The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a nitrogenous group acceptor. EC 2.7.3.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.
An enzyme with high affinity for carbon dioxide. It catalyzes irreversibly the formation of oxaloacetate from phosphoenolpyruvate and carbon dioxide. This fixation of carbon dioxide in several bacteria and some plants is the first step in the biosynthesis of glucose. EC 4.1.1.31.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and oxaloacetate to ADP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in some bacteria, yeast, and Trypanosoma, and is important for the photosynthetic assimilation of carbon dioxide in some plants. EC 4.1.1.49.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Galactosides in which the oxygen atom linking the sugar and aglycone is replaced by a sulfur atom.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.-.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannitol.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Phosphoric acid esters of galactose.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.

The genes for the Golgi apparatus N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter are contiguous in Kluyveromyces lactis. (1/762)

The mannan chains of Kluyveromyces lactis mannoproteins are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae except that they lack mannose phosphate and have terminal alpha(1-->2)-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Previously, Smith et al. (Smith, W. L. Nakajima, T., and Ballou, C. E. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3426-3435) characterized two mutants, mnn2-1 and mnn2-2, which lacked terminal N-acetylglucosamine in their mannoproteins. The former mutant lacks the Golgi N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity, whereas the latter one was recently found to be deficient in the Golgi UDP-GlcNAc transporter activity. Analysis of extensive crossings between the two mutants led Ballou and co-workers (reference cited above) to conclude that these genes were allelic or tightly linked. We have now cloned the gene encoding the K. lactis Golgi membrane N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase by complementation of the mnn2-1 mutation and named it GNT1. The mnn2-1 mutant was transformed with a 9.5-kilobase (kb) genomic fragment previously shown to contain the gene encoding the UDP-GlcNAc transporter; transformants were isolated, and phenotypic correction was monitored after cell surface labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Griffonia simplicifolia II lectin, which binds terminal N-acetylglucosamine, and a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The above 9.5-kb DNA fragment restored the wild-type lectin binding phenotype of the transferase mutant; further subcloning of this fragment yielded a smaller one containing an opening reading frame of 1,383 bases encoding a protein of 460 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 53 kDa, which also restored the wild-type phenotype. Transformants had also regained the ability to transfer N-acetylglucosamine to 3-0-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-D-mannopyranoside. The gene encoding the above transferase was found to be approximately 1 kb upstream from the previously characterized MNN2 gene encoding the UDP-GlcNAc Golgi transporter. Each gene can be transcribed independently by their own promoter. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of two Golgi apparatus functionally related genes being contiguous in a genome.  (+info)

A multigene locus containing the Manx and bobcat genes is required for development of chordate features in the ascidian tadpole larva. (2/762)

The Manx gene is required for the development of the tail and other chordate features in the ascidian tadpole larva. To determine the structure of the Manx gene, we isolated and sequenced genomic clones from the tailed ascidian Molgula oculata. The Manx gene contains 9 exons and encodes both major and minor Manx mRNAs, which differ in the length of their 5' untranslated regions. The coding region of the single-copy bobcat gene, which encodes a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is embedded within the first Manx intron. The organization of the bobcat and Manx transcription units was determined by comparing genomic and cDNA clones. The Manx-bobcat gene locus has an unusual organization in which a non-coding first exon is alternatively spliced at the 5' end of two different mRNAs. The bobcat and Manx genes are expressed coordinately during oogenesis and embryogenesis, but not during spermatogenesis, in which bobcat mRNA accumulates independently of Manx mRNA. Similar to Manx, zygotic bobcat transcripts accumulate in the embryonic primordia responsible for generating chordate features, including the dorsal neural tube and notochord, are downregulated during embryogenesis in the tailless species Molgula occulta and are upregulated in M. occulta X M. oculata hybrids, which restore these chordate features. Antisense experiments indicate that zygotic bobcat expression is required for development of the same suite of chordate features as Manx. The results show that the Manx-bobcat gene complex has a role in the development of chordate features in ascidian tadpole larvae.  (+info)

Selecting near-native conformations in homology modeling: the role of molecular mechanics and solvation terms. (3/762)

