A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS and pancreatic sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. It occurs as a component of VENOMS and as a mammalian secretory phospholipase A2. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a long amino-terminal domain, a conserved group III-specific domain, and a long carboxyl-terminal domain.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.
A subcategory of structurally-related phospholipases A2 that do not require calcium for activity.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from PANCREATIC JUICE. Members of this group have specificity for PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
Saturated indolizines that are fused six and five-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to ACETYL COENZYME A. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, generates two bioactive products during the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein: use of a novel inhibitor. (1/3436)

A novel and potent azetidinone inhibitor of the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), i.e. platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, is described for the first time. This inhibitor, SB-222657 (Ki=40+/-3 nM, kobs/[I]=6. 6x10(5) M-1.s-1), is inactive against paraoxonase, is a poor inhibitor of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and has been used to investigate the role of Lp-PLA2 in the oxidative modification of lipoproteins. Although pretreatment with SB-222657 did not affect the kinetics of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by Cu2+ or an azo free-radical generator as determined by assay of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs), conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, in both cases it inhibited the elevation in lysophosphatidylcholine content. Moreover, the significantly increased monocyte chemoattractant activity found in a non-esterified fatty acid fraction from LDL oxidized by Cu2+ was also prevented by pretreatment with SB-222657, with an IC50 value of 5.0+/-0.4 nM. The less potent diastereoisomer of SB-222657, SB-223777 (Ki=6.3+/-0.5 microM, kobs/[I]=1.6x10(4) M-1.s-1), was found to be significantly less active in both assays. Thus, in addition to generating lysophosphatidylcholine, a known biologically active lipid, these results demonstrate that Lp-PLA2 is capable of generating oxidized non-esterified fatty acid moieties that are also bioactive. These findings are consistent with our proposal that Lp-PLA2 has a predominantly pro-inflammatory role in atherogenesis. Finally, similar studies have demonstrated that a different situation exists during the oxidation of high-density lipoprotein, with enzyme(s) other than Lp-PLA2 apparently being responsible for generating lysophosphatidylcholine.  (+info)

Association of the inflammatory state in active juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia and reduced lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity. (2/3436)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of apolipoprotein B (Apo B)- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins and between lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) as a function of the inflammatory state. METHODS: Twenty-six JRA patients and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects with normal lipid levels participated in the study. Fourteen patients had active disease, and 12 had inactive disease. Plasma lipoproteins were fractionated by gradient ultracentrifugation into 9 subfractions, and their chemical composition and mass were determined. The PAF-AH activity associated with lipoprotein subfractions and the activity in plasma were also measured. RESULTS: Patients with active JRA had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels as compared with controls, due to the decrease in the mass of both the HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions. Patients with active JRA also had higher plasma triglyceride levels, mainly due to the higher triglyceride content of the very low-density lipoprotein plus the intermediate-density lipoprotein subfraction. The plasma PAF-AH activity in patients with active JRA was lower than that in controls, mainly due to the decrease in PAF-AH activity associated with the intermediate and dense low-density lipoprotein subclasses. The lipid abnormalities and the reduction in plasma PAF-AH activity were significantly correlated with plasma C-reactive protein levels and were not observed in patients with inactive JRA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that patients with active JRA exhibit low levels of HDL2 and HDL3 and are deficient in plasma PAF-AH activity. These alterations suggest that active JRA is associated with partial loss of the antiinflammatory activity of plasma Apo B- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins.  (+info)

Mechanisms of prostaglandin E2 release by intact cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2: evidence for a 'two-component' model. (3/3436)

Prostaglandin (PG) release in cells expressing constitutive cyclooxygenase-1 is known to be regulated by liberation of arachidonic acid by phospholipase A2 followed by metabolism by cyclooxygenase. However, the relative contribution of phospholipase A2 to the release of PGs in cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2 is not clear. We addressed this question by using radioimmunoassay to measure PGE2 release by human cells (A549) induced to express cyclooxygenase-2 (measured by Western blot analysis) by interleukin-1beta. Cells were either unstimulated or stimulated with agents known to activate phospholipase A2 (bradykinin, Des-Arg10-kallidin, or the calcium ionophore A23187) or treated with exogenous arachidonic acid. When cells were treated to express cyclooxygenase-2, the levels of PGE2 released over 15 min were undetectable; however, in the same cells stimulated with bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid, large amounts of prostanoid were produced. Using selective inhibitors/antagonists, we found that the effects of bradykinin were mediated by B2 receptor activation and that prostanoid release was due to cyclooxygenase-2, and not cyclooxygenase-1, activity. In addition, we show that the release of PGE2 stimulated by either bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid was inhibited by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor arachidonate trifluoromethyl ketone. Hence, we have demonstrated that PGE2 is released by two components: induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and supply of substrate, probably via activation of phospholipase A2. This is illustrated in A549 cells by a clear synergy between the cytokine interleukin-1beta and the kinin bradykinin.  (+info)

Pharmacology of LY315920/S-5920, [[3-(aminooxoacetyl)-2-ethyl-1- (phenylmethyl)-1H-indol-4-yl]oxy] acetate, a potent and selective secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor: A new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, SPI. (4/3436)

LY315920 is a potent, selective inhibitor of recombinant human, group IIA, nonpancreatic secretory PLA2 (sPLA2). In a chromogenic isolated enzyme assay, LY315920 inhibited sPLA2 activity with an IC50 of 9 +/- 1 nM or 7.3 x 10(-6) mole fraction, which approached the stiochiometric limit of this assay. The true potency of LY315920 was defined using a deoxycholate/phosphatidylcholine assay with a mole fraction of 1.5 x 10(-6). LY315920 was 40-fold less active against human, group IB, pancreatic sPLA2 and was inactive against cytosolic PLA2 and the constitutive and inducible forms of cyclooxygenase. Human sPLA2-induced release of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) from isolated guinea pig lung bronchoalveolar lavage cells was inhibited by LY315920 with an IC50 of 0.79 microM. The release of TXA2 from these cells by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or arachidonic acid was not inhibited. The i.v. administration of LY315920, 5 min before harvesting the bronchoalveolar lavage cells, resulted in the inhibition of sPLA2-induced production of TXA2 with an ED50 of 16.1 mg/kg. Challenge of guinea pig lung pleural strips with sPLA2 produced contractile responses that were suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by LY315920 with an apparent KB of 83 +/- 14 nM. Contractile responses induced by arachidonic acid were not altered. Intravenous or oral administration of LY315920 to transgenic mice expressing the human sPLA2 protein inhibited serum sPLA2 activity in a dose-related manner over a 4-h time course. LY315920 is a potent and selective sPLA2 inhibitor and represents a new class of anti-inflammatory agent designated SPI. This agent is currently undergoing clinical evaluation and should help to define the role of sPLA2 in various inflammatory disease states.  (+info)

Glutamate receptor signaling interplay modulates stress-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases and neuronal cell death. (5/3436)

Glutamate receptors modulate multiple signaling pathways, several of which involve mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, with subsequent physiological or pathological consequences. Here we report that stimulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, using platelet-activating factor (PAF) as a messenger, activates MAP kinases, including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) blocks this NMDA-signaling through PAF and MAP kinases, and the resultant cell death. Recombinant PAF-acetylhydrolase degrades PAF generated by NMDA-receptor activation; the hetrazepine BN50730 (an intracellular PAF receptor antagonist) also inhibits both NMDA-stimulated MAP kinases and neuronal cell death. The finding that the NMDA receptor-PAF-MAP kinase signaling pathway is attenuated by mGluR activation highlights the exquisite interplay between glutamate receptors in the decision making process between neuronal survival and death.  (+info)

Cytosolic phospholipase A2 in rat decidual cells: evidence for its role in decidualization. (6/3436)

We investigated the existence and possible role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in rat decidualized uteri. PLA2 activity in the cytosol of a decidualized uterine horn, induced by intraluminal oil infusion, was significantly higher than that in contralateral intact horn. The activity was almost completely depressed by cPLA2 inhibitors including arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (ATK). The immunoreactive signals for cPLA2 were intense in decidua and glandular epithelial cells. In vivo administration of ATK (0.1-100 microg) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of decidualization. These results show the presence of cPLA2 and its probable implication in decidualization in rat uterus.  (+info)

Modulation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes by cacospongionolide B, a novel inhibitor of human synovial phospholipase A2. (7/3436)

1. Cacospongionolide B is a novel marine metabolite isolated from the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. In in vitro studies, this compound inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) versus cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), and its potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) was similar to that of manoalide. 2. This activity was confirmed in vivo in the 8 h zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulating in the pouch exudate. Cacospongionolide B, that is bioavailable when is given orally, reduced the elevated levels of sPLA2 present in paw homogenates of rats with adjuvant arthritis. 3. This marine metabolite showed topical anti-inflammatory activity on the mouse ear oedema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) and decreased carrageenin paw oedema in mice after oral administration of 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1). 4. In the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, cacospongionolide B administered into the pouch, induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of eicosanoids and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in the exudates 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weak effect on cell migration. 5. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by cacospongionolide B, which did not significantly affect eicosanoid levels in serum, paw or stomach homogenates and did not induce toxic effects. 6 Cacospongionolide B is a new inhibitor of sPLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation. This marine metabolite was active after oral administration and able to modify TNFalpha levels, and may offer an interesting approach in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of alkenyl hydrolase (lysoplasmalogenase) in microsomes and identification of a plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 in cytosol of small intestinal epithelium. (8/3436)

