A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS and pancreatic sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.
A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. It occurs as a component of VENOMS and as a mammalian secretory phospholipase A2. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a long amino-terminal domain, a conserved group III-specific domain, and a long carboxyl-terminal domain.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.
A subcategory of structurally-related phospholipases A2 that do not require calcium for activity.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
Keto-pyrans.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from PANCREATIC JUICE. Members of this group have specificity for PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
Saturated indolizines that are fused six and five-membered rings with a nitrogen atom at the ring fusion. They are biosynthesized in PLANTS by cyclization of a LYSINE coupled to ACETYL COENZYME A. Many of them are naturally occurring ALKALOIDS.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide (N-acylsphingosine) plus choline phosphate. A defect in this enzyme leads to NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE. EC 3.1.4.12.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, generates two bioactive products during the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein: use of a novel inhibitor. (1/3436)

A novel and potent azetidinone inhibitor of the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), i.e. platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, is described for the first time. This inhibitor, SB-222657 (Ki=40+/-3 nM, kobs/[I]=6. 6x10(5) M-1.s-1), is inactive against paraoxonase, is a poor inhibitor of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and has been used to investigate the role of Lp-PLA2 in the oxidative modification of lipoproteins. Although pretreatment with SB-222657 did not affect the kinetics of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by Cu2+ or an azo free-radical generator as determined by assay of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs), conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, in both cases it inhibited the elevation in lysophosphatidylcholine content. Moreover, the significantly increased monocyte chemoattractant activity found in a non-esterified fatty acid fraction from LDL oxidized by Cu2+ was also prevented by pretreatment with SB-222657, with an IC50 value of 5.0+/-0.4 nM. The less potent diastereoisomer of SB-222657, SB-223777 (Ki=6.3+/-0.5 microM, kobs/[I]=1.6x10(4) M-1.s-1), was found to be significantly less active in both assays. Thus, in addition to generating lysophosphatidylcholine, a known biologically active lipid, these results demonstrate that Lp-PLA2 is capable of generating oxidized non-esterified fatty acid moieties that are also bioactive. These findings are consistent with our proposal that Lp-PLA2 has a predominantly pro-inflammatory role in atherogenesis. Finally, similar studies have demonstrated that a different situation exists during the oxidation of high-density lipoprotein, with enzyme(s) other than Lp-PLA2 apparently being responsible for generating lysophosphatidylcholine.  (+info)

Association of the inflammatory state in active juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia and reduced lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity. (2/3436)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of apolipoprotein B (Apo B)- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins and between lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) as a function of the inflammatory state. METHODS: Twenty-six JRA patients and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects with normal lipid levels participated in the study. Fourteen patients had active disease, and 12 had inactive disease. Plasma lipoproteins were fractionated by gradient ultracentrifugation into 9 subfractions, and their chemical composition and mass were determined. The PAF-AH activity associated with lipoprotein subfractions and the activity in plasma were also measured. RESULTS: Patients with active JRA had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels as compared with controls, due to the decrease in the mass of both the HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions. Patients with active JRA also had higher plasma triglyceride levels, mainly due to the higher triglyceride content of the very low-density lipoprotein plus the intermediate-density lipoprotein subfraction. The plasma PAF-AH activity in patients with active JRA was lower than that in controls, mainly due to the decrease in PAF-AH activity associated with the intermediate and dense low-density lipoprotein subclasses. The lipid abnormalities and the reduction in plasma PAF-AH activity were significantly correlated with plasma C-reactive protein levels and were not observed in patients with inactive JRA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that patients with active JRA exhibit low levels of HDL2 and HDL3 and are deficient in plasma PAF-AH activity. These alterations suggest that active JRA is associated with partial loss of the antiinflammatory activity of plasma Apo B- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins.  (+info)

Mechanisms of prostaglandin E2 release by intact cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2: evidence for a 'two-component' model. (3/3436)

Prostaglandin (PG) release in cells expressing constitutive cyclooxygenase-1 is known to be regulated by liberation of arachidonic acid by phospholipase A2 followed by metabolism by cyclooxygenase. However, the relative contribution of phospholipase A2 to the release of PGs in cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2 is not clear. We addressed this question by using radioimmunoassay to measure PGE2 release by human cells (A549) induced to express cyclooxygenase-2 (measured by Western blot analysis) by interleukin-1beta. Cells were either unstimulated or stimulated with agents known to activate phospholipase A2 (bradykinin, Des-Arg10-kallidin, or the calcium ionophore A23187) or treated with exogenous arachidonic acid. When cells were treated to express cyclooxygenase-2, the levels of PGE2 released over 15 min were undetectable; however, in the same cells stimulated with bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid, large amounts of prostanoid were produced. Using selective inhibitors/antagonists, we found that the effects of bradykinin were mediated by B2 receptor activation and that prostanoid release was due to cyclooxygenase-2, and not cyclooxygenase-1, activity. In addition, we show that the release of PGE2 stimulated by either bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid was inhibited by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor arachidonate trifluoromethyl ketone. Hence, we have demonstrated that PGE2 is released by two components: induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and supply of substrate, probably via activation of phospholipase A2. This is illustrated in A549 cells by a clear synergy between the cytokine interleukin-1beta and the kinin bradykinin.  (+info)

Pharmacology of LY315920/S-5920, [[3-(aminooxoacetyl)-2-ethyl-1- (phenylmethyl)-1H-indol-4-yl]oxy] acetate, a potent and selective secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor: A new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, SPI. (4/3436)

LY315920 is a potent, selective inhibitor of recombinant human, group IIA, nonpancreatic secretory PLA2 (sPLA2). In a chromogenic isolated enzyme assay, LY315920 inhibited sPLA2 activity with an IC50 of 9 +/- 1 nM or 7.3 x 10(-6) mole fraction, which approached the stiochiometric limit of this assay. The true potency of LY315920 was defined using a deoxycholate/phosphatidylcholine assay with a mole fraction of 1.5 x 10(-6). LY315920 was 40-fold less active against human, group IB, pancreatic sPLA2 and was inactive against cytosolic PLA2 and the constitutive and inducible forms of cyclooxygenase. Human sPLA2-induced release of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) from isolated guinea pig lung bronchoalveolar lavage cells was inhibited by LY315920 with an IC50 of 0.79 microM. The release of TXA2 from these cells by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or arachidonic acid was not inhibited. The i.v. administration of LY315920, 5 min before harvesting the bronchoalveolar lavage cells, resulted in the inhibition of sPLA2-induced production of TXA2 with an ED50 of 16.1 mg/kg. Challenge of guinea pig lung pleural strips with sPLA2 produced contractile responses that were suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by LY315920 with an apparent KB of 83 +/- 14 nM. Contractile responses induced by arachidonic acid were not altered. Intravenous or oral administration of LY315920 to transgenic mice expressing the human sPLA2 protein inhibited serum sPLA2 activity in a dose-related manner over a 4-h time course. LY315920 is a potent and selective sPLA2 inhibitor and represents a new class of anti-inflammatory agent designated SPI. This agent is currently undergoing clinical evaluation and should help to define the role of sPLA2 in various inflammatory disease states.  (+info)

Glutamate receptor signaling interplay modulates stress-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases and neuronal cell death. (5/3436)

Glutamate receptors modulate multiple signaling pathways, several of which involve mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, with subsequent physiological or pathological consequences. Here we report that stimulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, using platelet-activating factor (PAF) as a messenger, activates MAP kinases, including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) blocks this NMDA-signaling through PAF and MAP kinases, and the resultant cell death. Recombinant PAF-acetylhydrolase degrades PAF generated by NMDA-receptor activation; the hetrazepine BN50730 (an intracellular PAF receptor antagonist) also inhibits both NMDA-stimulated MAP kinases and neuronal cell death. The finding that the NMDA receptor-PAF-MAP kinase signaling pathway is attenuated by mGluR activation highlights the exquisite interplay between glutamate receptors in the decision making process between neuronal survival and death.  (+info)

Cytosolic phospholipase A2 in rat decidual cells: evidence for its role in decidualization. (6/3436)

We investigated the existence and possible role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in rat decidualized uteri. PLA2 activity in the cytosol of a decidualized uterine horn, induced by intraluminal oil infusion, was significantly higher than that in contralateral intact horn. The activity was almost completely depressed by cPLA2 inhibitors including arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (ATK). The immunoreactive signals for cPLA2 were intense in decidua and glandular epithelial cells. In vivo administration of ATK (0.1-100 microg) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of decidualization. These results show the presence of cPLA2 and its probable implication in decidualization in rat uterus.  (+info)

Modulation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes by cacospongionolide B, a novel inhibitor of human synovial phospholipase A2. (7/3436)

1. Cacospongionolide B is a novel marine metabolite isolated from the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. In in vitro studies, this compound inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) versus cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), and its potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) was similar to that of manoalide. 2. This activity was confirmed in vivo in the 8 h zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulating in the pouch exudate. Cacospongionolide B, that is bioavailable when is given orally, reduced the elevated levels of sPLA2 present in paw homogenates of rats with adjuvant arthritis. 3. This marine metabolite showed topical anti-inflammatory activity on the mouse ear oedema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) and decreased carrageenin paw oedema in mice after oral administration of 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1). 4. In the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, cacospongionolide B administered into the pouch, induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of eicosanoids and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in the exudates 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weak effect on cell migration. 5. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by cacospongionolide B, which did not significantly affect eicosanoid levels in serum, paw or stomach homogenates and did not induce toxic effects. 6 Cacospongionolide B is a new inhibitor of sPLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation. This marine metabolite was active after oral administration and able to modify TNFalpha levels, and may offer an interesting approach in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of alkenyl hydrolase (lysoplasmalogenase) in microsomes and identification of a plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 in cytosol of small intestinal epithelium. (8/3436)

A lysoplasmalogenase (EC 3.3.2.2; EC 3.3.2.5) that liberates free aldehyde from 1-alk-1'-enyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (lysoplasmalogen) was identified and characterized in rat gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. Glycerophosphoethanolamine was produced in the reaction in equimolar amounts with the free aldehyde. The microsomal membrane associated enzyme was present throughout the length of the small intestines, with the highest activity in the jejunum and proximal ileum. The rate of alkenyl ether bond hydrolysis was dependent on the concentrations of microsomal protein and substrate, and was linear with respect to time. The enzyme hydrolyzed both ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogens with similar affinities; the Km values were 40 and 66 microM, respectively. The enzyme had no activity with 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine or -choline (intact plasmalogen), thus indicating enzyme specificity for a free hydroxyl group at the sn-2 position. The specific activities were 70 nmol/min/mg protein and 57 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for ethanolamine- and choline-lysoplasmalogen. The pH optimum was between 6.8 and 7.4. The enzyme required no known cofactors and was not affected by low mM levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, EDTA, or EGTA. The detergents, Triton X-100, deoxycholate, and octyl glucoside inhibited the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of the lysoplasmalogenase were very similar to those of the enzyme in liver and brain microsomes. In developmental studies the specific activities of the small intestinal and liver enzymes increased markedly, 11.1- and 3.4-fold, respectively, in the first approximately 40 days of postnatal life. A plasmalogen-active phospholipase A2 activity was identified in the cytosol of the small intestines (3.3 nmol/min/mg protein) and liver (0.3 nmol/min/mg protein) using a novel coupled enzyme assay with microsomal lysoplasmalogenase as the coupling enzyme.  (+info)

PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This study was conducted to determine the contribution of Group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in the development of angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiology. Eight week old male wild type (cPLA2α+/+) and cPLA2α knockout (cPLA2α-/-) mice were infused with Ang II (750 ng/kg/min) or its vehicle for 2 weeks and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly by the tail cuff method. Ang II increased SBP in cPLA2α+/+ mice to a greater degree than in cPLA2α-/- mice (125 ± 2 to 186 ± 7 mmHg vs. 125 ± 2 to 132 ± 2 mmHg respectively, P , 0.05). The increase in SBP in Ang II infused cPLA2α+/+ mice was associated with cardiac hypertrophy, measured by heart to body weight ratio (5.0 ± 0.3 vehicle vs. 7.1 ± 0.4 Ang II, P , 0.05), which was reduced by 26.0 ± 3.9 % (P , 0.05) in cPLA2α-/- mice. Ang II caused cardiac fibrosis, as indicated by accumulation of intracardiac α-smooth muscle actin- and transforming growth factor-β-positive cells, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of type V secretory phospholipase A2 in myocardial remodelling after infarction. AU - Ishikawa, Yukio. AU - Komiyama, K.. AU - Masuda, S.. AU - Murakami, M.. AU - Akasaka, Y.. AU - Ito, K.. AU - Akishima-Fukasawa, Y.. AU - Kimura, M.. AU - Fujimoto, A.. AU - Kudo, I.. AU - Ishii, T.. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - Aims: Secretory phospholipase A2 is associated with ischaemic injury in the human heart, but the distribution of type V secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-V) remains unknown. The significance of sPLA2-V in myocardial infarction was investigated histopathologically. Methods: Sequential changes in the localization of sPLA2-V and its mRNA in myocardial tissues obtained from 30 autopsied hearts were examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization and compared with those of fibronectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Results: No expression of sPLA2-V was ...
