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer study. (3/11419)The effect of replacing the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain of activated protein C (APC) with that of prothrombin on the topography of the membrane-bound enzyme was examined using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The average distance of closest approach (assuming kappa2 = 2/3) between a fluorescein in the active site of the chimera and octadecylrhodamine at the membrane surface was 89 A, compared with 94 A for wild-type APC. The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain substitution therefore lowered and/or reoriented the active site, repositioning it close to the 84 A observed for the APC. protein S complex. Protein S enhances wild-type APC cleavage of factor Va at Arg306, but the inactivation rate of factor Va Leiden by the chimera alone is essentially equal to that by wild-type APC plus protein S. These data suggest that the activities of the chimera and of the APC.protein S complex are equivalent because the active site of the chimeric protein is already positioned near the optimal location above the membrane surface to cleave Arg306. Thus, one mechanism by which protein S regulates APC activity is by relocating its active site to the proper position above the membrane surface to optimize factor Va cleavage. (+info)
Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (4/11419)1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis. (+info)
Efficient binding of regulated secretory protein aggregates to membrane phospholipids at acidic pH. (5/11419)Some regulated secretory proteins are thought to be targeted to secretory granules through an acidic-dependent aggregation in the trans-Golgi network. In this report we use pancreatic zymogens, a paradigm of regulated proteins, to test this hypothesis, because they qualitatively aggregate upon acidification in vitro. Pig zymogens were found to start to aggregate significantly at pH approximately 6.0, a pH slightly lower than that at which rat zymogens aggregate, but still compatible with the pH of the cell-sorting compartments. When pig zymogen granule membranes were mixed with the zymogens in the aggregation assay, membranes that normally floated on 1 M sucrose were observed to be pelleted by the aggregating zymogens. Rat membranes were pelleted by pig zymogens and vice versa. Igs, typical constitutively secreted proteins, which needed chemical cross-linking to serve as an aggregated protein control, pelleted membranes almost independently of pH. Corresponding cross-linked zymogen-binding ability and pH dependence was unaffected by the chemical modification. Membranes treated with sodium carbonate, pH 11, or with protease K, were still pelleted by zymogens, suggesting that the aggregated zymogens bound to membrane lipids. This hypothesis was confirmed by the efficient pelleting of unilamellar vesicles composed of granule membrane lipids. Vesicles composed of single classes of phospholipids were also pelleted, but with various efficacies. We conclude that pancreatic zymogen aggregates, formed under the acidic conditions of the secretory pathway sorting compartments, have the capacity to bind firmly to membranes through their phospholipid constituents. (+info)
The Npc1 mutation causes an altered expression of caveolin-1, annexin II and protein kinases and phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and annexin II in murine livers. (6/11419)We have previously demonstrated (1) an increased expression of caveolin-1 in murine heterozygous and homozygous Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) livers, and (2) an increased concentration of unesterified cholesterol in a detergent insoluble caveolae-enriched fraction from homozygous livers. To define further the relationship between caveolin-1 function and the cholesterol trafficking defect in NPC, we examined the expression and distribution of additional caveolar and signal transduction proteins. The expression of annexin II was significantly increased in homozygous liver homogenates and the Triton X-100 insoluble floating fraction (TIFF). Phosphoamino acid analysis of caveolin-1 and annexin II from the homozygous TIFF demonstrated an increase in serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, respectively. To determine the basis for increased phosphorylation of these proteins, the expression and distribution of several protein kinases was examined. The expression of PKCalpha, PKCzeta and pp60-src (protein kinases) were significantly increased in both heterozygous and homozygous liver homogenates, while PKCdelta was increased only in homozygous livers. Of the protein kinases analyzed, only CK IIalpha was significantly enriched in the heterozygous TIFF. Finally, the concentration of diacylglycerol in the homozygous TIFF was significantly increased and this elevation may modulate PKC distribution and function. These results provide additional evidence for involvement of a caveolin-1 containing cellular fraction in the pathophysiology of NPC and also suggest that the Npc1 gene product may directly or indirectly, regulate the expression and distribution of signaling molecules. (+info)
Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (7/11419)In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (+info)
Platelet high affinity low density lipoprotein binding and import of lipoprotein derived phospholipids. (8/11419)The binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the platelet cell membrane could facilitate the transfer of phospholipids from LDL to the platelets. A polyclonal antibody against the platelet glycoproteins IIb/IIIa inhibited the high affinity binding of 125I-LDL by up to 80%. The transfer of pyrene (py)-labeled sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from LDL to the platelets was unaffected by the antibody. The lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reduced the binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by approximately 80%. In contrast, the lectin stimulated the transfer of SM from LDL into the platelets by about three-fold. WGA also specifically augmented the transfer of py-SM between lipid vesicles and the platelets, the stimulation being abolished in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine. Dextran sulfate (DS) increased the specific binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by up to 2.8-fold. On the other hand, the import of LDL-derived py-phospholipids was unaffected by DS. Together, the results indicate that the phospholipid transfer from LDL to the platelets is independent of the high affinity LDL binding to the platelets and is specifically stimulated by WGA. Thus, the interactions of platelets with LDL phospholipids differ markedly from those with the apoprotein components of the lipoproteins. (+info)
A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study. - Nuffield Department of...
Background: Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting. Materials and methods: We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours. Results: A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4-Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval
Incorporation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid into various bacterial phospholipids<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incorporation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid into various bacterial phospholipids. AU - Watanabe, Kazuo. AU - Ishikawa, Chikako. AU - Inoue, Hitomi. AU - Cenhua, Deng. AU - Yazawa, Kazunaga. AU - Kondo, Kiyosi. PY - 1994/3. Y1 - 1994/3. N2 - Incorporation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into bacterial phospholipids was examined as a method for DHA-linked phospholipid production. The cultivation of 23 bacterial strains in medium with DHA showed that an eicosapentaenoic acid-producing bacterium Shewanella sp. strain SCRC-2738 (strain SCRC-2738), Bacillus subtilis W23, B. cereus, an Antarctic marine bacterium strain S-7 (strain S-7), photosynthesis bacterium (PSB) Rhodopseudomonas capsulatus utilized for the production of larval marine fish, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli K12 all incorporated DHA into their polar lipids. The polar lipids of the strain SCRC-2738, strain S-7, PSB and E. coli K12 were identified to be ...
Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina. AU - Lin, D. S.. AU - Anderson, Gregory. AU - Connor, W. E.. AU - Neuringer, Martha. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Purpose. To characterize the molecular species composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EGP) in the primate retina and to examine the effects of different dietary fats, the authors fed rhesus monkeys diets containing widely ranging amounts of n-3 fatty acids. Methods. From birth, infant monkeys were fed either a control soybean oil diet, containing 8% of total fatty acids as 18:3(n-3), or a safflower oil-based n-3 fatty acid deficient diet containing AB - Purpose. To characterize the molecular species composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EGP) in the primate retina and to examine the effects of different dietary fats, the authors fed rhesus monkeys diets containing widely ranging amounts of n-3 fatty acids. Methods. From birth, infant monkeys were fed ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Increased Placental Phospholipid Levels in Pre-Eclamptic Pregnancies | Notes
Physiological pregnancy is associated with an increase in lipids from the first to the third trimester. This is a highly regulated response to satisfy energy and membrane demands of the developing fetus. Pregnancy disorders, such as pre-eclampsia, are associated with a dysregulation of lipid metabolism manifesting in increased maternal plasma lipid levels. In fetal placental tissue, only scarce information on the lipid profile is available, and data for gestational diseases are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the placental lipid content in control versus pre-eclamptic samples, with the focus on tissue phospholipid levels and composition. We found an increase in total phospholipid content as well as changes in individual phospholipid classes in pre-eclamptic placental tissues compared to controls. These alterations could be a source of placental pathological changes in pre-eclampsia, such as lipid peroxide insult or dysregulation of lipid transport across the syncytiotrophoblast.
Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk in the SELECT Trial. | Shared Resources | Fred Hutchinson Cancer...
Studies of dietary ω-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer risk are inconsistent; however, recent large prospective studies have found increased risk of prostate cancer among men with high blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([LCω-3PUFA] 20:5ω3; 22:5ω3; 22:6ω3]. This case-cohort study examines associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and prostate cancer risk among participants in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial.. ...
Regulation of phospholipid remodelling by thyroid hormones in the rat heart
Membrane bound phospholipids require a distinct fatty acid composition. This is achieved through the deacylation-reacylation cycle that involves the breakdown of the parent phospholipid to a fatty acid and its lysophospholipid derivative by a phospholipase A activity. Subsequently, phospholipids are resynthesized through the action of an acyltransferase that attaches acyl-Coenzyme A thioesters to the lysophospholipid. This cycle must be carefully regulated so that the correct fatty acid composition of the phospholipids are maintained, otherwise the normal functioning of the membrane and membrane bound enzymes could be jeopardized. Thyroid hormones have profound effects on the heart. Since it is established that thyroid hormones regulate many lipid metabolizing enzymes, it is possible that the deacylation-reacylation cycle of certain phospholipids may also be regulated by thyroid hormones. The effect of a thyroid condition on phospholipid fatty acid metabolism was examined in isolated rat hearts ...
African Journal of Biochemistry Research - oil palm fruit calyx as a resource for phospholipids extraction
Oil palm calyx is a solid waste in the oil palm industry which is yet to find economic usage. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of recovering phospholipids from the oil palm calyx. Preliminary functional property of calyx phospholipids was determined using emulsion stability. Results indicated that oil palm calyx had 14% total lipids when extracted with methanol and 62.3% of lipids were acetone insoluble lipids (phospholipids). Methanol extracted phospholipids showed that the highest concentration of total phospholipids (1971 mg/L) with phosphatidylcholine (PC) have been the predominant phospholipid. The calyx phospholipids stabilized oil in water emulsion at 2% concentration. The study serves as a foundation on the positive usage of oil palm calyx in producing industrial phospholipids. Key words: Oil palm, lecithin, phospholipids, waste, palm calyx oil.
Phospholipid synthesis and exchange in isolated liver cells | Biochemical Journal
1. The [32P]phosphate incorporated into the phospholipids of isolated rat hepatic cells is present in phosphatidic acid and to a smaller extent in phosphatidylinositol. 2. The ability to synthesize nitrogen-containing phospholipids is restored by adding a liver supernatant fraction, and it is suggested that the metabolic deficiency is caused by the leakage of cytoplasmic enzymes of the synthetase system from the cells. 3. Fortified cell preparations were pulse-labelled with [32P]phosphate, [Me-14C]choline, [2-14C]ethanolamine and [U-14C]inositol and the subsequent fate of the labelled microsomal and mitochondrial phospholipids followed. 4. A fall in the specific radioactivity of microsomal phospholipids and a rise in that of mitochondrial phospholipids is interpreted as providing evidence of a transfer of labelled phospholipid molecules from the synthetic site (endoplasmic reticulum) to the mitochondrial membranes in the intact cells. 5. The formation of the phospholipids of mitochondrial ...
Phospholipid fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation of duck spermatozoa<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phospholipid fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation of duck spermatozoa. AU - Surai, PF. AU - Brillard, JP. AU - Speake, BK. AU - Blesbois, E. AU - Seigeurin, F. AU - Sparks, NHC. N1 - 643019. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - Acid. KW - Composition. KW - Content. KW - Fatty. KW - Fatty Acid. KW - Lipid. KW - Lipid Peroxidation. KW - Peroxidation. KW - Phospholipid. KW - Spermatozoa. KW - Susceptibility. KW - Vitamin. KW - Vitamin E. M3 - Article. VL - 53. SP - 1025. EP - 1039. JO - Theriogenology. JF - Theriogenology. SN - 0093-691X. ER - ...