A lysoplasmalogenase (EC; EC that liberates free aldehyde from 1-alk-1'-enyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (lysoplasmalogen) was identified and characterized in rat gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. Glycerophosphoethanolamine was produced in the reaction in equimolar amounts with the free aldehyde. The microsomal membrane associated enzyme was present throughout the length of the small intestines, with the highest activity in the jejunum and proximal ileum. The rate of alkenyl ether bond hydrolysis was dependent on the concentrations of microsomal protein and substrate, and was linear with respect to time. The enzyme hydrolyzed both ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogens with similar affinities; the Km values were 40 and 66 microM, respectively. The enzyme had no activity with 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (intact plasmalogen), thus indicating enzyme specificity for a free hydroxyl group at the sn-2 position. The specific activities were 70 nmol/min/mg protein and 57 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogen. The pH optimum was between 6.8 and 7.4. The enzyme required no known cofactors and was not affected by low mM levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, or EGTA. The detergents, Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and octyl glucoside inhibited the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of the lysoplasmalogenase were very similar to those of the enzyme in liver and brain microsomes. In developmental studies the specific activities of the small intestinal and liver enzymes increased markedly, 11.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively, in the first approximately 40 days of postnatal life. A plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 activity was identified in the cytosol of the small intestines (3.3 nmol/min/mg protein) and liver (0.3 nmol/min/mg protein) using a novel coupled enzyme assay with microsomal lysoplasmalogenase as the coupling enzyme.  (+info)

PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This study was conducted to determine the contribution of Group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in the development of angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiology. Eight week old male wild type (cPLA2α+/+) and cPLA2α knockout (cPLA2α-/-) mice were infused with Ang II (750 ng/kg/min) or its vehicle for 2 weeks and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly by the tail cuff method. Ang II increased SBP in cPLA2α+/+ mice to a greater degree than in cPLA2α-/- mice (125 ± 2 to 186 ± 7 mmHg vs. 125 ± 2 to 132 ± 2 mmHg respectively, P , 0.05). The increase in SBP in Ang II infused cPLA2α+/+ mice was associated with cardiac hypertrophy, measured by heart to body weight ratio (5.0 ± 0.3 vehicle vs. 7.1 ± 0.4 Ang II, P , 0.05), which was reduced by 26.0 ± 3.9 % (P , 0.05) in cPLA2α-/- mice. Ang II caused cardiac fibrosis, as indicated by accumulation of intracardiac α-smooth muscle actin- and transforming growth factor-β-positive cells, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of type V secretory phospholipase A2 in myocardial remodelling after infarction. AU - Ishikawa, Yukio. AU - Komiyama, K.. AU - Masuda, S.. AU - Murakami, M.. AU - Akasaka, Y.. AU - Ito, K.. AU - Akishima-Fukasawa, Y.. AU - Kimura, M.. AU - Fujimoto, A.. AU - Kudo, I.. AU - Ishii, T.. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - Aims: Secretory phospholipase A2 is associated with ischaemic injury in the human heart, but the distribution of type V secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-V) remains unknown. The significance of sPLA2-V in myocardial infarction was investigated histopathologically. Methods: Sequential changes in the localization of sPLA2-V and its mRNA in myocardial tissues obtained from 30 autopsied hearts were examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization and compared with those of fibronectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Results: No expression of sPLA2-V was ...
1ES9: The functional implications of the dimerization of the catalytic subunits of the mammalian brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (Ib).
It was concluded that nonpancreatic group II PLA2 is synthesized and stored by Paneth cells, whereas other cell types of the gastrointestinal tract seem incapable of synthesis of this enzyme. The positive immunoreaction in vascular structures may reflect the entry of circulating PLA2-II into vessel …
Oestvang, J., Anthonsen, M. W. & Johansen, B. 2011. LysoPC and PAF trigger arachidonic acid release by divergent signaling mechanisms in monocytes. J Lipids, 2011, 532145. (Read article). Oestvang, J. & Johansen, B. 2006. PhospholipaseA2: a key regulator of inflammatory signalling and a connector to fibrosis development in atherosclerosis. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1761, 1309-16. (Read article). Johansen, B., Hofker, M. & De Winther, M. 2006. Secretory group IIA phospholipase A2 regulates collagen accumulation and fibrotic cap development in atherosclerosis. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat, 79, 159.. Ghesquiere, S. A., Gijbels, M. J., Anthonsen, M., Van Gorp, P. J., Van Der Made, I., Johansen, B., Hofker, M. H. & De Winther, M. P. 2005. Macrophage-specific overexpression of group IIa sPLA2 increases atherosclerosis and enhances collagen deposition. J Lipid Res, 46, 201-10. (Read article). Oestvang, J., Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., Ninio, E., Hakala, J. K., Johansen, B. & Anthonsen, M. W. 2004. ...
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is a phospholipase A2 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G7 gene. Lp-PLA2 is a 45-kDa protein of 441 amino acids. It is one of several PAF acetylhydrolases. In the blood it travels mainly with low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Less than 20% is associated with high-density lipoprotein HDL. It is an enzyme produced by inflammatory cells and hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids in LDL. Lp-PLA2 is platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase (EC, a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of PAF to inactive products by hydrolysis of the acetyl group at the sn-2 position, producing the biologically inactive products LYSO-PAF and acetate. Lp-PLA2 is involved in the development of atherosclerosis, an observation that has prompted interest as a possible therapeutic target (see, e.g. the investigational drug Darapladib). In human atherosclerotic lesions, 2 main ...
1FXW: Preparation and crystal structure of the recombinant alpha(1)/alpha(2) catalytic heterodimer of bovine brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase Ib.
A - Tilt: 6° - Segments: 1(38-43), 2(67-78), 3(86-98), 4(113-122), 5(134-143), 6(156-164), 7(169-177), 8(195-203), 9(206-214), 10(222-232), 11(235-243), 12(258-264 ...
Local and systemic skeletal muscle degeneration is a common consequence of envenomations due to snakebites and mass bee attacks. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are important myotoxic components in these venoms, inducing a similar pattern of degenerative events in muscle cells. Myotoxic PLA2s bind to acceptors in the plasma membrane, which might be lipids or proteins and which may differ in their affinity for the PLA2s. Upon binding, myotoxic PLA2s disrupt the integrity of the plasma membrane by catalytically dependent or independent mechanisms, provoking a pronounced Ca2+ influx which, in turn, initiates a complex series of degenerative events associated with hypercontraction, activation of calpains and cytosolic Ca2+-dependent PLA2s, and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. Cell culture models of cytotoxicity indicate that some myotoxic PLA2s affect differentiated myotubes in a rather selective fashion, whereas others display a broad cytolytic effect. A model is presented to explain the difference between ...
phdthesis{9a2b0c99-7a98-49b0-8794-bd53b44cd228, abstract = {This thesis deals with processes coupled to injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), with a general aim to investigate the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in axonal outgrowth. The axonal outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro was reduced by several different inhibitors of PLA2 activity and enhanced by an activator of this enzyme. The PLA2 inhibitors acted locally in the outgrowth region and the effect only comprised the axonal elongation stage. Time-lapse recording of growing axons showed a rapid retraction of filopodia and a reduction in growth cone motility at exposure to the drugs. The PLA2 activity was upregulated in the DRG and nerve after a sciatic nerve injury in vivo, most profoundly in the crush region of the nerve. The upregulated activity was strongly Ca2+-dependent, acid sensitive and reduced by an inhibitor of type IV cytosolic (c) PLA2 (methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, MAFP) and the role ...
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), specifically Group VIIA PLA2, is an associate from the phospholipase A2 superfamily and is available mainly connected with LDL and HDL in individual plasma. apoproteins Xarelto in HDL, and also, residues 360C368 are just suffering from HDL.The full total results claim that apoA-I and phospholipid membranes play crucial roles in Lp-PLA2 localization to HDL. 14: 2032C2039. [PubMed] 20. Okamura K., Miura S., Zhang B., Uehara Y., Matsuo K., Kumagai K., Saku K.2007. Proportion of LDL- to HDL-associated platelet-activating aspect acetylhydrolase could be a marker of irritation in sufferers with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Circ. J.71: 214C219. [PubMed] 21. Tsimihodimos V., Karabina S. A., Tambaki A. P., Bairaktari E., Miltiadous G., Goudevenos J. A., Cariolou M. A., Chapman M. J., Tselepis A. D., Elisaf M. 2002. Changed distribution of platelet-activating aspect- acetylhydrolase activity between LDL and HDL being a function of the severe nature of ...
cPLA2 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against cPLA2. This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently met
Les eicosanoïdes sont des médiateurs importants qui encadrent et régulent les fonctions osseuses. Leur production est sous la tutelle des phospholipases A[indice inférieur 2] qui permettent la relâche dacide arachidonique et de lysophospholipides puis de leur métabolisme subséquent des membranes cellulaires. Les PLA[indice inférieur 2] sécrétées ont également comme particularité de pouvoir exercer leurs effets directement via leurs récepteurs membranaires comme ligand. Malgré limplication connue des prostaglandines sur les fonctions ostéoclastiques et dans plusieurs processus pathologiques résultants en érosion osseuse, les phospholipases A[indice inférieur 2] ostéoclastiques restent inconnues et leurs rôles, spéculatifs. Les études présentées démontrent la présence de la cPLA[indice inférieur 2]-α et de la sPLA[indice inférieur 2] IIA chez les ostéoclastes humains. Par contre, leur expression semble différer selon létat de los. En effet, la cPLA[indice ...
ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to verify the crucial role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2 alpha) in the… Expand ...
Evropski steber socialnih pravic določa zaveze EU glede plač: pravico delavcev do pravičnih plač, ki zagotavljajo dostojen življenjski standard, zagotavljanje
In the presented study, we demonstrate that the interaction of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 and ceramide-1-phosphate is crucial for production of eicosanoid synthesis in inflammation. Inflammation is a critical component of many disease states including anaphylaxis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and asthma. Eicosanoids are well established mediators of inflammation, and the initial rate limiting step in the production of eicosanoids is the liberation of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids by a phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The major phospholipase involved in this liberation of AA during the inflammatory response is group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that the bioactive sphingolipid, ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), binds cPLA2α at a three amino acid sequence, which is located in the cationic β-groove of the C2 domain of cPLA2α. In this study we examined the effects of the genetic ablation of
Background: Although group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is well appraised for its involvement in atherosclerosis by modifying LDL, its role in managing CVD risk in a primary prevention setting with low LDL-C is unknown. Furthermore, the utility of sPLA2-IIA mass for assessing future CVD risk relative to statin therapy in a population free of CVD is unknown.. Methods: We analyzed data from JUPITER (NCT00239681) in which participants with LDL cholesterol ,130 mg/dL and hsCRP≥2 mg/L were randomized to rosuvastatin 20mg/day vs placebo. sPLA2-IIA was quantified by sandwich-type ELISA (Cayman) in 11269 participants before and 1 year after randomization. Cox regression was used to examine the association of sPLA2-IIA with CVD. The impact of lifelong reduction in sPLA2-IIA on CVD risk was assessed by Mendelian randomization analysis in 6692 participants.. Results: 313 first CVD events occurred during maximum follow-up of 5.0 (median, 1.9) years. Baseline sPLA2-IIA levels (median, ...
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Hebleen Brenes, Gilbert D. Loría, Bruno LomonteAbstractSecreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) molecules are small, calcium-dependent enzymes involved in many biological processes. Viperid venoms possess gIIA sPLA2s and sPLA2-like proteins, both having homology to human gIIA sPLA2, an innate immunity enzyme. We evalu...
Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 2, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAFAH2 gene. It is one of several PAF acetylhydrolases. This gene encodes platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 2, a single-subunit intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group at the SN-2 position of platelet-activating factor (identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine). However, this lipase exhibits a broader substrate specificity than simply platelet activating factor. Two other isoforms of intracellular platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase exist, and both are multi-subunit enzymes. Additionally, there is a single-subunit serum isoform of this enzyme. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000158006 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037366 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Hattori K, Adachi H, Matsuzawa A, Yamamoto K, Tsujimoto M, Aoki J, Hattori M, Arai H, Inoue K ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential roles of ionic, aliphatic, and aromatic residues in membrane - Protein interactions. T2 - A surface plasmon resonance study on phospholipases A2. AU - Stahelin, R. V.. AU - Cho, W.. PY - 2001/4/17. Y1 - 2001/4/17. N2 - The roles of cationic, aliphatic, and aromatic residues in the membrane association and dissociation of five phospholipases A2 (PLA2), including Asp-49 PLA2 from the venom of Agkistodon piscivorus piscivorus, acidic PLA2 from the venom of Naja naja atra, human group IIa and V PLA2s, and the C2 domain of cytosolic PLA2, were determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Cationic interfacial binding residues of A. p. piscivorus PLA2 (Lys-10) and human group IIa PLA2 (Arg-7, Lys-10, and Lys-16), which mediate electrostatic interactions with anionic membranes, primarily accelerate the membrane association. In contrast, an aliphatic side chain of the C2 domain of cytosolic PLA2 (Val-97), which penetrates into the hydrophobic core of the membrane and ...
Looking for online definition of Phospholipases in the Medical Dictionary? Phospholipases explanation free. What is Phospholipases? Meaning of Phospholipases medical term. What does Phospholipases mean?
The human group IIA secreted PLA2 is a 14 kDa calcium-dependent extracellular enzyme that has been characterized as an acute phase protein with important antimicrobial activity and has been implicated in signal transduction. The selective binding of this enzyme to the phospholipid substrate interface plays a crucial role in its physiological function. To study interfacial binding in the absence of catalysis, one strategy is to produce structurally intact but catalytically inactive mutants. The active site mutants H48Q, H48N, and H48A had been prepared for the secreted PLA2s from bovine pancreas and bee venom and retained minimal catalytic activity while the H48Q mutant showed the maximum structural integrity. Preparation of the mutant H48Q of the human group IIA enzyme unexpectedly produced an enzyme that retained significant (2-4%) catalytic activity that was contrary to expectations in view of the accepted catalytic mechanism. In this paper it is established that the high residual activity of ...
Calcium dependent phospholipase A2 activity in the mixed micelles of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and cholate was measured in sera of 39 patients with Crohns disease, 40 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 40 healthy controls. The phospholipase A2 activity was significantly raised in those sera of the patients with active Crohns disease and those with moderate and severe ulcerative colitis. The major phospholipase A2 activity derived from the sera was separated into two peaks by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The phospholipase A2 active fractions were immunochemically characterised using specific antibody directed against human group II phospholipase A2 purified from rheumatoid synovial fluid. The results suggest that raised serum phospholipase A2 activity in patients with Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis was mainly attributed to the two forms of phospholipase A2 immunochemically related to group II enzyme. In patients with Crohns disease, serum ...
Fas-mediated apoptosis of human leukemic U937 cells was accompanied by increased arachidonic acid (AA) and oleic acid release from membrane glycerophospholipids, indicating phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation. During apoptosis, type IV cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), a PLA2 isozyme with an apparent molecular mass of 110 kDa critical for stimulus-coupled AA release, was converted to a 78-kDa fragment with concomitant loss of catalytic activity. Cleavage of cPLA2 correlated with increased caspase-3-like protease activity in apoptotic cells and was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. A mutant cPLA2 protein in which Asp522 was replaced by Asn, which aligns with the consensus sequence of the caspase-3 cleavage site (DXXD downward arrowX), was resistant to apo-ptosis-associated proteolysis. Moreover, a COOH-terminal deletion mutant of cPLA2 truncated at Asp522 comigrated with the 78-kDa fragment and exhibited no enzymatic activity. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cPLA2 cleavage eventually leads to destruction of a catalytic
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Background: Recently we reported that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension is mediated by group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) via production of pro-hypertensive eicosanoids. Since Ang II increases blood pressure via its action in the subfornical organ (SFO), it led us to investigate the expression and possible contribution of cPLA2α to oxidative stress and development of hypertension in this brain area. Methods: Adenovirus (Ad)-green fluorescence protein (GFP) cPLA2α short hairpin (sh) RNA (Ad-cPLA2α shRNA) and its control Ad-scrambled shRNA (Ad-Scr shRNA) or Ad-enhanced cyan fluorescence protein cPLA2α DNA (Ad-cPLA2α DNA) and its control Ad-GFP DNA were transduced into SFO of cPLA2α+/+ and cPLA2α-/- male mice, respectively ...
Previous studies have suggested that sPLA2 may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions,9 10 14 and we have examined this hypothesis directly using transgenic mice expressing human sPLA2. Consistent with previous studies,9 10 we observed abundant immunohistochemically localized sPLA2 in atherosclerotic lesions. The transgenic mice exhibited significantly increased lesions on a high-fat atherogenic diet as well as on a low-fat chow diet. The increase in lesion development appeared to result, in part, from decreased HDL and elevated LDL/VLDL levels. The levels of paraoxonase, an enzyme associated with HDL that protects against LDL oxidation and atherogenesis, were also substantially reduced in the sPLA2 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic littermates. These points are discussed below.. The sPLA2 transgenic line used in these studies has previously been characterized with respect to sPLA2 expression in plasma and various tissue(s). The transgenic mice displayed severe ...
Background: The group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 gene, Pla2g2a, confers resistance to intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse model. However, it is unclear how Pla2g2a exerts its tumor-suppressive effects and whether its mode of action dep
Arachidonic acid derivatives, like prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and the platelet-activating factor (PAF) are highly active substances with diverse biological actions. Elevated levels of these lipid mediators in response to a variety of stimuli have been implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases. The rate limiting step in the generation of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and the PAF, respectively, is the cleavage of the sn-2- ester of membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. To date four main groups of phospholipases are known, which comprise the secretory, the calcium-independent, the cytosolic and the lipoprotein-associated phospholipases A2. From these the a-subtype of cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2α) appears to be the most likely candidate to catalyze this hydrolysis, since the enzyme is highly selective for arachidonoyl-containing phospholipids and is tightly regulated by receptor-stimulated mechanisms (calcium influx and phosphorylation). Moreover, experiments with ...
Has transacylase and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 activity (PubMed:20410020, PubMed:23958596). Catalyzes the formation of 1-O-acyl-N-acetylsphingosine and the concomitant release of a lyso-phospholipid (PubMed:11790796, PubMed:25727495). Has high activity with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), catalyzing the transfer of oleic acid to N-acetyl-sphingosine. Required for normal phospholipid degradation in alveolar and peritoneal macrophages and in spleen (By similarity). May have weak lysophospholipase activity (PubMed:10092508 ...
