Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC 2.7.8.8.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC 2.7.8.2.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.
The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Activated form of factor V. It is an essential cofactor for the activation of prothrombin catalyzed by factor Xa.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate from glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 5.5.1.4.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC 2.7.7.15.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.

Characterization and expression of the cDNA encoding a new kind of phospholipid transfer protein, the phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylinositol transfer protein from Aspergillus oryzae: evidence of a putative membrane targeted phospholipid transfer protein in fungi. (1/11419)

The full-length cDNA of a phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) was isolated from Aspergillus oryzae by a RACE-PCR procedure using degenerated primer pool selected from the N-terminal sequence of the purified phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylglycerol transfer protein (PG/PI-TP). The cDNA encodes a 173 amino acid protein of 18823 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence from position 38 to 67 is 100% identical to the N-terminal sequence (first 30 amino acids) of the purified PG/PI-TP. This amino acid sequence is preceded by a leader peptide of 37 amino acids which is predicted to be composed of a signal peptide of 21 amino acids followed by an extra-sequence of 16 amino acids, or a membrane anchor protein signal (amino acid 5-29). This strongly suggests that the PG/PI-TP is a targeted protein. The deduced mature protein is 138 amino acids long with a predicted molecular mass of 14933 Da. Comparison of the deduced PG/PI-TP sequence with other polypeptide sequences available in databases revealed a homology with a protein deduced from an open reading frame coding for an unknown protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (36% identity and 57% similarity). Apart from this homology, the PG/PI-TP is unique and specific to the filamentous fungi on the basis of comparison of PLTP protein sequences. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from A. oryzae cultures grown on glucose or glucose supplemented with phospholipids suggests that the PG/PI-TP is transcribed by only one RNA species and allows us to show that expression of the protein is regulated at the messenger RNA level.  (+info)

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (2/11419)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Relocating the active site of activated protein C eliminates the need for its protein S cofactor. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer study. (3/11419)

The effect of replacing the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain of activated protein C (APC) with that of prothrombin on the topography of the membrane-bound enzyme was examined using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The average distance of closest approach (assuming kappa2 = 2/3) between a fluorescein in the active site of the chimera and octadecylrhodamine at the membrane surface was 89 A, compared with 94 A for wild-type APC. The gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain substitution therefore lowered and/or reoriented the active site, repositioning it close to the 84 A observed for the APC. protein S complex. Protein S enhances wild-type APC cleavage of factor Va at Arg306, but the inactivation rate of factor Va Leiden by the chimera alone is essentially equal to that by wild-type APC plus protein S. These data suggest that the activities of the chimera and of the APC.protein S complex are equivalent because the active site of the chimeric protein is already positioned near the optimal location above the membrane surface to cleave Arg306. Thus, one mechanism by which protein S regulates APC activity is by relocating its active site to the proper position above the membrane surface to optimize factor Va cleavage.  (+info)

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (4/11419)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

Efficient binding of regulated secretory protein aggregates to membrane phospholipids at acidic pH. (5/11419)

Some regulated secretory proteins are thought to be targeted to secretory granules through an acidic-dependent aggregation in the trans-Golgi network. In this report we use pancreatic zymogens, a paradigm of regulated proteins, to test this hypothesis, because they qualitatively aggregate upon acidification in vitro. Pig zymogens were found to start to aggregate significantly at pH approximately 6.0, a pH slightly lower than that at which rat zymogens aggregate, but still compatible with the pH of the cell-sorting compartments. When pig zymogen granule membranes were mixed with the zymogens in the aggregation assay, membranes that normally floated on 1 M sucrose were observed to be pelleted by the aggregating zymogens. Rat membranes were pelleted by pig zymogens and vice versa. Igs, typical constitutively secreted proteins, which needed chemical cross-linking to serve as an aggregated protein control, pelleted membranes almost independently of pH. Corresponding cross-linked zymogen-binding ability and pH dependence was unaffected by the chemical modification. Membranes treated with sodium carbonate, pH 11, or with protease K, were still pelleted by zymogens, suggesting that the aggregated zymogens bound to membrane lipids. This hypothesis was confirmed by the efficient pelleting of unilamellar vesicles composed of granule membrane lipids. Vesicles composed of single classes of phospholipids were also pelleted, but with various efficacies. We conclude that pancreatic zymogen aggregates, formed under the acidic conditions of the secretory pathway sorting compartments, have the capacity to bind firmly to membranes through their phospholipid constituents.  (+info)

The Npc1 mutation causes an altered expression of caveolin-1, annexin II and protein kinases and phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and annexin II in murine livers. (6/11419)

We have previously demonstrated (1) an increased expression of caveolin-1 in murine heterozygous and homozygous Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) livers, and (2) an increased concentration of unesterified cholesterol in a detergent insoluble caveolae-enriched fraction from homozygous livers. To define further the relationship between caveolin-1 function and the cholesterol trafficking defect in NPC, we examined the expression and distribution of additional caveolar and signal transduction proteins. The expression of annexin II was significantly increased in homozygous liver homogenates and the Triton X-100 insoluble floating fraction (TIFF). Phosphoamino acid analysis of caveolin-1 and annexin II from the homozygous TIFF demonstrated an increase in serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, respectively. To determine the basis for increased phosphorylation of these proteins, the expression and distribution of several protein kinases was examined. The expression of PKCalpha, PKCzeta and pp60-src (protein kinases) were significantly increased in both heterozygous and homozygous liver homogenates, while PKCdelta was increased only in homozygous livers. Of the protein kinases analyzed, only CK IIalpha was significantly enriched in the heterozygous TIFF. Finally, the concentration of diacylglycerol in the homozygous TIFF was significantly increased and this elevation may modulate PKC distribution and function. These results provide additional evidence for involvement of a caveolin-1 containing cellular fraction in the pathophysiology of NPC and also suggest that the Npc1 gene product may directly or indirectly, regulate the expression and distribution of signaling molecules.  (+info)

Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (7/11419)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

Platelet high affinity low density lipoprotein binding and import of lipoprotein derived phospholipids. (8/11419)

The binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the platelet cell membrane could facilitate the transfer of phospholipids from LDL to the platelets. A polyclonal antibody against the platelet glycoproteins IIb/IIIa inhibited the high affinity binding of 125I-LDL by up to 80%. The transfer of pyrene (py)-labeled sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from LDL to the platelets was unaffected by the antibody. The lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reduced the binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by approximately 80%. In contrast, the lectin stimulated the transfer of SM from LDL into the platelets by about three-fold. WGA also specifically augmented the transfer of py-SM between lipid vesicles and the platelets, the stimulation being abolished in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine. Dextran sulfate (DS) increased the specific binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by up to 2.8-fold. On the other hand, the import of LDL-derived py-phospholipids was unaffected by DS. Together, the results indicate that the phospholipid transfer from LDL to the platelets is independent of the high affinity LDL binding to the platelets and is specifically stimulated by WGA. Thus, the interactions of platelets with LDL phospholipids differ markedly from those with the apoprotein components of the lipoproteins.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Incorporation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid into various bacterial phospholipids. AU - Watanabe, Kazuo. AU - Ishikawa, Chikako. AU - Inoue, Hitomi. AU - Cenhua, Deng. AU - Yazawa, Kazunaga. AU - Kondo, Kiyosi. PY - 1994/3. Y1 - 1994/3. N2 - Incorporation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into bacterial phospholipids was examined as a method for DHA-linked phospholipid production. The cultivation of 23 bacterial strains in medium with DHA showed that an eicosapentaenoic acid-producing bacterium Shewanella sp. strain SCRC-2738 (strain SCRC-2738), Bacillus subtilis W23, B. cereus, an Antarctic marine bacterium strain S-7 (strain S-7), photosynthesis bacterium (PSB) Rhodopseudomonas capsulatus utilized for the production of larval marine fish, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli K12 all incorporated DHA into their polar lipids. The polar lipids of the strain SCRC-2738, strain S-7, PSB and E. coli K12 were identified to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina. AU - Lin, D. S.. AU - Anderson, Gregory. AU - Connor, W. E.. AU - Neuringer, Martha. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Purpose. To characterize the molecular species composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EGP) in the primate retina and to examine the effects of different dietary fats, the authors fed rhesus monkeys diets containing widely ranging amounts of n-3 fatty acids. Methods. From birth, infant monkeys were fed either a control soybean oil diet, containing 8% of total fatty acids as 18:3(n-3), or a safflower oil-based n-3 fatty acid deficient diet containing AB - Purpose. To characterize the molecular species composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EGP) in the primate retina and to examine the effects of different dietary fats, the authors fed rhesus monkeys diets containing widely ranging amounts of n-3 fatty acids. Methods. From birth, infant monkeys were fed ...
Physiological pregnancy is associated with an increase in lipids from the first to the third trimester. This is a highly regulated response to satisfy energy and membrane demands of the developing fetus. Pregnancy disorders, such as pre-eclampsia, are associated with a dysregulation of lipid metabolism manifesting in increased maternal plasma lipid levels. In fetal placental tissue, only scarce information on the lipid profile is available, and data for gestational diseases are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the placental lipid content in control versus pre-eclamptic samples, with the focus on tissue phospholipid levels and composition. We found an increase in total phospholipid content as well as changes in individual phospholipid classes in pre-eclamptic placental tissues compared to controls. These alterations could be a source of placental pathological changes in pre-eclampsia, such as lipid peroxide insult or dysregulation of lipid transport across the syncytiotrophoblast.
Studies of dietary ω-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer risk are inconsistent; however, recent large prospective studies have found increased risk of prostate cancer among men with high blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([LCω-3PUFA] 20:5ω3; 22:5ω3; 22:6ω3]. This case-cohort study examines associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and prostate cancer risk among participants in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial.. ...
Membrane bound phospholipids require a distinct fatty acid composition. This is achieved through the deacylation-reacylation cycle that involves the breakdown of the parent phospholipid to a fatty acid and its lysophospholipid derivative by a phospholipase A activity. Subsequently, phospholipids are resynthesized through the action of an acyltransferase that attaches acyl-Coenzyme A thioesters to the lysophospholipid. This cycle must be carefully regulated so that the correct fatty acid composition of the phospholipids are maintained, otherwise the normal functioning of the membrane and membrane bound enzymes could be jeopardized. Thyroid hormones have profound effects on the heart. Since it is established that thyroid hormones regulate many lipid metabolizing enzymes, it is possible that the deacylation-reacylation cycle of certain phospholipids may also be regulated by thyroid hormones. The effect of a thyroid condition on phospholipid fatty acid metabolism was examined in isolated rat hearts ...
Oil palm calyx is a solid waste in the oil palm industry which is yet to find economic usage. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of recovering phospholipids from the oil palm calyx. Preliminary functional property of calyx phospholipids was determined using emulsion stability. Results indicated that oil palm calyx had 14% total lipids when extracted with methanol and 62.3% of lipids were acetone insoluble lipids (phospholipids). Methanol extracted phospholipids showed that the highest concentration of total phospholipids (1971 mg/L) with phosphatidylcholine (PC) have been the predominant phospholipid. The calyx phospholipids stabilized oil in water emulsion at 2% concentration. The study serves as a foundation on the positive usage of oil palm calyx in producing industrial phospholipids. Key words: Oil palm, lecithin, phospholipids, waste, palm calyx oil.
1. The [32P]phosphate incorporated into the phospholipids of isolated rat hepatic cells is present in phosphatidic acid and to a smaller extent in phosphatidylinositol. 2. The ability to synthesize nitrogen-containing phospholipids is restored by adding a liver supernatant fraction, and it is suggested that the metabolic deficiency is caused by the leakage of cytoplasmic enzymes of the synthetase system from the cells. 3. Fortified cell preparations were pulse-labelled with [32P]phosphate, [Me-14C]choline, [2-14C]ethanolamine and [U-14C]inositol and the subsequent fate of the labelled microsomal and mitochondrial phospholipids followed. 4. A fall in the specific radioactivity of microsomal phospholipids and a rise in that of mitochondrial phospholipids is interpreted as providing evidence of a transfer of labelled phospholipid molecules from the synthetic site (endoplasmic reticulum) to the mitochondrial membranes in the intact cells. 5. The formation of the phospholipids of mitochondrial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phospholipid fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation of duck spermatozoa. AU - Surai, PF. AU - Brillard, JP. AU - Speake, BK. AU - Blesbois, E. AU - Seigeurin, F. AU - Sparks, NHC. N1 - 643019. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. KW - Acid. KW - Composition. KW - Content. KW - Fatty. KW - Fatty Acid. KW - Lipid. KW - Lipid Peroxidation. KW - Peroxidation. KW - Phospholipid. KW - Spermatozoa. KW - Susceptibility. KW - Vitamin. KW - Vitamin E. M3 - Article. VL - 53. SP - 1025. EP - 1039. JO - Theriogenology. JF - Theriogenology. SN - 0093-691X. ER - ...