Time course of changes in porcine myocardial phospholipid levels during ischemia. A reassessment of the lysolipid hypothesis. |...
This study was performed to determine the early and delayed metabolic effects of myocardial ischemia on the major membrane phospholipids and to reassess the potential role of lysophospholipids in the genesis of malignant dysrhythmias induced by ischemia. Samples taken from in situ hearts before ant at various intervals up to 40 minutes after abrupt ligation of LAD were extracted by the classical Folch technique with modifications to avoid artifactual lysophospholipid production and losses. Following thin layer chromatography of lipid extracts, phospholipid fractions were quantified by phosphorus estimation and lysophospholipids by a more sensitive method employing gas liquid chromatography. The total phospholipid content with the exception of lysophospholipids remained essentially constant throughout the early phases of acute ischemia, but fell by 6 and 14% after 8 and 24 ours, respectively. At 8 minutes, lysophospholipid levels n ischemic myocardium were significantly increased by 60% compared ...
Phospholipids of animal and marine origin: structure, function, and anti-inflammatory properties
In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: Section 1 presents an overview of the relationship between structures and biological activities (pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory) of several phospholipids with respect to inflammation. Sections 2 and 3 are dedicated to the structures, functions, compositions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. To date, there is very limited work published on meat phospholipids, undoubtedly due to the negative perception that meat consumption is an unhealthy option because of its putative associations with several chronic diseases. These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. ...
The effect of saturated phospholipids on human skin - Phospholipid Research Center
How deep can drugs penetrate into your skin?. We presented our new skin penetration study with saturated phospholipids at the 11th PBP world meeting, on 22 March, 2018 in Granada.. The Phospholipid Research Center and Lipoid GmbH tracked topically applied phospholipids among other skin lipids - with the help of Lipotype lipidomics.. Many dermatological products contain phospholipids whose properties change with their saturation. Saturated lipids are gel-like at body temperature, while unsaturated lipids are more liquid. This influences drug delivery and interactions with skin.. Download poster (PDF) ...
Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes: Selective increase of dihomogammalinolenic acid<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes. T2 - Selective increase of dihomogammalinolenic acid. AU - Chapkin, Robert S.. AU - Somers, Scott D.. AU - Erickson, Kent L. PY - 1988/8. Y1 - 1988/8. N2 - Because alterations in the dietary content of fatty acids are an important method for modulating macrophage eicosanoid production, we have quantitated the levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peritoneal macrophage individual phospholipids from mice fed diets (3 wk) with either safflower oil (SAF), predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage (BOR) containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish (MFO) containing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and borage/fish mixture (MIX) containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Dietary n-3 fattya cids were readily incorporated into macrophage phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The increase in n-3 fatty acid levels was accompanied by a decrease in the absolute ...
Phospholipid Biosynthesis in the Moderately Halophilic Bacterium Vibvio costicola During Adaptation to Changing Salt...
SUMMARY: The metabolism of phospholipids in Vibrio costicola, a moderately halophilic bacterium, has been investigated in relation to sudden changes in salinity. Both the absqlute and relative rates of biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine depend on the salt concentration of the medium; a sudden rise in salt concentration ha? an instantaneous inhibitory effect on phospholipid biosynthesis, but this inhibition lessens as, the bacteria adapt to the higher salinity. There is no turnover of phospholipids during isotonic growth, nor when the salt concentration is suddenly altered. The alterations in biosynthetic rates of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine that occur after sudden changes in salt concentration are consistent with the known compositional changes. We conclude that the mechanisms of changes in phospholipid composition during adaptation to raised or lowered salt concentrations are not necessarily the same.
The FA composition of skeletal muscle phospholipids is altered in both humans (2, 3, 27) and rats (24, 32, 44) after chronic (≥4 wk) exercise training. Here we provide novel data describing the effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species profile using ESI-MS. This investigation characterized relative changes in the phospholipid profile of both oxidative (RVL) and glycolytic (WVL) muscle fibers with low and high-intensity exercise training. We have also characterized, for the first time, differences in the profile of phospholipid molecular species between these two muscle fiber types.. Previous studies have reported that long-chain n-3 PUFAs are higher in the insulin-sensitive type I and type IIa fibers (32) and that type I fibers have a preference for stearic acid (18:0) over palmitic acid (16:0) (7, 17). The results of the present study reveal that these differences are also manifest in whole phospholipid PA and PE species (Table 3). Even though the ...
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Sarcolipin Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle, The Journal of...
Read Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Sarcolipin Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Phospholipid Resource | Learn About, Share and Discuss Phospholipid At Popflock.com
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The medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimers disease: results from a randomized...
Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimers disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients with Alzheimers disease. Thirty-four drug-naive patients with mild Alzheimers disease (Mini Mental State Examination score ≥20) were enrolled in this exploratory, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Before and after 4-week intervention with Souvenaid or an isocaloric control product, phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed to assess surrogate measures of phospholipid synthesis and breakdown (phosphomonoesters [PME] and phosphodiesters [PDEs]), neural integrity (N-acetyl aspartate), gliosis (myo-inositol), and choline metabolism (choline-containing compounds [tCho]). The main outcome parameters were PME and PDE signal intensities and the PME/PDE ratio. MRS data from 33
Transcriptional regulation of yeast phospholipid biosynthetic genes. | Microbiology Department at UMass Amherst
The last several years have been witness to significant developments in understanding transcriptional regulation of the yeast phospholipid structural genes. The response of most phospholipid structural genes to inositol is now understood on a mechanistic level. The roles of specific activators and repressors are also well established. The knowledge of specific regulatory factors that bind the promoters of phospholipid structural genes serves as a foundation for understanding the role of chromatin modification complexes. Collectively, these findings present a complex picture for transcriptional regulation of the phospholipid biosynthetic genes. The INO1 gene is an ideal example of the complexity of transcriptional control and continues to serve as a model for studying transcription in general. Furthermore, transcription of the regulatory genes is also subject to complex and essential regulation. In addition, databases resulting from a plethora of genome-wide studies have identified regulatory ...
Phospholipid composition and a polybasic motif determine D6 PROTEIN KINASE polar association with the plasma membrane and...
In in vitro binding assays, D6PK could bind to polyacidic PIs and PtdOH in a K-rich motif-dependent manner. In vivo manipulation of PI or PtdOH metabolism led to the intracellular accumulation of YFP:D6PK and impaired its polar plasma membrane distribution but only manipulation of PtdIns4P synthesis affected YFP:D6PK solubility. At the same time, K-rich motif mutations in D6PK led to increased solubilization of the protein. This suggests that the intact K-rich domain is required for interactions with polyacidic phospholipids in different membranes and that the specific phospholipid composition in a given membrane might determine D6PK recruitment to different membranes. The D6PK interaction with multiple polyacidic phospholipids through ionic interactions resembles previously reported mechanisms for protein-phospholipid ionic interactions and is distinct from interactions mediated between phospholipids and globular protein domains (Hammond and Balla, 2015; Li et al., 2014).. PtdOH biosensors have ...
Several groups of mature male rats were maintained for 4 months on fat-free, hydrogenated coconut oil- or safflower oil-containing diets with or without 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB). Gross examination of liver sections revealed no evidence of tumors in any of the groups. The liver microsomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation, the phospholipids extracted and separated into classes by silicic acid and aluminum oxide chromatography, and the fatty acid composition of each class determined by gas-liquid chromatography.. The various experimental diets produced marked differences in the fatty acid compositions of all the microsomal phospholipid classes. DAB administration resulted in no change in the total phospholipid content or proportion of any of the phospholipid classes in the microsomes, but in rats on the fat-free diet did produce an increased percentage of oleic acid and decreased stearic acid in the choline-containing phospholipids, particularly in the lecithins. A similar pattern was ...
An approach to the identification of the phospholipid molecular species in human erythrocytes using HPLC with mass...
A modified RP-HPLC-MS approach has been proposed for a single run separation and identification of the molecular species of different phospholipid classes in a complex extract. This approach has been applied to the analysis of glycero- and sphingolipid composition of human erythrocytes and a number of ceramide fractions have been identified; these fractions was missed in previous studies employing similar methods. The fine experimental design leads to the decrease in the number of procedures needed for a complete phospholipid profiling of the sample ...
MCLIP - Clinical: Phospholipid (Cardiolipin) Antibodies, IgM, Serum
MCLIP : The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are formed from phospholipids. Anionic phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylserine) are found on the cytoplasmic surface and neutral phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylcholine) predominate on the external surface. Membrane phospholipids participate in several important cellular functions including exchanging metabolites across membranes, transferring molecular signals and serving as a platform for the assembly of protein-lipid complexes.(1) Cellular activation is often accompanied by the translocation of anionic phospholipids to the external membrane surface. For example, during platelet-mediated blood coagulation, phosphatidylserine is translocated from the inner platelet membrane and provides a surface for the assembly of the prothrombinase enzyme complex that catalyzes the formation of thrombin. Complexes of negatively charged (anionic) phospholipids and endogenous plasma proteins provide epitopes recognized by natural autoantibodies.(2) Plasma from
Plasma phospholipid fatty acids and CHD in older men: Whitehall study of London civil servants. - Nuffield Department of...
Dietary fatty acids (FA) are the major determinants of blood lipids, and measurements of plasma phospholipid FA (PL-FA) composition that reflect the dietary intake of FA may provide insights into the relationships between diet and CHD. We assessed CHD mortality associations with PL-FA (SFA, PUFA and MUFA) levels measured in a nested case-control study of 116 cases of CHD death and 239 controls that were frequency-matched for age and employment grade. The participants had plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol, apo B and apo A1, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen recorded. SFA levels were significantly positively correlated with total cholesterol, LDL-C, apo B, CRP protein and fibrinogen. By contrast, phospholipid-PUFA were inversely associated with CRP, but not with any of the lipids. A higher SFA content (top v. bottom quarter) was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of CHD (OR and 95 % CI: OR 2.12; 95 % CI: 1.13, 3.99), and an equivalent difference in PUFA
3rd International Symposium on Phospholipids in Pharmaceutical Research - Phospholipid Research Center
This two day event was organized for the third time by the Phospholipid Research Center Heidelberg. The symposium was held at the University of Heidelberg (facilities provided by Prof. Gert Fricker) and visited by 170 scientists from academia, pharmaceutical industry, authorities etc. from all over the world. Sixty posters and sixteen lectures were presented. This year event started with lectures on the physico-chemical properties of phospholipids, followed by a systemic review of the administration route specific use of phospholipid. The second day of the event was devoted to the latest advances in application of phospholipids, followed by a session on the future use of phospholipids comprising oral presentations of selected posters, and a lecture on the appreciation of liposomes as nanotechnology. The symposium was concluded with an award ceremony of the three best posters.. Keywords: Phospholipids, Excipients, Drug Delivery, Nanotechnology. The symposium was opened on September 16, 2013 by ...
Negatively charged phospholipids and their position in the cholesterol affinity sequence
The effects of low concentrations of cholesterol in mixtures of a negatively charged phospholipid (phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol) and another phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin or phosphatidylethanolamine) have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Only mixtures which showed a gel phase miscibility gap have been employed. It was demonstrated that in mixtures with ... read more phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol was preferentially associated with the negatively charged phospholipid, regardless whether this species represented the component with the high or with the low transition temperature in the mixture. In mixtures of a negatively charged phospholipid and phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol associated with the negatively charged phospholipid; when the phosphatidylcholine was the species with the low transition temperature, cholesterol had an affinity for the phosphatidylcholine and for the negatively charged phospholipid as well. Cholesterol, in a ...