Pafah1b2 - Pafah1b2 (untagged) - Mouse platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, isoform 1b, subunit 2 (Pafah1b2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is the rate-limiting enzyme for release of arachidonic acid, which is converted primarily to PGs via the cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 pathways and to leukotrienes via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. We used adoptive transfer and relapsing-remitting forms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, in two different strains of mice (SJL or C57BL/6) to demonstrate that blockade of cPLA2α with a highly specific small-molecule inhibitor during the tissue-damage effector phase abrogates the clinical manifestation of disease. Using the adoptive transfer model in SJL mice, we demonstrated that the blockade of cPLA2α during the effector phase of disease was more efficacious in ameliorating the disease pathogenesis than the blockade of each of the downstream enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1/2 and 5-lipooxygenase. Similarly, blockade of cPLA2α was highly efficacious in ameliorating disease pathogenesis during the effector phase of EAE ...
cdna:known chromosome:VEGA66:1:149829618:149961290:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000016429 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Pla2g4a description:phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent ...
购买Phospholipase A2山羊多克隆抗体(ab104252),Phospholipase A2抗体经WB验证,可与人,小鼠样本反应。产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
View mouse Pla2g2e Chr4:138877942-138882817 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
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Tijekom tre eg ispitivanja mora prema Programu utvr ivanja kakvo e mora na morskim pla ama Dubrova ko-neretvanske upanije 2014. godine, rezultati analize mora na pla i u Kuparima uzorkovanog ...
近年來,利用高分子微針貼片作為一種可自我施行且無痛之經皮藥物輸送裝置已廣為研究。然而,大多數的高分子微針皆在短時間內溶解,無法長效地釋放藥物,且由於高分子微針之機械強度較弱,微針往往無法完全刺進皮膚,降低藥物傳輸之效率。本研究將幾丁聚醣微針和機械強度較高的聚乳酸 [poly(L-lactide-co-DL-lactide), PLA] 支持軸陣列組合,製備出一具有生物可分解性且可將高分子微針完全刺入並鑲嵌於皮膚中的經皮微針貼片裝置。此鑲嵌式微針可於常溫常壓下,將幾丁聚醣溶液經離心灌模,並於半乾情形下與PLA支持軸組合而成。由體外豬皮穿刺結果證實,此鑲嵌式幾丁聚醣微針的穿刺比例可達100%,穿刺深度為550 ± 50 μm,可成功穿越皮膚角質層、到達有大量可引發免疫反應的抗原呈現細胞所存在的表皮層與真皮層。幾丁聚醣微針在穿刺後可與PLA支持軸分離
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In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a transacetylase activity in human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that transfers short-chain fatty acids from platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its close ether- and ester-linked analogues to ether/ester-linked lysophospholipids (lyso-PL). We show evidence that both PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and transacetylase activities are inhibited to the same extent by serine esterase inhibitors, are resistant to heat treatment, and exhibit identical distributions in lipoprotein classes and in LDL subfractions. Additionally, the competitive inhibition of PAF-AH by lyso-PL, and the evidence that the recombinant PAF-AH also showed a similar transacetylase activity, suggest that PAF-AH is responsible for both activities. Using PAF as a donor molecule and lyso-PAF (1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) as an acceptor, the transacetylase activity showed typical allosteric kinetics, due to the positive co-operativity of the substrates, with apparent Vmax = ...
I have postulated that arachidonic acid release from rat liver cells is associated with cancer chemoprevention. Since it has been reported that inhibition of proteasome activities may prevent cancer, the effects of proteasome inhibitors on arachidonic acid release from cells and on prostaglandin I2 production in rat liver cells were studied. The proteasome inhibitors, epoxomicin, lactacystin and carbobenzoxy-leucyl-leucyl-leucinal, stimulate the release of arachidonic acid from rat glial, human colon carcinoma, human breast carcinoma and the rat liver cells. They also stimulate basal and induced prostacycin production in the rat liver cells. The stimulated arachidonic acid release and basal prostaglandin I2 production in rat liver cells is inhibited by actinomycin D. Stimulation of arachidonic acid release and arachidonic acid metabolism may be associated with some of the biologic effects observed after proteasome inhibition, e.g. prevention of tumor growth, induction of apoptosis, stimulation of bone
Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Ιδρυματικό Αποθετήριο Ολυμπιάς.1999 . Creators: Milionis, H. J.. Contributors: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Θετικών Επιστημών. Τμήμα Χημείας, Milionis, H. J..Background. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent inflammatory mediator associated with several physiopathological conditions, including renal diseases. PAF is degraded to the inactive metabolite lyso-PAF by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), which is considered as a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic enzyme associated with lipoproteins. In this study, we evaluated the plasma- and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]associated PAF-AH activity in relationship to plasma lipid parameters and Lp(a) isoform size in patients with mild/moderate chronic renal failure (CRF), as well as in hemodialysis (HD) and chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Methods. We studied 74 patients undergoing maintenance HD, 44
Various molecular mechanisms have been suggested to be involved in dexamethasone induced thymocyte apoptosis. In this study we show that pharmacological inhibition of cytoplasmic PLA2 in mouse thymocytes for 18 h with arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3) (10μM) and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF3) (10 μM) induced a drastic increase of thymocyte apoptosis comparable to that observed following Dex (10-7 M) treatment, while inhibition of secretory PLA2 with p-bromophenacyl bromide (pBPB) (20 μM) did not. AACOCF3-induced thymocyte apoptosis, similarly to Dex-induced thymocyte apoptosis, was eliminated by cell pre-treatment with the PI-PLCβ inhibitor, U73122, but not by the PC-PLC inhibitor D609. These observations were corroborated by the ability of AACOCF3, like Dex, to induce a rapid and transient increase in DAG generation. In addition, AACOCF3-induced apoptosis involved the activation of the acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase) but not of the neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase), ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 16040234. Res. Microbiol. 2005 Aug;156(7):822-9. Phospholipases play an important role as virulence factors in human pathogens. Candida albicans, the major fungal pathogen of humans, encodes phospholipases of type A, B, C and D. Type B Plb2 and type D Pld1 phospholipases have been shown to contribute to virulence in this organism. We analyzed, in C. albicans, PLC2 and PLC3, two highly conserved genes coding for phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipases C with homology to the known virulence factor PlcA in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. We show that expression of PLC2 and PLC3 is upregulated under different filament-inducing conditions and in the constitutive filamentous mutant tup1Delta. In order to analyze PLC2 and PLC3 function in C. albicans, we constructed strains that carry PLC2 or PLC3 under a constitutive promoter and strains that lack all four PLC2/3 alleles. These strains were not affected in their ability to produce filaments under non-inducing ...
In the present study, to our knowledge, we first demonstrated that bvPLA2 is the major BV compound capable of inducing Treg expansion without altering the total composition of the other cell types in vivo and in vitro. Our previous report showed that BV has therapeutic effects on the MPTP-induced mouse model of PD via modulating the neuroinflammatory response and increasing the proportion of functional Tregs (23). In this study, we showed that bvPLA2 has neuroprotective effects by suppressing microglial activation and reducing the infiltrating CD4+ T cells in the MPTP-induced mouse model of PD. In addition to the neuroprotective effects, bvPLA2 directly binds to the mannose receptor (CD206) on DCs, and this binding induces the release of PGE2, which promotes Treg induction in CD4 T cells.. Microglia are resident innate immune cells of the CNS found in and around degenerating neurons (10-12) that are rapidly activated in response to neuronal damage and significantly contribute to secondary ...
We report a sequential one-pot preparation of aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones starting from readily accessible aryl bromides and fluorosulfates, the latter easily prepared from the corresponding phenols. The methodology utilizes low pressure carbon monoxide generated ex situ from COgen to generate Weinreb amides as reactive intermediates that undergo monotrifluoromethylation affording the corresponding aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones (TFMKs) in good yields. The stoichiometric use of CO enables the possibility for accessing 13C-isotopically labeled TFMK by switching to the use of 13COgen. ...
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OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine the time course of the inflammatory response in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and to assess the markers of inflammation and their relation to disease severity. METHODS: We prospectively studied 134 patients with ACS who survived for at least 30 months. The patients were divided into four groups: acute myocardial infarction (MI) with (n=54) or without (n=46) ST-segment elevation and unstable angina with (n=14) or without (n=20) increased risk. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured on days 1 and 4 and after 3 and 30 months. RESULTS: The highest levels of CRP and sPLA2-IIA were seen on day 4 but for IL-6 on day 1. These three markers, but not ICAM-1, were significantly related to disease severity, CKMB, and ejection fraction. Patients in Killip class II-IV had higher levels than those in Killip class I. ...
Definition of Arachidonic acid cascade with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Results Exposure of VSMC to sPLA2 IIA or X did not increase mitogenesis, whereas exposure to grV markedly increased it in a dose/time fashion. Likewise, VSMC exposed to HDL or LDL hydrolysed by sPLA2 V (and less by X) became mitogenic. Interaction of sPLA2 with lipoproteins showed that hydrolysis of HDL and LDL by sPLA2s and the impact on mitogenesis were invariably enhanced in order V,X,IIA. Release of PGE2 was enhanced by sPLA2 X and LTB4 by gr X and V. Investigation of the products of lipoproteins hydrolysis showed that there is formation of core aldehydes, isoprostanes, hydroxides and hydroperoxides of PtdCho. sPLA2 grV hydrolysed hydroxides and hydroxyperoxides of linoleolyl GroPCho in preference to arachidonoyl GroPCho while groups IIA and X did the opposite.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genes encoding multiple forms of phospholipase A2 are expressed in rat brain. AU - Molloy, G Y. AU - Rattray, M. AU - Williams, Robert J. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The polymerase chain reaction was utilized to determine which of six cloned phospholipase A2 (PLA2) messenger RNAs (mRNAs), encoding four distinct low molecular weight forms of secretory PLA2 (PLA2-IB, PLA2-IIA, PLA2-IIC and PLA2-V), a calcium-dependent high molecular weight PLA2 (PLA2-IV, cPLA2) and a calcium-independent high molecular weight PLA2 (PLA2-VI, iPLA2), were expressed in different regions of rat brain and in a number of peripheral tissues. Pancreatic PLA2-IB mRNA was not expressed in the brain. PLA2-IIA, PLA2-IV and PLA2-VI mRNAs appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in brain, with relatively similar levels detected in all regions. PLA2-IIC mRNA was expressed in all brain regions but not in any of the peripheral tissues studied. PLA2-V mRNA was found at low levels in most areas of the brain, but at very ...
