Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.DiglyceridesReceptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)TritiumGlycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Osmotic Fragility: RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Ethanolamine: A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arachidonic AcidsEndosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectAcyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Some hemolysins attack the phospholipid of the host cytoplasmic membrane. Because the phospholipid lecithin ( ... Hemolysins damage the host cytoplasmic membrane, causing cell lysis and death. The activity of these toxins is most easily ... Sickle-cell disease or G6PD deficiency), or blood with too low a solute concentration (hypotonic to cells). Hemolysis can lead ... Excessive suction can cause the red blood cells to be smashed on their way through the hypodermic needle owing to turbulence ...
I caused by the decomposition of cell membrane in the phospholipid. Prostaglandin, and important as starting materials for the ...
LPE is present as a minor phospholipid in the cell membrane. Actually, LPE was detected in human serum, and its level is ... Lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) is a minor constituent of cell membranes. LPE plays a role in cell-mediated cell signaling ... which is typical of cell membranes. LPE results from partial hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine, which removes one of the ... Previous studies showed that LPE, a natural phospholipid, can accelerate ripening and prolong shelf life of tomato fruit, and ...
... is a phospholipid hydroperoxidase that protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant enzyme ... "Regulation of ferroptotic cancer cell death by GPX4". Cell. 156 (1-2): 317-31. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.12.010. PMC 4076414 . ... and AIF-mediated cell death". Cell Metab. 8 (3): 237-48. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2008.07.005. PMID 18762024. Ran Q, Liang H, Ikeno Y ... "Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase induces a delay in G1 of the cell cycle". Free Radic. Res. 37 (6): 621-30. ...
... also used in systems mimicking the cell membrane such as Nanodiscs. It is available commercially synthetically and is ... It is a diacylglycerol and phospholipid. The full name is 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. It is an important ... naturally present in eukaryotic cell membranes. Stephen G. Sligar. "Nanodisc Technology: Soluble Lipid Bilayer Systems for ... phospholipid for biophysical experiments and has been used to study various subjects such as lipid rafts. ...
Anti-phospholipid antibodies are targeted toward the phospholipids of the cell membrane. Studies have shown that antibodies ... These phospholipids are essential in the aiding the cells of the fetus to remain attached to the cells of the uterus with ... Natural killer cells misinterpret the fetal cells as cancer cells and attack them. An individual that presents with ... Also, there is presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the fetus that inhibit maternal cytotoxic T cells by ...
Phosphatidylcholine is a major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. Close regulation of its biosynthesis, degradation, ... a common biochemical process in cell membranes. Citicoline is naturally occurring in the cells of human and animal tissue, in ... phospholipids containing choline can be catabolized from neuronal membranes. These phospholipids include sphingomyelin and ... citicoline can increase the amount of choline available for acetylcholine synthesis and aid in rebuilding membrane phospholipid ...
Cell membranes contain fatty acid esters such as phospholipids. An α-amino acid has a central carbon (the α or alpha carbon) ... The cell membrane of nearly all organisms is primarily made up of a phospholipid bilayer, a micelle of hydrophobic fatty acid ... expelling the excess CO2 and resupplying the cells with O2. Cell membranes are generally impermeable to charged or large, polar ... certain acids will exist in their neutral form and will be membrane soluble, allowing them to cross the phospholipid bilayer. ...
2002). "1-Cys peroxiredoxin overexpression protects cells against phospholipid peroxidation-mediated membrane damage". Proc. ... It is involved in redox regulation of the cell; it can reduce H(2)O(2) and short chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0081-KIAA0120) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1". DNA Res ...
Simmons D, Seed B (June 1988). "The Fc gamma receptor of natural killer cells is a phospholipid-linked membrane protein". ... Ravetch JV, Perussia B (August 1989). "Alternative membrane forms of Fc gamma RIII(CD16) on human natural killer cells and ... CD45 and zeta and gamma chains on human natural killer cells". Immunology and Cell Biology. 72 (1): 87-96. doi:10.1038/icb. ... Le Coniat M, Kinet JP, Berger R (1990). "The human genes for the alpha and gamma subunits of the mast cell receptor for ...
It is used to investigate membrane qualities of the phospholipid bilayers of cell membranes. One of its most important ... M. A.; Magee A. I. (2007). "Optical techniques for imaging membrane lipid microdomains in living cells". Cell Dev. Biol. 18 (5 ... When Laurdan is located in the cell membrane its emission maximum is centered at 440 nm in gel-phase, and at 490 nm in liquid- ... Electronic microscope Fluorescence Cell membrane Fluidity Lipid Raft Gregorio Weber Parasassi, T; Gratton E.; Levi M. (1997). " ...