1ES9: The functional implications of the dimerization of the catalytic subunits of the mammalian brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (Ib).
Oestvang, J., Anthonsen, M. W. & Johansen, B. 2011. LysoPC and PAF trigger arachidonic acid release by divergent signaling mechanisms in monocytes. J Lipids, 2011, 532145. (Read article). Oestvang, J. & Johansen, B. 2006. PhospholipaseA2: a key regulator of inflammatory signalling and a connector to fibrosis development in atherosclerosis. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1761, 1309-16. (Read article). Johansen, B., Hofker, M. & De Winther, M. 2006. Secretory group IIA phospholipase A2 regulates collagen accumulation and fibrotic cap development in atherosclerosis. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat, 79, 159.. Ghesquiere, S. A., Gijbels, M. J., Anthonsen, M., Van Gorp, P. J., Van Der Made, I., Johansen, B., Hofker, M. H. & De Winther, M. P. 2005. Macrophage-specific overexpression of group IIa sPLA2 increases atherosclerosis and enhances collagen deposition. J Lipid Res, 46, 201-10. (Read article). Oestvang, J., Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., Ninio, E., Hakala, J. K., Johansen, B. & Anthonsen, M. W. 2004. ...
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is a phospholipase A2 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G7 gene. Lp-PLA2 is a 45-kDa protein of 441 amino acids. It is one of several PAF acetylhydrolases. In the blood it travels mainly with low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Less than 20% is associated with high-density lipoprotein HDL. It is an enzyme produced by inflammatory cells and hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids in LDL. Lp-PLA2 is platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase (EC 3.1.1.47), a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of PAF to inactive products by hydrolysis of the acetyl group at the sn-2 position, producing the biologically inactive products LYSO-PAF and acetate. Lp-PLA2 is involved in the development of atherosclerosis, an observation that has prompted interest as a possible therapeutic target (see, e.g. the investigational drug Darapladib). In human atherosclerotic lesions, 2 main ...
1FXW: Preparation and crystal structure of the recombinant alpha(1)/alpha(2) catalytic heterodimer of bovine brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase Ib.
A - Tilt: 6° - Segments: 1(38-43), 2(67-78), 3(86-98), 4(113-122), 5(134-143), 6(156-164), 7(169-177), 8(195-203), 9(206-214), 10(222-232), 11(235-243), 12(258-264 ...
Local and systemic skeletal muscle degeneration is a common consequence of envenomations due to snakebites and mass bee attacks. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are important myotoxic components in these venoms, inducing a similar pattern of degenerative events in muscle cells. Myotoxic PLA2s bind to acceptors in the plasma membrane, which might be lipids or proteins and which may differ in their affinity for the PLA2s. Upon binding, myotoxic PLA2s disrupt the integrity of the plasma membrane by catalytically dependent or independent mechanisms, provoking a pronounced Ca2+ influx which, in turn, initiates a complex series of degenerative events associated with hypercontraction, activation of calpains and cytosolic Ca2+-dependent PLA2s, and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. Cell culture models of cytotoxicity indicate that some myotoxic PLA2s affect differentiated myotubes in a rather selective fashion, whereas others display a broad cytolytic effect. A model is presented to explain the difference between ...
phdthesis{9a2b0c99-7a98-49b0-8794-bd53b44cd228, abstract = {This thesis deals with processes coupled to injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), with a general aim to investigate the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in axonal outgrowth. The axonal outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro was reduced by several different inhibitors of PLA2 activity and enhanced by an activator of this enzyme. The PLA2 inhibitors acted locally in the outgrowth region and the effect only comprised the axonal elongation stage. Time-lapse recording of growing axons showed a rapid retraction of filopodia and a reduction in growth cone motility at exposure to the drugs. The PLA2 activity was upregulated in the DRG and nerve after a sciatic nerve injury in vivo, most profoundly in the crush region of the nerve. The upregulated activity was strongly Ca2+-dependent, acid sensitive and reduced by an inhibitor of type IV cytosolic (c) PLA2 (methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate, MAFP) and the role ...
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), specifically Group VIIA PLA2, is an associate from the phospholipase A2 superfamily and is available mainly connected with LDL and HDL in individual plasma. apoproteins Xarelto in HDL, and also, residues 360C368 are just suffering from HDL.The full total results claim that apoA-I and phospholipid membranes play crucial roles in Lp-PLA2 localization to HDL. 14: 2032C2039. [PubMed] 20. Okamura K., Miura S., Zhang B., Uehara Y., Matsuo K., Kumagai K., Saku K.2007. Proportion of LDL- to HDL-associated platelet-activating aspect acetylhydrolase could be a marker of irritation in sufferers with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Circ. J.71: 214C219. [PubMed] 21. Tsimihodimos V., Karabina S. A., Tambaki A. P., Bairaktari E., Miltiadous G., Goudevenos J. A., Cariolou M. A., Chapman M. J., Tselepis A. D., Elisaf M. 2002. Changed distribution of platelet-activating aspect- acetylhydrolase activity between LDL and HDL being a function of the severe nature of ...
Les eicosanoïdes sont des médiateurs importants qui encadrent et régulent les fonctions osseuses. Leur production est sous la tutelle des phospholipases A[indice inférieur 2] qui permettent la relâche dacide arachidonique et de lysophospholipides puis de leur métabolisme subséquent des membranes cellulaires. Les PLA[indice inférieur 2] sécrétées ont également comme particularité de pouvoir exercer leurs effets directement via leurs récepteurs membranaires comme ligand. Malgré limplication connue des prostaglandines sur les fonctions ostéoclastiques et dans plusieurs processus pathologiques résultants en érosion osseuse, les phospholipases A[indice inférieur 2] ostéoclastiques restent inconnues et leurs rôles, spéculatifs. Les études présentées démontrent la présence de la cPLA[indice inférieur 2]-α et de la sPLA[indice inférieur 2] IIA chez les ostéoclastes humains. Par contre, leur expression semble différer selon létat de los. En effet, la cPLA[indice ...
ObjectiveThe aim of this study is to verify the crucial role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2 alpha) in the… Expand ...
In the presented study, we demonstrate that the interaction of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 and ceramide-1-phosphate is crucial for production of eicosanoid synthesis in inflammation. Inflammation is a critical component of many disease states including anaphylaxis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and asthma. Eicosanoids are well established mediators of inflammation, and the initial rate limiting step in the production of eicosanoids is the liberation of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids by a phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The major phospholipase involved in this liberation of AA during the inflammatory response is group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that the bioactive sphingolipid, ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), binds cPLA2α at a three amino acid sequence, which is located in the cationic β-groove of the C2 domain of cPLA2α. In this study we examined the effects of the genetic ablation of
Background: Although group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is well appraised for its involvement in atherosclerosis by modifying LDL, its role in managing CVD risk in a primary prevention setting with low LDL-C is unknown. Furthermore, the utility of sPLA2-IIA mass for assessing future CVD risk relative to statin therapy in a population free of CVD is unknown.. Methods: We analyzed data from JUPITER (NCT00239681) in which participants with LDL cholesterol ,130 mg/dL and hsCRP≥2 mg/L were randomized to rosuvastatin 20mg/day vs placebo. sPLA2-IIA was quantified by sandwich-type ELISA (Cayman) in 11269 participants before and 1 year after randomization. Cox regression was used to examine the association of sPLA2-IIA with CVD. The impact of lifelong reduction in sPLA2-IIA on CVD risk was assessed by Mendelian randomization analysis in 6692 participants.. Results: 313 first CVD events occurred during maximum follow-up of 5.0 (median, 1.9) years. Baseline sPLA2-IIA levels (median, ...