A free energy function, combining molecular mechanics energy with empirical solvation and entropic terms, is used for ranking near-native conformations that occur in the conformational search steps of homology modeling, i.e., side-chain search and loop closure calculations. Correlations between the free energy and RMS deviation from the X-ray structure are established. It is shown that generally both molecular mechanics and solvation/entropic terms should be included in the potential. The identification of near-native backbone conformations is accomplished primarily by the molecular mechanics term that becomes the dominant contribution to the free energy if the backbone is even slightly strained, as frequently occurs in loop closure calculations. Both terms become equally important if a sufficiently accurate backbone conformation is found. Finally, the selection of the best side-chain positions for a fixed backbone is almost completely governed by the solvation term. The discriminatory power of the combined potential is demonstrated by evaluating the free energies of protein models submitted to the first meeting on Critical Assessment of techniques for protein Structure Prediction (CASP1), and comparing them to the free energies of the native conformations.  (+info)

Deduction of consensus binding sequences on proteins that bind IIAGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system by cysteine scanning mutagenesis of Escherichia coli lactose permease. (4/762)

Mediated by the protein IIAGlc, the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system plays a role in the regulation of activity of other sugar transport systems in Escherichia coli. By using a direct binding assay, a collection of single-Cys replacement mutants in cytoplasmic loops of lactose permease were evaluated for their capacity to bind IIAGlc. Selected Cys replacements in loops IV/V or VI/VII result in loss of binding activity. Analysis of the mutagenesis results together with multiple sequence alignments of a family of proteins that interacts with IIAGlc provides the basis for developing two regions of consensus sequence in those partner proteins necessary for binding to IIAGlc. The requirement for two interaction regions is interpreted in the regulatory framework of a substrate-dependent conformational change that brings those two regions into an orientation optimal for binding IIAGlc.  (+info)

In vivo regulation of glycolysis and characterization of sugar: phosphotransferase systems in Streptococcus lactis. (5/762)

Two novel procedures have been used to regulate, in vivo, the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) from glycolysis in Streptococcus lactis ML3. In the first procedure, glucose metabolism was specifically inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. Autoradiographic and enzymatic analyses showed that the cells contained glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-diphosphate, and triose phosphates. Dithiothreitol reversed the p-chloromercuribenzoate inhibition, and these intermediates were rapidly and quantitatively transformed into 3- and 2-phosphoglycerates plus PEP. The three intermediates were not further metabolized and constituted the intracellular PEP potential. The second procedure simply involved starvation of the organisms. The starved cells were devoid of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, fructose- 1,6-diphosphate, and triose phosphates but contained high levels of 3- and 2-phosphoglycerates and PEP (ca. 40 mM in total). The capacity to regulate PEP formation in vivo permitted the characterization of glucose and lactose phosphotransferase systems in physiologically intact cells. Evidence has been obtained for "feed forward" activation of pyruvate kinase in vivo by phosphorylated intermediates formed before the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction in the glycolytic sequence. The data suggest that pyruvate kinase (an allosteric enzyme) plays a key role in the regulation of glycolysis and phosphotransferase system functions in S. lactis ML3.  (+info)

EnvZ-independent phosphotransfer signaling pathway of the OmpR-mediated osmoregulatory expression of OmpC and OmpF in Escherichia coli. (6/762)

The Escherichia coli EnvZ-OmpR regulatory system is a paradigm of intracellular signal transduction mediated by the well-documented phosphotransfer mechanism, by which the expression of the major outer membrane proteins, OmpC and OmpF, is regulated in response to the medium osmolarity. Although it is clear that the EnvZ histidine(His)-kinase is the major player in the phosphorylation of OmpR, it has been assumed for some time that there may be an alternative phospho-donor(s) that can phosphorylate OmpR under certain in vitro and in vivo conditions. In this study, to address this long-standing issue, extensive genetic studies were done with certain mutant alleles, including delta envZ, delta(ackA-pta), and delta sixA, as well as delta ompR. Here, for the first time, genetic evidence is provided that, in addition to EnvZ, acetyl phosphate and an as yet unidentified sensor His-kinase can serve as alternative in vivo phospho-donors for OmpR, even in the envZ+ background. A model for the alternative phosphotransfer signaling pathway involved in the phosphorylation of OmpR is proposed.  (+info)

Elucidation of a PTS-carbohydrate chemotactic signal pathway in Escherichia coli using a time-resolved behavioral assay. (7/762)

Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli toward phosphotransferase systems (PTSs)-carbohydrates requires phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent PTSs as well as the chemotaxis response regulator CheY and its kinase, CheA. Responses initiated by flash photorelease of a PTS substrates D-glucose and its nonmetabolizable analog methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside were measured with 33-ms time resolution using computer-assisted motion analysis. This, together with chemotactic mutants, has allowed us to map out and characterize the PTS chemotactic signal pathway. The responses were absent in mutants lacking the general PTS enzymes EI or HPr, elevated in PTS transport mutants, retarded in mutants lacking CheZ, a catalyst of CheY autodephosphorylation, and severely reduced in mutants with impaired methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) signaling activity. Response kinetics were comparable to those triggered by MCP attractant ligands over most of the response range, the most rapid being 11.7 +/- 3.1 s-1. The response threshold was <10 nM for glucose. Responses to methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside had a higher threshold, commensurate with a lower PTS affinity, but were otherwise kinetically indistinguishable. These facts provide evidence for a single pathway in which the PTS chemotactic signal is relayed rapidly to MCP-CheW-CheA signaling complexes that effect subsequent amplification and slower CheY dephosphorylation. The high sensitivity indicates that this signal is generated by transport-induced dephosphorylation of the PTS rather than phosphoenolpyruvate consumption.  (+info)

trans-acting factors affecting carbon catabolite repression of the hut operon in Bacillus subtilis. (8/762)

In Bacillus subtilis, CcpA-dependent carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mediated at several cis-acting carbon repression elements (cre) requires the seryl-phosphorylated form of both the HPr (ptsH) and Crh (crh) proteins. During growth in minimal medium, the ptsH1 mutation, which prevents seryl phosphorylation of HPr, partially relieves CCR of several genes regulated by CCR. Examination of the CCR of the histidine utilization (hut) enzymes in cells grown in minimal medium showed that neither the ptsH1 nor the crh mutation individually had any affect on hut CCR but that hut CCR was abolished in a ptsH1 crh double mutant. In contrast, the ptsH1 mutation completely relieved hut CCR in cells grown in Luria-Bertani medium. The ptsH1 crh double mutant exhibited several growth defects in glucose minimal medium, including reduced rates of growth and growth inhibition by high levels of glycerol or histidine. CCR is partially relieved in B. subtilis mutants which synthesize low levels of active glutamine synthetase (glnA). In addition, these glnA mutants grow more slowly than wild-type cells in glucose minimal medium. The defects in growth and CCR seen in these mutants are suppressed by mutational inactivation of TnrA, a global nitrogen regulatory protein. The inappropriate expression of TnrA-regulated genes in this class of glnA mutants may deplete intracellular pools of carbon metabolites and thereby result in the reduction of the growth rate and partial relief of CCR.  (+info)