Variation in microbial community structure in two boreal peatlands as determined by analysis of phospholipid fatty acid profiles
Analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to assess variation in community structure and total microbial biomass in two boreal peatlands in Sweden, The total PLFA concentration in peat ranged from 0.16 to 7.0 nmol g of wet peat(-1) L (median. ...
Acid-soluble precursors and derivatives of phospholipids increase after stimulation of quiescent swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acid-soluble precursors and derivatives of phospholipids increase after stimulation of quiescent swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with serum. AU - Warden, Craig H. AU - Friedkin, M.. AU - Geiger, P. J.. PY - 1980/5/30. Y1 - 1980/5/30. N2 - Automated phosphate analysis of acid-soluble pools of phosphate esters was employed to reveal possible biochemical changes during the transition of Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts from quiescence to active replication of DNA. After 12 hours of stimulation with 10% fetal bovine serum the most notable were 3-fold increases in pools of phospholipid precursors and derivatives. These included glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine. Concurrent but less dramatic increases in pools of ATP, CTP and fructose 1,6-diphosphate were also obtained.. AB - Automated phosphate analysis of acid-soluble pools of phosphate esters was employed to reveal possible biochemical changes during the transition of Swiss 3T3 mouse ...
Specific Phospholipid Oxidation Products Inhibit Ligand Activation of Toll-Like Receptors 4 and 2 | Arteriosclerosis,...
The current studies demonstrate that in both ECs and macrophages, ox-PAPC inhibits the ability of bacterial lipids that target TLR4 and TLR2 to increase synthesis of chemokines. Furthermore, we identify KOdiA-PC and POVPC as the major, specific phospholipids in ox-PAPC responsible for this inhibition.. Our studies addressed the mechanism of this inhibition and concluded that the inhibition of LPS action by ox-PAPC in these cell types was mediated by effects at the cellular level. This conclusion was based on the observation that pretreatment of cells with ox-PAPC followed by exposure to LPS was as effective as cotreatment to inhibit LPS action (Figure 3). To determine the cellular target of ox-PAPC inhibition, we first examined the effect of ox-PAPC on intracellular signaling from MyD88 to NF-κB activation. Our results indicate that ox-PAPC does not inhibit the pathway from MyD88 to NF-κB activation (Figures 2B and 2C), because no effect on IL-1β action, which shares this pathway, was ...
Low Sodium Diet: High FFA, Insulin Resistance, Atherosclerosis
The effect of low-salt diet on phospholipid composition and remodeling was examined in rat colon which represents a mineralocorticoid target tissue. To elucidate this question, male Wistar rats were fed a low-salt diet and drank distilled water (LS, low-salt group) or saline instead of water (HS, high-salt group) for 12 days before the phospholipid concentration and fatty acid composition of isolated colonocytes were examined. The dietary regimens significantly influenced the plasma concentration of aldosterone which was high in LS group and almost zero in HS group. Plasma concentration of corticosterone was unchanged. When expressed in terms of cellular protein content, a significantly higher concentration of phospholipids was found in LS group, with the exception of sphingomyelin (SM) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) accounted for more than 70% of total phospholipids in both groups. A comparison of phospholipid distribution in LS and HS ...
Structures of Biologically Active Oxysterols Determine Their Differential Effects on Phospholipid Membranes †
biosynthesis of phospholipids pdf
In yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), the expression of genes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis is regulated by a mechanism that responds Phospholipids are major constituents of the membranes that separate cells from their environment and compartmentalize eukaryotic cells into functional units. This pathway is carried out in different ways in animals than in many other organisms, making the pathway a common target for antibiotics and other anti-infective drugs. Biosynthesis of Fatty acid. Outreach. endstream In human joints phospholipids (PLs) are produced and released by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The synthesis pathway starts by reducing dihydroxyacetone phosphate Phospholipids are secreted into the bile to aid in the digestion and absorption of dietary fat. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. notes to the book perfect health diet perfect health diet. ), 2.5% pro- tein fraction and ...
THE N-STEAROYLETHANOLAMINE EFFECT ON THE NO-SYNTHASE WAY OF NITROGEN OXIDE FORMATION AND?PHOSPHOLIPID COMPOSITION OF...
The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on the NO-synthase way of NO generation and phospholipids composition of erythrocyte membranes of rats with streptozotocine-induced diabetes has been studied. It has been shown that the activation of iNOS activity, cNOS activity inhibition and increase of the stable NO metabolites content takes place in the red blood cells (RBC) of diabetic rats. The alterations were also found in the RBC membrane phospholipid content: a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomieline content and increase of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine lysoforms level. The NSE suspension administration (50 mg/kg of body weight) to diabetic rats (3 months after the diabetes induction) resulted in iNOS activity inhibition, recove-ring of cNOS activity and normalization of NO stable metabolites level in RBC. The decrease of phospholipids lysoform levels, normalization of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Phospholipids at the Interface: Current Trends and Challenges | HTML
Phospholipids are one of the major structural elements of biological membranes. Due to their amphiphilic character, they can adopt various molecular assemblies when dispersed in water, such as bilayer vesicles or micelles, which give them unique interfacial properties and render them very attractive in terms of foam or emulsion stabilization. This article aims at reviewing the properties of phospholipids at the air/water and oil/water interfaces, as well as the recent advances in using these natural components as stabilizers, alone or in combination with other compounds such as proteins. A discussion regarding the challenges and opportunities offered by phospholipids-stabilized structure concludes the review.
The role of phospholipid molecular species in determining the physical properties of yeast membranes
In most eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycerophospholipids are the main membrane lipid constituents. Besides serving as general membrane building blocks, glycerophospholipids play an important role in determining the physical properties of the membrane, which are crucial for proper membrane function. To ensure optimal physical properties, membrane glycerophospholipid composition and synthesis ... read more are tightly regulated. This review will summarize our current knowledge of factors and processes determining the membrane glycerophospholipid composition of the reference eukaryote S. cerevisiae at the level of molecular species. Extrapolating from relevant model membrane data, we also discuss how modulation of the molecular species composition can regulate membrane physical properties. show less ...
Biostability and biocompatibility of a surface-grafted phospholipid monolayer on a solid substrate<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biostability and biocompatibility of a surface-grafted phospholipid monolayer on a solid substrate. AU - Kim, Kwangmeyung. AU - Kim, Chulhee. AU - Byun, Youngro. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - We have previously demonstrated phosphorylcholine monolayer chemically grafted onto a methacryloyl-terminated solid substrate by in situ polymerization. The in situ polymerization was carried out at the interface between a pre-assembled acrylated phospholipid monolayer produced by vesicle fusion and a methacryloyl-terminated substrate using a water-soluble initiator, 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPD). Herein, we examined the biostability and biocompatibility of a surface-grafted phospholipid monolayer (poly-PC) on a methacryloyl-terminated substrate using a wash off test, in vitro protein adsorption and in vivo cage implantation for time intervals of 4, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. In order to compare the biostability and biocompatibility of phospholipid ...
phospholipid synthesis slideshare
These amphiphilic lipids insert in cell membranes and form into a sheet two molecules thick with the fat-soluble portions inside, shielded on both sides by the water-soluble portions. Chem. Lipogenesis is the process of synthesizing these fats. Gurunanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Sc. A phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule which means it has both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic component. Phospholipid synthesis occurs in the cytosolic side of ER membrane that is studded with proteins that act in synthesis (GPAT and LPAAT acyl transferases, phosphatase and choline phosphotransferase) and allocation (flippase and floppase). A single phospholipid molecule has a phosphate group on one end, called the head, and two side-by-side chains of fatty acids that make up the lipid tails. Synthesis of phospholipids in M. buryatense 5G(B1) appears to follow the E. coli paradigm where a phosphatidic acid precursor is synthesized from glycerol 3-phosphate and FA precursors (Yao and Rock, 2012). This stable ...
Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Concentration and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Men and Women: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective...
Reported by: Dr. Venkat S. Karra, Ph.D. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition caused by a build-up of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart, causing the affected person to experience pain, usually on exertion (angina). A complete occlusion of the vessel by deposits causes a heart attack…
The binding of polyamines to phospholipid bilayers. - Semantic Scholar
Previous studies have shown that amine groups are ototoxic. The interaction between different polyamines and phospholipid vesicles was studied using vesicle aggregation and fluorescence techniques (DPH and ANS as the fluorescence probes). The results showed that the interaction between polyamines (spermine, spermidine and 1,3-diaminopropane) and acidic phospholipids (PS, PE, PI and PIP2) is an ionic one. The polyamine with the highest positive charges and the phospholipid with the highest content of negative groups showed the strongest ionic interaction. There was no indication of any hydrophobic interaction within the phospholipid bilayer. The strong interaction between amine groups and PIP2 support the proposal that the latter is crucially involved in aminoglycoside toxicity in the inner ear and kidney.
Global Phospholipids Market 2019 Top Experts by: Archer Daniels Midland, Avanti Polar Lipids, Cargill Incorporated, DuPont,...
Inquiry For [email protected] http://www.marketnreports.com/inquiry-for-buying.html?repid=27798. About Phospholipids Industry. The overviews, SWOT analysis and strategies of each vendor in the Phospholipids market provide understanding about the market forces and how those can be exploited to create future opportunities. The Phospholipids market comprises series of reputed vendors, organizations, manufacturer, and firms. The global market report gives a scrupulous summary of the common competitors who hold major places in terms of demand, revenue, and sales through their post-sale procedures, reliable services, and products. The Phospholipids market report provides a systematic examination of the primary boosters that are identified based on restraining elements, end user demands, regulatory compliance, and variable market changes.. The Phospholipids market report also offers thorough predictions based on current business fashions and analytical techniques. The segments (Phosphatidylserine, ...
Effect of different phospholipids on the reconstitution of two functions of the lactose carrier of Escherichia coli |...
The lactose carrier was extracted from membranes of Escherichia coliand transport activity reconstituted in proteoliposomes containing different phospholipids. Two different assays f for carrier...
Phospholipid - The School of Biomedical Sciences Wiki
Phospholipids are lipid molecules which have a phosphate group attached. They are highly abundant in cell membranes, where they form a lipid bilayer, due to the amphiphatic nature of their hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. The majority of atoms in the hydrophobic tails are nonpolar and have no charge, this is what makes them insoluble when dissolved in water. However, the hydrophilic heads are soluble in water due to the presence of either charged groups which are electrostatically attracted to the water molecules, or polar groups which enable hydrogen bonds to be form between the heads and the water molecules. The most common constituent of any lipid bilayer making up a cell membrane is the phospholipid. Phospholipids are amphiphilic. They have a polar head and two hydrocarbon tails, which are nonpolar. The phospholipids that make up the cell membranes of plants, bacterial or animal cells often have fatty acids tails. Of these two fatty acid tails one is unsaturated (contains ...