The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in
Lipid comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids | Oral pharmaceutical composition of isotretinoin | Preparation for treatment of a non-oral treatment site comprising an active chlorine compound and amino acids | Compounded solutions of diclofenac and lidocaine and methods | Compositions and methods including leelamine and arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone relating to treatment of cancer |
Lipases and Phospholipases in Drug Development: From Biochemistry to Molecular Pharmacology. Editor(s). Dr. Günter Müller; Dr. Stefan.
promotes stimulus-induced arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin (PG) production similar to those elicited by HSPG-dependent sPLA(2)s, suggesting that this enzyme plays a role in the inflammatory process ...
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 ...
Glycerophospholipids in Brain: Phospholipases A2 in Neurological Disorders Akhlaq A. Farooqui and Lloyd A. Horrocks Glycerophospholipids in Brain: Phospholipases A2 in Neurological Disorders provides
Пппп Page 20 пппп12 Ch. Efectos proscar alopecia Targeted disruption of intracellular type I platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase catalytic subunits causes severe impairment in sperm- atogenesis. Efec tos Ideally, all children with CNS tumours undergoing aloecia.
Principal Investigator:OKANO Yukio, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1992, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:General medical chemistry
médecine/sciences (M/S), revue internationale dans le domaine de la recherche biologique, médicale et en santé
Pla2g6 - Pla2g6 (untagged) - Mouse phospholipase A2, group VI (Pla2g6), transcript variant 1, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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just read a article about arachidonic acid,,,had sum great info on it,,,,was wondering if anyone here uses it while on / off cycle and does it really work or is
AuxInfo=1/1/N:1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22/E:(21,22)/rA:22nCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCOO/rB:s1;s2;s3;s4;s5;d6;s7;s8;d9;s10;s11;d12;s13;s14;d15;s16;s17;s18;s19;s20;d20;/rC:-7.3658,-.6188,0;-6.6513,-.2062,0;-5.9368,-.6188,0;-5.2224,-.2062,0;-4.5079,-.6188,0;-3.7934,-.2062,0;-2.9684,-.2062,0;-2.2539,-.6188,0;-1.5395,-.2062,0;-.7145,-.2062,0;0,-.6188,0;.7145,-.2062,0;1.5395,-.2062,0;2.2539,-.6188,0;2.9684,-.2062,0;3.7934,-.2062,0;4.5079,-.6188,0;5.2224,-.2062,0;5.9368,-.6188,0;6.6513,-.2062,0;7.3658,-.6188,0;6.6513,.6188,0 ...
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... A Phospholipase A1 - cleaves the sn-1 acyl chain (where sn refers to stereospecific numbering). Phospholipase A2 ... Phospholipase B - cleaves both sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chains; this enzyme is also known as a lysophospholipase. Phospholipase C - ... Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme present in the venom of bees, blennies and viper snakes. Patatin-like phospholipase Infantile ... Endothelial lipase is primarily a phospholipase. Phospholipase A2 acts on the intact lecithin molecule and hydrolyzes the fatty ...
Outer membrane phospholipase A1 Phospholipase+A1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) DeSilva ... Unlike other phospholipases such as PLA2, there is much that is unknown about PLA1 due to the lack of any efficient way to ... In particular, phospholipase A1 (PLA1) specifically catalyzes the cleavage at the SN-1 position of phospholipids, forming a ... Phospholipase A1 (EC; systematic name: phosphatidylcholine 1-acylhydrolase) encoded by the PLA1A gene is a ...
... can refer to: Phospholipase A1 Phospholipase A2 Outer membrane phospholipase A1 An enzyme that displays both ... phospholipase A1 and phospholipase A2 activities is called a Phospholipase B (see main article on phospholipases). This set ...
... , also known as lysophospholipase, is an enzyme with a combination of both PLA1 and PLA2 activities; that is, it ... In general, it acts on lysolecithin (which is formed by the action of PLA2 on lecithin). Phospholipase Vance JE, Vance DE (14 ...
Stimulation of phospholipase D is independent of activation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase ... Mammalian cells encode two isoforms of phospholipase D: PLD1 and PLD2. Phospholipase D is an important player in many ... Phosphatidyl choline Phosphatidate Choline Phospholipase cleavage sites Jenkins GM, Frohman MA (October 2005). "Phospholipase D ... "Regulation of eukaryotic phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase D". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 66 ...
Additional types of phospholipases include phospholipase A1, phospholipase B, phospholipase C, and phospholipase D. ... There are atypical members of the phospholipase A2 family, such as PLA2G12B, that have no phospholipase activity with typical ... Increase in phospholipase A2 activity is an acute-phase reaction that rises during inflammation, which is also seen to be ... Venom phospholipases help to immobilize prey by promoting cell lysis[citation needed]. In mice, group III sPLA2 are involved in ...
PLCZ1 phospholipase C-like: PLCL1, PLCL2 Most of the bacterial variants of phospholipase C are characterized into one of four ... Zinc-dependent phospholipase C family of bacterial enzymes EC that includes the alpha toxins of C. perfringens (also ... Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see ... Additionally, phospholipase C plays an important role in the inflammation pathway. The binding of agonists such as thrombin, ...
March 1997). "Phospholipase D2, a distinct phospholipase D isoform with novel regulatory properties that provokes cytoskeletal ... April 2002). "alpha-Synuclein interacts with phospholipase D isozymes and inhibits pervanadate-induced phospholipase D ... Phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLD1 gene, though analogues are found in plants, fungi, ... Phospholipase D1 has been shown to interact with: Alpha-synuclein, Amphiphysin, BIN1, CDC42, PEA15, Protein kinase N1 RALA, and ...
... found in some phospholipases C Phospholipase Zinc-dependent phospholipase C, a different family of phospholipase C Meldrum E, ... These enzymes belong to a larger superfamily of Phospholipase C. Other families of phospholipase C enzymes have been identified ... Phospholipases C are phosphodiesterases. Phospholipase Cs participate in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) ... The phospholipase C family consists of 13 isoenzymes split between six subfamilies, PLC-δ (1,3 & 4), -β(1-4), -γ(1,2), -ε, -ζ, ...
Patatin is a storage protein but it also has the enzymatic activity of phospholipase, catalysing the cleavage of fatty acids ... Family of patatin-like phospholipases consists of various patatin glycoproteins from the total soluble protein from potato ...
The prokaryotic phospholipase A2 domain is found in bacterial and fungal phospholipases. It enables the liberation of fatty ... Matoba Y, Katsube Y, Sugiyama M (May 2002). "The crystal structure of prokaryotic phospholipase A2". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (22): ... Katsube Y, Sugiyama M, Matoba Y (2002). "The crystal structure of prokaryotic phospholipase A2". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (22): 20059 ...
... glycoprotein phospholipase D, phosphatidylinositol phospholipase D, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D) is an enzyme ... Phospholipase Low MG, Prasad AR (February 1988). "A phospholipase D specific for the phosphatidylinositol anchor of cell- ... Deeg MA, Bierman EL, Cheung MC (March 2001). "GPI-specific phospholipase D associates with an apoA-I- and apoA-IV-containing ... Glycosylphosphatidylinositol+phospholipase+D at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ...
... (OMPLA) is an acyl hydrolase with a broad substrate specificity (EC: from the ... It has been proposed that Ser164 is the active site of the protein (UniProt P00631) This integral membrane phospholipase was ... Horrevoets AJ, Verheij HM, de Haas GH (May 1991). "Inactivation of Escherichia coli outer-membrane phospholipase A by the ... Bacteriocin release is triggered by a lysis protein (bacteriocin release protein or BRP), followed by a phospholipase dependent ...
In molecular biology, zinc-dependent phospholipases C is a family of bacterial phospholipases C enzymes, some of which are also ... Bacillus cereus contains a monomeric phospholipase C EC (PLC) of 245 amino-acid residues. Although PLC prefers to act ... a phospholipase C involved in haemolysis and cell rupture, and to lecithinase from Listeria monocytogenes, which aids cell-to- ... phospholipase C) of Clostridium perfringens". Infect. Immun. 57 (2): 367-376. doi:10.1128/IAI.57.2.367-376.1989. PMC 313106. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G4D gene. The phospholipase A2 enzyme family, ... "Entrez Gene: Phospholipase A2 group IVD". Retrieved 2017-09-13. Chiba, H; Michibata, H; Wakimoto, K; Seishima, M; Kawasaki, S; ... Okubo, K; Mitsui, H; Torii, H; Imai, Y (2004). "Cloning of a gene for a novel epithelium-specific cytosolic phospholipase A2, ... "Cloning of a gene for a novel epithelium-specific cytosolic phospholipase A2, cPLA2delta, induced in psoriatic skin". J. Biol. ...