The structural gene (mtlA) of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannitol-transport protein (EIImtl) and its upstream promoter region (Pmtl) were subcloned approximately 150 base pairs downstream of a lambda PR promoter on a multicopy mutagenesis/expression vector and used to transform a mutant (MtlA-) E. coli strain. Induction at 42 degrees C led to 50 to 100-fold overproduction of EIImtl (5-10 mg/g of cell wet weight) relative to mannitol-induced levels in a wild-type (Mtl+) strain. Most of the overproduced protein was sequestered as an inactive form in inclusion bodies and cytoplasmic membranous structures. The protein could be extracted in an active form by rupturing the cells with lysozyme and sonication or with a passage through a French pressure cell and incubating the inclusion bodies and membranous structures with detergent (Lubrol PX or deoxycholate) in the presence of Q or S Sepharose ion-exchange resin for several hours. This procedure resulted in a 20- to 25-fold ...
Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. It can metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates and produce large amounts of organic acids that cause enamel demineralization. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays an important role in carbohydrates uptake of S. mutans. The ptxA and ptxB genes in S. mutans encode putative enzyme IIA and enzyme IIB of the L-ascorbate-specific PTS. The aim of this study was to analyze the function of these proteins and understand the transcriptional regulatory mechanism. ptxA −, ptxB −, as well as ptxA − , ptxB − double-deletion mutants all had more extended lag phase and lower growth yield than wild-type strain UA159 when grown in the medium using L-ascorbate as the sole carbon source. Acid production and acid
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 PFAM Results for Amino Acid Sequences Amino Acid SEQ ID Range NO: ORF Domain Start, Stop Family PFAM Accession No. E-value 3 877 PTS_IIA 16, 111 PTS system, Lactose/Cellobiose specific IIA PF02255 8.20E-40 subunit 5 609 PTS_EIIA_1 30, 134 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar PF00358 6.00E-55 phosphotransferase system, EIIA 1 7 1479 PRD 76, 171; PRD domain PF00874 9.90E-52 181, 282 7 1479 CAT_RBD 6, 67 CAT RNA binding domain PF03123 1.10E-16 9 1574 Glyco_hydro_1 4, 471 Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 PF00232 2.90E-133 11 1707 PTS_EIIA_1 491, 595 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar PF00358 6.10E-53 phosphotransferase system, EIIA 1 11 1707 PTS_EIIC 105, 387 Phosphotransferase system, EIIC PF02378 3.10E-33 11 1707 PTS_EIIB 7, 41 phosphotransferase system, EIIB PF00367 8.50E-19 13 725 PTS_EIIA_1 528, 632 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar PF00358 4.10E-60 phosphotransferase system, EIIA 1 13 725 PTS_EIIC 122, 419 Phosphotransferase system, EIIC PF02378 3.80E-35 13 725 PTS_EIIB 21, ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major carbohydrate transport system in bacteria. The PTS catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. The general mechanism of the PTS is the following: a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred to enzyme-I (EI) of PTS which in turn transfers it to a phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr). Phospho-HPr then transfers the phosphoryl group to a sugar-specific permease which consists of at least three structurally distinct domains (IIA, IIB, and IIC) which can either be fused together in a single polypeptide chain or exist as two or three interactive chains, formerly called enzymes II (EII) and III (EIII ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major carbohydrate transport system in bacteria. The PTS catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell membrane. The general mechanism of the PTS is the following: a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred to enzyme-I (EI) of PTS which in turn transfers it to a phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr). Phospho-HPr then transfers the phosphoryl group to a sugar-specific permease which consists of at least three structurally distinct domains (IIA, IIB, and IIC) which can either be fused together in a single polypeptide chain or exist as two or three interactive chains, formerly called enzymes II (EII) and III (EIII ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. The enzyme II LacEF PTS system is involved in lactose transport, but can also use galactose, isopropyl beta-thio-galactopyranoside and thiometyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (TMG) as substrates.
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. The enzyme II LacEF PTS system is involved in lactose transport.
1KA5: High-resolution structure of the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) from Staphylococcus aureus and characterization of its interaction with the bifunctional HPr kinase/phosphorylase
Domain combinations containing the Glucose permease domain IIB superfamily . Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the Glucose permease domain IIB superfamily.
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
1CM3: The aspartyl replacement of the active site histidine in histidine-containing protein, HPr, of the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar phosphotransferase system can accept and donate a phosphoryl group. Spontaneous dephosphorylation of acyl-phosphate autocatalyzes an internal cyclization