Phospholipid - The School of Biomedical Sciences Wiki
The most common constituent of any lipid bilayer making up a cell membrane is the phospholipid. Phospholipids are amphiphilic. They have a polar head and two hydrocarbon tails, which are nonpolar. The phosopholipids that make up the cell membranes of plant, bacterial or animal cells often have fatty acids tails. Of these two fatty acid tails one is unsaturated (contains double bonds) and the other is saturated. This difference causes variation in the length of the tails and thus alters the fluidity of the membrane . The chemical make up of the tails can differ. This means that there are many different phospholipids that can make up a cell membrane. The main type found in mammalian cells are phosphoglycerides such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine. These differ in the fact that they have choline, serine and ethanolamine (respectively) attatched to their phosphate groups. phosphatidylserine is the only one that carries a negative chage and all the other ...
Phylogenomic Investigation of Phospholipid Synthesis in Archaea
Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds to isoprenoid lateral chains. Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by extension, of all cellular membranes) was enigmatic and called for accurate evolutionary studies. In this paper we review some recent phylogenomic studies that have revealed a modified mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors in archaea and suggested that this domain uses an atypical pathway of synthesis of fatty acids devoid of any acyl carrier protein, which is essential for this activity in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, we show new or updated phylogenetic analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis from glycerol phosphate, isoprenoids, and polar head groups. These results support that most of these enzymes can be
Synthetic Phospholipid Blend II
Phospholipids constitute a catalytic surface for the enzymatic activation of coagulation factors. Lupus circulating anticoagulants are heterogeneous autoantibodies of the IgG and IgM type directly directed against a variety of anionic phospholipids such as cardiolipin, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylinositol or against proteins having the capacity to bind to phospholipids such as β2-glycoprotein I (β2 -GPI ...
Alice: Effects of different maturation systems on bovine oocyte quality, plasma membrane phospholipid composition and...
JOSÉ F. W. SPRÍCIGO, UNB; MATEUS N. DIÓGENES, UNB; LIGIANE O. LEME, UNB; ANA L. GUIMARÃES, UNB; CAROLLE V. MUTERLLE, UNB; BIANCA DAMIANI MARQUES SILVA, CENARGEN; DAVID SOLÀ-ORIOL, UNIVERSITAT AUTÒNOMA DE BARCELONA, SPAIN; IVO PIVATO, UNB; LUCIANO PAULINO DA SILVA, CENARGEN; MARGOT ALVES NUNES DODE, CENARGEN ...
Pfannkuche, O et al. (1999): Phospholipids at multicorer station M21/1 MC391
Pfannkuche, Olaf; Boetius, Antje; Lundgreen, Ulrich; Lochte, Karin; Thiel, Hjalmar (1999): Phospholipids at multicorer station M21/1_MC391. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.128876, In supplement to: Pfannkuche, O et al. (1999): Responses of deep-sea benthos to sedimentation patterns in the North-East Atlantic in 1992. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 46(4), 573-596, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00081-8
phospholipid bilayer cholesterol
Phospholipid Definition. A phospholipid is a type of lipid molecule that is the main component of the cell membrane.Lipids are molecules that include fats, waxes, and some vitamins, among others. Each phospholipid is made up of two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a glycerol molecule. When many phospholipids line up, they form a double layer that is characteristic of all cell membranes ...
The fatty acid compostition of brain phospholipids from chicken and duck embryos<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The fatty acid compostition of brain phospholipids from chicken and duck embryos. AU - Maldjian, A. AU - Cristofori, C. AU - Noble, RC. AU - Speake, BK. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. KW - Brain. KW - Chickens. KW - Embryo. KW - Fatty acid composition. KW - Phospholipid. M3 - Article. VL - 115B. SP - 153. EP - 158. JO - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. JF - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. SN - 0010-406X. ER - ...
The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease |...
Serum cholesterol (free, esters and total) and serum phospholipids were determined in 97 men who had experienced coronary heart disease prior to the age of 40, 146 healthy nonhospitalized men of comparable age and a group of 97 men who were matched to the coronary disease group. The mean values for serum cholesterol (total) were 286 mg. per 100 cc., 224 mg. per 100 cc., and 247 mg. per 100 cc. for the coronary disease group, control group and matched control group, respectively. The serum phospholipids were highest in the coronary disease group. It is demonstrated that the interrelationships of the lipids in coronary heart disease are more important than any one of the constituents taken by itself. The theoretic implications of the total cholesterol: phospholipids ratio are considered.. ...
Phospholipids forming lipid vesicles. Lipid vesicles or liposomes are circular pockets that are enclosed by a lipid bilayer.[22 ... The cell membrane consists of three classes of amphipathic lipids: phospholipids, glycolipids, and sterols. The amount of each ... The fatty chains in phospholipids and glycolipids usually contain an even number of carbon atoms, typically between 16 and 20. ... The outer membrane of the gram-negative bacteria differ from other prokaryotes due to phospholipids forming the exterior of the ...
Jan 1962). "Phospholipids and coronary mortality. Use of ratio between phospholipid and cholesterol levels to determine ... In the human body, lysoPC (1-lysoPC and 2-lysoPC together) represent 5-20% of all phospholipids in the blood plasma. Taking ... 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines are a class of phospholipids that are intermediates in the metabolism of lipids. Because ... These differences have been attributed to the remodeling of membrane phospholipids in order to regulate membrane fluidity and ...
McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA (1990). "Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen ... Since cardiolipin is an important phospholipid found almost exclusively in the inner mitochondrial membrane and very essential ... Gregor Cevc (1993-08-02). Phospholipids handbook. p. 783. ISBN 978-0-8247-9050-9. Antonio Ortiz; J. Antoinette Killian; Arie J ... Phosphatidylglycerol Pangborn M. (1942). "Isolation and purification of a serologically active phospholipid from beef heart". J ...
... phospholipids; polyphenols; and, phytosterols. Unrefined sunflower oil is less heat-stable (and therefore well-suited to dishes ...
Phospholipids: Lysophospholipid signaling modulators. *PAF receptor modulators. *Steroids: Androgen receptor modulators. * ...
Sphingomyelin: phospholipid: Niemann-Pick disease (SMPD1-associated. *type C). *Glucocerebroside: Gaucher's disease ...
Augmentation by membrane phospholipids". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (2): 1101-8. PMID 1670773. Kovacic RT, Tizard R, Cate RL, et al. ( ... Annexin A1 belongs to the annexin family of Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins that have a molecular weight of ... 1988). "Cloning and expression of cDNA for human endonexin II, a Ca2+ and phospholipid binding protein". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (17 ...
It also has a higher compaction capacity than the other phospholipids, because the apolar tail is less bent. Nevertheless, ... 40% dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC); ~40% other phospholipids (PC); ~10% surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D ... Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is a phospholipid with two 16-carbon saturated chains and a phosphate group with ... compressed surfactant phospholipid molecules decrease the surface tension to very low, near-zero levels. Pulmonary surfactant ...
However, fatty acids are also important components of the phospholipids that form the phospholipid bilayers out of which all ... The effect of this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer ... phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters. In any of these forms, fatty acids are both important dietary sources of fuel for ... phospholipids etc) and converts them to methyl esters, which are then separated by gas chromatography. or analyzed by gas ...
... in suspension is frequently used medically as a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging and other diagnostic procedures. It is most often used in imaging of the GI tract during what is colloquially known as a "barium meal". It is administered orally, or by enema, as a suspension of fine particles in a thick milk like solution (often with sweetening and flavoring agents added). Although barium is a heavy metal, and its water-soluble compounds are often highly toxic, the low solubility of barium sulfate protects the patient from absorbing harmful amounts of the metal. Barium sulfate is also readily removed from the body, unlike Thorotrast, which it replaced. Due to the relatively high atomic number (Z = 56) of barium, its compounds absorb X-rays more strongly than compounds derived from lighter nuclei.. ...
... is a molecule that was used as a radiocontrast agent, typically for performing myelography studies. It was marketed under the trade names Pantopaque (in North America) and Myodil (rest of the world).. Iofendylate is an iodobenzene (an iodinated oil-based substance) and as such it was recommended that the physician remove it from the patient at the end of the myelography study, which was a difficult and painful part of the procedure. Moreover, because complete removal could not always be achieved (or even attempted by some physicians), iofendylate's persistence in the body might sometimes lead to arachnoiditis, a potentially painful and debilitating lifelong disorder of the spine. As a result, the substance, which was used extensively for over three decades, became the subject of multiple lawsuits filed around the world.. Iofendylate's use ceased when water-soluble agents suitable for spinal enhancement (such as metrizamide) became available in the late 1970s. With those ...
Nursing considerations: Early generations of IV contrast carried considerable nephrotoxicity, necessitating continual assessment of renal function. IV and PO fluids are encouraged post operation to facilitate excretion of contrast. There is a common myth in medicine and nursing that patients may be allergic to iodine in contrast, however, there is considerable evidence to the contrary. This is likely a carryover of confusion regarding contrast-reactions to early generations of IV contrast which were of sufficiently high osmolarity to induce degranulation of mast cells which manifests clinically as similar in appearance to anaphlylaxis due to massive release of histamine. There is no need to assess patients for allergies to iodine or shellfish as allergy to iodine is physiologically impossible in a hemodynamically stable patient. Allergy to iodine would immediately manifest as overwhelming anaphylaxis due to presence of iodine in triiodothyronine(T3) and thyroxine(T4). Shellfish allergies have ...
Phospholipid metabolism disorders}}. Medicine. Inborn error of lipid metabolism: Phospholipid metabolism disorders. Metabolic ...
... (CEUS) is the application of ultrasound contrast medium to traditional medical sonography. Ultrasound contrast agents rely on the different ways in which sound waves are reflected from interfaces between substances. This may be the surface of a small air bubble or a more complex structure. Commercially available contrast media are gas-filled microbubbles that are administered intravenously to the systemic circulation. Microbubbles have a high degree of echogenicity (the ability of an object to reflect ultrasound waves). There is a great difference in echogenicity between the gas in the microbubbles and the soft tissue surroundings of the body. Thus, ultrasonic imaging using microbubble contrast agents enhances the ultrasound backscatter, (reflection) of the ultrasound waves, to produce a sonogram with increased contrast due to the high echogenicity difference. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used to image blood perfusion in organs, measure blood flow rate in the ...
"Fluorescence SpectraViewer - Nile Red phospholipids". Thermo Fisher Scientific. 17 May 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2020. Fowler, S ... in phospholipids (polar lipids), Nile red has an excitation maximum of about 554 nm (green), and an emission maximum of about ...
Some phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, have good solubility in ethanol, whereas most other phospholipids do not ... In hydrolysed lecithins, a portion of the phospholipids have one fatty acid removed by phospholipase. Such phospholipids are ... Purified phospholipids are produced by companies commercially. To modify the performance of lecithin to make it suitable for ... It is a mixture of various phospholipids, and the composition depends on the origin of the lecithin. A major source of lecithin ...
ISBN 1-893997-42-1. Liu JJ, Nilsson A, Duan RD (April 2000). "Effects of phospholipids on sphingomyelin hydrolysis induced by ... Some have activity against nucleotides, some have activity against phospholipid and lysophospholipids. ENPP7 is the only enzyme ... phospholipids, and bile salt have been absorbed or up taken. It is also understandable that considerable amount of dietary ... phospholipids, fat and high concentrations of bile salts. It is thus understandable why SM digestion occurs most effectively in ...
Quaternary ammonium cation
It is found in phospholipids. For example, phosphatidylcholines, a major component of biological membranes, are a member of the ...
Of the phospholipids, the most common headgroup is phosphatidylcholine (PC), accounting for about half the phospholipids in ... Phospholipids with certain head groups can alter the surface chemistry of a bilayer and can, for example, serve as signals as ... When phospholipids are exposed to water, they self-assemble into a two-layered sheet with the hydrophobic tails pointing toward ... In phospholipid bilayers the phosphate group is located within this hydrated region, approximately 0.5 nm outside the ...