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Hebleen Brenes, Gilbert D. Loría, Bruno LomonteAbstractSecreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) molecules are small, calcium-dependent enzymes involved in many biological processes. Viperid venoms possess gIIA sPLA2s and sPLA2-like proteins, both having homology to human gIIA sPLA2, an innate immunity enzyme. We evalu...
Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 2, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAFAH2 gene. It is one of several PAF acetylhydrolases. This gene encodes platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 2, a single-subunit intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group at the SN-2 position of platelet-activating factor (identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine). However, this lipase exhibits a broader substrate specificity than simply platelet activating factor. Two other isoforms of intracellular platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase exist, and both are multi-subunit enzymes. Additionally, there is a single-subunit serum isoform of this enzyme. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000158006 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037366 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Hattori K, Adachi H, Matsuzawa A, Yamamoto K, Tsujimoto M, Aoki J, Hattori M, Arai H, Inoue K ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential roles of ionic, aliphatic, and aromatic residues in membrane - Protein interactions. T2 - A surface plasmon resonance study on phospholipases A2. AU - Stahelin, R. V.. AU - Cho, W.. PY - 2001/4/17. Y1 - 2001/4/17. N2 - The roles of cationic, aliphatic, and aromatic residues in the membrane association and dissociation of five phospholipases A2 (PLA2), including Asp-49 PLA2 from the venom of Agkistodon piscivorus piscivorus, acidic PLA2 from the venom of Naja naja atra, human group IIa and V PLA2s, and the C2 domain of cytosolic PLA2, were determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Cationic interfacial binding residues of A. p. piscivorus PLA2 (Lys-10) and human group IIa PLA2 (Arg-7, Lys-10, and Lys-16), which mediate electrostatic interactions with anionic membranes, primarily accelerate the membrane association. In contrast, an aliphatic side chain of the C2 domain of cytosolic PLA2 (Val-97), which penetrates into the hydrophobic core of the membrane and ...
Looking for online definition of Phospholipases in the Medical Dictionary? Phospholipases explanation free. What is Phospholipases? Meaning of Phospholipases medical term. What does Phospholipases mean?
Calcium dependent phospholipase A2 activity in the mixed micelles of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and cholate was measured in sera of 39 patients with Crohns disease, 40 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 40 healthy controls. The phospholipase A2 activity was significantly raised in those sera of the patients with active Crohns disease and those with moderate and severe ulcerative colitis. The major phospholipase A2 activity derived from the sera was separated into two peaks by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The phospholipase A2 active fractions were immunochemically characterised using specific antibody directed against human group II phospholipase A2 purified from rheumatoid synovial fluid. The results suggest that raised serum phospholipase A2 activity in patients with Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis was mainly attributed to the two forms of phospholipase A2 immunochemically related to group II enzyme. In patients with Crohns disease, serum ...
Fas-mediated apoptosis of human leukemic U937 cells was accompanied by increased arachidonic acid (AA) and oleic acid release from membrane glycerophospholipids, indicating phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation. During apoptosis, type IV cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), a PLA2 isozyme with an apparent molecular mass of 110 kDa critical for stimulus-coupled AA release, was converted to a 78-kDa fragment with concomitant loss of catalytic activity. Cleavage of cPLA2 correlated with increased caspase-3-like protease activity in apoptotic cells and was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. A mutant cPLA2 protein in which Asp522 was replaced by Asn, which aligns with the consensus sequence of the caspase-3 cleavage site (DXXD downward arrowX), was resistant to apo-ptosis-associated proteolysis. Moreover, a COOH-terminal deletion mutant of cPLA2 truncated at Asp522 comigrated with the 78-kDa fragment and exhibited no enzymatic activity. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cPLA2 cleavage eventually leads to destruction of a catalytic
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Background: Recently we reported that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension is mediated by group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) via production of pro-hypertensive eicosanoids. Since Ang II increases blood pressure via its action in the subfornical organ (SFO), it led us to investigate the expression and possible contribution of cPLA2α to oxidative stress and development of hypertension in this brain area. Methods: Adenovirus (Ad)-green fluorescence protein (GFP) cPLA2α short hairpin (sh) RNA (Ad-cPLA2α shRNA) and its control Ad-scrambled shRNA (Ad-Scr shRNA) or Ad-enhanced cyan fluorescence protein cPLA2α DNA (Ad-cPLA2α DNA) and its control Ad-GFP DNA were transduced into SFO of cPLA2α+/+ and cPLA2α-/- male mice, respectively ...
Previous studies have suggested that sPLA2 may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions,9 10 14 and we have examined this hypothesis directly using transgenic mice expressing human sPLA2. Consistent with previous studies,9 10 we observed abundant immunohistochemically localized sPLA2 in atherosclerotic lesions. The transgenic mice exhibited significantly increased lesions on a high-fat atherogenic diet as well as on a low-fat chow diet. The increase in lesion development appeared to result, in part, from decreased HDL and elevated LDL/VLDL levels. The levels of paraoxonase, an enzyme associated with HDL that protects against LDL oxidation and atherogenesis, were also substantially reduced in the sPLA2 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic littermates. These points are discussed below.. The sPLA2 transgenic line used in these studies has previously been characterized with respect to sPLA2 expression in plasma and various tissue(s). The transgenic mice displayed severe ...
Background: The group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 gene, Pla2g2a, confers resistance to intestinal tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse model. However, it is unclear how Pla2g2a exerts its tumor-suppressive effects and whether its mode of action dep
Arachidonic acid derivatives, like prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and the platelet-activating factor (PAF) are highly active substances with diverse biological actions. Elevated levels of these lipid mediators in response to a variety of stimuli have been implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases. The rate limiting step in the generation of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and the PAF, respectively, is the cleavage of the sn-2- ester of membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. To date four main groups of phospholipases are known, which comprise the secretory, the calcium-independent, the cytosolic and the lipoprotein-associated phospholipases A2. From these the a-subtype of cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2α) appears to be the most likely candidate to catalyze this hydrolysis, since the enzyme is highly selective for arachidonoyl-containing phospholipids and is tightly regulated by receptor-stimulated mechanisms (calcium influx and phosphorylation). Moreover, experiments with ...
Has transacylase and calcium-independent phospholipase A2 activity (PubMed:20410020, PubMed:23958596). Catalyzes the formation of 1-O-acyl-N-acetylsphingosine and the concomitant release of a lyso-phospholipid (PubMed:11790796, PubMed:25727495). Has high activity with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), catalyzing the transfer of oleic acid to N-acetyl-sphingosine. Required for normal phospholipid degradation in alveolar and peritoneal macrophages and in spleen (By similarity). May have weak lysophospholipase activity (PubMed:10092508 ...
Pafah1b2 - Pafah1b2 (untagged) - Mouse platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, isoform 1b, subunit 2 (Pafah1b2), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is the rate-limiting enzyme for release of arachidonic acid, which is converted primarily to PGs via the cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 pathways and to leukotrienes via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. We used adoptive transfer and relapsing-remitting forms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, in two different strains of mice (SJL or C57BL/6) to demonstrate that blockade of cPLA2α with a highly specific small-molecule inhibitor during the tissue-damage effector phase abrogates the clinical manifestation of disease. Using the adoptive transfer model in SJL mice, we demonstrated that the blockade of cPLA2α during the effector phase of disease was more efficacious in ameliorating the disease pathogenesis than the blockade of each of the downstream enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1/2 and 5-lipooxygenase. Similarly, blockade of cPLA2α was highly efficacious in ameliorating disease pathogenesis during the effector phase of EAE ...
cdna:known chromosome:VEGA66:1:149829618:149961290:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000016429 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Pla2g4a description:phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent ...
购买Phospholipase A2山羊多克隆抗体(ab104252),Phospholipase A2抗体经WB验证,可与人,小鼠样本反应。产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
View mouse Pla2g2e Chr4:138877942-138882817 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Tijekom tre eg ispitivanja mora prema Programu utvr ivanja kakvo e mora na morskim pla ama Dubrova ko-neretvanske upanije 2014. godine, rezultati analize mora na pla i u Kuparima uzorkovanog ...
In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a transacetylase activity in human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that transfers short-chain fatty acids from platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its close ether- and ester-linked analogues to ether/ester-linked lysophospholipids (lyso-PL). We show evidence that both PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and transacetylase activities are inhibited to the same extent by serine esterase inhibitors, are resistant to heat treatment, and exhibit identical distributions in lipoprotein classes and in LDL subfractions. Additionally, the competitive inhibition of PAF-AH by lyso-PL, and the evidence that the recombinant PAF-AH also showed a similar transacetylase activity, suggest that PAF-AH is responsible for both activities. Using PAF as a donor molecule and lyso-PAF (1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) as an acceptor, the transacetylase activity showed typical allosteric kinetics, due to the positive co-operativity of the substrates, with apparent Vmax = ...
Various molecular mechanisms have been suggested to be involved in dexamethasone induced thymocyte apoptosis. In this study we show that pharmacological inhibition of cytoplasmic PLA2 in mouse thymocytes for 18 h with arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3) (10μM) and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF3) (10 μM) induced a drastic increase of thymocyte apoptosis comparable to that observed following Dex (10-7 M) treatment, while inhibition of secretory PLA2 with p-bromophenacyl bromide (pBPB) (20 μM) did not. AACOCF3-induced thymocyte apoptosis, similarly to Dex-induced thymocyte apoptosis, was eliminated by cell pre-treatment with the PI-PLCβ inhibitor, U73122, but not by the PC-PLC inhibitor D609. These observations were corroborated by the ability of AACOCF3, like Dex, to induce a rapid and transient increase in DAG generation. In addition, AACOCF3-induced apoptosis involved the activation of the acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase) but not of the neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase), ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 16040234. Res. Microbiol. 2005 Aug;156(7):822-9. Phospholipases play an important role as virulence factors in human pathogens. Candida albicans, the major fungal pathogen of humans, encodes phospholipases of type A, B, C and D. Type B Plb2 and type D Pld1 phospholipases have been shown to contribute to virulence in this organism. We analyzed, in C. albicans, PLC2 and PLC3, two highly conserved genes coding for phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipases C with homology to the known virulence factor PlcA in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. We show that expression of PLC2 and PLC3 is upregulated under different filament-inducing conditions and in the constitutive filamentous mutant tup1Delta. In order to analyze PLC2 and PLC3 function in C. albicans, we constructed strains that carry PLC2 or PLC3 under a constitutive promoter and strains that lack all four PLC2/3 alleles. These strains were not affected in their ability to produce filaments under non-inducing ...