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, which is a major public health concern due to the high fatality rate. LMOf2365_0442, 0443, and 0444 encode for fructose-specific EIIABC components of phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) permease that is responsible for sugar transport. In previous studies, in-frame deletion mutants of a putative fructose-specific PTS permease (LMOf2365_0442, 0443, and 0444) were constructed and analyzed. However, the virulence potential of these deletion mutants has not been studied. In this study, two in vitro methods were used to analyze the virulence potential of these L. monocytogenes deletion mutants. First, invasion assays were used to measure the invasion efficiencies to host cells using the human HT-29 cell line. Second, plaque forming assays were used to measure cell-to-cell spread in host cells. Our results showed that the deletion mutant ΔLMOf2365_0442 had reduced invasion and cell-to-cell spread efficiencies in human cell line
The phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is responsible for the uptake and concomitant phosphorylation of many sugars in several species of bacteria. The first step of the PTS involves the phosphorylation of histidine containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) by enzyme I (E.C. 2.7.3.9), with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) serving as the phosphoryl donor. Enzyme I has logically been viewed as a potential target for regulation of the PTS. This thesis presents important information regarding the structure and function of enzyme I of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Fluorescence polarization analysis, although incomplete, showed that the interaction of HPr with enzyme I and with enzyme IIA glc are of low affinity, with a Kd of roughly 10-100 [mu]M. An enzyme I binding site on HPr was determined by a kinetic assay, using site-directed mutants of HPr as substrates for enzyme I. This site of interaction agreed very well with that found in the NMR solution structure of the ...
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CsiE has two central PRD domains with histidine residues predicted to be phosphorylated by the sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) in response to the availability of carbon source. The PRD domains of BglG phosphorylated by the sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) in response to the availability of carbon source ...
The SCOP classification for the Glucose permease domain IIB superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 defective in enzyme I or Hpr, the two common components of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system, were isolated by a simple, direct method. The ptsI locus, the structural gene for enzyme I, and the ptsH locus, the site of mutations leading to loss of Hpr activity, are adjacent genes and could be part of a single operon. These two genes lie between the purC and supN markers in the order: strA... guaB-purC-ptsI-ptsH-supN-dsdA... his.
Roseman University of Health Sciences (I). 0455. Larry Fannin. Dean and Professor. 11 Sunset Way. Henderson, NV 89014. Tel: 801-878-1053. E-Mail: [email protected] Web Site: www.roseman.edu. ...
Shop Lichenan-specific phosphotransferase enzyme IIA component ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Lichenan-specific phosphotransferase enzyme IIA component Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Since the first discovery of PTS in E. coli [37], special efforts have been made to study the characteristics and functions of various PTS proteins in both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms, including S. mutans, the most common pathogen in dental caries. The presence of PTS involved in high-efficiency transport and phosphorylation of numerous carbohydrates largely accounts for the high cariogenicity of S. mutans. Apart from the two general proteins, EI and HPr, many genes coding for different carbohydrate-specific EII complexes of the PTS have been isolated and identified, such as the scrA gene for sucrose [38], the mtlA gene for mannitol [10], the lacFE genes for lactose [39], the manLMN genes for mannose [40], and others. In the present study, two genes, ptxA and ptxB, that were identified and presumed to be involved in anaerobic utilization of L-ascorbate, were analyzed.. Similar to E. coli and some other enteric bacteria, S. mutans could grow in defined medium supplemented with ...
Saccharides have a central role in the nutrition of all living organisms. Whereas several saccharide uptake systems are shared between the different phylogenetic kingdoms, the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system exists almost exclusively in bacteria. This multi-component system includes an integral membrane protein EIIC that transports saccharides and assists in their phosphorylation. Here we present the crystal structure of an EIIC from Bacillus cereus that transports diacetylchitobiose. The EIIC is a homodimer, with an expansive interface formed between the amino-terminal halves of the two protomers. The carboxy-terminal half of each protomer has a large binding pocket that contains a diacetylchitobiose, which is occluded from both sides of the membrane with its site of phosphorylation near the conserved His250 and Glu334 residues. The structure shows the architecture of this important class of transporters, identifies the determinants of substrate binding and ...