Simmons D, Seed B (Jun 1988). "The Fc gamma receptor of natural killer cells is a phospholipid-linked membrane protein". Nature ... Ravetch JV, Perussia B (Aug 1989). "Alternative membrane forms of Fc gamma RIII(CD16) on human natural killer cells and ... Cell type-specific expression of two genes that differ in single nucleotide substitutions". The Journal of Experimental ... Zocchi MR, Rubartelli A, Morgavi P, Poggi A (Sep 1998). "HIV-1 Tat inhibits human natural killer cell function by blocking L- ...
It also involves the conversion of inositol phospholipids in the cell membrane. She also worked on the process of agonist- ... This led to a discovery that there are cell-surface receptors that are stimulated by hormones and neurotransmitters controlled ... stimulated incorporation of radioactive phosphate into inositol phospholipids. Jones was first elected to the House of Commons ...
In all organisms, cell membranes are made of molecules known as phospholipids. These molecules possess both a polar part that ... The major structure in cell membranes is a double layer of these phospholipids, which is called a lipid bilayer. The ... Like bacteria, the cell membranes of archaea are usually bounded by a cell wall and they swim using one or more flagella. ... One possibility is that this occurred before the evolution of cells, when the lack of a typical cell membrane allowed ...
This region is usually very thermodynamically stable and occurs only in the phospholipid membrane between cells. The ... "Membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in suspension-cultured tobacco cells". The Plant Journal. 1 (3): 333-343. doi ... "High affinity binding of a fungal oligopeptide elicitor to parsley plasma membranes triggers multiple defense responses". Cell ... Figure 1 in shows how tomato cells with no introduction to an Arabidopsis FLS2 gene show no response to the perception of ...
Phosphoinositols are derived from the phospholipids found in plasma membrane of the cell. Phosphoinositols are known to be key ... The research measured the chemical surges occurring in plant cells moments after the plant is reoriented and the response time ...
Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. All of the different cells of an animal ... Metazoans do not include the sponges, which have undifferentiated cells. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell ... The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... The cells of single-cell protozoans have the same basic structure as those of multicellular animals but some parts are ...
Membran sel (bahasa Inggris: cell membrane, plasma membrane, plasmalemma) adalah fitur universal yang dimiliki oleh semua jenis ... "The dipole potential of phospholipid membranes and methods for its detection". Division of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, ... 2008). "Membrane lipids: where they are and how they behave". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology 9 (2): 112-24. PMID ... "Cell membrane". John W. Kimball. Diakses tanggal 2010-07-20. *^ (Inggris)George J Siegel, Bernard W Agranoff, R Wayne Albers, ...
Every living cell is encased in a membrane that separates it from its surroundings. Cellular membranes are composed of a ... Phospholipids are the main structural components of all cellular membranes. Calcium phosphate salts assist in stiffening bones ... which form all cell membranes. Demonstrating the link between phosphorus and life, elemental phosphorus was first isolated from ... Phospholipids are derived from glycerol with two of the glycerol hydroxyl (OH) protons replaced by fatty acids as an ester, and ...
Phospholipase A2 causes hemolysis by lysing the phospholipid cell membranes of red blood cells. Amino acid oxidases and ... across the nerve cell membrane sends a depolarizing current towards the end of the nerve cell (cell terminus). B) When the ... Phospholipases A2 hydrolyze phospholipids and thus could act on bacterial cell surfaces, providing novel antimicrobial ( ... the new molecule attracts and binds fat and ruptures cell membranes. Snake example: Okinawan habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) ...
phospholipases will hydrolyze phospholipid; assist to break the epithelial cell membrane structure allowing the hyphal tip to ... Azoles are agents that can deplete ergosterol, the main component of the fungus cell wall membrane, in order to inhibit fungal ... echinocandin are a type of non-competitive inhibitors of cell wall 1,3-b-D-glucan synthase complex mainly used to treat fungal ... Conidia is a type of simple and unicellular body that could take the form of multicellular cell with different shapes, sizes, ...
The cell membrane consists of phospholipids. At warmer temperatures, phospholipids exist in a more fluid state as a result of ... The more fluid the cell membrane, the greater PKC-α's activity. At cooler temperatures, phospholipids are found in a solid ... As phospholipids become stationary, they assume a particular orientation within the membrane. Phospholipids that solidify at an ... This prevents foreign molecules from entering the cell and helps regulate the internal environment of the cell. Cells infected ...