In the present study, to our knowledge, we first demonstrated that bvPLA2 is the major BV compound capable of inducing Treg expansion without altering the total composition of the other cell types in vivo and in vitro. Our previous report showed that BV has therapeutic effects on the MPTP-induced mouse model of PD via modulating the neuroinflammatory response and increasing the proportion of functional Tregs (23). In this study, we showed that bvPLA2 has neuroprotective effects by suppressing microglial activation and reducing the infiltrating CD4+ T cells in the MPTP-induced mouse model of PD. In addition to the neuroprotective effects, bvPLA2 directly binds to the mannose receptor (CD206) on DCs, and this binding induces the release of PGE2, which promotes Treg induction in CD4 T cells.. Microglia are resident innate immune cells of the CNS found in and around degenerating neurons (10-12) that are rapidly activated in response to neuronal damage and significantly contribute to secondary ...
We report a sequential one-pot preparation of aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones starting from readily accessible aryl bromides and fluorosulfates, the latter easily prepared from the corresponding phenols. The methodology utilizes low pressure carbon monoxide generated ex situ from COgen to generate Weinreb amides as reactive intermediates that undergo monotrifluoromethylation affording the corresponding aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones (TFMKs) in good yields. The stoichiometric use of CO enables the possibility for accessing 13C-isotopically labeled TFMK by switching to the use of 13COgen. ...
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OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine the time course of the inflammatory response in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and to assess the markers of inflammation and their relation to disease severity. METHODS: We prospectively studied 134 patients with ACS who survived for at least 30 months. The patients were divided into four groups: acute myocardial infarction (MI) with (n=54) or without (n=46) ST-segment elevation and unstable angina with (n=14) or without (n=20) increased risk. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured on days 1 and 4 and after 3 and 30 months. RESULTS: The highest levels of CRP and sPLA2-IIA were seen on day 4 but for IL-6 on day 1. These three markers, but not ICAM-1, were significantly related to disease severity, CKMB, and ejection fraction. Patients in Killip class II-IV had higher levels than those in Killip class I. ...
Definition of Arachidonic acid cascade with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Results Exposure of VSMC to sPLA2 IIA or X did not increase mitogenesis, whereas exposure to grV markedly increased it in a dose/time fashion. Likewise, VSMC exposed to HDL or LDL hydrolysed by sPLA2 V (and less by X) became mitogenic. Interaction of sPLA2 with lipoproteins showed that hydrolysis of HDL and LDL by sPLA2s and the impact on mitogenesis were invariably enhanced in order V,X,IIA. Release of PGE2 was enhanced by sPLA2 X and LTB4 by gr X and V. Investigation of the products of lipoproteins hydrolysis showed that there is formation of core aldehydes, isoprostanes, hydroxides and hydroperoxides of PtdCho. sPLA2 grV hydrolysed hydroxides and hydroxyperoxides of linoleolyl GroPCho in preference to arachidonoyl GroPCho while groups IIA and X did the opposite.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genes encoding multiple forms of phospholipase A2 are expressed in rat brain. AU - Molloy, G Y. AU - Rattray, M. AU - Williams, Robert J. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The polymerase chain reaction was utilized to determine which of six cloned phospholipase A2 (PLA2) messenger RNAs (mRNAs), encoding four distinct low molecular weight forms of secretory PLA2 (PLA2-IB, PLA2-IIA, PLA2-IIC and PLA2-V), a calcium-dependent high molecular weight PLA2 (PLA2-IV, cPLA2) and a calcium-independent high molecular weight PLA2 (PLA2-VI, iPLA2), were expressed in different regions of rat brain and in a number of peripheral tissues. Pancreatic PLA2-IB mRNA was not expressed in the brain. PLA2-IIA, PLA2-IV and PLA2-VI mRNAs appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in brain, with relatively similar levels detected in all regions. PLA2-IIC mRNA was expressed in all brain regions but not in any of the peripheral tissues studied. PLA2-V mRNA was found at low levels in most areas of the brain, but at very ...
The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression in smooth muscle cells, in
Lipid comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids | Oral pharmaceutical composition of isotretinoin | Preparation for treatment of a non-oral treatment site comprising an active chlorine compound and amino acids | Compounded solutions of diclofenac and lidocaine and methods | Compositions and methods including leelamine and arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone relating to treatment of cancer |
Lipases and Phospholipases in Drug Development: From Biochemistry to Molecular Pharmacology. Editor(s). Dr. Günter Müller; Dr. Stefan.
promotes stimulus-induced arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin (PG) production similar to those elicited by HSPG-dependent sPLA(2)s, suggesting that this enzyme plays a role in the inflammatory process ...
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 ...
Glycerophospholipids in Brain: Phospholipases A2 in Neurological Disorders Akhlaq A. Farooqui and Lloyd A. Horrocks Glycerophospholipids in Brain: Phospholipases A2 in Neurological Disorders provides
Пппп Page 20 пппп12 Ch. Efectos proscar alopecia Targeted disruption of intracellular type I platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase catalytic subunits causes severe impairment in sperm- atogenesis. Efec tos Ideally, all children with CNS tumours undergoing aloecia.
Principal Investigator:OKANO Yukio, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1992, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:General medical chemistry
Pla2g6 - Pla2g6 (untagged) - Mouse phospholipase A2, group VI (Pla2g6), transcript variant 1, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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just read a article about arachidonic acid,,,had sum great info on it,,,,was wondering if anyone here uses it while on / off cycle and does it really work or is
AuxInfo=1/1/N:1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22/E:(21,22)/rA:22nCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCOO/rB:s1;s2;s3;s4;s5;d6;s7;s8;d9;s10;s11;d12;s13;s14;d15;s16;s17;s18;s19;s20;d20;/rC:-7.3658,-.6188,0;-6.6513,-.2062,0;-5.9368,-.6188,0;-5.2224,-.2062,0;-4.5079,-.6188,0;-3.7934,-.2062,0;-2.9684,-.2062,0;-2.2539,-.6188,0;-1.5395,-.2062,0;-.7145,-.2062,0;0,-.6188,0;.7145,-.2062,0;1.5395,-.2062,0;2.2539,-.6188,0;2.9684,-.2062,0;3.7934,-.2062,0;4.5079,-.6188,0;5.2224,-.2062,0;5.9368,-.6188,0;6.6513,-.2062,0;7.3658,-.6188,0;6.6513,.6188,0 ...
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Phospholipases. 197. Academic Press. pp. 553-563. Berg, Jeremy. Biochemistry, 7th Edition. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. ...
Once localized, to the trans-golgi CERK activates cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) that has localized to the trans-golgi. ... Gijón MA, Leslie CC (June 1997). "Phospholipases A2". Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 8 (3): 297-303. doi:10.1006/scdb.1997.0151. PMID ... a phospholipase C homolog in Drosophila melanogaster. In addition to endosomal and trans-golgi localization, CERK has been ... "Ceramide kinase regulates phospholipase C and phosphatidylinositol 4, 5, bisphosphate in phototransduction". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
phospholipases will hydrolyze phospholipid; assist to break the epithelial cell membrane structure allowing the hyphal tip to ... These types of agents will function to lower candida species' phospholipases activities. Flucytosine ( 5FC) is another type of ...
Phospholipases, p. 307-353. In P. D. Boyer (ed.), The enzymes, 3rd ed., vol. 16. Lipid enzymology. Academic Press, Inc., New ... It also increases activity of bacterial phospholipase A2, leading to release and accumulation of lysophospholipids, which are ... Kagan V. E. (1989). "Tocopherol stabilizes membrane against phospholipase A, free fatty acids and lysophospholipids". Ann. N.Y ...
Gubenšek's research focused on neurotoxic phospholipases. With his colleagues at the Jožef Stefan Institute, he was one of the ...
The cytosolic PLA2 set (i.e. cPLA2s) of PLA2 enzymes (cPLA2; see Phospholipase A2#Cytosolic phospholipases A2) in particular ... Burke JE, Dennis EA (2009). "Phospholipase A2 biochemistry". Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy / Sponsored by the International ... This is accomplished by a large family of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. ...
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G4A gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G4A phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)". Sheridan AM, Force T, Yoon HJ, O'Leary E, ... 1995). "Cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene in human and rat: chromosomal localization and polymorphic markers". Genomics. 26 (1): ... Morri H, Ozaki M, Watanabe Y (1995). "5'-flanking region surrounding a human cytosolic phospholipase A2 gene". Biochemical and ...
Phospholipase A2, membrane associated is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G2A gene. Phospholipase A2 GRCh38: ... 1995). "The secretory phospholipase A2 gene is a candidate for the Mom1 locus, a major modifier of ApcMin-induced intestinal ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G2A Phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid)". Kramer RM, Johansen B, Hession C, Pepinsky RB ( ... Law MH, Cotton RG, Berger GE (2006). "The role of phospholipases A2 in schizophrenia". Mol. Psychiatry. 11 (6): 547-56. doi: ...
Bao S, Jin C, Zhang S, Turk J, Ma Z, Ramanadham S (Feb 2004). "Beta-cell calcium-independent group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA ... The protein encoded by this gene is a phospholipase A2 enzyme, a subclass of enzyme that catalyzes the release of fatty acids ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2G6 phospholipase A2, group VI (cytosolic, calcium-independent)". Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics ... Tang J, Kriz RW, Wolfman N, Shaffer M, Seehra J, Jones SS (Mar 1997). "A novel cytosolic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 ...
Occurrence of phospholipase A1 and A2 in human decidua". Prostaglandins. 9 (5): 667-73. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(75)90106-9. PMID ... 1997). "Identification of a human cDNA clone for lysosomal type Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 and properties of the ... Yeats DA, Bakhle YS (1989). "Phospholipases A2 and C of human lung; subcellular distribution and substrate selectivity". ... 2003). "A 29-kDa protein associated with p67phox expresses both peroxiredoxin and phospholipase A2 activity and enhances ...