This study was performed to determine the early and delayed metabolic effects of myocardial ischemia on the major membrane phospholipids and to reassess the potential role of lysophospholipids in the genesis of malignant dysrhythmias induced by ischemia. Samples taken from in situ hearts before ant at various intervals up to 40 minutes after abrupt ligation of LAD were extracted by the classical Folch technique with modifications to avoid artifactual lysophospholipid production and losses. Following thin layer chromatography of lipid extracts, phospholipid fractions were quantified by phosphorus estimation and lysophospholipids by a more sensitive method employing gas liquid chromatography. The total phospholipid content with the exception of lysophospholipids remained essentially constant throughout the early phases of acute ischemia, but fell by 6 and 14% after 8 and 24 ours, respectively. At 8 minutes, lysophospholipid levels n ischemic myocardium were significantly increased by 60% compared ...
In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: Section 1 presents an overview of the relationship between structures and biological activities (pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory) of several phospholipids with respect to inflammation. Sections 2 and 3 are dedicated to the structures, functions, compositions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. To date, there is very limited work published on meat phospholipids, undoubtedly due to the negative perception that meat consumption is an unhealthy option because of its putative associations with several chronic diseases. These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. ...
How deep can drugs penetrate into your skin?. We presented our new skin penetration study with saturated phospholipids at the 11th PBP world meeting, on 22 March, 2018 in Granada.. The Phospholipid Research Center and Lipoid GmbH tracked topically applied phospholipids among other skin lipids - with the help of Lipotype lipidomics.. Many dermatological products contain phospholipids whose properties change with their saturation. Saturated lipids are gel-like at body temperature, while unsaturated lipids are more liquid. This influences drug delivery and interactions with skin.. Download poster (PDF) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary manipulation of macrophage phospholipid classes. T2 - Selective increase of dihomogammalinolenic acid. AU - Chapkin, Robert S.. AU - Somers, Scott D.. AU - Erickson, Kent L. PY - 1988/8. Y1 - 1988/8. N2 - Because alterations in the dietary content of fatty acids are an important method for modulating macrophage eicosanoid production, we have quantitated the levels of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peritoneal macrophage individual phospholipids from mice fed diets (3 wk) with either safflower oil (SAF), predominantly containing 18:2n-6, borage (BOR) containing 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6, fish (MFO) containing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and borage/fish mixture (MIX) containing 18:2n-6, 18:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Dietary n-3 fattya cids were readily incorporated into macrophage phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI). The increase in n-3 fatty acid levels was accompanied by a decrease in the absolute ...
SUMMARY: The metabolism of phospholipids in Vibrio costicola, a moderately halophilic bacterium, has been investigated in relation to sudden changes in salinity. Both the absqlute and relative rates of biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine depend on the salt concentration of the medium; a sudden rise in salt concentration ha? an instantaneous inhibitory effect on phospholipid biosynthesis, but this inhibition lessens as, the bacteria adapt to the higher salinity. There is no turnover of phospholipids during isotonic growth, nor when the salt concentration is suddenly altered. The alterations in biosynthetic rates of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine that occur after sudden changes in salt concentration are consistent with the known compositional changes. We conclude that the mechanisms of changes in phospholipid composition during adaptation to raised or lowered salt concentrations are not necessarily the same.
The FA composition of skeletal muscle phospholipids is altered in both humans (2, 3, 27) and rats (24, 32, 44) after chronic (≥4 wk) exercise training. Here we provide novel data describing the effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species profile using ESI-MS. This investigation characterized relative changes in the phospholipid profile of both oxidative (RVL) and glycolytic (WVL) muscle fibers with low and high-intensity exercise training. We have also characterized, for the first time, differences in the profile of phospholipid molecular species between these two muscle fiber types.. Previous studies have reported that long-chain n-3 PUFAs are higher in the insulin-sensitive type I and type IIa fibers (32) and that type I fibers have a preference for stearic acid (18:0) over palmitic acid (16:0) (7, 17). The results of the present study reveal that these differences are also manifest in whole phospholipid PA and PE species (Table 3). Even though the ...
Read Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Sarcolipin Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimers disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients with Alzheimers disease. Thirty-four drug-naive patients with mild Alzheimers disease (Mini Mental State Examination score ≥20) were enrolled in this exploratory, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Before and after 4-week intervention with Souvenaid or an isocaloric control product, phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed to assess surrogate measures of phospholipid synthesis and breakdown (phosphomonoesters [PME] and phosphodiesters [PDEs]), neural integrity (N-acetyl aspartate), gliosis (myo-inositol), and choline metabolism (choline-containing compounds [tCho]). The main outcome parameters were PME and PDE signal intensities and the PME/PDE ratio. MRS data from 33
The last several years have been witness to significant developments in understanding transcriptional regulation of the yeast phospholipid structural genes. The response of most phospholipid structural genes to inositol is now understood on a mechanistic level. The roles of specific activators and repressors are also well established. The knowledge of specific regulatory factors that bind the promoters of phospholipid structural genes serves as a foundation for understanding the role of chromatin modification complexes. Collectively, these findings present a complex picture for transcriptional regulation of the phospholipid biosynthetic genes. The INO1 gene is an ideal example of the complexity of transcriptional control and continues to serve as a model for studying transcription in general. Furthermore, transcription of the regulatory genes is also subject to complex and essential regulation. In addition, databases resulting from a plethora of genome-wide studies have identified regulatory ...
In in vitro binding assays, D6PK could bind to polyacidic PIs and PtdOH in a K-rich motif-dependent manner. In vivo manipulation of PI or PtdOH metabolism led to the intracellular accumulation of YFP:D6PK and impaired its polar plasma membrane distribution but only manipulation of PtdIns4P synthesis affected YFP:D6PK solubility. At the same time, K-rich motif mutations in D6PK led to increased solubilization of the protein. This suggests that the intact K-rich domain is required for interactions with polyacidic phospholipids in different membranes and that the specific phospholipid composition in a given membrane might determine D6PK recruitment to different membranes. The D6PK interaction with multiple polyacidic phospholipids through ionic interactions resembles previously reported mechanisms for protein-phospholipid ionic interactions and is distinct from interactions mediated between phospholipids and globular protein domains (Hammond and Balla, 2015; Li et al., 2014).. PtdOH biosensors have ...
Several groups of mature male rats were maintained for 4 months on fat-free, hydrogenated coconut oil- or safflower oil-containing diets with or without 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB). Gross examination of liver sections revealed no evidence of tumors in any of the groups. The liver microsomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation, the phospholipids extracted and separated into classes by silicic acid and aluminum oxide chromatography, and the fatty acid composition of each class determined by gas-liquid chromatography.. The various experimental diets produced marked differences in the fatty acid compositions of all the microsomal phospholipid classes. DAB administration resulted in no change in the total phospholipid content or proportion of any of the phospholipid classes in the microsomes, but in rats on the fat-free diet did produce an increased percentage of oleic acid and decreased stearic acid in the choline-containing phospholipids, particularly in the lecithins. A similar pattern was ...
A modified RP-HPLC-MS approach has been proposed for a single run separation and identification of the molecular species of different phospholipid classes in a complex extract. This approach has been applied to the analysis of glycero- and sphingolipid composition of human erythrocytes and a number of ceramide fractions have been identified; these fractions was missed in previous studies employing similar methods. The fine experimental design leads to the decrease in the number of procedures needed for a complete phospholipid profiling of the sample ...
MCLIP : The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are formed from phospholipids. Anionic phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylserine) are found on the cytoplasmic surface and neutral phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylcholine) predominate on the external surface. Membrane phospholipids participate in several important cellular functions including exchanging metabolites across membranes, transferring molecular signals and serving as a platform for the assembly of protein-lipid complexes.(1) Cellular activation is often accompanied by the translocation of anionic phospholipids to the external membrane surface. For example, during platelet-mediated blood coagulation, phosphatidylserine is translocated from the inner platelet membrane and provides a surface for the assembly of the prothrombinase enzyme complex that catalyzes the formation of thrombin.   Complexes of negatively charged (anionic) phospholipids and endogenous plasma proteins provide epitopes recognized by natural autoantibodies.(2) Plasma from
Dietary fatty acids (FA) are the major determinants of blood lipids, and measurements of plasma phospholipid FA (PL-FA) composition that reflect the dietary intake of FA may provide insights into the relationships between diet and CHD. We assessed CHD mortality associations with PL-FA (SFA, PUFA and MUFA) levels measured in a nested case-control study of 116 cases of CHD death and 239 controls that were frequency-matched for age and employment grade. The participants had plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol, apo B and apo A1, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen recorded. SFA levels were significantly positively correlated with total cholesterol, LDL-C, apo B, CRP protein and fibrinogen. By contrast, phospholipid-PUFA were inversely associated with CRP, but not with any of the lipids. A higher SFA content (top v. bottom quarter) was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of CHD (OR and 95 % CI: OR 2.12; 95 % CI: 1.13, 3.99), and an equivalent difference in PUFA
This two day event was organized for the third time by the Phospholipid Research Center Heidelberg. The symposium was held at the University of Heidelberg (facilities provided by Prof. Gert Fricker) and visited by 170 scientists from academia, pharmaceutical industry, authorities etc. from all over the world. Sixty posters and sixteen lectures were presented. This year event started with lectures on the physico-chemical properties of phospholipids, followed by a systemic review of the administration route specific use of phospholipid. The second day of the event was devoted to the latest advances in application of phospholipids, followed by a session on the future use of phospholipids comprising oral presentations of selected posters, and a lecture on the appreciation of liposomes as nanotechnology. The symposium was concluded with an award ceremony of the three best posters.. Keywords: Phospholipids, Excipients, Drug Delivery, Nanotechnology. The symposium was opened on September 16, 2013 by ...
The effects of low concentrations of cholesterol in mixtures of a negatively charged phospholipid (phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol) and another phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin or phosphatidylethanolamine) have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Only mixtures which showed a gel phase miscibility gap have been employed. It was demonstrated that in mixtures with ... read more phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol was preferentially associated with the negatively charged phospholipid, regardless whether this species represented the component with the high or with the low transition temperature in the mixture. In mixtures of a negatively charged phospholipid and phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol associated with the negatively charged phospholipid; when the phosphatidylcholine was the species with the low transition temperature, cholesterol had an affinity for the phosphatidylcholine and for the negatively charged phospholipid as well. Cholesterol, in a ...
Analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to assess variation in community structure and total microbial biomass in two boreal peatlands in Sweden, The total PLFA concentration in peat ranged from 0.16 to 7.0 nmol g of wet peat(-1) L (median. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acid-soluble precursors and derivatives of phospholipids increase after stimulation of quiescent swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with serum. AU - Warden, Craig H. AU - Friedkin, M.. AU - Geiger, P. J.. PY - 1980/5/30. Y1 - 1980/5/30. N2 - Automated phosphate analysis of acid-soluble pools of phosphate esters was employed to reveal possible biochemical changes during the transition of Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblasts from quiescence to active replication of DNA. After 12 hours of stimulation with 10% fetal bovine serum the most notable were 3-fold increases in pools of phospholipid precursors and derivatives. These included glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine. Concurrent but less dramatic increases in pools of ATP, CTP and fructose 1,6-diphosphate were also obtained.. AB - Automated phosphate analysis of acid-soluble pools of phosphate esters was employed to reveal possible biochemical changes during the transition of Swiss 3T3 mouse ...
The current studies demonstrate that in both ECs and macrophages, ox-PAPC inhibits the ability of bacterial lipids that target TLR4 and TLR2 to increase synthesis of chemokines. Furthermore, we identify KOdiA-PC and POVPC as the major, specific phospholipids in ox-PAPC responsible for this inhibition.. Our studies addressed the mechanism of this inhibition and concluded that the inhibition of LPS action by ox-PAPC in these cell types was mediated by effects at the cellular level. This conclusion was based on the observation that pretreatment of cells with ox-PAPC followed by exposure to LPS was as effective as cotreatment to inhibit LPS action (Figure 3). To determine the cellular target of ox-PAPC inhibition, we first examined the effect of ox-PAPC on intracellular signaling from MyD88 to NF-κB activation. Our results indicate that ox-PAPC does not inhibit the pathway from MyD88 to NF-κB activation (Figures 2B and 2C), because no effect on IL-1β action, which shares this pathway, was ...