... of the cell membrane, thereby placing the membrane in a less fluid, more crystalline state. (In ordinary circumstances membrane ... sterols increase the packing of the phospholipid bilayer making the plasma membrane more dense.) As a result, the cell's ... is a hydroxypyridone antifungal that interferes with active membrane transport, cell membrane integrity, and fungal respiratory ... Miltefosine disrupts fungal cell membrane dynamics by interacting with ergosterol Apart from side-effects like liver damage or ...
The proteins kill fungi by inducing apoptosis and/or forming pores on the cell membrane. Campos-Olivas R, Bruix M, Santoro J, ... A cationic site adjacent to a hydrophobic stretch on the protein surface may constitute a phospholipid binding site. Human ...
... is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane. It plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in ... side of the cell membrane by the enzyme flippase. However, when a cell undergoes apoptosis, phosphatidylserine is no longer ... Scott syndrome, a bleeding disorder caused by defective scrambling of membrane phospholipids. Biochem Bioph Acta 2004; 1636:119 ... the mechanism in platelets for transportation of PS from the inner platelet membrane surface to the outer membrane surface is ...
... and membrane association in COS cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (2): 728-32. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.728. PMC 53339 . ... "Amino-terminal basic residues of Src mediate membrane binding through electrostatic interaction with acidic phospholipids". ... Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). " ... Zhou W, Parent LJ, Wills JW, Resh MD (1994). "Identification of a membrane-binding domain within the amino-terminal region of ...
Cell membrane (WN78RGXNV) by 3DPediaTV on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products in Desk Toys. ... product/WN78RGXNV/phospholipids-bilayer-cell-membrane /, ,input type=hidden class= name=confirmation value= ...
Permeation of the cell membrane leading to cell death is a mechanism used by a large number of membrane-lytic peptides. Some ... insertion and destabilization of phospholipid bilayer membranes by alpha-helical antimicrobial and cell non-selective membrane- ... Some lytic peptides are not cell-selective and lyse different microorganisms and normal mammalian cells, while others are ... membrane destruction/solubilization via a carpet mechanism. This review, which is focused on the different stages of membrane ...
Liposome Model Systems to Study the Endosomal Escape of Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Transport across Phospholipid Membranes ... Transport across Phospholipid Membranes Induced by a Proton Gradient," Journal of Drug Delivery, vol. 2011, Article ID 897592, ... Fatemeh Madani, Alex Perálvarez-Marín, and Astrid Gräslund, "Liposome Model Systems to Study the Endosomal Escape of Cell- ...
A T-cell receptor escape channel allows broad T-cell response to CD1b and membrane phospholipids Final publishers version, 2 ... A T-cell receptor escape channel allows broad T-cell response to CD1b and membrane phospholipids. Shahine, A., Reinink, P., ... Here we describe T-cell autoreactivity towards ubiquitous human membrane phospholipids presented by CD1b. These T-cells ... CD1 proteins are expressed on dendritic cells, where they display lipid antigens to T-cell receptors (TCRs). ...
105 cells) sample of U937 cells. For the detection of dead cells, EthD-1 was used. This fluorophore is membrane impermeable and ... serving here as a model of gelatinase-expressing cells (47) . After 5 min, the cells were washed, and the fluorescence in cells ... Cells were incubated with Adriamycin (200 ng/ml) encapsulated in liposomes (200 μm total phospholipid; POPC/POPE, 80:20 molar ... of Novel Peptide Inhibitors of Type IV Collagenases to Phospholipid Membranes and Use in Liposome Targeting to Tumor Cells in ...
... arachidonate-PC substantially reduced in B220+ T cell compared with control cells. Using membrane homogenates B220+ T cells ... Incorporation, distribution, and turnover of arachidonic acid within membrane phospholipids of B220+ T cells from autoimmune- ... Incorporation, distribution, and turnover of arachidonic acid within membrane phospholipids of B220+ T cells from autoimmune- ... It remains possible that disturbances in the movement of arachidonate within phospholipids of B220+ T cells play a role in the ...
... that alter cell membrane phospholipid content. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of bacterial resistance to cationic ... cell membrane phospholipid metabolism (glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase and cardiolipin synthase). In this work, we ... Enterococcus faecalis Diverts the Antibiotic Molecule from the Division Septum and Remodels Cell Membrane Phospholipids. ... Daptomycin (DAP), a cell membrane-targeting cationic antimicrobial lipopeptide, is the only antibiotic with in vitro ...