... decreases phospholipase stimulation. This can lower levels of hydroxyl radicals produced after an ischemia and ... Rao AM, Hatcher JF, Dempsey RJ (Mar 2001). "Does CDP-choline modulate phospholipase activities after transient forebrain ... Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF (Aug 2003). "Citicoline decreases phospholipase A2 stimulation and hydroxyl radical generation in ... Citicoline's effects may also be explained by the reduction of phospholipase A2 activity. Citicoline increases ...
Phospholipases A2 UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-29 - Outer membrane phospholipase A UMich ... Alpha toxin Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency Peripheral membrane proteins Phospholipase A Phospholipase C Triglyceride lipase ... 2003). "Phospholipase A(2)". Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 69 (2-3): 87-97. doi:10.1016/S0952-3278(03)00069-3. PMID ... There also are a diverse array of phospholipases, but these are not always classified with the other lipases. Lipases serve ...
Lipocortins suppress phospholipase A2. Increased expression of the gene coding for annexin-1 is one of the mechanisms by which ...
Harris, J. B.; Grubb, B. D.; Maltin, C. A.; Dixon, R. (2000-02-01). "The neurotoxicity of the venom phospholipases A(2), ... Harris, J. B.; MacDonell, C. A. (1981-01-01). "Phospholipase A2 activity of notexin and its role in muscle damage". Toxicon. 19 ... Taipoxin like many other pre-synaptic neurotoxins are phospholipase A2 (PLA2) toxins, which inhibit/complete block the release ... Davidson, F. F.; Dennis, E. A. (1990). "Evolutionary relationships and implications for the regulation of phospholipase A2 from ...
PLD: phospholipase D. • PA: phosphatidic acid. • mTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin. • AMP: adenosine monophosphate. • ATP: ...
activation of phospholipase C activity. • positive regulation of phospholipase C activity. • modulation of chemical synaptic ... Phospholipase C, gamma 1, also known as PLCG1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLCG1 gene.[5][6] ... "Entrez Gene: PLCG1 phospholipase C, gamma 1".. *^ Singh SM, Murray D (September 2003). "Molecular modeling of the membrane ... phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • cell projection. • cell-cell ...
Phospholipase A2, group 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G1B gene. Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4) catalyzes ... and function of phospholipase A2". J Biol Chem. 269 (18): 13057-60. PMID 8175726. "Entrez Gene: PLA2G1B phospholipase A2, group ... 1995). "Phospholipase A2 gene expression and activity in histologically normal ileal mucosa and in Crohn's ileitis". Gut. 37 (3 ... One striking feature of these enzymes is their close homology to venom phospholipases of snakes. Other forms of PLA2 have been ...
April 1997). "Phospholipase D activity facilitates Ca2+-induced aggregation and fusion of complex liposomes". Am. J. Physiol. ... PA is degraded by conversion into DAG by lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPPs) or into lyso-PA by phospholipase A (PLA). The ... Liscovitch M, Czarny M, Fiucci G, Tang X (February 2000). "Phospholipase D: molecular and cell biology of a novel gene family ... Morris AJ, Frohman MA, Engebrecht J (October 1997). "Measurement of phospholipase D activity". Anal. Biochem. 252 (1): 1-9. doi ...
Phospholipase D2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLD2 gene. Phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipases D ( ... Slaaby R, Du G, Altshuller YM, Frohman MA, Seedorf K (2001). "Insulin-induced phospholipase D1 and phospholipase D2 activity in ... "Entrez Gene: PLD2 phospholipase D2". Lee S, Park JB, Kim JH, Kim Y, Kim JH, Shin KJ, Lee JS, Ha SH, Suh PG, Ryu SH (July 2001 ... "The direct interaction of phospholipase C-gamma 1 with phospholipase D2 is important for epidermal growth factor signaling". J ...
It has phospholipase A2 activity. It consists of two chains. alpha-Bungarotoxin Cheng YC, Wang JJ, Chang LS (February 2008). "B ...
One example is the α toxin of C. perfringens, which causes gas gangrene; α toxin has phospholipase activity. Type III exotoxins ...
Phospholipase B domain containing 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLBD1 gene. Model organisms have been used in ... "Phospholipase B domain containing 1". Retrieved 2011-12-04. "Citrobacter infection data for Plbd1". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... Xu, S.; Zhao, L.; Larsson, A.; Venge, P. (2009). "The identification of a phospholipase B precursor in human neutrophils". FEBS ... Insall, R.; Morgan, C. P.; Haynes, L.; Cockcroft, S. (2004). "Identification of phospholipase B from Dictyostelium discoideum ...
... is freed from a phospholipid molecule by the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which cleaves off the fatty acid ... Further information: Phospholipase C § Activation. Alternatively, arachidonic acid may be cleaved from phospholipids after ... Arachidonic acid generated for signaling purposes appears to be derived by the action of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 ( ... Schaeffer, EL; Forlenza, OV; Gattaz, WF (2009). "Phospholipase A2 activation as a therapeutic approach for cognitive ...
Secretory phospholipase A2 receptor is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2R1 gene. M-type phospholipase A2 receptor ... "Structural comparison of phospholipase-A2-binding regions in phospholipase-A2 receptors from various mammals". European Journal ... "Entrez Gene: PLA2R1 phospholipase A2 receptor 1, 180kDa". Beck LH, Bonegio RG, Lambeau G, Beck DM, Powell DW, Cummins TD, Klein ... Yokota Y, Higashino K, Nakano K, Arita H, Hanasaki K (Jul 2000). "Identification of group X secretory phospholipase A(2) as a ...
Phospholipases: Phospholipase is an enzyme that transforms the phospholipid molecule into a lysophospholipid (soap) ==> the new ... Phospholipase A2 causes hemolysis by lysing the phospholipid cell membranes of red blood cells. Amino acid oxidases and ... For instance, Phospholipases type A2 (PLA2s) from the Tunisian vipers Cerastes cerastes and Macrovipera lebetina has been found ... Pahari, S.; Bickford, D.; Fry, B. G.; Kini, R. M. (2007). "Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes ...
α1 agonist: stimulates phospholipase C activity. (vasoconstriction and mydriasis; used as vasopressors, nasal decongestants and ... The activation of α1 stimulates the membrane bound enzyme phospholipase C, and α2 inhibits the enzyme Adenylate cyclase. ...
Lee C, Kim SR, Chung JK, Frohman MA, Kilimann MW, Rhee SG (June 2000). "Inhibition of phospholipase D by amphiphysins". The ... Lee C, Kim SR, Chung JK, Frohman MA, Kilimann MW, Rhee SG (June 2000). "Inhibition of phospholipase D by amphiphysins". The ... Amphiphysin has been shown to interact with DNM1, Phospholipase D1, CDK5R1, PLD2, CABIN1 and SH3GL2. AP180 Epsin GRCh38: ...
Lee, C; Kim S R; Chung J K; Frohman M A; Kilimann M W; Rhee S G (June 2000). "Inhibition of phospholipase D by amphiphysins". J ... BIN1 has been shown to interact with Phospholipase D1, SNX4 and PLD2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136717 - Ensembl, ...
180 Kd secretory phospholipase A2 receptor; DEC-205 receptor; 72 Kd and 92 Kd type IV collagenase (EC 3.4.24.24); and ... "Cloning and expression of a membrane receptor for secretory phospholipases A2". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (3): 1575-1578. PMID 8294398 ...
The most common signaling pathway that increases cytoplasmic calcium concentration is the phospholipase C pathway. Many cell ... Recent studies have cited the phospholipase A2 beta, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), and the protein ... ISBN 978-0-8153-4454-4. Putney, James W.; Tomita, Takuro (2017-05-15). "Phospholipase C Signaling and Calcium Influx". Advances ... surface receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases activate the phospholipase C (PLC) ...
N. M. Muñoz, Y. J. Kim, A. Y. Meliton et al., "Human group V phospholipase A2 induces group IVA phospholipase A2-independent ... I. Kudo and M. Murakami, "Phospholipase A2 enzymes," Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators, vol. 68-69, pp. 3-58, 2002. View ... B. B. Boyanovsky and N. R. Webb, "Biology of secretory phospholipase A2," Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, vol. 23, no. 1, pp ... N. M. Muñoz, A. Y. Meliton, J. P. Arm, J. V. Bonventre, W. Cho, and A. R. Leff, "Deletion of secretory group V phospholipase A2 ...
Phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2s) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids at their sn-2 position releasing free fatty ... Diverse Functions of Secretory Phospholipases A2. Preetha Shridas1 and Nancy R. Webb2 ...
Lipase and Phospholipase Protocols is an important new compilation of cutting-edge techniques and strategies for the ... Phospholipase A2 and Phosphatidylinositol-Specific Phospholipase C Assays by HPLC and TLC with Fluorescent Substrate ... Fluorometric Phospholipase Assays Based on Polymerized Liposome Substrates Wonhwa Cho, Shih-Kwang Wu, Edward Yoon., Lenka ... Lipase and Phospholipase Protocols is an important new compilation of cutting-edge techniques and strategies for the ...
Synonyms: group IIA phospholipase A2 (human) phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase 2A (human) NPS-PLA2 (human) GIIC sPLA2 (human) ... A phospholipase A2, membrane associated that is encoded in the genome of human. [ https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P14555 ] ... phospholipase A2, membrane associated (human). Go to external page http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/PR_P14555 Copy ...
Phospholipase A Phospholipase A1 - cleaves the SN-1 acyl chain. Phospholipase A2 - cleaves the SN-2 acyl chain, releasing ... Phospholipase B - cleaves both SN-1 and SN-2 acyl chains; this enzyme is also known as a lysophospholipase. Phospholipase C - ... Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme present in the venom of bees and viper snakes. Patatin-like phospholipase Infantile neuroaxonal ... Phospholipase A2 acts on the intact lecithin molecule and hydrolyses the fatty acid esterified to the second carbon atom. The ...
Phospholipases generate lipid signaling molecules through their hydrolytic action on phospholipids and are known to regulate ... Mammalian Phospholipase D: Structure, Regulation, and Physiological Function of Phospholipase D and its Link to Pathology ... The first section discusses general aspect of phospholipases. Section two covers the role and function of phospholipase A in ... Phospholipases in Health and Disease is a compilation of review articles dedicated to the study of the field with respect to ...
Placebo-controlled trial findings show that lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibition modestly benefits the vision of ... use of the drug darapladib to inhibit the enzyme lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (believed to play a role in the ...