... (Lp-PLA2) also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is a ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G7 phospholipase A2, group VII (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, plasma)". Mohler ER, Ballantyne CM ... Tellis CC, Tselepis AD (May 2009). "The role of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in atherosclerosis may depend on its ... A missense mutation near the active site of an anti-inflammatory phospholipase". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 97 (12 ...
"Bimodal regulatory effect of melittin and phospholipase A2-activating protein on human type II secretory phospholipase A2". ... Phospholipase A-2-activating protein is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLAA gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: PLAA phospholipase A2-activating protein". Clark MA, Ozgür LE, Conway TM, et al. (1991). "Cloning of a ... Ruiz A, Nadal M, Puig S, Estivill X (1999). "Cloning of the human phospholipase A2 activating protein (hPLAP) gene on the ...
... anandamide-generating phospholipase D, N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D, NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D) is an ... N-acetylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing+phospholipase+D at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... N-acetylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D (EC, NAPE-PLD, ... "Functional analysis of the purified anandamide-generating phospholipase D as a member of the metallo-β-lactamase family". The ...
NAPE-PLD was found to have no homology to the known phospholipase D genes, but can be classed by homology to fall into the zinc ... N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the release of N-acylethanolamine (NAE) ... NAPE-PLD is an enzyme activity - a phospholipase, acting on phospholipids found in the cell membrane. It is not homology but ... Okamoto Y, Morishita J, Tsuboi K, Tonai T, Ueda N (Feb 2004). "Molecular characterization of a phospholipase D generating ...
Phospholipases. Phospholipases. Vol. 197. Academic Press. pp. 553-563. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(91)97183-Y. ISBN 9780121820985. ...
Once localized, to the trans-golgi CERK activates cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) that has localized to the trans-golgi. ... Gijón MA, Leslie CC (June 1997). "Phospholipases A2". Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 8 (3): 297-303. doi:10.1006/scdb.1997.0151. PMID ... a phospholipase C homolog in Drosophila melanogaster. In addition to endosomal and trans-golgi localization, CERK has been ... "Ceramide kinase regulates phospholipase C and phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, bisphosphate in phototransduction". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
Fan X, Niehus X, Sandoval G (2012). "Lipases as biocatalyst for biodiesel production". Lipases and Phospholipases. Methods in ...
phospholipases will hydrolyze phospholipid; assist to break the epithelial cell membrane structure allowing the hyphal tip to ... These types of agents will function to lower candida species' phospholipases activities. Flucytosine (5FC) is another type of ...
Phospholipases, p. 307-353. In P. D. Boyer (ed.), The enzymes, 3rd ed., vol. 16. Lipid enzymology. Academic Press, Inc., New ... It also increases activity of bacterial phospholipase A2, leading to release and accumulation of lysophospholipids, which are ... Kagan V. E. (1989). "Tocopherol stabilizes membrane against phospholipase A, free fatty acids and lysophospholipids". Ann. N.Y ...
Schmiel, Deborah H.; Miller, Virginia L. (1999-11-01). "Bacterial phospholipases and pathogenesis". Microbes and Infection. 1 ( ...
Gubenšek's research focused on neurotoxic phospholipases. With his colleagues at the Jožef Stefan Institute, he was one of the ...
The cytosolic PLA2 set (i.e. cPLA2s) of PLA2 enzymes (cPLA2; see Phospholipase A2#Cytosolic phospholipases A2) in particular ... Burke JE, Dennis EA (2009). "Phospholipase A2 biochemistry". Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. 23 (1): 49-59. doi:10.1007/ ... This is accomplished by a large family of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. ...
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G4A gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G4A phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)". Sheridan AM, Force T, Yoon HJ, O'Leary E, ... 1995). "Cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene in human and rat: chromosomal localization and polymorphic markers". Genomics. 26 (1): ... Morri H, Ozaki M, Watanabe Y (1995). "5'-flanking region surrounding a human cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene". Biochemical and ...
Phospholipase A2, membrane associated is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G2A gene. Phospholipase A2 GRCh38: ... 1995). "The secretory phospholipase A2 gene is a candidate for the Mom1 locus, a major modifier of ApcMin-induced intestinal ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G2A Phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid)". Kramer RM, Johansen B, Hession C, Pepinsky RB ( ... Law MH, Cotton RG, Berger GE (2006). "The role of phospholipases A2 in schizophrenia". Mol. Psychiatry. 11 (6): 547-56. doi: ...
85 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2, also known as 85/88 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2, Group VI ... phospholipase A2, Intracellular membrane-associated calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta, or Patatin-like phospholipase ... Specifically, the A2 phospholipase produced from the PLA2G6 gene, sometimes called PLA2 group VI, helps to regulate the levels ... The PLA2G6 gene encodes for a phospholipase A2 enzyme, which is a subclass of enzyme that catalyzes the release of fatty acids ...
The quest for topical drugs that can provide a safe alternative to steroids leads to phospholipases, a family of enzymes that ... One such potential target is phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a family of enzymes that has been studied extensively for over three ...
phospholipase A2 group IIFprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:30040 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000158786 MIM:616793; ... group IIF secretory phospholipase A2. Names. GIIF sPLA2. phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase 2F. NP_001347798.1. *EC ... Knockdown of phospholipase A2, group IIF (PLA2G2F) by siRNA enhances the early stages of HIV-1 replication in HeLa-CD4 cells ... enables calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
Recently, an N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) was identified as a candidate enzyme involved in the ... Inactivation of N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D reveals multiple mechanisms for the biosynthesis of ...
Timeline for Protein Phospholipase C-beta-2 from a.39.1.7: EF-hand modules in multidomain proteins: *Protein Phospholipase C- ... Protein Phospholipase C-beta-2 from a.39.1.7: EF-hand modules in multidomain proteins appears in SCOPe 2.02. *Protein ... Protein Phospholipase C-beta-2 from a.39.1.7: EF-hand modules in multidomain proteins appears in the current release, SCOPe ... Lineage for Protein: Phospholipase C-beta-2. *Root: SCOPe 2.03 *. Class a: All alpha proteins [46456] (284 folds). ...
... This presentation was part of the More Informed series, a digital ... Recent research at Novozymes reveals that their blend of enzymes Phospholipase C, named Quara Boost, can be incorporated ... "Phospholipase for enzyme-assisted alkaline refining" written by Per Munk Nielsen. See the event above to learn about these ...
i,Background,/i,. Increasing evidence states that the plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels and ... J. P. Corsetti, D. L. Rainwater, A. J. Moss, W. Zareba, and C. E. Sparks, "High lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 is a ... F. Huang, K. Wang, and J. Shen, "Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2: the story continues," Medicinal Research Reviews, vol ... B. Jabor, H. Choi, I. Ruel, A. Hafiane, W. Mourad, and J. Genest, "Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A (2) (Lp-PLA (2)) in ...
U73122 is a potent phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, which reduces agonist-induced Ca2+ increases in platelets and PMN. U73122 ... Other Phospholipase (e.g. PLA) Products. * Liproxstatin-1New. Liproxstatin-1 is a potent ferroptosis inhibitor with an IC50 of ... Darapladib (SB-480848) is a reversible lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 nM. Phase ... Varespladib (LY315920) is a potent and selective human non-pancreatic secretory phospholipase A2 (hnsPLA) inhibitor with IC50 ...
Fabgennix Anti-Phospholipase A2 Polyclonal, Catalog # PLAP2-212-BIOTIN. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC ...
National Institutes of Health . . . Turning Discovery Into Health™. ...
Structure of the complex of phospholipase A2 with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- acetamide at 2.1 A resolution ... Phospholipase A2 VRV-PL-VIIIa. A. 121. Daboia russelii pulchella. Mutation(s): 0 EC: ... Phospholipase A2 as a target protein for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Crystal structure of the complex ... Structure of the complex of phospholipase A2 with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- acetamide at 2.1 A resolution. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb2DPZ ...
... and Other Molecules in the Akt Pathway research area related information and Phospholipases, Small GTPases, and Other Molecules ... Phospholipases, Small GTPases, and Other Molecules in the Akt Pathway. Phospholipases, such as phospholipase C (PLC), hydrolyze ... The phospholipases, GTPases, and other molecules listed below are all associated with Akt serine-threonine kinase signaling, ... Home / Research Areas / Phospholipases, Small GTPases, and Other Molecules in the Akt Pathway ...
... was primarily developed to treat inflammatory disturbances associated with high levels of serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2). VPL ... was primarily developed to treat inflammatory disturbances associated with high levels of serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2). VPL ... Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) Activity. PLA2 activity was assayed essentially as described elsewhere (Carregari et al., 2013). The ... 2015). A New Phospholipase A₂ from Lachesis muta Rhombeata: Purification, Biochemical and Comparative Characterization with ...
LP172674-6Phospholipase A2 receptor IgGActive. Description. LP172674-6 Phospholipase A2 receptor Ab.IgG. The M-type ... Phospholipase A2 receptor Ab.IgG. Type. Component. Created On. 2013-02-18. LOINC FHIR® API Example - CodeSystem Request Get ... phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) stimulates the production of phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies. The PLA2R antibodies ... LOINC Code LP172674-6 Phospholipase A2 receptor IgG ...
Expression of codon optimized Bacillus cereus Phospholipase C in Kluyveromyces ...
Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is an intensively studied family of enzymes constituting a junction between ... Evidence was found for a direct interaction between the GTPases and the PLC that mediated activation of the phospholipase. ... Interactions of phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C with a lipid layer for structural and functional studies ...
OX1 orexin/hypocretin receptor activation of phospholipase D. Maria Jäntti, J. Putula, P. Somerharju, M. A. Frohman, J. P. ... OX1 orexin/hypocretin receptor activation of phospholipase D. / Jäntti, Maria; Putula, J.; Somerharju, P.; Frohman, M. A.; ... title = "OX1 orexin/hypocretin receptor activation of phospholipase D",. keywords = "orexin, OX1 receptor, PLD, PKC, PKD, Rho, ... OX1 orexin/hypocretin receptor activation of phospholipase D, British Journal of Pharmacology, Vuosikerta 165, Nro 4B, Sivut ...
Myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s; group II) account for most of the muscle-tissue damage that results from envenomation by ... Two phospholipase A2 inhibitors from the plasma of Cerrophidion (Bothrops) godmani which selectively inhibit two different ... Two phospholipase A2 inhibitors from the plasma of Cerrophidion (Bothrops) godmani which selectively inhibit two different ... group-II phospholipase A2 myotoxins from its own venom: isolation, molecular cloning and biological properties Sergio LIZANO; ...
Non-specific phospholipase C4 mediates response to aluminum toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pejchar P., Potocký M., Krčková Z ... Here we examined the impact of Al on the expression, activity and function of the non-specific phospholipase C4 (NPC4), a ... Non-specific phospholipase C4 mediates response to aluminum toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana ... Non-specific phospholipase C4 mediates response to aluminum toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana ...
The interaction of phospholipase A2 with a phospholipid bilayer: coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations.. ... "The Interaction of Phospholipase A2 with a Phospholipid Bilayer: Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations." Biophysical ... "The Interaction of Phospholipase A2 with a Phospholipid Bilayer: Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations." Biophysical ... Wee, C., Balali-Mood, K., Gavaghan, D., & Sansom, M. S. (2008). The interaction of phospholipase A2 with a phospholipid bilayer ...
... specific phospholipase C and serum phospholipase D. / TOUTANT, Jean‐Pierre ‐P; ROBERTS, William L.; MURRAY, Nicole R. et al. ... specific phospholipase C and serum phospholipase D. European Journal of Biochemistry. 1989 Apr;180(3):503-508. doi: 10.1111/j. ... specific phospholipase C and serum phospholipase D. In: European Journal of Biochemistry. 1989 ; Vol. 180, No. 3. pp. 503-508. ... specific phospholipase C and serum phospholipase D. Jean‐Pierre ‐P TOUTANT, William L. ROBERTS, Nicole R. MURRAY, Terrone L. ...
Nuclear Phospholipase C Signaling Through Type 1 IGF Receptor and its Involvement in Cell Growth and Differentiation. IRENE ... Nuclear Phospholipase C Signaling Through Type 1 IGF Receptor and its Involvement in Cell Growth and Differentiation ... Nuclear Phospholipase C Signaling Through Type 1 IGF Receptor and its Involvement in Cell Growth and Differentiation ... Nuclear Phospholipase C Signaling Through Type 1 IGF Receptor and its Involvement in Cell Growth and Differentiation ...
A single residue change in Vibrio harveyi hemolysin (VHH) results in the loss of phospholipase and hemolytic activities and ... A single residue change in Vibrio harveyi hemolysin (VHH) results in the loss of phospholipase and hemolytic activities and ... A single residue change in Vibrio harveyi hemolysin (VHH) results in the loss of phospholipase and hemolytic activities and ... T1 - A single residue change in Vibrio harveyi hemolysin (VHH) results in the loss of phospholipase and hemolytic activities ...
Phospholipase B-like 2 (PLBL2). by Zinan , Jul 11, 2022 , 0 comments ...
DESIGN: Phospholipase C zeta was cloned from the hamster, an important model organism for studying fertilization. Next, we used ... Phospholipase C zeta was localized in acrosomal and post-acrosomal regions of sperm. The post-acrosomal localization, which ... CONCLUSION(S): Phospholipase C zeta is localized to acrosomal and post-acrosomal regions and undergoes dynamic changes during ... MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Phospholipase C zeta localization in non-capacitated, capacitated, and ionophore-treated sperm. RESULT ...
Enzyme What is an Enzyme? An enzyme is a protein catalyst that makes chemical changes in biological systems. Various categories are used in baked goods, beverages, dairy, beer, glucose syrups, starch and other food products.1 In bakery systems, enzymes act as: Dough conditioners Fermentation enhancers Anti-staling agents This enables bakers to remove [...]. ...
Protein Phosphoinositide phospholipase C-beta-2, Human Phosphoinositide phospholipase C-beta-2 Protein, Human Phosphoinositide ... Phosphoinositide phospholipase C-beta-2, 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2, Phosphoinositide ... phospholipase C-beta-2, Human protein Phosphoinositide phospholipase C-beta-2, 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate ...
The quest for topical drugs that can provide a safe alternative to steroids leads to phospholipases, a family of enzymes that ... One such potential target is phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a family of enzymes that has been studied extensively for over three ...
Phospholipases A2 are important components of snake venoms, the basic isoforms have been more extensively studied than the ... ISOLATION AND EXPRESSION OF A HYPOTENSIVE AND ANTI-PLATELET ACIDIC PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 FROM BOTHROPS MOOJENI SNAKE VENOM Silveira ... Trying to better understand the role of the acidic isoforms on the envenomation process, an acidic phospholipase A2 was ... Isolation and expression of a hypotensive and anti-platelet acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. Journal ...
Phosphorylation of phospholipase C-δ1 regulates its enzymatic activity. Author Fujii, M., et al.. ...
PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 (PA2) is an enzyme derived from porcine pancreas. It serves as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of the fatty acid ... PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 (PA2) is an enzyme derived from porcine pancreas. It serves as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of the fatty acid ... PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 (PA2) can be used in the production of heat-stable egg yolk. Enzyme modified egg yolk offers a number of ... Phospholipase A2 is used extensively as a processing aid in many food applications, including:. *Enzymatic degumming of ...
  • U73122 is a potent phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, which reduces agonist-induced Ca 2+ increases in platelets and PMN. (selleckchem.com)
  • Varespladib (LY315920) is a potent and selective human non-pancreatic secretory phospholipase A2 (hnsPLA) inhibitor with IC50 of 7 nM. (selleckchem.com)
  • Darapladib (SB-480848) is a reversible lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 nM. (selleckchem.com)
  • Phospholipase C, immune inhibitor A, chitin-binding protein and a single peptide match to chain A crystal structure of selenomethionine were observed in the secretions of L. infantum promastigotes. (who.int)
  • The phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 attenuated the response. (silverchair.com)
  • EDHF responses in these mouse arteries were inhibited by an intracellular calcium blocker, TMB-8, and the phospholipase A(2) inhibitor AACOCF(3), suggesting a role for lipid metabolites. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Increasing evidence states that the plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels and apolipoprotein particles are regarded as the risk maker for cardiovascular heart disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), which is characterized by a Ca+ independent enzyme, originally tends to be defined as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and is principally secreted by inflammatory cells (macrophages) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, an N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) was identified as a candidate enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of NAEs. (nih.gov)
  • This webinar expounds upon the January 2021 INFORM article "Phospholipase for enzyme-assisted alkaline refining" written by Per Munk Nielsen. (aocs.org)
  • In contrast to erythrocyte AChEs in other mammalian species, the human enzyme is resistant to direct cleavage by phosphatidylinositol‐specific phospholipase C (PtdIns‐specific PLC). (elsevier.com)
  • The enzyme showed a relative molecular mass of 13,601 Da, pI 5.2, high phospholipase activity, bactericidal effect, moderate cytotoxic activity and was able to inhibit platelet aggregation. (fiocruz.br)
  • PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 (PA2) is an enzyme derived from porcine pancreas. (bioseutica.com)
  • Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme preparation containing both trypsin and chymotrypsin specifically designed for food applications. (bioseutica.com)
  • Using biochemical experiments combined with the construction of deletion and overexpression mutant strains in Mycobacterium smegmatis, we found that LipGMTB is a cytoplasmic membrane-associated enzyme that displays both phospholipase and thioesterase activities. (omicsdi.org)
  • In cholinergic neurons, the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) by a phospholipase D (PLD)-type enzyme generates some of the precursor choline used for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that this choline is liberated from PC in a one-step reaction, thus indicating that it is produced by a phospholipase D (PLD, EC -an enzyme that hydrolyzes the phospholipid into choline and phosphatidic acid (PA) [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Phospholipase A2, Calcium Independent (iPLA2) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (bioemm.com)
  • The isoelectric points, pH and temperature optima and temperature stabilities of the phospholipases in these enzyme preparations were also determined. (vtt.fi)
  • Phospholipases A2 are important components of snake venoms, the basic isoforms have been more extensively studied than the acidic groups, maybe due to their higher toxicity. (fiocruz.br)
  • Trying to better understand the role of the acidic isoforms on the envenomation process, an acidic phospholipase A2 was purified from Bothrops moojeni snake venom through two chromatographic steps (BmooPLA2). (fiocruz.br)
  • The principal toxins of brown spider venoms are phospholipase -D isoforms , which interact with different cellular membrane components, degrade phospholipids , and generate bioactive mediators leading to harmful effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Activator of phospholipase D isoforms. (embl.de)
  • The interaction of phospholipase A2 with a phospholipid bilayer: coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PLA2 NAGASE L/R and 10 P/R contain a pure, microbial phospholipase A2 with functionality for phospholipid hydrolysis. (nagase.eu)
  • Cellular arachidonate-releasing function and inflammation-associated expression of group IIF secretory phospholipase A2. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is an intensively studied family of enzymes constituting a junction between trans-membrane signal transduction processes and phosphoinositide lipid signalling. (bl.uk)