... s are a class of phospholipids found in biological membranes. They are synthesized by the addition of ... Phosphatidylethanolamines are found in all living cells, composing 25% of all phospholipids. In human physiology, they are ... Kelly, Karen (July 28, 2011). "Phospholipid Biosynthesis". The AOCS Lipid Library. Retrieved September 3, 2012. Kuge, Osamu; ... of all phospholipids. Phosphatidylethanolamines play a role in membrane fusion and in disassembly of the contractile ring ...
Calcium and phospholipidEdit. Calcium and phospholipid (a platelet membrane constituent) are required for the tenase and ... Calcium mediates the binding of the complexes via the terminal gamma-carboxy residues on FXa and FIXa to the phospholipid ... Mediates thrombin adhesion to phospholipids and stimulates degradation of factor X by ZPI. Protein Z deficiency ... Required for coagulation factors to bind to phospholipid (formerly known as factor IV). ...
Glycerophospholipids, usually referred to as phospholipids (though sphingomyelins are also classified as phospholipids), are ... Most of the fat found in food is in the form of triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Some dietary fat is necessary to ... Theodore Gobley (1847) discovered phospholipids in mammalian brain and hen egg, called by him as "lecithins". Thudichum ... The major dietary lipids for humans and other animals are animal and plant triglycerides, sterols, and membrane phospholipids. ...
However, fatty acids are also important components of the phospholipids that form the phospholipid bilayers out of which all ... The effect of this is that, in restricted environments, such as when fatty acids are part of a phospholipid in a lipid bilayer ... phospholipids, and cholesterol esters. In any of these forms, fatty acids are both important dietary sources of fuel for ... Phospholipids represent another source. Some fatty acids are produced synthetically by hydrocarboxylation of alkenes.Template: ...
Nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP Sulfur. SO42−. Constituent of proteins Micronutrients - necessary in small quantities Element ...
Salomon RG (2005). "Isolevuglandins, oxidatively truncated phospholipids, and atherosclerosis". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1043: 327 ...
The phospholipid amphiphiles are the major structural component of cell membranes. Amphiphiles are the basis for a number of ... Phospholipids, a class of amphiphilic molecules, are the main components of biological membranes. The amphiphilic nature of ... Although phospholipids are the principal constituents of biological membranes, there are other constituents, such as ... phospholipids, cholesterol, glycolipids, fatty acids, bile acids, saponins, local anaesthetics, etc. Soap is a common household ...
These phospholipids include sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine. Supplementation with citicoline can increase the amount of ... When the availability of choline is low or the need for acetylcholine increases, phospholipids containing choline can be ... Phosphatidylcholine is a major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. Close regulation of its biosynthesis, degradation, ... cytidinediphosphocholine can affect brain phospholipid composition by increasing choline and cytidine plasma levels". Journal ...
Animal fats are complex mixtures of triglycerides, with lesser amounts of both the phospholipids and cholesterol molecules from ... Cohn JS, Kamili A, Wat E, Chung RW, Tandy S (February 2010). "Dietary phospholipids and intestinal cholesterol absorption". ... Through the interaction with the phospholipid fatty-acid chains, cholesterol increases membrane packing, which both alters ... In multiple layers, cholesterol and phospholipids, both electrical insulators, can facilitate speed of transmission of ...
At cooler temperatures, phospholipids are found in a solid state with constricted motion. As phospholipids become stationary, ... The cell membrane consists of phospholipids. At warmer temperatures, phospholipids exist in a more fluid state as a result of ... Phospholipids that solidify at an irregular or angled orientation with respect to the membrane, can reduce PKC-α's activity. ... Additional ligands normally associated with PKC alpha, such as PMA, ATP, and phospholipids had no effect on secondary structure ...
Occasionally it can also be driven by entropy without energy input, in cases like the formation of the phospholipid bilayer of ... Hanin I, Pepeu G (2013-11-11). Phospholipids: biochemical, pharmaceutical, and analytical considerations. New York. ISBN 978-1- ...
PHOSPHOLIPIDS || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG
Phospholipid Bilayer Nanodiscs
Phospholipid | Encyclopedia.com
Phospholipids are the fundamental building blocks of cellular membranes and are the major part of surfactant , the film that ... Phospholipids Phospholipids are an important class of biomolecules. ... Phospholipids Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Phospholipids. Phospholipids are an ... phospholipid (fos-foh-lip-id) n. a lipid containing a phosphate group as part of the molecule. Phospholipids are constituents ...
Spinning Membranes from Phospholipids | Science
phospholipid - Everything2.com
Phospholipids and glycolipids Play crucial structural roles Constructed of fatty acid chains attached to glycerol backbone ( ... Phospholipids and glycolipids. *Play crucial structural roles. *Constructed of fatty acid chains attached to glycerol backbone ... Glycolipids have a short carbohydrate chain (1-15 monomers) for a head, but act like phospholipids. ...
Phospholipids and innate immunity
Phospholipid innate immune recognition: Both self- and pathogen-derived PLs can act as ligands for a family of MHC class I-like ... Here, phospholipid signaling takes center stage in diverse ways, many of which we are only beginning to understand. ... Phospholipids, or PLs, provide the membranes that hold our cells together. Researchers increasingly appreciate how these unique ... This representation of a phospholipid bilayer shows integral membrane proteins protruding throughout. Healthy functioning of ...
Browse Products Containing: PHOSPHOLIPIDS || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
Phospholipid - Wikipedia
PEG phospholipid (mPEG-phospholipid, polyglycerin-phospholipid, funcitionalized-phospholipid, terminal activated-phospholipid) ... Phospholipids can act as emulsifiers, enabling oils to form a colloid with water. Phospholipids are one of the components of ... The result is often a phospholipid bilayer: a membrane that consists of two layers of oppositely oriented phospholipid ... Liposomes are often composed of phosphatidylcholine-enriched phospholipids and may also contain mixed phospholipid chains with ...
Emustil eye drops (soybean oil, natural phospholipids)
... soybean oil and natural phospholipids. Both of these help lubricate and moisturise the surface of the eyeball. Emustil eye drop ... There are currently no other medicines available in the UK that contain both soybean oil and natural phospholipids as the ... Emustil eye drops (soybean oil, natural phospholipids). Emustil eye drop emulsion contains two active ingredients, soybean oil ... Emustil eye drop emulsion contains two active ingredients, soybean oil and natural phospholipids. Both of these help lubricate ...
Phospholipids of ripe Sophora japonica seeds | SpringerLink
Phospholipids: uses & side-effects | PatientsLikeMe
Techniques for the Localization of Phospholipids in Biological Membranes | SpringerLink
It is only about one decade ago when it was for the first time proposed that the phospholipids in a biological membrane might ... C.M. Colley, R.F.A. Zwaal, B. Roelofsen and L.L.M. van Deenen, Lytic and non-lytic degradation of phospholipids in mammalian ... It is only about one decade ago when it was for the first time proposed that the phospholipids in a biological membrane might ... R.F.A. Zwaal, B. Roelofsen, P. Comfurius and L.L.M. van Deenen, Organization of phospholipids in human red cell membranes as ...
Which cellular organelle contains phospholipids chelosterol and transport protein - Answers
Are phospholipids unicellular multicellular or both. ?. Phosholipids are molecules and therefore not cellular at all. However, ... Which organelle makes the phospholipids that compose the cells plasma membrane. ?. The cellular membrane is the organelle that ... phospholipids are the principle component of organelle and cell membranes in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, but ... makes the phospholipids that compose the cells plasma membrane. This is made as a collection of proteins and lipids. ...
Phospholipid acyltransferase - Wikipedia
What Is a Feature of Phospholipids? | Reference.com
The structures in the phospholipids are the building blocks for the parts of the... ... One of the main features of phospholipids is its bi-layer organization, upon which the rest of the membrane is built. ... One of the main features of phospholipids is its bi-layer organization, upon which the rest of the membrane is built. The ... The basic structure of phospholipids, which is built onto to create various types of lipids, is a head of glycerol and a tail ...
Phospholipid | Definition of Phospholipid at Dictionary.com
Chemicals, Functional / Phospholipids - HAPPI
Anti-Phospholipid Antibody, IgG
Autoantibodies to phospholipids and to the coagulation proteins in AIDS. - PubMed - NCBI
Cationic Polyene Phospholipids as DNA Carriers for Ocular Gene Therapy
Our objective is to evaluate the efficiency of novel cationic retinoic and carotenoic glycol phospholipids, designated C20-18, ... The results demonstrate that cationic polyene phospholipids have potential as DNA carriers for ocular gene therapy. ... Cationic Polyene Phospholipids as DNA Carriers for Ocular Gene Therapy. Susana Machado. ,1 Sofia Calado. ,1. ,. 2 Diogo Bitoque ... Cationic Polyene Phospholipids as DNA Carriers for Ocular Gene Therapy,. BioMed Research International,. vol. 2014. ,. Article ...
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption
Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can ... Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption by Jeffrey S. Cohn *, Alvin Kamili , Elaine Wat , Rosanna W. S. ... Cohn, J.S.; Kamili, A.; Wat, E.; Chung, R.W.S.; Tandy, S. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption. ... Cohn JS, Kamili A, Wat E, Chung RWS, Tandy S. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption. Nutrients. 2010; 2(2 ...
PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
phospholipid scramblase 1. Names. PL scramblase 1. ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scramblase 1. erythrocyte phospholipid ... PLSCR1 = phospholipid scramblase 1; AKT = proto-oncogene c-Akt) Title: Herpes simplex viruses activate phospholipid scramblase ... PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1 [Homo sapiens] PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:5359 ... phospholipid scramblase 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:9092 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000188313 MIM:604170 Gene ...
Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis | PNAS
Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis. F Hirata, S Toyoshima, J Axelrod, M J Waxdal ... Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis. F Hirata, S Toyoshima, J Axelrod, M J Waxdal ... Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis. F Hirata, S Toyoshima, J Axelrod, and M J ... Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
JCI - Phospholipid signaling in innate immune cells
Phospholipid signaling in innate immune cells. Valerie B. ODonnell,1 Jamie Rossjohn,1,2,3 and Michael J.O. Wakelam4 1Systems ... Phospholipids comprise a large body of lipids that define cells and organelles by forming membrane structures. Importantly, ... Phospholipids in innate cells are subject to dynamic regulation by enzymes, whose activities are highly responsive to ... Phospholipids themselves are also recognized by innate-like T cells, which are considered essential for recognition of ...
Phylogenomic Investigation of Phospholipid Synthesis in Archaea
Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by ... analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis ... Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds ... A. Gattinger, M. Schloter, and J. C. Munch, "Phospholipid etherlipid and phospholipid fatty acid fingerprints in selected ...
Phospholipid bilayer (thing) by Laurelin - Everything2.com
The two main components of this membrane are phospholipids (giving the membra... ... The phospholipid bilayer is the membrane which surrounds all living cells. ... Phospholipid bilayer (thing). See all of Phospholipid bilayer, no other writeups in this node. ... A phospholipid has three distinct parts: Glycerol and Phosphate, which form the head; and a Fatty Acid tail. The heads also ...
Phospholipid Signaling Protocols | Sigma-Aldrich
Phospholipid Signaling Protocols; find Sigma-P1603 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & ... This collection of state-of-the-art techniques for the assay of phospholipid and phospholid-derived second messengers allows ... HPLC Analytical Methods for the Separation of Molecular Species of Fatty Acids In Diacylglycerol and Cellular Phospholipids. ... Monitoring of Activation of Phospholipid-Derived Cell Signaling Pathways. Phosphoinositidase C Activation Assay I: Cell ...