The effect of low-salt diet on phospholipid composition and remodeling was examined in rat colon which represents a mineralocorticoid target tissue. To elucidate this question, male Wistar rats were fed a low-salt diet and drank distilled water (LS, low-salt group) or saline instead of water (HS, high-salt group) for 12 days before the phospholipid concentration and fatty acid composition of isolated colonocytes were examined. The dietary regimens significantly influenced the plasma concentration of aldosterone which was high in LS group and almost zero in HS group. Plasma concentration of corticosterone was unchanged. When expressed in terms of cellular protein content, a significantly higher concentration of phospholipids was found in LS group, with the exception of sphingomyelin (SM) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) accounted for more than 70% of total phospholipids in both groups. A comparison of phospholipid distribution in LS and HS ...
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In yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), the expression of genes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis is regulated by a mechanism that responds Phospholipids are major constituents of the membranes that separate cells from their environment and compartmentalize eukaryotic cells into functional units. This pathway is carried out in different ways in animals than in many other organisms, making the pathway a common target for antibiotics and other anti-infective drugs. Biosynthesis of Fatty acid. Outreach. endstream In human joints phospholipids (PLs) are produced and released by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The synthesis pathway starts by reducing dihydroxyacetone phosphate Phospholipids are secreted into the bile to aid in the digestion and absorption of dietary fat. The substrates for lipid mediator biosynthesis are derived primarily from membrane phospholipids and reflect dietary fatty acid intake. notes to the book perfect health diet perfect health diet. ), 2.5% pro- tein fraction and ...
The influence of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE) on the NO-synthase way of NO generation and phospholipids composition of erythrocyte membranes of rats with streptozotocine-induced diabetes has been studied. It has been shown that the activation of iNOS activity, cNOS activity inhibition and increase of the stable NO metabolites content takes place in the red blood cells (RBC) of diabetic rats. The alterations were also found in the RBC membrane phospholipid content: a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomieline content and increase of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine lysoforms level. The NSE suspension administration (50 mg/kg of body weight) to diabetic rats (3 months after the diabetes induction) resulted in iNOS activity inhibition, recove-ring of cNOS activity and normalization of NO stable metabolites level in RBC. The decrease of phospholipids lysoform levels, normalization of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine ...
Phospholipids are one of the major structural elements of biological membranes. Due to their amphiphilic character, they can adopt various molecular assemblies when dispersed in water, such as bilayer vesicles or micelles, which give them unique interfacial properties and render them very attractive in terms of foam or emulsion stabilization. This article aims at reviewing the properties of phospholipids at the air/water and oil/water interfaces, as well as the recent advances in using these natural components as stabilizers, alone or in combination with other compounds such as proteins. A discussion regarding the challenges and opportunities offered by phospholipids-stabilized structure concludes the review.
In most eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycerophospholipids are the main membrane lipid constituents. Besides serving as general membrane building blocks, glycerophospholipids play an important role in determining the physical properties of the membrane, which are crucial for proper membrane function. To ensure optimal physical properties, membrane glycerophospholipid composition and synthesis ... read more are tightly regulated. This review will summarize our current knowledge of factors and processes determining the membrane glycerophospholipid composition of the reference eukaryote S. cerevisiae at the level of molecular species. Extrapolating from relevant model membrane data, we also discuss how modulation of the molecular species composition can regulate membrane physical properties. show less ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biostability and biocompatibility of a surface-grafted phospholipid monolayer on a solid substrate. AU - Kim, Kwangmeyung. AU - Kim, Chulhee. AU - Byun, Youngro. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - We have previously demonstrated phosphorylcholine monolayer chemically grafted onto a methacryloyl-terminated solid substrate by in situ polymerization. The in situ polymerization was carried out at the interface between a pre-assembled acrylated phospholipid monolayer produced by vesicle fusion and a methacryloyl-terminated substrate using a water-soluble initiator, 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPD). Herein, we examined the biostability and biocompatibility of a surface-grafted phospholipid monolayer (poly-PC) on a methacryloyl-terminated substrate using a wash off test, in vitro protein adsorption and in vivo cage implantation for time intervals of 4, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. In order to compare the biostability and biocompatibility of phospholipid ...
These amphiphilic lipids insert in cell membranes and form into a sheet two molecules thick with the fat-soluble portions inside, shielded on both sides by the water-soluble portions. Chem. Lipogenesis is the process of synthesizing these fats. Gurunanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Sc. A phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule which means it has both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic component. Phospholipid synthesis occurs in the cytosolic side of ER membrane that is studded with proteins that act in synthesis (GPAT and LPAAT acyl transferases, phosphatase and choline phosphotransferase) and allocation (flippase and floppase). A single phospholipid molecule has a phosphate group on one end, called the head, and two side-by-side chains of fatty acids that make up the lipid tails. Synthesis of phospholipids in M. buryatense 5G(B1) appears to follow the E. coli paradigm where a phosphatidic acid precursor is synthesized from glycerol 3-phosphate and FA precursors (Yao and Rock, 2012). This stable ...
Previous studies have shown that amine groups are ototoxic. The interaction between different polyamines and phospholipid vesicles was studied using vesicle aggregation and fluorescence techniques (DPH and ANS as the fluorescence probes). The results showed that the interaction between polyamines (spermine, spermidine and 1,3-diaminopropane) and acidic phospholipids (PS, PE, PI and PIP2) is an ionic one. The polyamine with the highest positive charges and the phospholipid with the highest content of negative groups showed the strongest ionic interaction. There was no indication of any hydrophobic interaction within the phospholipid bilayer. The strong interaction between amine groups and PIP2 support the proposal that the latter is crucially involved in aminoglycoside toxicity in the inner ear and kidney.
Inquiry For [email protected] http://www.marketnreports.com/inquiry-for-buying.html?repid=27798. About Phospholipids Industry. The overviews, SWOT analysis and strategies of each vendor in the Phospholipids market provide understanding about the market forces and how those can be exploited to create future opportunities. The Phospholipids market comprises series of reputed vendors, organizations, manufacturer, and firms. The global market report gives a scrupulous summary of the common competitors who hold major places in terms of demand, revenue, and sales through their post-sale procedures, reliable services, and products. The Phospholipids market report provides a systematic examination of the primary boosters that are identified based on restraining elements, end user demands, regulatory compliance, and variable market changes.. The Phospholipids market report also offers thorough predictions based on current business fashions and analytical techniques. The segments (Phosphatidylserine, ...
The lactose carrier was extracted from membranes of Escherichia coliand transport activity reconstituted in proteoliposomes containing different phospholipids. Two different assays f for carrier...
Phospholipids are lipid molecules which have a phosphate group attached. They are highly abundant in cell membranes, where they form a lipid bilayer, due to the amphiphatic nature of their hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails[1]. The majority of atoms in the hydrophobic tails are nonpolar and have no charge, this is what makes them insoluble when dissolved in water. However, the hydrophilic heads are soluble in water due to the presence of either charged groups which are electrostatically attracted to the water molecules, or polar groups which enable hydrogen bonds to be form between the heads and the water molecules[2]. The most common constituent of any lipid bilayer making up a cell membrane is the phospholipid. Phospholipids are amphiphilic. They have a polar head and two hydrocarbon tails, which are nonpolar. The phospholipids that make up the cell membranes of plants, bacterial or animal cells often have fatty acids tails. Of these two fatty acid tails one is unsaturated (contains ...
The most common constituent of any lipid bilayer making up a cell membrane is the phospholipid. Phospholipids are amphiphilic. They have a polar head and two hydrocarbon tails, which are nonpolar. The phosopholipids that make up the cell membranes of plant, bacterial or animal cells often have fatty acids tails. Of these two fatty acid tails one is unsaturated (contains double bonds) and the other is saturated. This difference causes variation in the length of the tails and thus alters the fluidity of the membrane [3]. The chemical make up of the tails can differ. This means that there are many different phospholipids that can make up a cell membrane. The main type found in mammalian cells are phosphoglycerides such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine. These differ in the fact that they have choline, serine and ethanolamine (respectively) attatched to their phosphate groups. phosphatidylserine is the only one that carries a negative chage and all the other ...
Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds to isoprenoid lateral chains. Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by extension, of all cellular membranes) was enigmatic and called for accurate evolutionary studies. In this paper we review some recent phylogenomic studies that have revealed a modified mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors in archaea and suggested that this domain uses an atypical pathway of synthesis of fatty acids devoid of any acyl carrier protein, which is essential for this activity in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, we show new or updated phylogenetic analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis from glycerol phosphate, isoprenoids, and polar head groups. These results support that most of these enzymes can be
JOSÉ F. W. SPRÍCIGO, UNB; MATEUS N. DIÓGENES, UNB; LIGIANE O. LEME, UNB; ANA L. GUIMARÃES, UNB; CAROLLE V. MUTERLLE, UNB; BIANCA DAMIANI MARQUES SILVA, CENARGEN; DAVID SOLÀ-ORIOL, UNIVERSITAT AUTÒNOMA DE BARCELONA, SPAIN; IVO PIVATO, UNB; LUCIANO PAULINO DA SILVA, CENARGEN; MARGOT ALVES NUNES DODE, CENARGEN ...
Pfannkuche, Olaf; Boetius, Antje; Lundgreen, Ulrich; Lochte, Karin; Thiel, Hjalmar (1999): Phospholipids at multicorer station M21/1_MC391. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.128876, In supplement to: Pfannkuche, O et al. (1999): Responses of deep-sea benthos to sedimentation patterns in the North-East Atlantic in 1992. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 46(4), 573-596, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00081-8
Phospholipid Definition. A phospholipid is a type of lipid molecule that is the main component of the cell membrane.Lipids are molecules that include fats, waxes, and some vitamins, among others. Each phospholipid is made up of two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a glycerol molecule. When many phospholipids line up, they form a double layer that is characteristic of all cell membranes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The fatty acid compostition of brain phospholipids from chicken and duck embryos. AU - Maldjian, A. AU - Cristofori, C. AU - Noble, RC. AU - Speake, BK. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. KW - Brain. KW - Chickens. KW - Embryo. KW - Fatty acid composition. KW - Phospholipid. M3 - Article. VL - 115B. SP - 153. EP - 158. JO - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. JF - Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. SN - 0010-406X. ER - ...
Serum cholesterol (free, esters and total) and serum phospholipids were determined in 97 men who had experienced coronary heart disease prior to the age of 40, 146 healthy nonhospitalized men of comparable age and a group of 97 men who were matched to the coronary disease group. The mean values for serum cholesterol (total) were 286 mg. per 100 cc., 224 mg. per 100 cc., and 247 mg. per 100 cc. for the coronary disease group, control group and matched control group, respectively. The serum phospholipids were highest in the coronary disease group. It is demonstrated that the interrelationships of the lipids in coronary heart disease are more important than any one of the constituents taken by itself. The theoretic implications of the total cholesterol: phospholipids ratio are considered.. ...
The influence of a phospholipid transmembrane redistribution on the shape of nonspherical flaccid vesicles was investigated at a fixed temperature by optical microscopy. In a first series of experiments, a transmembrane pH gradient was imposed on egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC)-egg phosphatidylglycerol (EPG) (100:1) giant vesicles. The ApH induced an asymmetric distribution of EPG. Simultaneously, discoid vesicles were transformed into tubular or a series of connected small vesicles. The fraction of phospholipid transfer necessary for a shape change from discoid to two connected vesicles was of the order of 0.1% of the total phospholipids. Additional lipid redistribution was accompanied by a sequence of shape changes. In a second series of experiments, lyso phosphatidylcholine (L-PC) was added to, or subtracted from, the external leaflet of giant EPC vesicles. The addition of L-PC induced a change from discoid to a two-vesicle state without further evolution, suggesting that lipid transfer and lipid
In the present study, we show that both CRP and annexin A5 specifically bind to oxidized LDL. Via coupling to Fcγ receptors on macrophages and independent of complement, CRP subsequently enhances the association of oxidized LDL to macrophages. Enhanced association of oxidized LDL to macrophages via CRP-Fcγ receptor interaction may lead to enhanced macrophage uptake of oxidized LDL. Moreover, we show that annexin A5 binds to a site at oxidized LDL different from the CRP binding site and that annexin A5 does not antagonize the CRP effect.. Previously, Chang et al also observed specific binding of CRP to oxidized LDL,7 characterized by inhibition by whole molecules as well as F(ab′)2 fragments of EO6, an IgM antibody that binds specifically to the phosphorylcholine head group of oxidized phospholipids but not to the same moiety on nonoxidized phospholipids.26 In the present study, for characterization of binding sites, we used the monoclonal antibody DLH3 (also IgM), which recognizes an epitope ...