Summary: In Lactobacillus curvatus, a phosphoenolpyruvate: mannose phosphotransferase system (mannose-PTS) has been characterized and it was shown to be involved in glucose and mannose transport, but no glucose-specific PTS activity could be detected. A 2.1 kb DNA fragment amplified by PCR from the L. curvatus genome was sequenced. Sequence analysis showed four ORFs which could encode proteins similar to PTS transporters EIIA, EIIB, EIIC and EIID of the mannose class. The expression of the manB gene (encoding EIIB) from L. curvatus in a mutant of Lactobacillus sake impaired in EIIMan activity restored this activity. Furthermore, this DNA fragment complemented the regulatory function of LevE (EIIB) in a Bacillus subtilis levE-deficient mutant, suggesting that the protein encoded by manB could also play a regulatory role in L. curvatus.
The histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr) kinase/phosphorylase (HPrK/P) modulates the phosphorylation state of the HPr protein, and it is involved in the use of carbon sources by Gram-positive bacteria. Its X-ray structure, as concluded from crystals of proteins from several species, is a hexamer; however, there are no studies about its conformational stability, and how its structure is modified by the pH. We have embarked on the conformational characterization of HPrK/P of Bacillus subtilis (bsHPrK/P) in solution by using several spectroscopic (namely, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD)) and biophysical techniques (namely, small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) and dynamic light-scattering (DLS)). bsHPrK/P was mainly a hexamer in solution at pH 7.0, in the presence of phosphate. The protein had a high conformational stability, with an apparent thermal denaturation midpoint of ~70 °C, at pH 7.0, as monitored by fluorescence and CD. The protein was very pH-sensitive, precipitated be ...
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Lactobacillus curvatus has a glucose transport system homologous to the mannose family of phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Selenomonas ruminantium is one of the more prominent and functionally diverse bacteria present in the rumen and can survive under a wide range of nutritional fluctuations. Selenomonas is not a degrader of complex polysaccharides, but is important in the utilization of soluble carbohydrates released from initial hydrolysis by other ruminal bacteria. Selenomonads have multiple carbon flow routes for carbohydrate catabolism and ATP generation, and subspecies differ in their ability to use lactate. Some soluble carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose) appear to be transported via the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system, while arabinose and xylose are transported by proton symport. High cell yields and the presence of electron transport components in Selenomonas strains has been documented repeatedly and this may partially account for the energy partitioning observed between energy consumed for growth and maintenance functions. Most strains ...
Lysosomal targeting of soluble lysosomal enzymes occurs mainly via the mannose 6‐phosphate (Man 6‐P) receptor pathway and is dependent on generation of a Man 6‐P marker in the oligosaccharide chains of proteins destined for lysosomes. The initial step is accomplished by the Golgi‐resident enzyme UDP‐N‐acetylglucosamine 1‐phosphotransferase (phosphotransferase), which catalyzes the transfer of GlcNAc phosphate onto the α‐1,2‐linked mannose residues in the oligosaccharide chains of lysosomal enzymes. Another intra‐Golgi enzyme, N‐acetylglucosamine 1‐phosphodiester α‐N‐acetylglucosaminidase later exposes the Man 6‐P marker by removing the covering GlcNAc. The Man 6‐P is then recognized and bound by mannose 6‐phosphate receptors and the lysosomal hydrolases are transported into the endosomal compartment. The phosphotransferase enzyme has only been preliminarily characterized and very little is known about its mode of function and of the interactions with its ...
Domain combinations containing the YppE-like superfamily in Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. carnosus TM300. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the YppE-like superfamily.
Based on International Paralympic Committee impairment descriptions, HPRS will *recognize two types of AWD based on clearly defined eligible impairments: Visually impaired and mobility impaired.. *Depending on number of AWDs registered, HPRS may choose to group all AWDs within one division or recognize each division listed below individually:. 1. VISUAL IMPAIRED DIVISION Individuals with vision impacted by an impairment of the eye structure, optical nerves or optical pathways, or the visual cortex, may be granted registration as an AWD but will not be allowed extended time on the course.. A couple things to note about our course for visually impaired athletes:. ...
Phosphoryl transfer between the PTS components is thought to proceed by nucleophilic attack of the active histidine residue on the phospho-histidine of the target protein ...
2 of 7 of my Regulation Domain. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke.