LipidsPhosphatidylcholineMembranesBilayerProteinsPhosphatidylserineGlycerolAnalysis of phospholipidsBilayersDietary PhospholipidsMoleculeVesiclesSynthesisPathwaysAntibodiesHydrophilicAnionic phospholipidsLiposomesHydrophobicPlasma membraneTriglyceridesProteinMetabolismAqueousSphingomyelinSerinePhosphate groupSaturated fattyLecithinClass of phospholipidsClasses of phospholipidsHydrolysisFatty acid compositionLipid-containinHuman phospholipidCardiolipinRolesCellularAmphipathicStructuresAntibodySpeciesFunctionalCholineCellsAmphiphilicEtherInositolCellMetabolic
- Phospholipids are naturally occurring complex lipids which contain glycerol, two fatty acids and a phosphate group. (ewg.org)
- The basic structure of phospholipids, which is built onto to create various types of lipids, is a head of glycerol and a tail made up of fatty acids. (reference.com)
- Phospholipids are the main lipids in cell membranes. (dictionary.com)
- Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipids whose molecule has a hydrophilic "head" containing a phosphate group, and two hydrophobic "tails" derived from fatty acids, joined by a glycerol molecule. (wikipedia.org)
- Phospholipids comprise a large body of lipids that define cells and organelles by forming membrane structures. (jci.org)
- Interacting selectively and non-covalently with phospholipids, a class of lipids containing phosphoric acid as a mono- or diester. (yeastgenome.org)
- Phospholipids are a class of lipids, and a major component of all biological membranes , along with glycolipids, cholesterol and proteins . (bionity.com)
- Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are formed of a phosphate-containing polar head-group attached to non-polar hydrocarbon chains. (mdpi.com)
- Naturally present in milk as part of the milk fat globule membrane, milk phospholipids are complex lipids that are clinically proven to help manage the effects of stress, helping maintain performance by staying focused and positive. (dairyreporter.com)
- Analysis of fatty acids fractions of phospholipids and neutral lipids from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with occupational lung disease (OLD). (cdc.gov)
- An investigation was conducted of the lipidic composition (phospholipids, neutral lipids and fatty acids) of the extracellular compartment of the pulmonary surfactant, obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage in 15 individuals: five normal, five pigeon breeders, and five silicosis patients. (cdc.gov)
- A logical consequence was then to suppose that the other two major phospholipids of the human red cell, the choline-containing phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM), are predominantly located in the outer half of the bilayer. (springer.com)
- The first phospholipid identified in 1847 as such in biological tissues was lecithin, or phosphatidylcholine, in the egg yolk of chickens by the French chemist and pharmacist Theodore Nicolas Gobley. (wikipedia.org)
- Liposomes are often composed of phosphatidylcholine-enriched phospholipids and may also contain mixed phospholipid chains with surfactant properties. (wikipedia.org)
- A paper published in Lipidology states that there is increasing evidence that phosphatidylcholine, a type of phospholipid found in egg, fish and soybeans, can reduce fat in the liver. (health24.com)
- In particular, keep an eye out for brands that state that their phospholipids are derived from soybeans, fish or eggs as these will contain phosphatidylcholine. (health24.com)
- The surface of both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is surrounded by phosphatidylcholine (PC) a type of phospholipid which has been scientifically proven to serve as a good extracellular target for several isoforms of sPLA 2- llA. (randox.com)
- We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene- b -poly(ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. (mdpi.com)
- Primarily, of the phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine is found in the epidermis while phosphatidylethanolamine is found in the SC. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- Phospholipids include phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. (rainbow.coop)
- All phospholipids tested, except for phosphatidylcholine, showed ionophoretic capability for Na + at micromolar concentrations. (wiley.com)
- On the other hand, phosphatidylcholine, which is reported to stabilize phospholipid bilayers and to inhibit formation of inverted structures, inhibited Na + cardiolipin interactions. (wiley.com)
- The fatty acyl chain composition of the two major phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) changed significantly during the first 2 months. (biomedsearch.com)
- Anionic phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylserine) are found on the cytoplasmic surface and neutral phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylcholine) predominate on the external surface. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- These results show that membrane damage by NMDA is preceded by inhibition of phospholipid synthesis and not by phospholipid degradation in the early stages of the excitotoxic process, and that NMDA receptor overactivation decreases phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis by inhibiting choline-ethanolaminophosphotransferase activity. (jneurosci.org)
- Phospholipids are the primary constituents of cell membranes. (ewg.org)
- Phospholipid bilayer Nanodiscs are novel membrane models that are potentially useful in the study of small-molecule binding to membranes and membrane proteins. (washington.edu)
- Phospholipids are the fundamental building blocks of cellular membranes and are the major part of surfactant , the film that occupies the air/liquid interfaces in the lung. (encyclopedia.com)
- Phospholipids are the major lipid constituent in cell membranes, thus maintaining structural integrity between the cell and its environment and providing boundaries between compartments within the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
- Phospholipids, or PLs, provide the membranes that hold our cells together. (asbmb.org)
- Protein involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, the major lipid component of most cellular membranes. (uniprot.org)
- This proposal of Bretscher was based on the observations that treatment of intact erythrocytes with NH2-group specific reagents does not result in the labeling of appreciable quantities of the amino-phospholipids, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS), whereas these phospholipids could be easily labeled when open ghost membranes were exposed to the reagents (1). (springer.com)
- R.F.A. Zwaal, B. Roelofsen, P. Comfurius and L.L.M. van Deenen, Organization of phospholipids in human red cell membranes as detected by the action of various purified phospholipases, Biochim. (springer.com)
- B. Roelofsen, Phospholipases as tools to study the localization of phospholipids in biological membranes. (springer.com)
- R.A. Demel, W.S.M. Geurts van Kessel, R.F.A. Zwaal, B. Roelofsen and L.L.M. van Deenen, Relation between various phospholipase actions on human red cell membranes and the interfacial phospholipid pressure in monolayers,Biochim. (springer.com)
- However, phospholipids are the principle component of organelle and cell membranes in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, but they can't be called cellular for the same reason we don't call bricks buildings. (answers.com)
- Phospholipids are a key component of all cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
- In eukaryotes, cell membranes also contain another class of lipid, sterol, interspersed among the phospholipids. (wikipedia.org)
- In biological membranes, the phospholipids often occur with other molecules (e.g., proteins, glycolipids, sterols) in a bilayer such as a cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds to isoprenoid lateral chains. (hindawi.com)
- Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by extension, of all cellular membranes) was enigmatic and called for accurate evolutionary studies. (hindawi.com)
- Whereas all bacteria and eukaryotes were known to have membranes based on fatty acids linked by ester bonds to glycerol-phosphate, archaea appeared to have phospholipids composed of isoprenoid chains condensed with glycerol-phosphate by ether linkages [ 2 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In cell membranes, phosphoglycerides are the more common of the two phospholipids. (bionity.com)
- We studied the interactions between sugars and phospholipid membranes in giant unilamellar vesicles with the fluorescent lipid analog 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate incorporated. (nih.gov)
- This is why phospholipids are able make up the outer membranes of cells. (livestrong.com)
- While phospholipids are important as cell membranes, that's not their only role in your body. (livestrong.com)
- Phospholipids are one of the major structural elements of biological membranes. (mdpi.com)
- Phospholipids are an essential component of all cell membranes within the body, especially the brain. (dairyreporter.com)
- Due to this capability, phospholipids are a major component of all cell membranes. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- PLOOHs are the products of oxidation of the phospholipids of the cell wall membranes. (rainbow.coop)
- Phospholipids and bile acids, by virtue of their amphiphilic properties, can interact in nonpolar media forming "inverted" structures (micelles) which presumably have an hydrophilic core and might act as diffusional carriers (ionophores) of electrolytes across low dielectric constant media or lipid membranes. (wiley.com)
- However, hydroxylated bile acids (particularly cholic acid), sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100, which can induce and stabilize inverted structures in lipid membranes, were able to increase 5- to 8-fold the phospholipid-mediated Na + transport. (wiley.com)
- The use of a ruthenium-copper electron transport chain to trigger phospholipid assembly opens up future opportunities for spatiotemporal synthesis of membranes. (rsc.org)
- The Solvent Shielding Technology™ design of the Phree Phospholipid Removal products will withhold organic solvents above the filter membranes for up to 25 minutes, allowing for direct in-well or in-tube precipitation upon the addition of plasma. (phenomenex.com)
- The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are formed from phospholipids. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Membrane phospholipids participate in several important cellular functions including exchanging metabolites across membranes, transferring molecular signals and serving as a platform for the assembly of protein-lipid complexes. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- For example, phospholipids are integral components of cell membranes and lung surfactants, and play a major role in intracellular and extracellular signal transduction and cellular inflammatory pathways. (google.com)
- Or does the body do fine building healthy cell membranes with whatever phospholipids are found in meats and other foods? (rxmuscle.com)
- This representation of a phospholipid bilayer shows integral membrane proteins protruding throughout. (asbmb.org)
- It is only about one decade ago when it was for the first time proposed that the phospholipids in a biological membrane might be distributed over both halves of the bilayer in a highly asymmetric fashion. (springer.com)
- The result is often a phospholipid bilayer: a membrane that consists of two layers of oppositely oriented phospholipid molecules, with their heads exposed to the liquid on both sides, and with the tails directed into the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- See all of Phospholipid bilayer , no other writeups in this node. (everything2.com)
- The phospholipid bilayer is the membrane which surrounds all living cells. (everything2.com)
- Because of this, the phospholipids form a bilayer , with the hydrophobic tails grouping together in the centre, away from water, while the hydrophilic heads are attracted to the water on the outside, thus forming a protective barrier for the tails. (everything2.com)
- It is called a bilayer because it is a layer of two, with one layer of phospholipid heads facing the outside of the cell, and another facing the inside. (everything2.com)
- The phospholipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. (shutterstock.com)
- Biological diagram with collagen fiber, fibronectin, phospholipid bilayer and cytoskeleton filaments. (shutterstock.com)
- Phospholipids form a double-layer membrane -- or bilayer -- around the contents of the cell, with the phosphate heads facing both the inside and outside of the cell, and the fatty acids in rows that face each other within the membrane, helping to form a water-repelling barrier. (livestrong.com)
- Phospholipids form the bilayer of every outer cellular membrane (animals) and the internal cellular organelle membrane, so whatever you eat, you are going to be taking in phospholipids. (rxmuscle.com)
- phospholipids are part of the lipid bilayer around cells. (rxmuscle.com)
- Phospholipid synthesis occurs in the cytosolic side of ER membrane that is studded with proteins that act in synthesis (GPAT and LPAAT acyl transferases, phosphatase and choline phosphotransferase) and allocation (flippase and floppase). (wikipedia.org)
- This family contains acyltransferases involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and proteins of unknown function. (wikipedia.org)
- Autoantibodies to phospholipids and to the coagulation proteins in AIDS. (nih.gov)
- In order to see if these antibodies are isolated or, like in autoimmune diseases, associated with hematological disorders and with antibodies to other phospholipids and to proteins of coagulation, we investigated 3 groups of patients: 1. (nih.gov)
- The two main components of this membrane are phospholipids (giving the membrane its name) and proteins . (everything2.com)
- Together, these phospholipids and proteins maintain the internal environment of the cell, only allowing in what should be in, and protecting the cell from what could harm it. (everything2.com)