We found that peroxidation of membrane phospholipids leads to the activation of phospholipase A2 in platelets (T. Fujii). We ... We chemically synthesized unnatural phospholipids and studied their function in biological membranes (T. Muramatsu). Less ... We purified phospholipase A2 from platelets and mast cells and studied a mechanism for its activation (K. Inoue). We also ... Publications] Y.Nakagawa and K.Waku: The metabolism of phospholipids and its relation in monocytes and macrophages Prog.Lipid ...
The translocation of phospholipids and wax esters from the cytoplasmic to outer membrane of the cell envelope in Micrococcus ... The translocation of phospholipids and wax esters from the cytoplasmic to outer membrane of the cell envelope in Micrococcus ... The translocation of phospholipids and wax esters from the cytoplasmic to outer membrane of the cell envelope in Micrococcus ... The translocation of phospholipids and wax esters from the cytoplasmic to outer membrane of the cell envelope in Micrococcus ...
In certain pathologic states, such as sickle cell anemia, phospholipid asymmetry is altered. Although several methods can be ... Moreover, these methods fail to identify subpopulations of cells that have lost their normal phospholipid asymmetry. Using ... able to identify and quantify red cells that had lost their phospholipid asymmetry in populations as small as 1 million cells. ... sickle cell anemia under oxygenated conditions demonstrated the presence of subpopulations of cells that had lost phospholipid ...
The incorporation of radioactive fatty acids into the phospholipids of nerve-cell-body membranes in vivo. Evidence for highly ... The incorporation of radioactive fatty acids into the phospholipids of nerve-cell-body membranes in vivo. Evidence for highly ... The incorporation of radioactive fatty acids into the phospholipids of nerve-cell-body membranes in vivo. Evidence for highly ... The incorporation of radioactive fatty acids into the phospholipids of nerve-cell-body membranes in vivo. Evidence for highly ...
Global structural rearrangement of the cell penetrating ribonuclease colicin E3 on interaction with phospholipid membranes ... Global structural rearrangement of the cell penetrating ribonuclease colicin E3 on interaction with phospholipid membranes. ...
Myosin-I moves actin filaments on a phospholipid substrate: implications for membrane targeting. H G Zot, H G Zot ... H G Zot, S K Doberstein, T D Pollard; Myosin-I moves actin filaments on a phospholipid substrate: implications for membrane ... We prepared planar lipid membranes on a glass support by passive fusion of lipid vesicles (Brian, A. A., and H. M. McConnell. ... The mass of lipid that bound to the glass was the same for membranes of 2 and 20% phosphatidylserine in phosphatidylcholine and ...
Sec6/8 complexes on trans-Golgi network and plasma membrane regulate late stages of exocytosis in mammalian cells. J. Cell Biol ... Sec6/8 complexes on trans-Golgi network and plasma membrane regulate late stages of exocytosis in mammalian cells. J. Cell Biol ... Instead, vesicles are diffusely tethered to the daughter cell plasma membrane resulting in isotropic daughter cell expansion. ... Cyclical regulation of the exocyst and cell polarity determinants for polarized cell growth. Mol. Biol. Cell. ...
Szejtli J, Cserháti T, Szögyi M. Interactions between cyclodextrins and cell-membrane phospholipids. Carbohydrate Polymers. ... Szejtli, J. ; Cserháti, T. ; Szögyi, M. / Interactions between cyclodextrins and cell-membrane phospholipids. In: Carbohydrate ... Szejtli, J., Cserháti, T., & Szögyi, M. (1986). Interactions between cyclodextrins and cell-membrane phospholipids. ... Szejtli, J, Cserháti, T & Szögyi, M 1986, Interactions between cyclodextrins and cell-membrane phospholipids, Carbohydrate ...
Phospholipids comprise an important class of biological molecules that serve both structural and functional roles in the human ... Cell Membranes. According to scientists at the City University of New York, phospholipids can form a variety of structures when ... Phospholipid synthesis is accomplished within your cells from simpler precursors that are derived from your diet. B vitamins, ... Functional Phospholipids. Like many other lipid-containing molecules, phospholipids can be broken down in your body and ...
In this article we shall consider the main functions of the cell membrane, the composition of membranes and clinical conditions ... in which a portion of the cell membrane is abnormal. ... Cell membranes are responsible for a variety of important ... Functions of the Cell Membrane. Cell membranes are vital for the normal functioning of all the cells in our bodies. Their main ... Functions of the Cell Membrane. Cell membranes are vital for the normal functioning of all the cells in our bodies. Their main ...