Phospholipase A1 is a phospholipase enzyme which removes the 1-acyl. Phospholipase A1 is an enzyme that resides in a class of ... Unlike other phospholipases such as PLA2, there is much that is unknown about PLA1 due to the lack of any efficient way to ... In particular, phospholipase A1 (PLA1) specifically catalyzes the cleavage at the SN-1 position of phospholipids, forming a ... Phospholipase A1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) DeSilva NS, Quinn PA (1999). " ...
GO:0004435 phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C activity GO:0005509 calcium ion binding GO:0008081 phosphoric diester hydrolase ...
Therefore the known phospholipases of C. albicans are described in detail under clinical aspects.. ... Up to the present, many different groups and subgroups of phospholipases have been detected. These different enzymes are ... In addition to secreted aspartyl proteinase, dimorphism, cell surface composition, and toxin production phospholipases are a ... Yet it can be supposed today that phospholipases are one important factor in this complex interaction. ...
Secreted Phospholipase D enzymes. Phospholipids are cellular membrane components that execute many important roles in ... This project focuses on phospholipase D (PLD). Phytophthora species have a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six ...
PLN02222; phosphoinositide phospholipase C 2. cd13363. Location:18 → 133. PH_PLC_delta; Phospholipase C-delta (PLC-delta) ... PLN02222; phosphoinositide phospholipase C 2. cd13363. Location:18 → 133. PH_PLC_delta; Phospholipase C-delta (PLC-delta) ... PLN02222; phosphoinositide phospholipase C 2. cd13363. Location:18 → 133. PH_PLC_delta; Phospholipase C-delta (PLC-delta) ... PLN02222; phosphoinositide phospholipase C 2. cd13363. Location:18 → 133. PH_PLC_delta; Phospholipase C-delta (PLC-delta) ...
Inactivation of phospholipase D diminishes Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis.. Jacobs AC1, Hood I, Boyd KL, Olson PD, ... C) Graph of the phospholipase D activity assay results for wild-type (strain 98-37-09) and ACJ2 (A1S_2989 mutant) cells ... The results revealed that disruption of A. baumannii phospholipase D (PLD) caused a reduction in the organisms ability to ...
Untersuchungen zur Funktion von Phospholipase A2 und Phospholipase C im Signaltransduktionsweg von Auxin und Pilzelicitor in ... A cytosolic phospholipase A2 from potato tissues appears to be patatin. Plant Cell Physiol. 37: 347-353.Google Scholar ... auxin fatty acid phospholipase A2 second messenger signal transduction This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Rapid activation of phospholipase A2 activity by auxin in suspension-cultured parsley and soybean cells. Plant J. 16: 601-611. ...
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine with phospholipase A1 (EC 3.1.1.32) activity (PubMed:14572904). Shows hemolytic ... Phospholipase A1Add BLAST. ›42. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. Length ... Phospholipase A11 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based on statements in scientific articles for which ... Catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine with phospholipase A1 (EC 3.1.1.32) activity (PubMed:14572904). Shows hemolytic ...
... δ-1 Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C Identifiers Symbol PI-PLC-X Pfam PF00388 ... This article is about phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PI-PLC). For other types of phospholipase C enzymes, see Phospholipase ... In general, this enzyme is denoted as phospholipase C, although three other families of phospholipase C enzymes have been ... Autotaxin - Phospholipase (C, D) - Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase - PDE1 - PDE2 - PDE3 - PDE5. 3.1.6: Sulfatase. Arylsulfatase ...
Group VIA2 phospholipase A2Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/ ... tr,Q5XP09,Q5XP09_RABIT Group VIA2 phospholipase A2 OS=Oryctolagus cuniculus OX=9986 PE=2 SV=1 ... 85/88 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2 isoform X4. Yangtze finless porpoise ...
Phospholipase A2 activity can protect renal tubules from oxygen deprivation injury. R A Zager, B A Schimpf, D J Gmur, T J Burke ... Phospholipase A2 activity can protect renal tubules from oxygen deprivation injury. R A Zager, B A Schimpf, D J Gmur, T J Burke ... Phospholipase A2 activity can protect renal tubules from oxygen deprivation injury. R A Zager, B A Schimpf, D J Gmur, and T J ... Phospholipase A2 activity can protect renal tubules from oxygen deprivation injury Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
This phospholipase C is intended to be used in fats and oils processing for degumming. The residual amounts of total organic ... The food enzyme phospholipase C (EC 3.1.4.3) is produced with a genetically modified Komagataella phaffii (formerly Pichia ... Safety evaluation of the food enzyme phospholipase C from a genetically modified Komagataella phaffii (strain PRF) ... food enzyme, phospholipase C, phosphatidylcholine cholinephosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.3, Komagataella phaffii, genetically ...
Identification and Verification of Ubiquitin-Activated Bacterial Phospholipases. Maxx H. Tessmer, David M. Anderson, Adam M. ... Identification and Verification of Ubiquitin-Activated Bacterial Phospholipases. Maxx H. Tessmer, David M. Anderson, Adam M. ... Identification and Verification of Ubiquitin-Activated Bacterial Phospholipases. Maxx H. Tessmer, David M. Anderson, Adam M. ... IMPORTANCE Bacterial phospholipases act as intracellular and extracellular enzymes promoting the destruction of phospholipid ...
Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s). These PLA2 belong to distinct PLA2s ... Keywords: secretory phospholipases A2; catalytic activity; animal venoms; pain; analgesia secretory phospholipases A2; ... Secreted Phospholipases A2 from Animal Venoms in Pain and Analgesia by Vanessa O. Zambelli ... Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s). These PLA2 belong to distinct PLA2s ...
... ester of membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. To date four main groups of phospholipases are known, which comprise the ... From these the a-subtype of cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2α) appears to be the most likely candidate to catalyze this ... secretory, the calcium-independent, the cytosolic and the lipoprotein-associated phospholipases A2. ...
... phospholipase explanation free. What is phospholipase? Meaning of phospholipase medical term. What does phospholipase mean? ... Looking for online definition of phospholipase in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to phospholipase: Phospholipase A1, Phospholipase A2, Phospholipase C, Phospholipase D, Phospholipase B ... phospholipase. [fos′fōlī′pās] any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids. Various phospholipases ...
Rabbit polyclonal Secretory phospholipase A2 antibody validated for WB, IP, IHC and tested in Human and Rat. Referenced in 5 ... Anti-Secretory phospholipase A2 antibody. See all Secretory phospholipase A2 primary antibodies. ... Western blot detection of human secretory phospholipase A2 (25. µ. g). ab23705 at 1/1000 western blot detection of 0.25 ug of ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) - Anti-Secretory phospholipase A2 antibody (ab23705) ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Phospholipase D1 antibody [EP1506Y] (ab68150) : Western blot protocols, Flow ...
... the Phospholipases-D (PLDs), which are highly conserved in all Loxosceles species. PLDs trigger most of the major clinical ... which was subsequently changed to Phospholipase-D when it was demonstrated that the enzyme also cleaved other cellular ... Keywords: brown spider; venom; phospholipases-D; biochemical and biological activities brown spider; venom; phospholipases-D; ... Forty Years of the Description of Brown Spider Venom Phospholipases-D by Luiza Helena Gremski 1, Hanna Câmara da Justa 1, Thaís ...
A patatin-like phospholipase functions during gametocyte induction in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. November 18, ... Patatin-like phospholipases (PNPLAs) are highly conserved enzymes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms with major roles in ... Read more about A patatin-like phospholipase functions during gametocyte induction in the malaria parasite Plasmodium ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Phospholipase D activity of gram-negative bacteria. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... A phospholipase hydrolyzing cardiolipin to phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl glycerol was characterized in gram-negative ...
The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans secretes a phospholipase enzyme that demonstrates phospholipase B (PLB), ... The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans secretes a phospholipase enzyme that demonstrates phospholipase B (PLB), ... Extracellular phospholipase activity is a virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans Mol Microbiol. 2001 Jan;39(1):166-75. ... We cloned a phospholipase-encoding gene (PLB1) from C. neoformans and constructed plb1 mutants using targeted gene disruption. ...