- B vitamins, such as inositol and choline, amino acids from proteins and essential fatty acids are all needed for phospholipid production. (livestrong.com)
- This membrane is partially permeable, capable of elastic movement, and has fluid properties, in which embedded proteins (integral or peripheral proteins) and phospholipid molecules are able to move laterally. (bionity.com)
- This article aims at reviewing the properties of phospholipids at the air/water and oil/water interfaces, as well as the recent advances in using these natural components as stabilizers, alone or in combination with other compounds such as proteins. (mdpi.com)
- 99% effective removal of phospholipids and proteins with higher levels of reproducibility from plasma and serum samples while maintaining maximum recovery of target analytes. (photonics.com)
- The milk fat globule is a complex structure centered by triacylglycerol surrounded by a membrane that is bountifully comprised of proteins, phospholipids (such as phosphotidylserine), sphingomyelin, gangliosides and cerebrosides. (dairyreporter.com)
- We describe here some properties of monosaccharide transport from phospholipid vesicles into which brush border proteins obtained from neonatal pig small intestine were incorporated. (nature.com)
- Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid with a characteristically large curvature and is of growing interest for two primary reasons: (i) it binds to and regulates many peripheral membrane proteins in bacteria and mitochondria, and (ii) it is distributed asymmetrically in rod-shaped cells and is concentrated at the poles and division septum. (asm.org)
- Experimental evidence suggests that phospholipids (PLs) form microdomains, compartmentalize proteins in bacteria, and may be functionally similar to lipid rafts in eukaryotes. (asm.org)
- Phree Phospholipid Removal Solutions offer a fast effective way to remove proteins AND phospholipids from plasma samples without negatively affecting the recovery of your target analytes. (phenomenex.com)
- Complexes of negatively charged (anionic) phospholipids and endogenous plasma proteins provide epitopes recognized by natural autoantibodies. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Phospholipid signaling in apoptosis: peroxidation and externalization of phosphatidylserine. (cdc.gov)
- The role of phospholipids in apoptosis signaling and the relationship between oxidation of phosphatidylserine and its redistribution in the plasma membrane were studied. (cdc.gov)
- This study permits us to establish that the acidic phospholipids cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine can act as efficient Na + ionophores in this in vitro system, at physiological Na + concentrations and with kinetics comparable to those of systems involved in Na + transport (e.g. (wiley.com)
- Possibly, injury and activation of tumor endothelium by cytokines and reactive oxygen species induce exposure of anionic phospholipids, most likely phosphatidylserine. (aacrjournals.org)
- The structure of the most common class of phospholipids, phosphoglycerides, is based on glycerol, a three-carbon alcohol with the formula CH 2 OH - CHOH - CH 2 OH. (encyclopedia.com)
- Phospholipids are usually composed of two fatty acid chains esterified to two of the carbons of glycerol phosphate, the phosphate being esterified to a hydroxyl group of another hydrophilic compound, such as choline, ethanolamine or serine. (uniprot.org)
- In addition, we show new or updated phylogenetic analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis from glycerol phosphate, isoprenoids, and polar head groups. (hindawi.com)
- In its simplest form, a phospholipid is composed of one glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and one phosphate group. (bionity.com)
- But a triglyceride contains three fatty acids attached to the glycerol backbone, while a phospholipid has two fatty acids plus a phosphate group attached to the glycerol. (livestrong.com)
- Phospholipids are composed basically of fatty acids, a glycerol unit, a phosphate group and a polar molecule. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- This review focuses on a novel group of synthetic alkylphospholipids, the glycosidated phospholipids, which contain carbohydrates or carbohydrate-related molecules at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. (biomedsearch.com)
- I just can't see this happening as the glycerol is the backbone to the phospholipid! (biology-online.org)
- Phospholipids typically are composed of a glycerol backbone which is acylated with fatty acids at the C 1 and C 2 positions and phosphorylated at the remaining terminus. (google.com)
Analysis of phospholipids2
- There are no simple methods available for analysis of phospholipids since the close range of polarity between different phospholipid species makes detection difficult. (wikipedia.org)
- To better encapsulate what is globally defined as fat, CEM is expanding the use of the ORACLE to include the analysis of phospholipids. (cem.com)
- Interactions stabilizing the C-terminal helix of human phospholipid scramblase 1 in lipid bilayers: A computational study. (nih.gov)
- Phospholipid bilayers can themselves form hollow, water-containing spheres, thus providing the basic foundation for all living cells and many of the structures they contain, such as lysosomes, mitochondria and nuclei. (livestrong.com)
- Here, we describe a versatile platform to generate free standing, planar, phospholipid bilayers with millimeter scale areas. (rsc.org)
- As its name implies, a phospholipid consists of a phosphate portion - a phosphorus atom attached to a vitamin, amino acid or other molecule - and a lipid, or fat-like, portion. (livestrong.com)
- The phosphate 'head' of a phospholipid molecule is capable of mixing with water - it is said to be 'hydrophilic' - while the lipid 'tail' is incapable of mixing with water, thus making it 'hydrophobic. (livestrong.com)
- A phospholipid molecule consists of a hydrophobic fatty acid tail and a hydrophilic head. (shutterstock.com)
- If you were to see a drawing of a triglyceride molecule and a phospholipid molecule on paper, you might not be able to notice much of a difference between the two. (livestrong.com)
- A novel method for detection of site-specific phospholipid peroxidation based on the use of cis-parinaric acid as a reporter molecule metabolically integrated into membrane phospholipids in living cells was employed. (cdc.gov)
- Cellectar Biosciences Inc. has launched its phospholipid ether-drug conjugate platform, a small-molecule cancer targeting and delivery technology for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics. (fdanews.com)
- Incubation with phospholipid vesicles further stimulates MinD polymerization. (pnas.org)
- Gel exclusion chromatography based on the use of Sephacryl S-1000 provides a quick and convenient method for determining the average diameter of phospholipid vesicles and an approximate measure of size heterogeneity. (sciencemag.org)
- Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. (mdpi.com)
- FERGUSON, D., BURTON, K. Reconstitution in phospholipid vesicles of a glucose transport system from pig small intestine. (nature.com)
- Inhibition of either synthesis or degradation of methylated phospholipids resulted in a decrease in the thymidine incorporation. (pnas.org)
- Today, thanks to the significant accumulation of complete genome sequence data for a wide variety of species, it is possible to study the major pathways of phospholipid synthesis and their exceptions by looking at the presence or absence of the corresponding genes in the different genomes. (hindawi.com)
- A well-balanced diet provides the nutrients needed for phospholipid synthesis. (livestrong.com)
- Phospholipid synthesis is accomplished within your cells from simpler precursors that are derived from your diet. (livestrong.com)
- A well-balanced diet is the best way to ensure adequate nutrients for phospholipid synthesis. (livestrong.com)
- Here we demonstrate ruthenium tris-bipyridine mediated photoredox triggering of the copper catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC), resulting in the synthesis of biomimetic phospholipids in situ , and subsequent membrane assembly. (rsc.org)
- On the basis of these results, we hypothesized that excitotoxicity results from inhibition of synthesis rather than from increased degradation of phospholipids. (jneurosci.org)
- We now investigated the effect of NMDA receptor overactivation on synthesis and degradation of major membrane phospholipids in the early stages of the excitotoxic process. (jneurosci.org)
- The chemical synthesis of phospholipid-galactose conjugates has been reported (J. Haensler et al. (google.com)
- This Review describes the major phospholipid metabolic pathways present in innate immune cells and summarizes the formation and metabolism of phospholipids as well as their emerging roles in cell biology and disease. (jci.org)
- In this paper, we summarize the results concerning the phylogenomic studies of the biosynthesis pathways of archaeal phospholipid components and provide some new evolutionary data about the enzymes reviewed in Koga and Morii [ 18 ] and Matsumi et al. (hindawi.com)
- Monitoring of Activation of Phospholipid-Derived Cell Signaling Pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Glycosidated phospholipids: uncoupling of signalling pathways at the plasma membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
- These autoantibodies are called phospholipid or cardiolipin antibodies when they are detected by immunoassays that employ anionic phospholipids as substrates. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- The best characterized phospholipid-binding protein is beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (beta-2 GP1) and most immunoassays for phospholipid antibodies employ a composite substrate consisting of cardiolipin plus beta-2 GP1. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Most phospholipid antibodies bind to an epitope associated with domain 1 near the N-terminus. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Phospholipid antibodies detected by functional assays are often called lupus anticoagulants because they produce prolongation of phospholipid-dependent clotting in vitro and are found in some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Not all phospholipid antibodies possess lupus anticoagulant activity. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- 3) Only those phospholipid antibodies that are capable of cross-linking beta-2 GP1 molecules can interact efficiently with phospholipid surfaces in functional coagulation assays. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- The "head" with hydrophilic built, adopts a lipophilic characteristic in the polar phospholipid area. (bionity.com)
- Features the amphipathic structure of phospholipids with their hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. (flinnsci.com)
- Phospholipids are more about keeping the membrand hydrophobic on the inside and hydrophilic on the outside. (rxmuscle.com)
- Using a suite of biophysical techniques, we quantitatively studied the interaction of NAO with anionic phospholipids under physiologically relevant conditions. (asm.org)
- We found that NAO is promiscuous in its binding and has photophysical properties that are largely insensitive to the structure of diverse anionic phospholipids to which it binds. (asm.org)
- Being unable to rely solely on NAO to characterize the localization of CL in Escherichia coli cells, we instead used quantitative fluorescence microscopy, mass spectrometry, and mutants deficient in specific classes of anionic phospholipids. (asm.org)
- 1) Cellular activation is often accompanied by the translocation of anionic phospholipids to the external membrane surface. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Anionic phospholipids are largely absent from the external leaflet of the plasma membrane of mammalian cells under normal conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
- In the present study, we determined whether anionic phospholipids become exposed on tumor vasculature. (aacrjournals.org)
- A monoclonal antibody, 9D2, which specifically recognizes anionic phospholipids, was injected into mice bearing a variety of orthotopic or ectopic tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Other mice received annexin V, a natural ligand that binds to anionic phospholipids. (aacrjournals.org)
- Various factors and tumor-associated conditions known to be present in the tumor microenvironment were examined for their ability to cause exposure of anionic phospholipids in cultured endothelial cells, as judged by 9D2 and annexin V binding. (aacrjournals.org)
- Anionic phospholipids on tumor vessels could potentially provide markers for tumor vessel targeting and imaging. (aacrjournals.org)
- Anionic phospholipids are largely absent from the surface of resting mammalian cells under normal conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
- In the present study, we hypothesized that anionic phospholipids become exposed on tumor vasculature because of increased stress conditions of the tumor microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
- In addition to being emulsifiers, they can increase the delivery and efficacy of active ingredients on their own or as part of phospholipid liposomes. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- In addition, we find binding of charged nanoparticles to the outer surface of phospholipid liposomes produces particle-stabilized liposomes that repel one another and do not fuse. (illinois.edu)
- This work not only provides a robust nanoparticle-liposome complex system which possesses many potential biomedical and biotechnological applications, but also offers new understanding and scholarship on the physical and biological characteristics of phospholipid liposomes such as membrane stability, permeability, rigidity, and biofunctionality. (illinois.edu)
- As a result, the accessibility of the saccharide residues may be limited sterically when the phospholipid-saccharide conjugates are incorporated into liposomes. (google.com)
- Title: Herpes simplex viruses activate phospholipid scramblase to redistribute phosphatidylserines and Akt to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane and promote viral entry. (nih.gov)