Camelina, flaxseed, hemp, sesame, and walnut cakes were analyzed for their phospholipid (PL) content and composition using 31P and 1H nuclear magnetic reso
Background Combinations of multiple fatty acids may influence cardiometabolic risk more than single fatty acids. The association of a combination of fatty acids with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been evaluated. Methods and findings We measured plasma phospholipid fatty acids by gas chromatography in 27,296 adults, including 12,132 incident cases of T2D, over the follow-up period between baseline (1991-1998) and 31 December 2007 in 8 European countries in EPIC-InterAct, a nested case-cohort study. The first principal component derived by principal component analysis of 27 individual fatty acids (mole percentage) was the main exposure (subsequently called the fatty acid pattern score [FA-pattern score]). The FA-pattern score was partly characterised by high concentrations of linoleic acid, stearic acid, odd-chain fatty acids, and very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and low concentrations of γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids, and it explained ...
Objective: While data on the relationship between fatty acid (FA) composition and the risk for total stroke have accumulated, the association between FA composition and the risk for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) has never been studied. We compared plasma phospholipid FA composition between non-stroke control and ischemic stroke in Korean population, to discern the FA that distinguishes ICAS from total ischemic stroke patients. Methods: Non-stroke controls (n = 215) and stroke patients (no cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis, NCAS: n = 144 and ICAS: n = 104) were finally included in the analysis. Plasma phospholipid FA compositions were analyzed. Results: Age, coexistence of hypertension/diabetes were significantly different among the groups. Phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between non-stroke control and ischemic stroke patients, and interestingly, between NCAS and ICAS in stroke patients. Pattern analysis showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and ...
The phospholipid and phospholipid fatty acid compositions of mixed murine spinal cord neuronal cultures are reported. The phospholipid composition was primarily comprised of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (44.8%) and choline glycerophospholipids (43.5%). Plasmalogens made up 29.1% of the ethanola...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma phospholipid fatty acid status of 5 year old children in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. AU - McAfee, Alison. AU - Barnes, Maria S. AU - Strain, JJ. AU - Davidson, PW. AU - Bonham, Maxine P.. AU - McSorley, Emeir. AU - Thurston, SW. AU - Wallace, Julie MW. AU - Shamlaye, CF. AU - Myers, GJ. AU - Clarkson, TW. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. U2 - 10.1017/S0029665110002508. DO - 10.1017/S0029665110002508. M3 - Article. VL - 69. JO - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.. JF - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.. SN - 0029-6651. IS - E389. ER - ...
The Market.Biz research report on Soybean Phospholipid Enzyme Hydrolysate offers a detailed study of Soybean Phospholipid Enzyme Hydrolysate industry worldwide concentrating on key regions like North America, Europe, and Asia. Various factors which influence the growth of Soybean Phospholipid Enzyme Hydrolysate market has been covered at depth in this report. Initially, the report states the product definition, description, range of applications, supply and demand analysis of Soybean Phospholipid Enzyme Hydrolysate industry.. The major regions present in the continents like United States, Germany, Japan and China and their contribution to global Soybean Phospholipid Enzyme Hydrolysate market is elaborated in this research document. In next section, the report discusses industry policies and plans, cost structures, the outline of Soybean Phospholipid Enzyme Hydrolysate market globally, manufacturing processes. The growth rate exhibited by Soybean Phospholipid Enzyme Hydrolysate market based on ...
bilayer led to an increase in the amount of high-affinity binding of an amyloidogenic mutant (L55P) TTR. In addition, a greater amount of L55P TTR bound with high affinity to membranes made from anionic phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylserine (PS), than to membranes made from zwitterionic phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). The anionic phospholipids (PS and PG) promoted the aggregation of L55P TTR by accelerating the nucleation phase of aggregation, whereas the zwitterionic phospholipid PC had little effect. These results suggest that cholesterol and anionic phospholipids may be important for TTR aggregation and TTR-induced cytotoxicity.. ...
Adaptation of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Regular Swimming Exercise I. Muscle Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Peroxide Status Abstract.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic inflammation, impaired intestinal adsorption, and bowel resection may have an impact on lipid metabolism before and after intestinal surgery for Crohns disease (CD). The aim of this prospective study was to define the impact of intestinal surgery for CD on plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition and of serum plasma lipoprotein concentrations and to investigate the role of CD recurrence on lipid parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four consecutive patients who had intestinal surgery for CD since December 2004 to March 2006 were enrolled in this prospective study. The total amount of calorie intake and the quality of the aliments, systemic inflammatory activity, and plasma lipoproteins and phospholipid fatty acid composition were determined at operation and at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed with pair-matched tests. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 6 (4-20) months. During the follow-up, no significant modification of body mass index was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Melittin induces fusion of unilamellar phospholipid vesicles. AU - Morgan, Christopher G.. AU - Williamson, Heather. AU - Fuller, Stephen. AU - Hudson, Bruce. PY - 1983/8/10. Y1 - 1983/8/10. N2 - Melittin, the soluble lipophilic peptide of bee venom, causes fusion of phospholipid vesicles when vesicle suspensions are heated or cooled through their thermal phase transition. Fusion was detected using a new photochemical method (Morgan, C.G., Hudson, B. and Wolber, P. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 26-30) which monitors lipid mixing. Electron microscopy and gel filtration confirmed that most of the lipid formed large vesicular structures. Fluorescence experiments with a water-soluble, membrane-impermeable complex of terbium (Wilschut, J. and Papahadjopoulos, D. (1979) Nature 281, 690-692) demonstrate that these ionic contents are released during fusion. The large structures formed by melittin-induced fusion are impermeable to these ions and are resistant to further fusion. ...
Abstract: Using a model of hemorrhagic shock, the possibility of protection byCu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the phospholipid bilayer of plasma membranes ofhepatocytes and adipocytes as well as of the blood lipoproteins was studied. SOD (5mg/kg), injected 30 min after the onset of bleeding, efficiently prevented changes in thephospholipid bilayer of hepatocytic plasma membranes in cats. Simultaneous injection ofSOD partly restored the concentration of different classes of phospholipids in plasmamembranes of mesenterial fatty tissue adipocytes altered by shock. When incorporated intoliposomes, SOD exerted a weaker corrective effect on the phospholipid composition ofhepatocytic plasma membranes in animals with hemorrhagic shock and simultaneously produceda membrane-stabilizing effect on adipocytes. In contrast to pure SOD (which had no effecton the lipoprotein composition of the blood in animals with hemorrhagic shock),SOD-containing liposomes decreased the amount of chylomicrons and very low ...
Meryas. Get Free PDF Sample [email protected] https://market.biz/report/global-soybean-phospholipid-market-sp/103607/#request-sample. Global Soybean PhospholipidRegions:-. Geographically this report covers all the significant businesses from India, China, USA, UK, and Japan. The present, past and forecast overview of Soybean Phospholipid market is represented in this report.. Scope & Benefits :. Soybean Phospholipid: Global Market Analysis and Opportunities will provide a detailed independent appraisal of the deep market and explore business events and difficulties for companies and marketers of Soybean Phospholipid, worldwide. Key insights provided in the report will include the following:. **Global demand for Soybean Phospholipid and five-year forecasts.. **Detailed characterizations of key country markets.. **Detailed profiles of Soybean Phospholipid products.. **Supplier market share by outcome variety and region markets.. **Analysis of market demand majority operators and constraints, trends, and ...
Phospholipid fatty acid composition and vitamin E levels in the retina of obese (fa/fa) and lean (FA/FA) Zucker rats.: We have compared the fatty acid compositi
This study compares the lipid composition, including individual phospholipid molecular species of solubilized nAChR detergent complexes (nAChR-DCs) with those of the bulk lipids from their source, Torpedo californica (Tc) electric tissue. This lipidomic analysis revealed seventy-seven (77) phospholipid species in the Tc tissue. Analysis of affinity-purified nAChR-DCs prepared with C-12 to C-16 phospholipid analog detergents alkylphosphocholine (FC) and lysofoscholine (LFC) demonstrated that nAChRDCs prepared with FC12, LFC14, and LFC16 contained ,60 phospholipids/nAChR, which was more than twice of those prepared with FC14, FC16, and LFC12. Significantly, all the nAChR-DCs lacked ethanolamine and anionic phospholipids, contained only four cholesterol molecules, and a limited number of phospholipid molecular species per nAChR. Upon incorporation into oocytes, FC12 produce significant functionality, whereas LFC14 and LFC16 nAChR-DCs displayed an increased functionality as compared to the crude Tc ...
Phospholipase D (PLD) hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond of the predominant membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine producing phosphatidic acid and free choline. This activity can participate in signal transduction pathways and impact on vesicle trafficking for secretion and endocytosis, as well as receptor signalling. Phospholipids can regulate PLD activity directly, through specific intermolecular interactions, or indirectly, through their effect on the localization or activity of PLDs protein effectors. This short review highlights these various phospholipid inputs into the regulation of PLD activity and also reviews potential roles for PLD-generated phosphatidic acid, particularly a mechanism by which the phospholipid may participate in the process of vesicular trafficking.
A wheat non specific phospholipid transfer protein has been isolated from wheat seeds and its amino acid sequence reveals that it is composed of 90 residues for a molecular weight of 9607. From the comparison of its sequence with those of the eight known proteins of the same family, hypotheses on the role of some conserved residues in the transfer activity can be made. The conformation of this protein has been studied by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and this is the first report on the structure of non specific plant phospholipid transfer proteins. As opposed to previous studies on the structure prediction from the amino acid sequence, the results obtained show that plant non specific phospholipid transfer proteins are not almost entirely composed of beta-sheets. Instead, infrared results show that the wheat protein contains 41% alpha-helix and 19% beta-sheet structures, while 40% of the conformation is undefined or composed of turns. Raman spectroscopy shows that three disulfide
The present study was undertaken to investigate a possible involvement of phospholipid methyltransferases in the coupling of receptor-mediated stimulation to secretion. Phospholipid methyltransferases were assayed in isolated parotid acini in the presence of carbamoylcholine or isoprenaline. Carbamoylcholine reduced the incorporation of methyl groups into phospholipids, whereas isoprenaline showed no effect. Amylase secretion stimulated either by carbamoylcholine or by isoprenaline could not be affected by inhibitors of methyltransferases (3-deaza-adenosine alone or plus homocysteine thiolactone) under conditions where phospholipid methylation was strongly inhibited. The activity of adenylate cyclase in isolated parotid microsomal membranes was not inhibited or stimulated by S-adenosyl-homocysteine or -methionine respectively. These results indicate that phospholipid methylation does not play an essential role in stimulus-secretion coupling in the parotid gland.. ...
Driscoll, D.; Ennis, W.; Meneses, P., 1994: Human sciatic nerve phospholipid profiles from non-diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus individuals. A 31P NMR spectroscopy study
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of membrane phospholipid composition changes on adenylate cyclase activity in normal and rous-sarcoma-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Disruption of the murine mdr2 gene leads to the complete absence of biliary phospholipids. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in biliary phospholipid output induced by fibrates is mediated via induction of the hepatic mdr2 gene and its encoded product, the P-glycoprotein canalicular flippase. Increased levels of mdr2 mRNA were observed in the liver of mice treated with different fibrates: ciprofibrate, 660±155% (as compared with control group); clofibrate, 611±77%; bezafibrate, 410±47%; fenofibrate, 310±52%; gemfibrozil, 190±25% (P , 0.05 compared with control group). Induction of expression of the mdr gene family was specific to the mdr2 gene. Two- to three-fold increases in P-glycoprotein immunodetection were evident on the canalicular plasma-membrane domain of clofibrate- and ciprofibrate-treated mice. Biliary phospholipid output increased from 4.2±1.2 nmol/min per g of liver in the control group to 8.5±0.6, 7.1±2.9 and 5.8±2.5 in ciprofibrate-, clofibrate- and ...