  • Alvarez RA, Ghalayini AJ, Xu P, Hardcastle A, Bhattacharya S, Rao PN, Pettenati MJ, Anderson RE, Baehr W. cDNA sequence and gene locus of the human retinal phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase-C beta 4 (PLCB4). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C signaling mediates expression of two phenylalanine ammonia lyase genes induced by salicylic acid in Capsicum chinense cells.Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology. (cicy.mx)
  • Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyses the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of glycerophospholipids to generate phosphatidic acid and a free headgroup. (universalbiologicals.com)
  • The Phospholipase D (PLD) family contains two members, PLD1 and PLD2, both of which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to generate phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. (grantome.com)
  • Two commercial fungal lipase preparations from Aspergillus niger and Penicillium cyclopium, two fungal phospholipases from A. niger (A1 and A2) and one phospholipase from porcine pancreas (A2, Lecitase) were compared in the hydrolysis of soybean phospholipids. (vtt.fi)
  • Lipase preparations which also contained phospholipase and lysophospholipase activities were more efficient than phospholipase preparations in the hydrolysis of soybean phospholipids. (vtt.fi)
  • Both the A2 phospholipase preparations tested produced lysophospholipids through partial selective hydrolysis of phospholipids. (vtt.fi)
  • The recombinant BmooPLA2 showed phospholipase and inhibitory activities on platelet aggregation similar to those of the native protein. (fiocruz.br)
  • The PLCB4 gene provides instructions for making one form (the beta 4 isoform) of a protein called phospholipase C. This protein is involved in a signaling pathway within cells known as the phosphoinositide cycle, which helps transmit information from outside the cell to inside the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The identified mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the the beta 4 isoform of phospholipase C. These changes likely alter the structure of the protein and impair the phosphoinositide cycle. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ARFs are a family of 21,000 M(r) proteins with biological roles in constitutive secretion and activation of phospholipase D. The structure of ARF-1 complexed to GDP determined from two crystal forms reveals a topology that is similar to that of the protein p21 ras with two differences: an additional amino-terminal helix and an extra beta-strand. (embl.de)
  • Phospholipases, such as phospholipase C (PLC), hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) to form diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate (IP 3 ), both of which are second messenger signaling molecules. (rndsystems.com)
  • Phospholipase C carries out one particular step in the phosphoinositide cycle: the conversion of a molecule called phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) to two smaller molecules, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and 1,2-diacylglycerol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • while, u-73122 and neomycin (the phospholipase c (plc) inhibitors) blocked the increase of the pain threshold induced by alcar. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Among the nuclear enzymes involved in PI metabolism, inositide specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) has been one of the most extensively studied. (unibo.it)
  • For quantitative determination of phospholipase D activity and evaluation of drug effects on phospholipase D metabolism. (universalbiologicals.com)
  • Varespladib (VPL) was primarily developed to treat inflammatory disturbances associated with high levels of serum phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although serum anchor‐specific phospholipase D (PLD) cleaves the intact human erythrocyte AChE anchor, this treatment, as judged by nondenaturing electrophoresis, did not release hydrophilic AChE. (elsevier.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Phospholipase A2, Calcium Independent (iPLA2) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (bioemm.com)
  • One such potential target is phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ), a family of enzymes that has been studied extensively for over three decades. (medscape.com)
  • Recent research at Novozymes reveals that their blend of enzymes Phospholipase C, named Quara Boost, can be incorporated directly into the alkaline refining process for vegetable oils (instead of being used in a separate water-degumming step). (aocs.org)
  • Bioseutica's PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 (PA2) complies with the recommended purity requirements for food-grade enzymes provided by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and the Food Chemical Codex (FCC). (bioseutica.com)
  • We observed a lower expression of NPC4 using GUS assay and a decreased formation of labeled diacylglycerol, product of NPC activity, using fluorescently labeled phosphatidylcholine as a phospholipase substrate in Arabidopsis WT seedlings treated with AlCl3 for 2 h. (cas.cz)
  • Phospholipase A1 and lipase preparations released fatty acids from both positions of the substrate molecule and as a result glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline was formed. (vtt.fi)
  • The Loxosceles intermedia phospholipase D , LiRecDT1, possesses a loop that modulates the accessibility to the active site and plays a crucial role in substrate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, the number of carbon atoms in the substrate plays a vital role in determining the optimal activity of this phospholipase -D. The presence of an amide group at C2 plays a key role in recognition and activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) stimulates the production of phospholipase A2 receptor autoantibodies. (loinc.org)
  • OX1 orexin/hypocretin receptor activation of phospholipase D . British Journal of Pharmacology , 165 (4B), 1109-1123. (helsinki.fi)
  • Activation of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) by Arf has been implicated in vesicle transport and membrane trafficking. (embl.de)
  • Cloning and recombinant expression of human group IIF-secreted phospholipase A(2). (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments determined the role of Na(+) and K(+) in the regulation of two pleckstrin homology domain-containing intracellular signaling molecules, phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 and epithelial and endothelial tyrosine kinase/bone marrow tyrosine kinase on chromosome X (Bmx), and agonist-generated Ca(2+) signaling in the endothelium. (instituteofmineralresearch.org)
  • A single residue change in Vibrio harveyi hemolysin (VHH) results in the loss of phospholipase and hemolytic activities and pathogenicity to tubot (Scophthalmus maximus). (hw.ac.uk)
  • 2021. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/763994/all/phospholipase. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The phospholipases, GTPases, and other molecules listed below are all associated with Akt serine-threonine kinase signaling, either upstream or downstream of its activation. (rndsystems.com)
  • Evidence was found for a direct interaction between the GTPases and the PLC that mediated activation of the phospholipase. (bl.uk)
  • Swystun V, Chen L, Factor P, Siroky B, Bell PD, Matalon S. Apical trypsin increases ion transport and resistance by a phospholipase C-dependent rise of Ca2+. (musc.edu)
  • Here we examined the impact of Al on the expression, activity and function of the non-specific phospholipase C4 (NPC4), a plasma membrane-bound isoform of NPC, a member of the plant phospholipase family, in Arabidopsis thaliana. (cas.cz)
  • Studies suggest that the beta 4 isoform of phospholipase C contributes to the development of the first and second pharyngeal arches. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patients with high lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 concentrations ≥ 235 mg/mL are at increased risk for cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. (peacehealthlabs.org)
  • PA can be further metabolized to diacylglycerol (DAG) and lysophosphatidic acid by PA phosphohydrolase and phospholipase A 2 , respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phospholipase C zeta undergoes dynamic changes in its pattern of localization in sperm during capacitation and the acrosome reaction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the localization of phospholipase C zeta (PLC zeta) in non-capacitated, capacitated, and ionophore-treated sperm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • DESIGN: Phospholipase C zeta was cloned from the hamster, an important model organism for studying fertilization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Phospholipase C zeta localization in non-capacitated, capacitated, and ionophore-treated sperm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phospholipase C zeta was localized in acrosomal and post-acrosomal regions of sperm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION(S): Phospholipase C zeta is localized to acrosomal and post-acrosomal regions and undergoes dynamic changes during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, indicating a potential role regulating not only egg activation but other sperm functions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Halobetasol propionate is thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitory proteins. (selleckchem.com)
  • After 200 years of research, it was determined that arginine synthesis was controlled by phospholipase D (PLD) and as a result, arginine could not be considered an essential amino acid - however it was also found that arginine levels increased in the brain of animals with mental disorders and that it had no adverse effects on fertility, cardarine dosage and timing. (profhim.kz)
  • Enables calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity. (nih.gov)
  • Clofazimine (NSC-141046) is a rhimophenazine dye, originally developed for the treatment of tuberculosis, it has both antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity, postulated mechanisms of action include intercalation of clofazimine with bacterial DNA and increasing levels of cellular phospholipase A2. (selleckchem.com)
  • RESULTS: Phospholipase and proteinase activity were observed in 100% of the C. albicans strains. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the non-albicans species, proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 25 and 43% of the studied strains, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Brown Spider Venom Phospholipase-D Activity upon Different Lipid Substrates. (bvsalud.org)
  • The nociceptors and mechanoreceptors in the annulus fibrosus mediate pain transmission from structural disruption of the intervertebral disc itself or from the chemically mediated inflammatory effect of phospholipase A2. (medscape.com)
  • HIV and SIV envelope glycoproteins induce phospholipase A2 activation in human and macaque lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Intro Inositol phosphate kinases (IP3K, IPMK, ITPK1, IP5K, IP6K and PPIP5K) perform several biological procedures through their involvement inside a carefully-regulated, metabolic network that changes phospholipase C-derived Ins(1,4,5)P3 into a range of even more extremely phosphorylated cell-signaling substances [1C3]. (immune-source.com)
  • LipG a bifunctional phospholipase/thioesterase involved in mycobacterial envelope remodeling. (omicsdi.org)
  • We had discovered the physiological target for CIF (a specific plasma membrane bound Ca2+ independent phospholipase A2), and demonstrated its crucial role in SOCE, which was confirmed by other investigators. (grantome.com)