- May mediate accelerated ATP-independent bidirectional transbilayer migration of phospholipids upon binding calcium ions that results in a loss of phospholipid asymmetry in the plasma membrane. (uniprot.org)
- Phospholipids, as components of plasma membrane, participate in this signalling system. (springer.com)
- What Is the Difference Between Phospholipids and Triglycerides? (livestrong.com)
- You may know a little about triglycerides if you've had blood work done to check your cholesterol and lipid levels, but you may not know too much about phospholipids. (livestrong.com)
- Peanuts contain both triglycerides and phospholipids. (livestrong.com)
- Interaction of phospholipid scramblase 1 with the Epstein-Barr virus protein BZLF1 represses BZLF1-mediated lytic gene transcription. (nih.gov)
- In this study, we demonstrate that purified MinD polymerizes into protein fibers upon incubation with ATP and phospholipids. (pnas.org)
- Once precipitation is complete, the sample is filtered through the Phree sorbent which selectively removes phospholipids, resulting in a protein and phospholipid free sample. (phenomenex.com)
- By following the same protocol as a protein precipitation, you can instantly improve your LC/MS/MS analysis by using Phree Phospholipid Removal 96-well plates and tubes. (phenomenex.com)
- Phospholipid transfer protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLTP gene . (wikidoc.org)
- The encoded protein transfers phospholipids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to high density lipoprotein (HDL). (wikidoc.org)
- Binding of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) to apolipoproteins A-I and A-II: location of a PLTP binding domain in the amino terminal region of apoA-I". J. Lipid Res . (wikidoc.org)
- Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) causes proteolytic cleavage of apolipoprotein A-I". J. Lipid Res . (wikidoc.org)
- The autoantibodies react with epitopes of protein molecules that associate noncovalently with reagent phospholipids. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Phospholipids aqueous solution structures. (shutterstock.com)
- The Na + ionophoretic capability of various purified phospholipids and the modulating effects of bile acids and phospatidylcholine was examined by: (a) measurement of 22 Na + partition into the organic phase (chloroform) of a two-phase system and (b) direct measurement of the translocation of 22 Na + across a bulk chloroform phase separating two aqueous phases in a Pressman cell. (wiley.com)
- One phospholipid that is both structural and functional is sphingomyelin, which forms the insulation that protects your nerves and facilitates the conduction of nerve impulses. (livestrong.com)
- 1976), our efforts have aimed at exploring whether serine phospholipids are involved in a system of intercellular communication. (springer.com)
- To establish a first messenger effect of serine phospholipids at least three criteria must be fulfilled: (a) the generation of lysoPtdSer upon cell damage, (b) the existence of binding sites for serine phospholipids in sensitive cells and (c) the functional response following the interaction of these compounds with the target cell. (springer.com)
- Bruni A, Toffano G (1985) Influence of serine phospholipids on biogenic amine secretion in vivo and in vitro. (springer.com)
- Because the phosphate group in the phospholipid is charged, it allows this lipid to mix with both fat and water, making it amphipathic. (livestrong.com)
- a phospholipid is produced when a triglyceride reacts with a phosphate group, eliminating a fatty acid and a phosphate group replaces the fatty acids position. (biology-online.org)
- We examined the associations of saturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids with circulating levels of adipokines among a Japanese population. (plos.org)
- Lecithin is likely the most common form of phospholipids, but the term "lecithin" can be rather confusing. (mdpi.com)
- Solgar`s Lecithin is a significant source of phospholipids. (bodykind.com)
- Below are reviews of Solgar Lecithin - Phospholipids - 250 x 1360mg Softgels by bodykind customers. (bodykind.com)
Class of phospholipids2
Classes of phospholipids1
- apart from fast, high resolution separations, it provides clear separation of lysophospholipids and triacylglycerides from other classes of phospholipids. (waters.com)
- Phospholipid hydrolysis provides substrates for cell-cell communication, enables regulation of hemostasis, immunity, thrombosis, and vascular inflammation, and is centrally important in cardiovascular disease and associated comorbidities. (jci.org)
- Overactivation of NMDA receptors is believed to induce neuronal death by increasing phospholipid hydrolysis and subsequent degradation. (jneurosci.org)
- Enzymatic hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by phospholipases produces these lipid second messengers, as well as soluble second messengers such as inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and also other molecules such as choline (Cho) that are released to the extracellular medium. (jneurosci.org)
- It is generally assumed that enzymatic hydrolysis of phospholipids leads to phospholipid degradation and membrane damage. (jneurosci.org)
Fatty acid composition5
- The liver microsomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation, the phospholipids extracted and separated into classes by silicic acid and aluminum oxide chromatography, and the fatty acid composition of each class determined by gas-liquid chromatography. (aacrjournals.org)
- The serum fatty acid composition in the phospholipid fraction was measured by gas-chromatography. (plos.org)
- The fatty acid composition of rat heart phospholipids was examined during the neonatal and postnatal period. (biomedsearch.com)
- The observed alterations in fatty acid composition of heart muscle phospholipids resemble changes induced by repeated administration of norepinephrine and subsequent recovery. (biomedsearch.com)
- Neonatal stress and increased cardiac function play an important role in the modification of the fatty acid composition of rat heart muscle phospholipids during early development. (biomedsearch.com)
- Like many other lipid-containing molecules, phospholipids can be broken down in your body and utilized for energy. (livestrong.com)
- Identification and characterization of the novel nuclease activity of human phospholipid scramblase 1. (nih.gov)
- The most commonly used phospholipid substrate is cardiolipin. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Phospholipids comprise an important class of biological molecules that serve both structural and functional roles in the human body. (livestrong.com)
- Since phospholipids perform active roles in skin, cosmetic formulators should be aware of their activity as well as know their formulation capabilities. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- Mouse models have shown important roles for inositol phospholipid signaling in lymphocytes. (frontiersin.org)
- Sphingosine Kinase: Assay and Product Analysis, Analytical Methods and Steps to Sample Preparation For Determination of Molecular Species of Fatty Acids, HPLC Analytical Methods for the Separation of Molecular Species of Fatty Acids In Diacylglycerol and Cellular Phospholipids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In addition, a study published in the June 2006 issue of 'Journal of Leukocyte Biology' demonstrated that phospholipids can be split by enzymes to form signaling molecules called chemokines, which are instrumental in regulating cellular migration, enzyme production and many other cellular processes. (livestrong.com)
- Phospholipids are a naturally-occurring class of compounds which have been shown to be involved in various cellular functions. (google.com)
- So does taking in extra phospholipids have benefits to cellular function and all the other things I mentioned like glucose tolerance? (rxmuscle.com)
- Due to the presence of two such dissimilar appendages on the same compound, chemists call phospholipids 'amphipathic,' a property that is essential for the continued existence of every cell in your body. (livestrong.com)
- The structures in the phospholipids are the building blocks for the parts of the membrane that this type of lipid helps to create. (reference.com)
- According to scientists at the City University of New York, phospholipids can form a variety of structures when they are suspended in water. (livestrong.com)
- In the Phospholipid and Membrane Transport Kit for biology and life science, explore the chemical structures of a phospholipid and then use that knowledge to construct a phospholipid monolayer. (flinnsci.com)
- The term phospholipid antibody is actually a misnomer. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Oil chemists often use spectroscopy to determine total Phosphorus abundance and then calculate approximate mass of phospholipids based on molecular weight of expected fatty acid species. (wikipedia.org)
- Autoantibodies can also be detected by the use of functional, phospholipid-dependent coagulation assays. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
- Additional protocols are provided for the assay of phosphoinositide 3-, 4-, and 5-kinase activities and for the separation and identification of phospholipids, diacylglycerol and sphingolipids, as well as their phosphoinositol, choline and fatty acid metabolites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- DAB administration resulted in no change in the total phospholipid content or proportion of any of the phospholipid classes in the microsomes, but in rats on the fat-free diet did produce an increased percentage of oleic acid and decreased stearic acid in the choline-containing phospholipids, particularly in the lecithins. (aacrjournals.org)
- More recently and independent of the present investigation, low cord-blood content of choline-containing phospholipids (PLs) was associated with progression to diabetes ( 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The reorientation of a magnetic nickel nanorod placed at the air/phospholipid interface is used to calculate the surface viscosity of spread monolayers of phospholipids, dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DMPE). (aiche.org)
- In contrast, NMDA strongly reduced the incorporation of [ 3 H]choline and [ 3 H]ethanolamine into their respective phospholipids. (jneurosci.org)
- PE is predominately on the internal leaflet, whereas the choline-containing phospholipids, PC and SM, are predominantly on the external leaflet. (aacrjournals.org)
- Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. (mdpi.com)
- Phospholipid methylation in murine T lymphocytes but not B cells was stimulated by mitogenic lectins such as concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin, and the methylation was then returned to the control level by the concomitant activation of phospholipase A2. (pnas.org)
- Phospholipids in innate cells are subject to dynamic regulation by enzymes, whose activities are highly responsive to activation status. (jci.org)
- Phospholipids themselves are also recognized by innate-like T cells, which are considered essential for recognition of infection or cancer, as well as self-antigens. (jci.org)
- Their unique composition allows phospholipids to form isolated 'envelopes' within the watery environment of your body, and they can be used by your cells as raw material for other essential processes. (livestrong.com)
- During differentiation, the phospholipids break down into free fatty acids to help build the "mortar" that holds the cells (corneocytes) in the SC together. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- It is known that phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOH) build up in the red blood cells (RBCs) of dementia patients. (rainbow.coop)
- These two phospholipids, either as components of a damaged membrane (Ptd Ser) or as free monomers in solution (lysoPtdSer) may reach responsive cells signalling that adjustment or repair is requested. (springer.com)
- NK cells from mice with deletion in different members of the inositol phospholipid signaling pathway exhibit defects in development, NK cell repertoire expression and effector function. (frontiersin.org)
- CLRB ) is developing phospholipid drug conjugates (PDCs) designed to provide cancer targeted delivery of diverse oncologic payloads to a broad range of cancers and cancer stem cells. (biospace.com)
- Normal Astaxanthin is limited by low absorption, however Life Extension® blended 4 mg of natural astaxanthin with a proprietary blend of 80 mg of four phospholipids in its Astaxanthin with Phospholipids to facilitate maximum absorption of astaxanthin into the bloodstream, where it's transported to cells throughout the body. (victoriahealth.com)
- The phospholipids are amphiphilic. (wikipedia.org)
- Here we review the current state of knowledge concerning the function of inositol phospholipid signaling components in NK cell biology. (frontiersin.org)
- Soon after Bretscher had launched this 'revolutionary' idea, Zwaal and coworkers were able, not only to confirm Bretscher's observations, but also to complete the picture of the asymmetric distribution of the phospholipids in the human red cell membrane by using various highly purified phospholipases (see Refs. (springer.com)
- These specific properties allow phospholipids to play an important role in the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- Phospholipid scramblase 1 as a critical node at the crossroad between autophagy and apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma. (nih.gov)
- The phospholipids are not forced too closely together, which means that the membrane is not rigid, which is what gives the cell the ' wobbly ' effect we are taught in our early years of education. (everything2.com)
- However, the phospholipid membrane does allows small -- albeit important -- molecules to pass into and out of the cell, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. (livestrong.com)
- Metabolic indices, comprised of individual or grouped metabolites, were calculated to further compare and contrast metabolites and to provide pathway-specific metabolic interrelations for each set of phospholipids from cornea and sclera. (arvojournals.org)