Dietary conditioning of juvenile trout changed the acyl chain composition of mitochondrial phospholipids and the oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria. Trout were fed three diets differing only in fatty acid (FA) composition. The highly unsaturated 22:6 n-3 (DHA) accounted for 0.4, 14, and 30% of fatty acids in Diets 1, 2 and 3. After 10 weeks of growth, the dietary groups differed markedly in FA composition of mitochondrial phospholipids, with significant dietary effects for virtually all FA. Mean mitochondrial DHA levels were 19, 40 and 33% in trout fed Diets 1, 2 and 3. Mitochondrial oxidative capacities changed with diet, while mitochondrial concentrations of cytochromes and of the adenylate nucleotide translocase (nmol mg(1) protein) did not. Mitochondria from fish fed Diet 1 had higher non-phosphorylating (state 4) rates at 5 degrees C than those fed other diets. When phosphorylating (state 3) rates differed between dietary groups, rates at 5 and 15 degrees C were higher for fish fed the
Background Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) or obtained from the diet. Circulating levels of these fatty acids are linked to several diseases including diabetes and heart disease. Prior family and twin studies suggest high heritability of circulating levels, but potential genes involved are unknown.. Objective To carry out a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) to investigate genetic determinants of circulating levels of these fatty acids.. Methods GWAS in 5 population-based cohorts (n=8,961) of European ancestry. Each study conducted linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, site of recruitment, and principal components to account for possible population genetic substructure where appropriate. Study-specific results were combined using inverse-variance weighted ...
Polyunsaturated phospholipids are known to be important with regard to the biological functions of essential fatty acids, for example, involving neural tissues such as the brain and retina. Here we have employed two complementary structural methods for the study of polyunsaturated bilayer lipids, viz. deuterium ((2)H) NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Our research constitutes one of the first applications of all-atom MD simulations to polyunsaturated lipids containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 cis-Delta(4,7,10,13,16,19)). Structural features of the highly unsaturated, mixed-chain phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PDPC), have been studied in the liquid-crystalline (L(alpha)) state and compared to the less unsaturated homolog, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). The (2)H NMR spectra of polyunsaturated bilayers are dramatically different from those of less unsaturated phospholipid bilayers. We show ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interactions between cyclodextrins and cell-membrane phospholipids. AU - Szejtli, J.. AU - Cserháti, T.. AU - Szögyi, M.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - The interactions between cyclodextrins (CDs) and selected cell membrane phospholipids, liposomes and human erythrocytes were studied. Non-methylated cyclodextrins did not influence the differential scanning calorimetric behaviour of phospholipids and did not increase the permeability of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidyl-choline liposomes. Dimethyl- and trimethyl- β-CD interacted with the phospholipids but the effect was negligible compared to the effect of valinomycin. Reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography revealed complex formation with dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin, but not with others. The addition of cyclodextrins up to 10-2 mol litre-1 concentration did not modify the active or passive alkali ion transport of human erythrocytes, however, higher concentrations of added β-cyclodextrin especially dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin resulted in ...
Supplementation with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrate resulted in significant modifications of fatty acids, particularly a significant improvement in the AA:EPA ratio in the isolated plasma phospholipids and improvements in behavior assessed by a psychiatrist (blinded to protocol adherence and supplement dosage adjustments) in this small pilot sample of children with ADHD.. At baseline fatty acid analysis of the isolated plasma phospholipids from the children in this study were similar to that of previous studies of children with ADHD and thirst/skin symptoms of EFA deficiency [3,5,11]; however, we did not assess EFA deficiency symptoms. Children with ADHD and thirst/skin symptoms of EFA deficiency had lower AA and DHA levels in the plasma phospholipids compared to control groups. Both the AA and DHA mean levels from previous studies [3,5,11] were within the 95% CI (8.98-10.05; 1.63-2.97, respectively) of this studys mean AA and DHA levels.. Supplementation of high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates ...
P4-ATPases (flippases) translocate specific phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine from the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane to the cytosolic leaflet, upholding an essential membrane asymmetry. The mechanism of flipping this giant substrate has remained an enigma. We have investigated the importance of amino acid residues in transmembrane segment M4 of mammalian P4-ATPase ATP8A2 by mutagenesis. In the related ion pumps Na+, K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, M4 moves during the enzyme cycle, carrying along the ion bound to a glutamate. In ATP8A2, the corresponding residue is an isoleucine, which recently was found mutated in patients with cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome. Our analyses of the lipid substrate concentration dependence of the overall and partial reactions of the enzyme cycle in mutants indicate that, during the transport across the membrane, the phosphatidylserine head group passes near isoleucine-364 (I364) and that I364 is critical to the release of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage fatty acid composition and phagocytosis. T2 - Effect of unsaturation on cellular phagocytic activity. AU - Schroit, A. J.. AU - Gallily, R.. PY - 1979/12/1. Y1 - 1979/12/1. N2 - In order to manipulate the physical properties of the macrophage membrane, methods were developed which potentiated the incorporation of exogenously supplied fatty acids into membrane lipids. Chromatograms of macrophages which were grown in the presence of a variety of fatty acids demonstrated that exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids) were readily incorporated into the cells and selectively altered the fatty acyl composition of macrophage phospholipids. Up to 38% of the total cellular phospholipids were found to be derived from the exogenously added fatty acid supplements. The incorporation of the different fatty acids into cellular phospholipids had striking effects on cellular phagocytic activity. These effects ...
In patients with BTHS, we found abnormal molecular compositions of several phospholipids, including cardiolipin, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The data indicate a maldistribution of fatty acids (i.e., fatty acids lost their preference for specific phospholipids). For instance, the characteristic predominance of linoleic acid in cardiolipin was missing in BTHS. Conversely, the content of linoleoyl was increased in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The notion of misdirected fatty acids was consistent with the presumed acyltransferase defect in BTHS. The most striking consequence of this defect was the absence of tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin, a major molecular species in several control tissues (24). However, the molecular composition of cardiolipin was altered even in lymphoblasts that did not contain any tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin, suggesting a general impairment of fatty acid trafficking from and to cardiolipin. In phosphatidylcholine and ...
There is a need to simultaneously preserve evidence of interactions between the biological community and soil structural properties of a soil in as near an intact (natural) state as possible. Three dehydration techniques were implemented and assessed for their ability to minimise disruption of both biological and physical properties of the same arable soil sample. Dehydration techniques applied until samples were at constant weight were i) air-drying at 20 °C (AD); ii) -80 °C freeze for 24 h, followed by freeze-drying (-80FD); and iii) liquid nitrogen snap freeze, followed by freeze-drying (LNFD) and were compared to a moist control. Physical structure was determined and quantified in three dimensions using X-ray computed tomography and microbial phenotypic community composition was assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiling. This study confirms that any form of dehydration, when preparing soil for simultaneous biological and physical analysis, will alter the soil physical ...
Mitochondrial membrane composition may be a critical factor in the mechanisms of the aging process by influencing the propagation of reactions involved in mitochondrial function during periods of high stress. Changes affecting either lipid class or fatty acid compositions could affect phospholipid properties and alter mitochondrial function and cell viability. In the present study, mitochondrial membrane phospholipid compositions were analyzed throughout the life cycle of Nothobranchius rachovii. Mitochondrial phospholipids showed several changes with age. Proportions of cardiolipin decreased and those of sphingomyelin increased between 11- and 14-month-old fish. Fatty acid compositions of indi- vidual phospholipids in mitochondria were also significantly affected with age. These data suggest increasing damage to mitochondrial lipids during the life cycle of N. rachovii that could be one of the main factors related with and contributing to degraded mitochondrial function associated with the ...
A representative spectra for each sample was inspected carefully and manually by two independent observers from 10 spectra collected for each sample with and without the internal standard (a total of 20 spectra), and then was used for further analyses. Spectra were converted to netCDF files from Thermo RAW files using Xcalibur 2.3 software suite, subsequently imported into MZmine 2.9, 19 and subjected to noise removal and analyses. A selected subset of data also was subjected to analysis in SimLipid version 3.1. Briefly, the following steps were used for quantification using MZmine 2.9. Thermo RAW files were converted into netCDF files using the Xcalibur software, and then imported into the MZmine program interface. Original RAW files always were retained. Imported spectra were filtered by the Scan-by-Scan methods from 200 to 1000 m/z for PE, PI, and PS, and from 400 to 900 m/z for PC. Masses were detected in centroid mode, and noise levels were kept at 1.00 E0 for all phospholipid classes. ...
Williams, Alan John 1984. The measurement of cardiac membrane channels following their incorporation into planar phospholipid bilayers. In: Harris, P.C. ed ...
The article summarizes new insights into the molecular mechanisms for the maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in human erythrocyte membranes. We focus on phosphatidylserine, which is primarily found in the inner leaflet of the membrane lipid bilayer under low C...
Synapsin I, a major neuron-specific phosphoprotein, is localized on the cytoplasmic surface of small synaptic vesicles to which it binds with high affinity. It contains a collagenase-resistant head domain and a collagenase-sensitive elongated tail domain. In the present study, the interaction between synapsin I and phospholipid vesicles has been characterized, and the protein domains involved in these interactions have been identified. When lipid vesicles were prepared from cholesterol and phospholipids using a lipid composition similar to that found in native synaptic vesicle membranes (40% phosphatidylcholine, 32% phosphatidylethanolamine, 12% phosphatidylserine, 5% phosphatidylinositol, 10% cholesterol, wt/wt), synapsin I bound with a dissociation constant of 14 nM and a maximal binding capacity of about 160 fmol of synapsin I/microgram of phospholipid. Increasing the ionic strength decreased the affinity without greatly affecting the maximal amount of synapsin I bound. When vesicles ...
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BioAssay Systems Phospolipid Assay Kit (EPLP-100) measures choline-containing phospholipids in biological samples. The absorbance at 570nm or fluorescence intensity at 530/585 nm is proportional to the phospholipid concentration. Detection range: 3 - 200 µM (colorimetric), 0.6 - 20 µM (fluorimetric).
Author: Khopade, A. J. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2004; Title: Phase structures of a hydrated anionic phospholipid composition containing cationic dendrimers and pegylated lipids
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early changes in glucose and phospholipid metabolism following apoptosis induction by IFN-γ/TNF-α in HT-29 cells. AU - Lutz, Norbert W.. AU - Tome, Margaret E.. AU - Cozzone, Patrick J.. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Drs. J. Fantini and D. Stringer for the donation of HT-29 cells. We are grateful to ARC (Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer), CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) and NIH (National Institutes of Health) for financial support (ARC, CNRS to P.J.C.; NIH (RO1 CA 80130) to N.W.L.). PY - 2003/6/5. Y1 - 2003/6/5. N2 - The effects of apoptosis induction on glucose and phospholipid metabolite levels in cancer were studied using human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Apoptosis was induced by co-incubation with 200 U/ml tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α for 4, 8 or 15 h, after sensitization with 500 U/ml interferon (IFN)-γ for 7 h. Perchloric acid extracts were analyzed by 1H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. ...
Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 11 - Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long-chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it ... Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPLs) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk ... Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFAs); HR [95% CI] = 1.51 [1.06, 2.16] (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); p-trend = 0.003. HRs (Q5 to Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR = 0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); p-trend = 0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated ...
Phospholipids and bile acids, by virtue of their amphiphilic properties, can interact in nonpolar media forming inverted structures (micelles) which presumably have an hydrophilic core and might act as diffusional carriers (ionophores) of electrolytes across low dielectric constant media or lipid membranes.. The Na+ ionophoretic capability of various purified phospholipids and the modulating effects of bile acids and phospatidylcholine was examined by: (a) measurement of 22Na+ partition into the organic phase (chloroform) of a two-phase system and (b) direct measurement of the translocation of 22Na+ across a bulk chloroform phase separating two aqueous phases in a Pressman cell. All phospholipids tested, except for phosphatidylcholine, showed ionophoretic capability for Na+ at micromolar concentrations. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were the most efficient Na+ carriers, comparable with monensin, an established Na+ ionophore. In contrast, cholic acid as well as other bile acids ...