  • Phospholipase A1 is an enzyme that resides in a class of enzymes called phospholipase that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipase A 2 enzymes (PLA 2 s) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids at their sn-2 position releasing free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. (hindawi.com)
  • The protocols cover more than a dozen specific enzymes, and many can be applied directly to all lipases and phospholipases. (springer.com)
  • Lipase and Phospholipase Protocols constitutes a highly useful single-volume handbook of basic procedures and strategies to investigate this unique class of enzymes. (springer.com)
  • It not only furnishes a technical framework for the investigation of known lipases and phospholipases, but provides well-established methods readily daptable to the discovery of new lipase enzymes. (springer.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the delta class of phospholipase C enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Phospholipase C enzymes play a critical role in many cellular processes by hydrolyzing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into two intracellular second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. (nih.gov)
  • For other types of phospholipase C enzymes, see Phospholipase C (disambiguation) . (bionity.com)
  • Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) ( EC 3.1.4.11) represents a family of eukaryotic intracellular enzymes that play an important role in signal transduction processes [1] . (bionity.com)
  • In general, this enzyme is denoted as phospholipase C , although three other families of phospholipase C enzymes have been identified in bacteria and in (eukaryotic) trypanosomes . (bionity.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Bacterial phospholipases act as intracellular and extracellular enzymes promoting the destruction of phospholipid barriers and inflammation during infections. (asm.org)
  • phos·pho·lip·ase/ ( -lip´ās ) any of four enzymes (phospholipase A to D) that catalyze the hydrolysis of specific ester bonds in phospholipids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Due to such utilization of apricots and the deteriorating characteristic of enzymes in oils, the present study was conducted to observe the enzymes activities in vast range of pH, temperatures and organic solvents to establish an optimum condition at which lipase and phospholipase shows their maximum activities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Patatin-like phospholipases (PNPLAs) are highly conserved enzymes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms with major roles in lipid homeostasis. (malariaworld.org)
  • Type IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids to release fatty acids and lysophospholipids. (proteopedia.org)
  • Lipoquality control by phospholipase [A.sub.2] enzymes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Among various enzymes involved, phospholipases A 1 or A 2 , phospholipase C, phospholipase D, autotaxin and sphingomyelinase are engaged in membrane lipid remodelling during early stages of mineralization and cell maturation in mineralization-competent cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Phospholipases are enzymes that catalyse the breakdown of phospholipids into fatty acids. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is mediated by activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • In addition to secreted and/or injected lipolytic enzymes, it was shown that the pathogen expresses a highly active and membrane-bound phospholipase A/lysophospholipase A with hemolytic activity, designated PlaB. (hu-berlin.de)
  • This thesis deals with processes coupled to injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), with a general aim to investigate the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in axonal outgrowth. (lu.se)
  • Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the sn -2 fatty acyl ester bonds of phospholipids to produce a free fatty acid, often arachidonic acid, and a lysophospholipid. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) enzymes have been implicated in the promotion of inflammation through mobilizing lipid mediators, the molecular entity of PLA 2 subtypes acting upstream of antiinflammatory lipid mediators remains unknown. (rupress.org)
  • Arachidonic acid release from mammalian cells transfected with human groups IIA and X secreted phospholipase A2 occurs predominantly during the secretory process and with the involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2- α ," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 279, no. 24, pp. 25024-25038, 2004. (hindawi.com)
  • Negative feedback between secretory and cytosolic phospholipase A2 and their opposing roles in ovalbumin-induced bronchoconstriction in rats," The American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology , vol. 288, no. 3, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA 2 ) activation contributes to treatment resistance through transduction of prosurvival signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA 2 ), an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of bioactive lipids involved in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, contributes to treatment resistance through transduction of prosurvival signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We previously demonstrated that PGE(2) synthesis by F. tularensis-infected macrophages requires cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES1). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes arachidonic acid (AA) release via activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA 2 ) and D (PLD) in rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). (ahajournals.org)
  • Among the main components of animal venoms are the secreted phospholipases A 2 (sPLA 2 s). (mdpi.com)
  • Secretory phospholipase A(2)s (sPLA(2)s) have been implicated in physiological and pathological events, but the regulatory mechanism(s) of their activities in cells remains to be solved. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2 The secretory group II phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ) recently has been added to the group of acute-phase reactants, 3 and its plasma levels are greatly increased in diseases involving systemic inflammation, such as sepsis and rheumatoid arthritis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA 2 -IIA) was examined as a point of care marker for determining disease activity in rheumatoid (RA) and psoriatic (PsA) arthritis. (rsc.org)
  • Abstract -Some observations have suggested that the extracellular group IIa phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ), previously implicated in chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, may contribute to atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent studies have suggested the involvement of the pro-inflammatory secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 )-IIA in atherogenesis. (dovepress.com)
  • An interaction between activated RAS and phospholipases has been indicated by observations showing that inhibitors of sPLA 2 decrease angiotensin (Ang) II-induced macrophage lipid peroxidation. (dovepress.com)
  • Secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ), which is known to induce mitogenesis, was found in and cloned from the synovial fluid (1,2). (bmj.com)
  • Placebo-controlled trial findings show that lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibition modestly benefits the vision of patients with centre-involved diabetic macular oedema and warrants further investigation. (news-medical.net)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 or platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (Lp-PLA2) degrades platelet-activating factor and oxidized phospholipids into inactive metabolites. (proteopedia.org)
  • Few studies have investigated the role of elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) with stroke risk, and those that have are based on small numbers of strokes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) is an enzyme secreted by macrophages, largely bound to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in circulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Objective- Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) is a predictor for incident atherosclerotic disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • thus it is also referred as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • We examined the mechanism by which ABA generates oscillations in guard-cell [Ca 2+ ] cyt by using 1-(6-{[17β-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino}hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U-73122), an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-dependent processes in animals. (pnas.org)
  • There is an increasing body of evidence for a role of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-based signaling in plant cells ( 20 - 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 12 Phosphoinositide-Specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) ELISA Kits von 2 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 12 Phosphoinositide-Specific phospholipase C Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • We have further tested the hypothesis that receptor-mediated modulation of KCNQ channels involves depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) by phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC). (rupress.org)
  • Unlike other phospholipases such as PLA2, there is much that is unknown about PLA1 due to the lack of any efficient way to purify, clone, express, and characterize this enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • During hypoxic or ischemic renal tubular injury, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) induces membrane deacylation, causing fatty acid accumulation and phospholipid breakdown. (pnas.org)
  • Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is an enzyme which releases fatty acids from glycerol. (proteopedia.org)
  • Phospholipase A2 (PLA2, E.C. 3.1.1.4) hydrolyzes phospholipids, e.g. phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol into corresponding lysocompounds. (springer.com)
  • We report that the action of the heterodimeric phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) from Vipera nikolskii, which comprises enzymatically active basic subunit and inactive acidic PLA2 homologue, on the lipid bilayer results in the aggregation and stacking of bilayers. (ovid.com)
  • The membrane resealing is triggered by excess calcium entering the axoplasm at the site of transection but is prevented by the application of phospholipase A2 inhibitors. (sciencemag.org)
  • The biological functions of phospholipases are discussed from the perspective of animal and cellular knockout models, as well as disease implications, development of potent inhibitors and therapeutic interventions. (mdpi.com)
  • Utilizing small-molecule inhibitors, we demonstrated that phospholipase D and diacylglycerol lipase were required for providing AA for PGE(2) biosynthesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A phospholipase A2, membrane associated that is encoded in the genome of human. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phospholipase D - cleaves after the phosphate, releasing phosphatidic acid and an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • A phospholipase hydrolyzing cardiolipin to phosphatidic acid and phosphatidyl glycerol was characterized in gram-negative bacteria but was absent in preparations of gram-positive bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and rat liver mitochondria. (asm.org)
  • Phospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell proliferation and cell survival. (genome.jp)
  • Phospholipase Ds (PLDs) are phosphodiesterases that hydrolyze the diester phosphate bond of glycerol phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid and the corresponding lipid headgroup. (portlandpress.com)
  • Continual production of phosphatidic acid by phospholipase D is essential for antigen-stimulated membrane ruffling in cultured mast cells. (labome.org)
  • We describe the involvement of the lipid phosphatidic acid and the enzyme that generates it, phospholipase D (Pld), in this process. (rupress.org)
  • The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans secretes a phospholipase enzyme that demonstrates phospholipase B (PLB), lysophospholipase hydrolase and lysophospholipase transacylase activities. (nih.gov)
  • Neben sekretierten Formen wird eine besonders aktive zell-assoziierte Variante exprimiert, die Phospholipase A/Lysophospholipase A PlaB. (hu-berlin.de)
  • J. M. Stadel, K. Hoyle, R. M. Naclerio, A. Roshak, and F. H. Chilton, "Characterization of phospholipase A2 from human nasal lavage. (hindawi.com)
  • Lipase and Phospholipase Protocols is an important new compilation of cutting-edge techniques and strategies for the characterization, purification, and expression of mammalian lipases and phospholipases. (springer.com)
  • The methods include the preparation of a variety of radiolabeled and fluorescent substrates for the determination of lipolytic activity, proven strategies for the expression and purification of recombinant lipases and phospholipases, and the characterization of lipases by such techniques as immunodetection, subunit size determination, lipase kinetics, and ligand interactions. (springer.com)
  • Nishijima J., Okamoto M., Ogawa M., Kasaki G. and Yamano T. Purification and characterization of human pancreatic phospholipase A2 in development of a radioimmunoassay. (springer.com)
  • Here we describe the molecular characterization of an M. bovis gene encoding a phospholipase B activity and discuss the role this enzyme may play in the virulence of this veterinary pathogen. (asm.org)
  • Phospholipase C delta 4 (PLCδ4) is a nuclear protein involved in cell proliferation and senescence in mesenchymal stromal stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • Data presented by Professor Nevalainen showing that acute pancreatitis is accompanied by an elevation in the serum concentration of type II-phospholipase A 2 protein provided convincing evidence of the usefulness of the latter method. (springer.com)
  • However, it has also been demonstrated that T6SS-effectors, such as PldA and PldB phospholipases, are injected into eukaryotic host cells and promote bacterial internalization or activation of several essential eukaryotic processes, such as triggering of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway or autophagy. (europa.eu)
  • These toxins are in themselves a diverse and complex group, including smaller neurotoxic peptides, larger phospholipases, and venom proteases, along with many other protein families ( Ducancel, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. (curehunter.com)
  • FOUR distinct types of phospholipase C (PLC) protein, β, γ, δ, and ϵ, are produced in mammals by a rather diverse family of more than 10 genes. (genetics.org)
  • Outer membrane phospholipase A. Molecular model of the integral membrane protein, outer membrane phospholipase A from the Escherichia coli bacterium. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Patatin-Like phospholipase Domain Containing 6 Kits (12) und Patatin-Like phospholipase Domain Containing 6 Proteine (8) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Thus, the cholinergic activation of phospholipase D in SH-SY5Y cells is probably mediated via a direct receptor-G-protein coupling but an involvement of protein kinase C cannot be excluded. (lu.se)