Cell Biology (cytology) Which organelle makes the phospholipids that compose the cells plasma membrane. ?. The cellular ... Cell Biology (cytology) How does ATP enable transport proteins to move ions across a cell membrane. ?. Once translated, ... However, phospholipids are the principle component of organelle and cell membranes in both unicellular and multicellular ... membrane is the organelle that makes the phospholipids that compose the cells plasma membrane. This is made as a collection of ...
The basic structure of cell membrane is a: a. protein bilayer. b. protein-impregnated phospholipid bilayer. c. .... Chemistry ... A cell (2n = 4) has undergone cell division. Daughter cells have the following chromosome content. Has this cel.... Human ... REFLECT AND APPLY What are some possible advantages to the cell in combining phosphorylation with allosteric co.... ... Cellular respiration is completed in the ______. a. nucleus b. mitochondrion c. plasma membrane d. cytoplasm. Human Biology ( ...
Mlakar, Marina; Cuculić, Vlado; Frka, Sanja; Gašparović, Blaženka (2018) Copper-phospholipid interaction at cell membrane model ... Phospholipid membrane ; Copper (II) mixed ligand complex ; Voltammetry Langmuir monolayer ; Electrophoretic zeta potential. ... all used as models for hydrophobic cell membranes. Penetration of copper ions into the PG layer was facilitated by the ... lipid complex formation is a significant contribution to the understanding of complex processes at natural cell membranes. ...
... phospholipids form an excellent two-layer cell membrane that separates fluid within the cell from the fluid outside of the cell ... The plasma membrane must be very flexible to allow certain cells, such as red blood cells and white blood cells, to change ... Phospholipid. Main fabric of the membrane. Cholesterol. Attached between phospholipids and between the two phospholipid layers ... Membrane Components, Membrane Fluidity, Membrane Function, Membrane Structure, Peripheral Protein, Plasma Membrane, S. J. ...
The phospholipid is made up of a polar head and two non-polar... ... A major type of lipid found in cell membranes is the ... A major type of lipid found in cell membranes is the phospholipid. The phospholipid is made up of a polar head and two non- ... The tails are fatty acid chains, and their length and properties determine the fluidity of the cell membrane. When animals ... Find Definition Of Cell Membrane on TheWeb.com. Explore Now! 1000+ Topics. Trending Results. ...
Both organelles produce energy, in the form of ATP, for the cell... ... Similarities shared between mitochondria and chloroplasts include having both an inner and outer membrane and a phospholipid ... Similarities shared between mitochondria and chloroplasts include having both an inner and outer membrane and a phospholipid ... At some point, these prokaryotes found larger cells to become their host. While mitochondria entered these larger cells as an ...
  • Acanthamoeba myosin-I bound to substrates of nitrocellulose or planar lipid membranes on glass moved actin filaments at an average velocity of 0.2 micron/s. (rupress.org)
  • The maximum monomer absorption wavelength of a frequently used external membrane probe, Merocyanine 540, can be related to the location of the binding site for the dye within lipid membranes. (springer.com)
  • To examine this possibility we used polarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and found that the peptide is predominantly α-helical and oriented nearly parallel with the surface of zwitterionic-lipid membranes. (portlandpress.com)
  • This review, which is focused on the different stages of membrane permeation induced by representatives of amphipathic alpha-helical antimicrobial and cell non-selective lytic peptides distinguishes between the 'carpet' mechanism, which holds for antimicrobial peptides versus the 'barrel-stave' mechanism, which holds for cell non-selective lytic peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Due to the presence of two such dissimilar appendages on the same compound, chemists call phospholipids 'amphipathic,' a property that is essential for the continued existence of every cell in your body. (livestrong.com)
  • Because the phosphate group in the phospholipid is charged, it allows this lipid to mix with both fat and water, making it amphipathic. (livestrong.com)
  • Permeation of the cell membrane leading to cell death is a mechanism used by a large number of membrane-lytic peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Some lytic peptides are not cell-selective and lyse different microorganisms and normal mammalian cells, while others are specific to either type of cells. (nih.gov)
  • Despite extensive studies, the mode of action of membrane-lytic peptides is not fully understood and the basis for their selectivity towards specific target cells is not known. (nih.gov)
  • Fatemeh Madani, Alex Perálvarez-Marín, and Astrid Gräslund, "Liposome Model Systems to Study the Endosomal Escape of Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Transport across Phospholipid Membranes Induced by a Proton Gradient," Journal of Drug Delivery , vol. 2011, Article ID 897592, 7 pages, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Without a fluid and functional cell wall, the membrane becomes rigid, functionality decreases, and health and well-being diminish. (e-wellnesssolutions.com)