In this work we compared the effect of five heavy metals: Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cu on phospholipid composition of the ubiquitous soil fungus Paecilomyces marquandii, originating from a strongly metal polluted area and characterized by high tolerance to these elements. Cd, Ni and Cu caused an increase in phosphatidylcholine (PC). Only Pb decreased PC content, which was accompanied by a significant rise in the phosphatidic acids (PA) level, probably due to activation of phospholipase D which hydrolyzes PC to PA. This could result in membrane fluidity disturbance, and thus affect its integrity. The assessment of propidium iodide influx showed strong disturbance of membrane integrity for Cu and Pb stressed mycelia, whereas mycelia treated with Ni were impermeable to this dye. The results obtained revealed a strong Cu and Pb toxicity involving disruption of membrane integrity. Pb action was reflected by lipid composition, whereas changes in Cu treated mycelia did not completely elucidate its harmful ...
Facilitates the transfer of a spectrum of different lipid molecules, including diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, cerebroside and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Essential for the transfer of excess surface lipids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to HDL, thereby facilitating the formation of smaller lipoprotein remnants, contributing to the formation of LDL, and assisting in the maturation of HDL particles. PLTP also plays a key role in the uptake of cholesterol from peripheral cells and tissues that is subsequently transported to the liver for degradation and excretion. Two distinct forms of PLTP exist in plasma: an active form that can transfer PC from phospholipid vesicles to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and an inactive form that lacks this capability.
Introduction: Membrane phospholipids (PL) provide functional integrity of the cells of respiratory tract.. Aim: To study of membrane phospholipids composition of peripheral blood lymphocytes in the dynamics of phototherapy in rats with experimental COPD.. Methods: An experimental COPD was reproduced in 60 white rats under the influence of tobacco smoke. For half of them we used the method of phototherapy of concentrated pulsed light (CPL) at wavelengths from 600 to 800 nm. Phototherapy was carried out daily for 10 days. The control group consisted of 10 healthy rats. To study the phospholipids fractions of lymphocytes we used the high-flow horizontal chromatography.. Results: In rats with experimental COPD, compared with the control group, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were reduced by 31,8% (P,0,01) and 43% (P,0,01), the content of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) was increased two-fold (P,0,01). Free fatty acids (FFA), compared ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Phospholipid profile of amniotic fluid in ovine model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH): The effect of fetal tracheal occlusion. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Mimmi MC, Ballico M, Amoroso F, Calcaterra V, Marotta M, Peiro JL, Pelizzo G. J Proteome Res. 2015 Mar 6;14(3):1465-71. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih
The main findings in the present study were the differences in the fatty acid profiles of skeletal muscle phospholipids and triglycerides between the TRA group and the UNT group despite their similar dietary fatty acid composition. The fatty acid pattern in muscle phospholipids is probably partly genetically determined (4) but has also been shown to be influenced by environmental factors such as diet (2, 3) and physical activity (1, 19, 35). In the present study, the fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle was determined after 8 wk of diet with a controlled fatty acid composition. According to the food records, the study groups had similar proportions of fatty acids in the diet both at baseline and during the standardized period. The compliance to the controlled diet was verified by the similarity between TRA and UNT groups regarding the fatty acid compositions of serum cholesterol esters and serum phospholipids. Thus the observed dissimilarity in the fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle was ...
It also has a higher compaction capacity than the other phospholipids, because the apolar tail is less bent. Nevertheless, ... 40% dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC); ~40% other phospholipids (PC); ~10% surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D ... Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is a phospholipid with two 16-carbon saturated chains and a phosphate group with ... compressed surfactant phospholipid molecules decrease the surface tension to very low, near-zero levels. Pulmonary surfactant ...
Salomon RG (2005). "Isolevuglandins, oxidatively truncated phospholipids, and atherosclerosis". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1043: 327 ...
These phospholipids include sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine. Supplementation with citicoline can increase the amount of ... When the availability of choline is low or the need for acetylcholine increases, phospholipids containing choline can be ... Phosphatidylcholine is a major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. Close regulation of its biosynthesis, degradation, ... cytidinediphosphocholine can affect brain phospholipid composition by increasing choline and cytidine plasma levels". Journal ...
Animal fats are complex mixtures of triglycerides, with lesser amounts of both the phospholipids and cholesterol molecules from ... Cohn JS, Kamili A, Wat E, Chung RW, Tandy S (February 2010). "Dietary phospholipids and intestinal cholesterol absorption". ... Through the interaction with the phospholipid fatty-acid chains, cholesterol increases membrane packing, which both alters ... In multiple layers, cholesterol and phospholipids, both electrical insulators, can facilitate speed of transmission of ...
Occasionally it can also be driven by entropy without energy input, in cases like the formation of the phospholipid bilayer of ... Hanin I, Pepeu G (2013-11-11). Phospholipids: biochemical, pharmaceutical, and analytical considerations. New York. ISBN 978-1- ...
Like phospholipids, these fatty acid derivatives have a polar head and nonpolar tails. Unlike phospholipids, sphingolipids have ... For example, fatty acids join together to form phospholipids. In turn, phospholipids and cholesterol interact noncovalently in ... The foundation of all biomembranes consists of a bilayer structure of phospholipids. The phospholipid molecule is amphipathic; ... The phospholipid heads interact with each other and aqueous media, while the hydrocarbon tails orient themselves in the center ...
Munder, PG; Ferber E; Modolell M; Fischer H. (1969). "The influence of various adjuvants on the metabolism of phospholipids in ... Houlihan, WJ; Lohmeyer M; Workman P; Cheon SH (1995). "Phospholipid antitumor agents". Medicinal Research Reviews. 15 (3): 157- ... Mechanisms of Action and Biomedical Prospect of the Antitumor Ether Phospholipid ET-18-OCH3 (Edelfosine), A Proapoptotic Agent ...
This phospholipid is composed of a choline head group and glycerophosphoric acid, with a variety of fatty acids. Usually, one ... Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup. They are a major component of ... Wirtz KW (July 1991). "Phospholipid transfer proteins". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 60 (13): 73-99. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ...
PA is a unique phospholipid in that it has a small highly charged head group that is very close to the glycerol backbone. PA is ... They constitute about 0.25% of phospholipids in the bilayer. Phosphatidic acid consists of a glycerol backbone, with, in ... Olivera A, Rosenthal J, Spiegel S (March 1996). "Effect of acidic phospholipids on sphingosine kinase". J. Cell. Biochem. 60 (4 ... Phosphatidic acids are anionic phospholipids important to cell signaling and direct activation of lipid-gated ion channels. ...
T. lutea contain betain lipids and phospholipids. Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Isochrysis". AlgaeBase. World-wide ...
It was found that specific connexins tended to associate preferentially with specific phospholipids. As formation plaques ... Locke, Darren; Harris, Andrew L (2009). "Connexin channels and phospholipids: association and modulation". BMC Biol. 7 (1): 52 ...
Up until then phospholipids were believed to be inert structures only used by cells as building blocks for construction of the ... It is made by hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a phospholipid that is located in the plasma membrane ... Rhee, SG; Suh, PG; Ryu, SH; Lee, SY (1989). "Studies of inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C". Science. 244 (4904): ... Michell, RH (1975). "Inositol phospholipids and cell surface receptor function". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews ...
Phospholipids: Phospholipids are TGs that are covalently bonded to a phosphate group by an ester linkage. Phospholipids perform ... "Variations in total phospholipids and high-density lipoprotein phospholipids in plasma from a general population: reference ... Triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and phospholipids are the major lipids in the body. They are transported as complexes of ... HDL particles increase in size as they circulate through the bloodstream and incorporate more cholesterol and phospholipid ...
Phosphoinositides are regarded as the most acidic phospholipids. The specific fatty acids of PtdIns, and their conformation, ... Muller-Roeber B, Pical C (2002). Inositol Phospholipid Metabolism in Arabidopsis. Characterized and Putative Isoforms of ... Inositol Phospholipid Kinase and Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C. Membrane lipids Phosphatidyl-inositol Inositol ...
This phospholipid is found in a solid/gel phase at 37 °C (at the effective temperature of the human body). Its melting point is ... Bai, Xuan; Xu, Lu; Tang, Jenny Y.; Zuo, Yi Y.; Hu, Guoqing (2019-10-01). "Adsorption of Phospholipids at the Air-Water Surface ... DPPC is the main phospholipid of pulmonary surfactant, and it is surface-active due to its amphipathic behaviour and its ... This protein is crucial in the transport of phospholipids - and therefore DPPC - to the lamellar bodies of the alveolar cells, ...
The main phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin. Ectoine, glutamate, and, to a ...
The phospholipid bilayer is most permeable to small, uncharged solutes. Protein channels float through the phospholipids, and, ... A group of phospholipids (consisting of a phosphate head and two fatty acid tails) arranged into a double layer, the ... A cell membrane consists of proteins and phospholipids. Signaling molecules send chemical messages to the proteins in the cell ... phospholipid bilayer is a semipermeable membrane that is very specific in its permeability. The hydrophilic phosphate heads are ...
The phospholipid bilayer is formed due to the aggregation of membrane lipids in aqueous solutions. Aggregation is caused by the ... To enable the membrane as a whole to grow evenly, half of the new phospholipid molecules then have to be transferred to the ... As seen in the fluid membrane model of the phospholipid bilayer, the outer leaflet and inner leaflet of the membrane are ... The phospholipid bilayer contains charged hydrophilic headgroups, which interact with polar water. The layers also contain ...
They target molecules such as phospholipids, nucleic acids, and ATP. Class B metals are metals that form soft acids. Soft acids ...
Ohtsu T, Kimura M, Katagiri C (1998). "How Drosophila species acquire cold tolerance--qualitative changes of phospholipids". ...
Gundermann KJ, Kuenker A, Kuntz E, Droździk M (2011). "Activity of essential phospholipids (EPL) from soybean in liver diseases ...
In humans 40-50% of their phospholipids are phosphatidylcholines. Choline phospholipids also form lipid rafts in the cell ... For example, choline phospholipids are also needed in mitochondrial membranes. Their inavailability leads to the inability of ... Neurons also store choline in the form of phospholipids to their cell membranes for the production of acetylcholine. In humans ... In most animals, choline phospholipids are necessary components in cell membranes, in the membranes of cell organelles, and in ...
... produces krill products rich in omega-3 phospholipids. Krill is mainly used for the production of krill meal and ...
Sulfatide Galactolipid Phospholipid Glycolipid Harwood, John L.; Nicholls, Rodney G. (1979). "The plant sulfolipid. A major ...
Molina bark together with cholesterol and phospholipid." It is aimed at stimulating resistance to respiratory syncytial virus ...
December 2003). "Phospholipid abnormalities in children with Barth syndrome". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 42 ...
Total phospholipids range from 3.9 to 10.3% of the oil, with a mean of 6.0%. Mean sterol percent is 0.9 and ranges from 0.6% of ... Medium (C12-C14) and long (C22-C24) chain fatty acids are less than 1%. Sphingomyelin (4.42% of the total phospholipids), ... In addition, eight unidentified phospholipids were also found, β-sitosterol (72.3% of the total sterols), campsterol (9.9%), ... Phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and phosphatidyl glycerol are the dominant phospholipids. ...
Rosing J, Tans G, Govers-Riemslag JW, Zwaal RF, Hemker HC (January 1980). "The role of phospholipids and factor Va in the ... Prothrombinase assembly begins with the binding of Factor Xa and Factor Va to negatively charged phospholipids on plasma ... The complex assembles on negatively charged phospholipid membranes in the presence of calcium ions. The prothrombinase complex ... effect of factor Va and phospholipids on the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex". Biochemistry. 23 (20): 4557-64. doi: ...
The virus exits the host cell by lysis via lytic phospholipids. Alga serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive ...
Plasmanyl-phospholipids have an ether bond in position sn-1 to an alkyl group. Plasmenyl-phospholipids have an ether bond in ... Ether+phospholipids at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Lux H, Heise N, Klenner T, Hart D, Opperdoes FR (November 2000). "Ether--lipid (alkyl-phospholipid) metabolism and the ... In a biochemical sense, an ether lipid usually implies glycerophospholipids of various type, also called phospholipids, in ...
Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by ... analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis ... Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds ... A. Gattinger, M. Schloter, and J. C. Munch, "Phospholipid etherlipid and phospholipid fatty acid fingerprints in selected ...
This article aims at reviewing the properties of phospholipids at the air/water and oil/water interfaces, as well as the recent ... A discussion regarding the challenges and opportunities offered by phospholipids-stabilized structure concludes the review. ... Phospholipids are one of the major structural elements of biological membranes. Due to their amphiphilic character, they can ... PE phospholipids are able to pack more tightly in the bilayer and monolayer states than PC and PG phospholipids. Despite the ...