  • Expression of phospholipases and promoter sequences of smase from clinical isolates and ATCC strains of B. cereus.A) 50% Ammonium sulfate precipitation fractions of the culture supernatants (1.0 mg protein) were subjected to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting using anti-Bc-SMase, -PCPLC, and -PIPLC antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Ponting C, Kerr I. A novel family of phospholipase D homologues that includes phospholipid synthases and putative endonucleases: identification of duplicated repeats and potential active site residues. (labome.org)
  • Patriarca P., Beckerdite S. and Elsbach P. Phospholipases and phospholipid turnover in Escherichia coli spheroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Benítez Rajal J, Lorite M, Burt A, Day C, Thompson M. Phospholipase D and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in hepatic stellate cells: effects of platelet-derived growth factor and extracellular nucleotides. (labome.org)
  • Phospholipase C-beta (PLC beta) catalyZes txe generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (IP2), a key step in the intracellular transduction of many extracellular signals. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Phospholipase A2 acts on the intact lecithin molecule and hydrolyses the fatty acid esterified to the second carbon atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, phospholipase A1 (PLA1) specifically catalyzes the cleavage at the SN-1 position of phospholipids, forming a fatty acid and a lysophospholipid. (wikipedia.org)
  • To evaluate fatty acid plasma levels, phospholipase A 2 activity, and the developmental profiles of children with autism vs. control subjects. (scielo.br)
  • The study did not show a correlation between fatty acid and phospholipase A 2 plasma levels and the developmental profile of children with autism. (scielo.br)
  • Among the toxins that are known for interacting synergistically are cytotoxins from snake venoms, phospholipases A 2 from snake and bee venoms, and melittin from bee venom. (frontiersin.org)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spo14, a phosphatidylcholine-specific, phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate-activated phospholipase D (PLD), is essential for meiosis and spore formation. (genetics.org)
  • The key role played by PLDs in the symptomatology of loxoscelism was first described 40 years ago, when researches purified a hemolytic toxin that cleaved sphingomyelin and generated choline, and was referred to as a Sphingomyelinase-D, which was subsequently changed to Phospholipase-D when it was demonstrated that the enzyme also cleaved other cellular phospholipids. (mdpi.com)
  • Phospholipases are also important members of the cellular machinery engaged in matrix vesicle (MV) biogenesis and exocytosis. (mdpi.com)
  • van den Bosch H., Aarsman A.J., van Schaik R.H.N., Schalkwijk C.H., Nejs F.W. and Sturk A. Structural and enzymological properties of cellular phospholipase A2. (springer.com)
  • Although the venoms of these arachnids are complex in molecular composition, often containing proteins with distinct biochemical characteristics, the literature has primarily described a family of toxins, the Phospholipases-D (PLDs), which are highly conserved in all Loxosceles species. (mdpi.com)
  • Phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) is typical of proteins that appeared at this time, containing several different modules that probably originated elsewhere. (genetics.org)
  • We offer Phospholipase A2 X Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Phospholipase A2 X Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Phospholipase A2 X polyclonal antibodies and browse our Phospholipase A2 X monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 17 Phospholipase D (PLD) Antibodies from 6 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Unlike thyrotropin, thyroid-stimulating antibodies do not activate phospholipase C in human thyroid slices. (jci.org)
  • 8 Phospholipase C gamma 2 (PLCG2) ELISA Kits from 4 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Patatin-like phospholipase Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy "phospholipase" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary D. M. Vasudevan & S. Sreekumari, Textbook of Biochemistry (5th ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 79 Patatin-Like phospholipase Domain Containing 6 (PNPLA6) Antikörper von 18 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 106 Patatin-Like phospholipase Domain Containing 6 Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2-induced cytokine production in human lung macrophages by budesonide," International Archives of Allergy and Immunology , vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 144-155, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Function and inhibition of intracellular calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 . (springer.com)
  • As a ubiquitin-activated phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ), ExoU exhibits cytotoxicity by cleaving membrane phospholipids, resulting in lysis of the host cells and inhibition of the innate immune response. (asm.org)
  • The inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC)gamma causes a twofold increase in Rac and Cdc42 activation that coincides with a dramatic production of atypical filopodia-like structures. (nih.gov)
  • Role of phospholipase A2s and lipid mediators in secondary damage after spinal cord injury. (wingsforlife.com)
  • In this review, we focus on the diverse effects of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) superfamily and the downstream pathways that generate a large number of bioactive lipid mediators , some of which have pro-inflammatory and demyelinating effects, whereas others have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution properties. (wingsforlife.com)
  • Several signaling mediators, including oxygen radicals ( 9 , 10 ), phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) 2 ( 4 , 11 ), ceramide ( 3 , 12 ), and caspases ( 13 ), are involved in TNF-induced cytotoxicity. (jimmunol.org)
  • For phospholipase activity Sabouraud's agar was ammended with 10% egg yolk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It has been reported that salt stress inhibits plant growth and development by activating kinase-dependent pathways and increased with increasing concentration of salt stress concentration however, neomycin a phospholipase C inhibitor inhibits this activity by increasing growth characteristics in soybean (Im et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phospholipase D activity of gram-negative bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Phospholipase D activity couples plasma membrane endocytosis with retromer dependent recycling. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Serum samples from all 23 extant crocodilian species were tested for phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity against nine different bacterial species. (scirp.org)
  • Immunoglobulins from six additional Graves' patients lacking measurable cyclic AMP-stimulating activity in both slices and cells systems did not activate phospholipase C either. (jci.org)
  • Phospholipase A 2 activity was significantly higher among autistic children compared with controls. (scielo.br)
  • Also, children with ASD have been shown to present significantly higher phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity. (scielo.br)
  • Schädlich H.R., Büchler M. and Beger H.G. Improved method for the determination of phospholipase A2 catalytic activity concentration in human serum and ascites. (springer.com)
  • The regulation of phospholipase D was studied in human neuroblastoma cells using phosphatidylethanol as a marker of the enzyme activity. (lu.se)
  • Carbachol induced phospholipase D activity in SH-SY5Y cells. (lu.se)
  • Purified and re-folded active rPlp exhibited phospholipase A2 activity against phosphatidylcholine and no activity against phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, or sphingomyelin. (harvard.edu)
  • Platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase exhibits a Ca 2+ -independent phospholipase A 2 activity and degrades PAF and oxidized phospholipids by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the ester bond at the sn-2 position. (ahajournals.org)
  • Phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate generates diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and protons, all of which can regulate TRPV1 activity via different mechanisms. (diva-portal.org)
  • Importance of group X-secreted phospholipase A 2 in allergen-induced airway inflammation and remodeling in a mouse asthma model," The Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 865-877, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Pruzanski W., and Vadas P. Phospholipase A2-a mediator between proximal and distal effectors of inflammation. (springer.com)
  • The secretory phospholipase A 2 group IIA: a missing link between inflammation, activated renin-angiotensin system, and atherogenesis? (dovepress.com)
  • Each Phospholipase A2 X Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Santavuori S.A., Kortesuo P.T., Eskola J.U. and Nevalainen T.J. Application of a new monoclonal antibody for time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of human pancreatic phospholipase A2. (springer.com)
  • Different phospholipase Cs participate in phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) metabolism and lipid signaling pathways in a calcium-dependent manner. (bionity.com)
  • To date four main groups of phospholipases are known, which comprise the secretory, the calcium-independent, the cytosolic and the lipoprotein-associated phospholipases A2. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • From these the a-subtype of cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2α) appears to be the most likely candidate to catalyze this hydrolysis, since the enzyme is highly selective for arachidonoyl-containing phospholipids and is tightly regulated by receptor-stimulated mechanisms (calcium influx and phosphorylation). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We propose that calcium activated phospholipase A2 plays a central role in resealing of the ruptured nerve membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • The food enzyme phospholipase C (EC 3.1.4.3) is produced with a genetically modified Komagataella phaffii (formerly Pichia pastoris ) (strain PRF) by DSM. (europa.eu)
  • Evidence suggests that the enzyme phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) may be involved in tumor progression and possibly development of metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this regard, activation of the enzyme phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) is thought to play a critical role in both cytoskeletal changes and migration associated with the metastatic process ( 5 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Reversible activation of secretory phospholipase A2 by sulfhydryl reagents. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Epidermal growth factor-induced activation of phospholipase D1b in situ. (labome.org)
  • Mitchell R, Robertson D, Holland P, Collins D, Lutz E, Johnson M. ADP-ribosylation factor-dependent phospholipase D activation by the M3 muscarinic receptor. (labome.org)
  • Thus, the cholinergic activation of phospholipase D in SH-SY5Y cells is. (lu.se)
  • This effect was inhibited by genistein and tyrphostin, indicating a tyrosine kinase dependent pathway for phospholipase D activation in neuroblastoma cells. (lu.se)
  • Activation of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) by TNF has been shown to be an important component of the signaling pathway leading to cell death. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our results show that intact 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 1-arachidonoylglycerol are endogenous TRPV1 activators, contributing to phospholipase C-dependent TRPV1 channel activation and TRPV1-mediated antinociceptive signaling in the brain. (diva-portal.org)
  • Twenty three articles in this book are organized in four sections that are designed to emphasize the most characterized forms of the phospholipases in mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • Crystal structures of an acidic phospholipase A(2) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu have been determined both in the Ca(2+) free and bound states at 0.97 and 1.60 A resolutions, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • Seilhamer JJ, Pruzanski W, Vadas P, Plant S, Miller JA, Kloss J, Johnson LK: Cloning and recombinant expression of phospholipase A2 present in rheumatoid arthritic synovial fluid. (hmdb.ca)
  • It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN. (curehunter.com)
  • Phospholipase C - cleaves before the phosphate, releasing diacylglycerol and a phosphate-containing head group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human group V phospholipase A 2 induces group IVA phospholipase A 2 -independent cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis in human eosinophils," The Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 278, no. 40, pp. 38813-38820, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Eosinophil cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis mediated by exogenous secreted phospholipase A2 group X," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 285, no. 53, pp. 41491-41500, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulation and function of epithelial secreted phospholipase A2 group X in asthma," The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine , vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 42-50, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • In the Ca(2+) bound state, the Ca(2+) ion is penta-coordinated by a distorted pyramidal cage of oxygen and nitrogen atoms that is significantly different to that observed in structures of other Group I/II phospholipases A(2). (rcsb.org)
  • Matsuda Y., Ogawa M., Sakamoto K., Yamashita S., Kanda A., Kohno M., Yoshida N., Nishijima J., Murata A. and Mori T. Development of a radioimmunoassay for human group II phospholipase A2 and demonstration of postoperative elevation. (springer.com)
  • Nevalainen T.J., Kortesuo P.T., Rintala E. and Märki F. Immunochemical detection of group I and group II phospholipases A2 in human serum. (springer.com)
  • Ogawa M., Arakawa H., Yamashita S., Sakamoto K. and Ikei S. Postoperative elevations of serum interleukin 6 and group II phospholipase A2: group II phospholipase A2 in serum is an acute phase reactant. (springer.com)
  • Tappia, Paramjit S. & Dhalla, Naranjan S. (Editors): Phospholipases in Health and Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipases in Health and Disease is a compilation of review articles dedicated to the study of the field with respect to biochemical and molecular mechanisms of normal and abnormal cell function. (springer.com)
  • Eskola J.U., Nevalainen T.J. and Lövgren T.N.-E. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of human pancreatic phospholipase A2. (springer.com)
  • Oka Y., Ogawa M., Matsuda Y., Murata A., Nishijima J., Miyauchi K., Uda K., Yasuda T. and Mori T. Serum immunoreactive pancreatic phospholipase A2 in patients with various malignant tumours. (springer.com)
  • Nevalainen T.J., Grönroos J.M. and Kortesuo P.T. Pancreatic and synovial-type phospholipase A2 in serum in severe acute pancreatitis. (springer.com)
  • Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) is a ubiquitous intracellular enzyme that functions in the excision of fatty acids from the sn-2 position of structural membrane lipids. (scirp.org)