  • The paucimolecular model immediately became popular and it dominated cell membrane studies for the following 30 years, until it became rivaled by the fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson (1972). (wikipedia.org)
  • You should learn that membranes are fluid, with components that move, change, and perform vital physiological roles as they allow cells to communicate with each other and their environment. (curriki.org)
  • Fluid that fills the inside of the cell. (studystack.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS The present study demonstrates that vitreous fluid contains shed membrane microparticles of endothelial, platelet, and retinal origin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Full expression of DAP resistance requires additional mutations in enzymes (glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase and cardiolipin synthase) that alter cell membrane phospholipid content. (rice.edu)
  • Application of the cardiolipin (CL)-specific fluorescent dye 10- N -nonyl-acridine orange has recently revealed CL-rich domains in the septal regions and at the poles of the Bacillus subtilis membrane (F. Kawai, M. Shoda, R. Harashima, Y. Sadaie, H. Hara, and K. Matsumoto, J. Bacteriol. (asm.org)
  • Staining with the cardiolipin (CL)-specific fluorescent dye 10- N -nonyl-acridine orange (NAO) has provided unequivocal visualization of CL-rich domains in E. coli membranes, which were located mostly in the septal regions and at the poles ( 33 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, ROS oxidize polyunsaturated fatty acids in mitochondrial cardiolipin and other phospholipids, and this impairs membrane integrity and leads to cytochrome c release into cytosol and apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Significance: An ancient anionic phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), ubiquitously present in prokaryotic and eukaryotic membranes, is essential for several structural and functional purposes. (cdc.gov)
  • The existence of heterogeneities in the lateral distribution of phospholipids and glycolipids was first revealed by a photo-cross-linking experiment in the membrane of the gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus ( 60 ). (asm.org)
  • Myosin-I moves actin filaments on a phospholipid substrate: implications for membrane targeting. (rupress.org)
  • Myosin-I moved actin filaments on planar membranes of 5-40% but not 0-2% phosphatidylserine. (rupress.org)
  • We used the cooperative activation of Acanthamoeba myosin-I ATPase by low concentrations of actin to assess the association of phospholipids with myosin-I. Under conditions where activity depends on the binding of actin to the tail of myosin-I (Albanesi, J. P., H. Fujisaki, and E. D. Korn. (rupress.org)
  • These include effects on actin assemblies at cellular membranes, the organization of endosomal subcompartments, Ca 2+ -regulated exocytosis and midbody formation during cytokinesis. (nature.com)
  • Figure 3: The regulation of membrane-actin interactions by annexin A2. (nature.com)
  • On the interior of the cell these serve as anchors for the actin and tubulin microfibrils. (wikibooks.org)
  • Being unable to rely solely on NAO to characterize the localization of CL in Escherichia coli cells, we instead used quantitative fluorescence microscopy, mass spectrometry, and mutants deficient in specific classes of anionic phospholipids. (asm.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that aberrations in the movement of arachidonoyl-phospholipids are associated with and may potentially contribute to abnormal T cell function, the incorporation, distribution, and turnover of AA within the membrane glycerolipids of cells that are known to exhibit immunoregulatory disturbances was examined. (rupress.org)
  • Genetic analyses indicate that the dual interactions of Sec3 with phospholipids and Cdc42 control its function in yeast cells. (rupress.org)
  • The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has clearly demonstrated that the progressive nature of T2DM reflects an ongoing decline in β -cell function without a change in insulin sensitivity [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reductions in both β -cell mass and function contribute to the pathogenesis of β -cell failure in human T2DM [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The bilayer is highly selective about what it lets through, as its primary function is as a protective barrier for the cell. (everything2.com)
  • Certain substances must be allowed in and out for the cell (and the surrounding cells) to survive and function, while others must be kept out. (everything2.com)
  • However, not everything follows along a concentration gradient, such potassium ( K+ ), which must be constantly taken up into the cell, against the gradient, in order for the cell to function. (everything2.com)
  • Recently, a number of novel genetic models for the analysis of PA function in vivo and analytical methods to quantify PA levels in cells have been developed and promise to enhance our understanding of PA functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this setting, the interest in the function of PA as a regulator of membrane transport rose from two strands of work. (frontiersin.org)
  • What Is The Main Function Of The Phospholipid Bilayer? (enotes.com)