Heres how fortifying your product with milk phospholipids can provide this support. ... Phospholipids are an essential component of all cell membranes within the body, especially the brain. Phospholipids are ... She adds that NZMP is one of the first to offer a milk phospholipid ingredient, and at scale. NZMP Milk Phospholipids are ... The milk fat globule membrane is an excellent source of such phospholipids, hence we have developed NZMP Milk Phospholipids as ...
A phospholipid is a fat with a phosphate group attached that can be found in the membranes of all cells. A cells outer and ... In nerve cells, phospholipids plays several important roles. As an essential building block of cell membranes, They enhance ... Phospholipids assist in neurotransmitter synthesis, release, and activity. It also serves as a reservoir of raw material for ... inner membranes are comprised of a double layer of phospholipid molecules derived from essential fatty acids and other ...
DAB administration resulted in no change in the total phospholipid content or proportion of any of the phospholipid classes in ... Effects of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene on Hepatic Microsomal Phospholipids Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... The various experimental diets produced marked differences in the fatty acid compositions of all the microsomal phospholipid ... The liver microsomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation, the phospholipids extracted and separated into classes by silicic ...
Not all phospholipid antibodies possess lupus anticoagulant activity.(3) Only those phospholipid antibodies that are capable of ... Anionic phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylserine) are found on the cytoplasmic surface and neutral phospholipids (eg, ... The most commonly used phospholipid substrate is cardiolipin. The term phospholipid antibody is actually a misnomer. The ... Autoantibodies can also be detected by the use of functional, phospholipid-dependent coagulation assays. Phospholipid ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in calcium-dependent phospholipid binding pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in calcium-dependent phospholipid binding pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
The serum phospholipids were highest in the coronary disease group. It is demonstrated that the interrelationships of the ... The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease. ... Serum cholesterol (free, esters and total) and serum phospholipids were determined in 97 men who had experienced coronary heart ... The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease ...
... phospholipids). Methanol extracted phospholipids showed that the highest concentration of total phospholipids (1971 mg/L) with ... The calyx phospholipids stabilized oil in water emulsion at 2% concentration. The study serves as a foundation on the positive ... This study aimed to determine the feasibility of recovering phospholipids from the oil palm calyx. Preliminary functional ... usage of oil palm calyx in producing industrial phospholipids. Key words: Oil palm, lecithin, phospholipids, waste, palm calyx ...
About PHOSPHOLIPIDS: Phospholipids are naturally occurring complex lipids which contain glycerol, two fatty acids and a ... Phospholipids are the primary constituents of cell membranes.. Function(s): Skin-Conditioning Agent - Miscellaneous; SKIN ...
... Tools for Studying Membranes and Membrane Proteins. Phospholipid bilayer Nanodiscs are novel ...
Phospholipids are the fundamental building blocks of cellular membranes and are the major part of surfactant , the film that ... Phospholipids Phospholipids are an important class of biomolecules. ... Phospholipids Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Phospholipids. Phospholipids are an ... phospholipid (fos-foh-lip-id) n. a lipid containing a phosphate group as part of the molecule. Phospholipids are constituents ...
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Phospholipid innate immune recognition: Both self- and pathogen-derived PLs can act as ligands for a family of MHC class I-like ... Here, phospholipid signaling takes center stage in diverse ways, many of which we are only beginning to understand. ... Phospholipids, or PLs, provide the membranes that hold our cells together. Researchers increasingly appreciate how these unique ... This representation of a phospholipid bilayer shows integral membrane proteins protruding throughout. Healthy functioning of ...
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... soybean oil and natural phospholipids. Both of these help lubricate and moisturise the surface of the eyeball. Emustil eye drop ... There are currently no other medicines available in the UK that contain both soybean oil and natural phospholipids as the ... Emustil eye drops (soybean oil, natural phospholipids). Emustil eye drop emulsion contains two active ingredients, soybean oil ... Emustil eye drop emulsion contains two active ingredients, soybean oil and natural phospholipids. Both of these help lubricate ...
Nine classes of lipids have been isolated in homogenous form from ripe seeds of the Japanese pagoda tree, and their fatty acid compositions have been established. The positional distributions of the...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Phospholipids at PatientsLikeMe. 2 patients with fibromyalgia, ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Phospholipids. ...
Protein involved in the synthesis of phospholipids, the major lipid component of most cellular membranes. Phospholipids are ...
It is only about one decade ago when it was for the first time proposed that the phospholipids in a biological membrane might ... C.M. Colley, R.F.A. Zwaal, B. Roelofsen and L.L.M. van Deenen, Lytic and non-lytic degradation of phospholipids in mammalian ... It is only about one decade ago when it was for the first time proposed that the phospholipids in a biological membrane might ... R.F.A. Zwaal, B. Roelofsen, P. Comfurius and L.L.M. van Deenen, Organization of phospholipids in human red cell membranes as ...
Are phospholipids unicellular multicellular or both. ?. Phosholipids are molecules and therefore not cellular at all. However, ... Which organelle makes the phospholipids that compose the cells plasma membrane. ?. The cellular membrane is the organelle that ... phospholipids are the principle component of organelle and cell membranes in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, but ... makes the phospholipids that compose the cells plasma membrane. This is made as a collection of proteins and lipids. ...
The structures in the phospholipids are the building blocks for the parts of the... ... One of the main features of phospholipids is its bi-layer organization, upon which the rest of the membrane is built. ... One of the main features of phospholipids is its bi-layer organization, upon which the rest of the membrane is built. The ... The basic structure of phospholipids, which is built onto to create various types of lipids, is a head of glycerol and a tail ...
Phospholipid definition, any of a group of fatty compounds, as lecithin, composed of phosphoric esters, and occurring in living ... phospholipid. First recorded in 1925-30; phospho- + lipid. Also called phosphatide, phos·pho·lip·ide [fos-foh-lip-ahyd] /ˌfɒs ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative ... Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies. 2. Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome. 3. Anti-Phospholipid Antibody, IgM. 4. Adenovirus Antibody, IgG. 5 ...
Autoantibodies to phospholipids and to the coagulation proteins in AIDS.. Abuaf N1, Laperche S, Rajoely B, Carsique R, ... associated with hematological disorders and with antibodies to other phospholipids and to proteins of coagulation, we ...
Our objective is to evaluate the efficiency of novel cationic retinoic and carotenoic glycol phospholipids, designated C20-18, ... The results demonstrate that cationic polyene phospholipids have potential as DNA carriers for ocular gene therapy. ... Cationic Polyene Phospholipids as DNA Carriers for Ocular Gene Therapy. Susana Machado. ,1 Sofia Calado. ,1. ,. 2 Diogo Bitoque ... Cationic Polyene Phospholipids as DNA Carriers for Ocular Gene Therapy,. BioMed Research International,. vol. 2014. ,. Article ...
Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can ... Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption by Jeffrey S. Cohn *, Alvin Kamili , Elaine Wat , Rosanna W. S. ... Cohn, J.S.; Kamili, A.; Wat, E.; Chung, R.W.S.; Tandy, S. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption. ... Cohn JS, Kamili A, Wat E, Chung RWS, Tandy S. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption. Nutrients. 2010; 2(2 ...
phospholipid scramblase 1. Names. PL scramblase 1. ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid scramblase 1. erythrocyte phospholipid ... PLSCR1 = phospholipid scramblase 1; AKT = proto-oncogene c-Akt) Title: Herpes simplex viruses activate phospholipid scramblase ... PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1 [Homo sapiens] PLSCR1 phospholipid scramblase 1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:5359 ... phospholipid scramblase 1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:9092 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000188313 MIM:604170 Gene ...
Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis. F Hirata, S Toyoshima, J Axelrod, M J Waxdal ... Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis. F Hirata, S Toyoshima, J Axelrod, M J Waxdal ... Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis. F Hirata, S Toyoshima, J Axelrod, and M J ... Phospholipid methylation: a biochemical signal modulating lymphocyte mitogenesis Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
Phospholipid signaling in innate immune cells. Valerie B. ODonnell,1 Jamie Rossjohn,1,2,3 and Michael J.O. Wakelam4 1Systems ... Phospholipids comprise a large body of lipids that define cells and organelles by forming membrane structures. Importantly, ... Phospholipids in innate cells are subject to dynamic regulation by enzymes, whose activities are highly responsive to ... Phospholipids themselves are also recognized by innate-like T cells, which are considered essential for recognition of ...
The two main components of this membrane are phospholipids (giving the membra... ... The phospholipid bilayer is the membrane which surrounds all living cells. ... Phospholipid bilayer (thing). See all of Phospholipid bilayer, no other writeups in this node. ... A phospholipid has three distinct parts: Glycerol and Phosphate, which form the head; and a Fatty Acid tail. The heads also ...
Phospholipid Signaling Protocols; find Sigma-P1603 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & ... This collection of state-of-the-art techniques for the assay of phospholipid and phospholid-derived second messengers allows ... HPLC Analytical Methods for the Separation of Molecular Species of Fatty Acids In Diacylglycerol and Cellular Phospholipids. ... Monitoring of Activation of Phospholipid-Derived Cell Signaling Pathways. Phosphoinositidase C Activation Assay I: Cell ...
Tag: phospholipid capsules. Clinical TrialsHerbs & SupplementsNutrition. The "Evidence" for Prodovite Is Junk Science. ...
Increasing your intake of dietary phospholipids could improve the health of your liver, protecting it from diseases caused by ... How phospholipids boost liver health Increasing your intake of dietary phospholipids could improve the health of your liver, ... Can phospholipids help?. For over 100 years experts have recognised the benefit of phospholipids for reducing symptoms of a ... Phospholipids are capable of repairing damage to the liver caused by alcohol, poor diet and other factors. They are an ...
β-Bungarotoxin-induced phospholipid hydrolysis in rat brain synaptosomes: effect of replacement of calcium by strontium. ... β-Bungarotoxin-induced phospholipid hydrolysis in rat brain synaptosomes: Effect of replacement of calcium by strontium. * ... β-Bungarotoxin-induced phospholipid hydrolysis in rat brain synaptosomes: effect of replacement of calcium by strontium. ... no phospholipid hydrolysis could be detected (either in the presence of Ca2+or Sr2+), due to the small amounts of presynaptic ...
Phospholipids comprise an important class of biological molecules that serve both structural and functional roles in the human ... Functional Phospholipids. Like many other lipid-containing molecules, phospholipids can be broken down in your body and ... As a class, phospholipids are one of the most important molecules in your body. They provide the bilayered envelopes that make ... Phospholipids comprise an important class of biological molecules that serve both structural and functional roles in the human ...
... bidirectional transbilayer migration of phospholipids upon binding calcium ions that results in a loss of phospholipid ... plasma membrane phospholipid scrambling Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic-based ... phospholipid scramblase activity Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of ... Belongs to the phospholipid scramblase family.UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
  • Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds to isoprenoid lateral chains. (hindawi.com)
  • Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by extension, of all cellular membranes) was enigmatic and called for accurate evolutionary studies. (hindawi.com)
  • Whereas all bacteria and eukaryotes were known to have membranes based on fatty acids linked by ester bonds to glycerol-phosphate, archaea appeared to have phospholipids composed of isoprenoid chains condensed with glycerol-phosphate by ether linkages [ 2 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Phospholipids are an essential component of all cell membranes within the body, especially the brain. (dairyreporter.com)
  • The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are formed from phospholipids. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Membrane phospholipids participate in several important cellular functions including exchanging metabolites across membranes, transferring molecular signals and serving as a platform for the assembly of protein-lipid complexes. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Shape transformations triggered by phospholipid modification of the most external bilayer were indeed influenced by the presence of other underlying membranes that played a role comparable to that of a passive cytoskeleton layer. (inserm.fr)
  • It appears that in real cells, invaginations of the plasma membrane or budding of organelles could be triggered by a phospholipid transfer from one leaflet to the other caused, for instance, by the aminophospholipid translocase which is present in eukaryotic membranes. (inserm.fr)
  • Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine are examples of two important phospholipids that are found in plasma membranes. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Biological membranes remain fluid because of the unsaturated hydrophobic tails, which prevent phospholipid molecules from packing together and forming a solid. (lumenlearning.com)
  • whereas, the phosphate-containing group is hydrophilic and interacts with water.The phospholipid bilayer is the major component of all cellular membranes. (encyclios.org)
  • PC accounts for approximately 50% of total cellular phospholipids and is the most abundant phospholipid in mammalian membranes. (transpologique.ca)
  • Phospholipids are found in all living cells and in the bilayers of cell membranes. (hygeia-analytics.com)
  • When many phospholipids line up, they form a double layer that is characteristic of all cell membranes. (org.in)
  • Mar 10, 2009· Cholesterol plays an important role in regulating the properties of phospholipid membranes. (org.in)
  • If phospholipids are placed in water, they form into micelles, which are lipid molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in aqueous solutions. (lumenlearning.com)
  • A single phospholipid molecule has a phosphate group on one end, called the "head," and two side-by-side chains of fatty acids that make up the lipid "tails. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Each lipid molecule, or phospholipid, contains a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. (org.in)
  • A phospholipid is a type of lipid molecule that is the main component of the cell membrane.Lipids are molecules that include fats, waxes, and some vitamins, among others. (org.in)
  • There is the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds eukaryotic cells, cholesterol phospholipid bilayers, protein lipid bilayers, phase transition lipid bilayer, lipid bilayer membrane. (org.in)
  • The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. (org.in)
  • Because of the chemical and structural nature of the phospholipid bilayer (hydrophobic core), only lipid-soluble molecules and some small molecules are able to freely pass through the lipid bilayer. (org.in)
  • Since it is established that thyroid hormones regulate many lipid metabolizing enzymes, it is possible that the deacylation-reacylation cycle of certain phospholipids may also be regulated by thyroid hormones. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Anionic phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylserine) are found on the cytoplasmic surface and neutral phospholipids (eg, phosphatidylcholine) predominate on the external surface. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • One of the key phospholipids (PL) in a cell membrane is phosphatidylcholine (PC), an indispensable molecule for cell creation, regeneration, and differentiation. (e-wellnesssolutions.com)
  • Liposomes use phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine (PC), to make a special bilayer that is both water- and fat-soluble. (e-wellnesssolutions.com)
  • Phospholipid-based delivery applications become very interesting as they offer many oral and topical applications for phospholipids in general, and purified phosphatidylcholine (PPC) in particular. (e-wellnesssolutions.com)
  • Naturally present in milk as part of the milk fat globule membrane, milk phospholipids are complex lipids that are clinically proven to help manage the effects of stress, helping maintain performance by staying focused and positive. (dairyreporter.com)
  • A cell's plasma membrane contain proteins and other lipids (such as cholesterol) within the phospholipid bilayer. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Phospholipids " - lipids (fat molecules) in which phosphoric acid as well as fatty acids are attached to a glycerol backbone. (hygeia-analytics.com)
  • Phospholipid molecules, like molecules of many lipids, are composed of a hydrophilic "head" and one or more hydrophobic "tails. (org.in)
  • Phospholipid is a general term that includes all lipids containing phosphorus. (aquaculturealliance.org)
  • Dr. Laganowsky, a former CSU, Chico Biological Sciences major, discusses his revolutionary research methods for determining interaction at the atomic level between membrane proteins and the lipids called phospholipids. (csuchico.edu)
  • The polar lipids of the strain SCRC-2738, strain S-7, PSB and E. coli K12 were identified to be phospholipids. (elsevier.com)
  • Bilayer mixing, fusion, and lysis following the interaction of populations of cationic and anionic phospholipid bilayer vesicles. (harvard.edu)
  • The cell membrane consists of two adjacent layers of phospholipids, which form a bilayer. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Phospholipid Bilayer The phospholipid bilayer consists of two adjacent sheets of phospholipids, arranged tail to tail. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Why do the phospholipids in the cell membrane form a bilayer? (org.in)
  • Sep 27, 2013· Bio 3.4 Phospholipid Bilayer Heather Newman. (org.in)
  • NEW Magnesium Phospholipid Complex is a unique combination that supports the nervous and psychological systems by combining magnesium with phosphatidylserine from sunflower. (thevitaminstall.com)
  • The influence of a phospholipid transmembrane redistribution on the shape of nonspherical flaccid vesicles was investigated at a fixed temperature by optical microscopy. (inserm.fr)
  • The fraction of phospholipid transfer necessary for a shape change from discoid to two connected vesicles was of the order of 0.1% of the total phospholipids. (inserm.fr)
  • It is hypothesized that complexes formed in vivo between bivalent, natural autoantibodies and beta-2 GP1 bind to translocated, anionic phospholipid on activated platelets at sites of endothelial injury. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • The autoantibodies react with epitopes of protein molecules that associate noncovalently with reagent phospholipids. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • 3) Only those phospholipid antibodies that are capable of cross-linking beta-2 GP1 molecules can interact efficiently with phospholipid surfaces in functional coagulation assays. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • The milk fat globule is a complex structure centered by triacylglycerol surrounded by a membrane that is bountifully comprised of proteins, phospholipids (such as phosphotidylserine), sphingomyelin, gangliosides and cerebrosides. (dairyreporter.com)
  • Complexes of negatively charged (anionic) phospholipids and endogenous plasma proteins provide epitopes recognized by natural autoantibodies. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • By preparing samples with Phree, analysts can remove proteins and phospholipids in four short steps resulting in immediate improvements to their chromatography work. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Phospholipid synthesis occurs in the cytosolic side of ER membrane that is studded with proteins that act in synthesis (GPAT and LPAAT acyl transferases, phosphatase and choline phosphotransferase) and allocation (flippase and floppase). (transpologique.ca)
  • The effect of a thyroid condition on phospholipid fatty acid metabolism was examined in isolated rat hearts perfused in Langendorff mode for 30 min with (1-$\rm\sp{14}C\rbrack oleic$ acid (18:1) bound to albumin in a 1:1 molar ratio. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Synthesis of phospholipids in M. buryatense 5G(B1) appears to follow the E. coli paradigm where a phosphatidic acid precursor is synthesized from glycerol 3-phosphate and FA precursors (Yao and Rock, 2012). (transpologique.ca)
  • In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. (ul.ie)
  • Incorporation of exogenous docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into bacterial phospholipids was examined as a method for DHA-linked phospholipid production. (elsevier.com)
  • These autoantibodies are called phospholipid or cardiolipin antibodies when they are detected by immunoassays that employ anionic phospholipids as substrates. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • The best characterized phospholipid-binding protein is beta-2 glycoprotein 1 (beta-2 GP1) and most immunoassays for phospholipid antibodies employ a composite substrate consisting of cardiolipin plus beta-2 GP1. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Most phospholipid antibodies bind to an epitope associated with domain 1 near the N-terminus. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Phospholipid antibodies detected by functional assays are often called lupus anticoagulants because they produce prolongation of phospholipid-dependent clotting in vitro and are found in some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • Not all phospholipid antibodies possess lupus anticoagulant activity. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)
  • These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. (ul.ie)
  • Finally, the structural composition of phospholipids of marine origin is discussed. (ul.ie)
  • Therefore, this review focuses on recent publications concerning marine phospholipids and their structural composition and related health benefits. (ul.ie)
  • Our result shows that the presence of closely related tOx-PLs, which differ only in the chemical composition of the oxidized fatty acyl chains at the sn -2 position, exerts considerably different effect on the physicochemical properties of non-oxidized phospholipid particles containing them. (edu.au)
  • Membrane bound phospholipids require a distinct fatty acid composition. (umanitoba.ca)
  • This cycle must be carefully regulated so that the correct fatty acid composition of the phospholipids are maintained, otherwise the normal functioning of the membrane and membrane bound enzymes could be jeopardized. (umanitoba.ca)
  • The paper is divided into three sections: Section 1 presents an overview of the relationship between structures and biological activities (pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory) of several phospholipids with respect to inflammation. (ul.ie)
  • The third carbon of the glycerol backbone is also occupied by a modified phosphate group However, just a phosphate group attached to a diacylglycerol does not qualify as a phospholipid. (lumenlearning.com)
  • To qualify as a phospholipid, the phosphate group should be modified by an alcohol. (lumenlearning.com)
  • A phosphate group alone attached to a diacylglycerol does not qualify as a phospholipid. (encyclios.org)
  • A phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule which means it has both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic component. (lumenlearning.com)
  • If a drop of phospholipids are placed in water, the phospholipids spontaneously forms a structure known as a micelle, with their hydrophilic heads oriented toward the water. (lumenlearning.com)
  • A phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule, meaning it has a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic part. (encyclios.org)
  • The hydrophilic head groups of the phospholipids face the aqueous solution. (encyclios.org)
  • Phospholipids are naturally occurring in a wide range of plant and animal food sources and are especially abundant in mammalian milk. (dairyreporter.com)
  • Bovine milk contains a broader range of phospholipids compared to non-mammalian milk sources. (dairyreporter.com)
  • In addition, we show new or updated phylogenetic analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis from glycerol phosphate, isoprenoids, and polar head groups. (hindawi.com)
  • This work compares the presence of phospholipids in plasma samples after two different sample preparation techniques, protein precipitation and simultaneous protein precipitation and phospholipid removal using a new product, Phree. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • When monitoring the total phospholipid profile, the protein precipitated plasma showed a large amount of phospholipids. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Recent research trends indicate that dairy phospholipids possess anti-inflammatory properties, which has led to an increased interest into their molecular structures and reputed health benefits. (ul.ie)
  • Oxidation of glycerophospholipids results in the formation of large variety of oxidized phospholipid products that differs significantly in their chemical compositions and molecular structures. (edu.au)
  • Transcriptional regulation of yeast phospholipid biosynthetic genes. (umass.edu)
  • The last several years have been witness to significant developments in understanding transcriptional regulation of the yeast phospholipid structural genes. (umass.edu)
  • New Jersey, United States,- Market Research Intellect sheds light on the market scope, potential, and performance perspective of the Global Lecithin and Phospholipids Market by carrying out an extensive market analysis. (3wnews.org)
  • The report also gives an industry-wide competitive analysis, highlighting the different market segments, individual market share of leading players, and the contemporary market scenario and the most vital elements to study while assessing the global Lecithin and Phospholipids market. (3wnews.org)
  • The research study includes the latest updates about the COVID-19 impact on the Lecithin and Phospholipids sector. (3wnews.org)
  • The Lecithin and Phospholipids market report is extensively categorized into different product types and applications. (3wnews.org)
  • The segmentation included in the report is beneficial for readers to capitalize on the selection of appropriate segments for the Lecithin and Phospholipids sector and can help companies in deciphering the optimum business move to reach their desired business goals. (3wnews.org)
  • The Lecithin and Phospholipids market report provides successfully marked contemplated policy changes, favorable circumstances, industry news, developments, and trends. (3wnews.org)
  • The data on growth and trends focuses on new technologies, market capacities, raw materials, CAPEX cycle, and the dynamic structure of the Lecithin and Phospholipids market. (3wnews.org)
  • This study analyzes the growth of Lecithin and Phospholipids based on the present, past and futuristic data and will render complete information about the Lecithin and Phospholipids industry to the market-leading industry players that will guide the direction of the Lecithin and Phospholipids market through the forecast period. (3wnews.org)
  • The report contains historical revenue and volume that backing information about the market capacity, and it helps to evaluate conjecture numbers for key areas in the Lecithin and Phospholipids market. (3wnews.org)
  • Additionally, it includes a share of each segment of the Lecithin and Phospholipids market, giving methodical information about types and applications of the market. (3wnews.org)
  • This would be considered a phosphatidate (diacylglycerol 3-phosphate), the precursor to phospholipids. (lumenlearning.com)
  • It is phosphatidate (diacylglycerol 3-phosphate), the precursor of phospholipids. (encyclios.org)
  • This novel phospholipid therapy has attracted considerable interest following publication of promising results in a phase II clinical trial in which it showed evidence of inducing regression in fatty plaques or atheromas. (clinicaltrialsarena.com)
  • Collectively, these findings present a complex picture for transcriptional regulation of the phospholipid biosynthetic genes. (umass.edu)
  • In addition, databases resulting from a plethora of genome-wide studies have identified regulatory signals that control one of the essential phospholipid biosynthetic genes, PIS1. (umass.edu)
  • Here, we have tried to present a complete summary of the transcription factors and mechanisms that regulate the phospholipid biosynthetic genes. (umass.edu)
  • Sections 2 and 3 are dedicated to the structures, functions, compositions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. (ul.ie)
  • Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. (ul.ie)
  • Finally, the strong nutritional value of dietary phospholipids are highlighted with respect to marine and animal origin and avenues for future research are discussed. (ul.ie)