Phosphoenolpyruvate (2-phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP) is the ester derived from the enol of pyruvate and phosphate. It exists as an anion. PEP is an important intermediate in biochemistry. It has the highest-energy phosphate bond found (−61.9 kJ/mol) in organisms, and is involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In plants, it is also involved in the biosynthesis of various aromatic compounds, and in carbon fixation; in bacteria, it is also used as the source of energy for the phosphotransferase system.[1][2] ...
Here is the best resource for homework help with NURSING 1204 : HPRS at North Texas. Find NURSING1204 study guides, notes, and practice tests from UNT.
Specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) that were consistently overrepresented in copiotrophs included components of phosphotransferase systems (PTS) that are central for regulation and transport of sugars (COG1263, COG1299), Na+ transporters (COG0733), and a wide array of other highly specific transporters (COG0697, COG1292, COG2116, COG2704) and permeases (COG0697, COG0814, COG1114, COG1275, COG1972, COG2271, COG3104). Oligotrophs may have evolved to minimize the number of energy-intensive transporters and instead rely on a relatively smaller number of broad-specificity and sufficiently high-affinity ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. This genomic signature is concordant with the observation that oligotrophs, including S. alaskensis (7), use broad-specificity, multifunctional high-affinity uptake systems (9).. Our analysis predicts that copiotrophs have a larger diversity of proteins localized in the outer membrane, which is the case even after normalization to the total number of ...
Is being sick necessary? What if all you really need is digestive system enzymes?Research has revealed that people with a chronic disease, or those individuals who have decreased energy levels are also found to have lower than average enzyme content in their urine, blood and tissues. Only recently has the direct relationship …. Read More » ...
A deficiency in one of the immune systems enzymes affects the severity of autoimmune diseases such as MS, and explains why the course of these diseases can vary so much. New findings give an insight into how this enzyme deficiency can be diagnosed, and could lead to new medicines, reveals a thesis from the Sahlgrenska Academy.
3), phosphorylation of Crh and HPr at Ser46 was strongly inhibited in the untreated cells (no additional glucose added) when IWR-1 chemical structure growth ceased, i.e. after 9 h incubation (Fig. 4b, top panels). In contrast, much higher amounts of Crh~P and HPr(Ser)~P were detectable at that time (9 h) in the cells that were supplemented with additional glucose (Fig. 4b, compare lanes 3 and 10 in the top and bottom panels). This result unequivocally shows that exhaustion of the carbon source glucose prevents phosphorylation of Crh and HPr. by HPrK/P when cells enter the stationary growth phase. In this work, we analyzed the dynamics of phosphorylation of Crh in response to different nutritional conditions in vivo. Previous in vitro studies suggested that Crh becomes (de)-phosphorylated by HPrK/P at residue Ser46 like its homolog HPr, but whether this also applied to in vivo conditions was not clear. Our data confirm that. HPrK/P is actually the kinase responsible for phosphorylation of Crh in ...
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MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsCarbohydrates, organic alcohols, and acidsPTS system, maltose and glucose-specific IIBC component (TIGR02004; EC 2.7.1.69; HMM-score: 463.4) ...
본 연구에서 혈소판 수와 특성들이 혈소판 반응성과 연관이 있었다. 특히 혈소판 수가 30일째 HPR의 독립적인 위험인자였다. 그러나 티카그렐러로 치료받은 환자에서는 연관성이 없었고, 혈소판 수가 독립적인 위험 인자도 아니었다.따라서 강력한 항혈소판 치료가 중재시술을 받은 환자에서는 필요할 것으로 생각된다.. 급성관상동맥증후군 및 스텐트 시술 후 치료의 필수적인 요소는 항혈판제 치료이다. 과거 아스피린과 클로피도그렐의 병합요법이 표준으로 사용되었고 최근에는 프라수그렐이나 티카그렐러와 같은 새로운 약제들이 소개되고 있다. 항혈소판제 치료에도 불구하고 충분히 혈소판 억제가 일어나지 않는 경우가 보고되고 있는데 이를 HPR 현상이라 한다[1-4,11]. HPR 현상은 클로피도그렐 사용시 약 20-30%까지도 보고되고 있으며, 이는 스텐트 ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule [(1r)-2-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-1-methyl-ethoxy]methyl-[hydroxy(phosphonooxy)phosphoryl]oxy-phosphinic acid (C9H16N5O10P3) from the PQR.
China 4-Methylbenzenesulfonic Acid, Find details about China P-Toluenesulfonic Acid, Pts Acid from 4-Methylbenzenesulfonic Acid - Heze Kingvolt Chemical Co., Ltd.
China Methylbenzenesulfonic Acid, Find details about China P-Toluenesulfonic Acid, Pts Acid from Methylbenzenesulfonic Acid - Heze Kingvolt Chemical Co., Ltd.
Hunted down! Dramatic moment a notorious gang of ivory poachers are caught in an undercover sting in Zambia: Photo documentation of the dramatic moment notorious ivory poachers are caught - read more.. How Lizard Genitalia Became a Black Market Craze: Monitor lizards were poached for their meat and skins… now theyre dying for their penises - read more.. Whale Strikes and Kills Canadian Rescuer After He Helps Free It: Marine community mourns the loss of Joe Howlett, dedicated whale rescuer who died after successfully disentangling a whale - read more.. Sunday Night With Megyn Kelly Team Travels to Kenya to Report on Efforts to Protect Elephants - read more.. ...
Considerable differences in steady-state hexokinase specific activity were found in 16 N.C.I.B. strains of Klebsiella aerogenes grown in identical conditions in glucose-limited chemostats. Strains of N.C.I.B. 8258 had no detectable activity, but its glucose-phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase specific activity and that of the other strains were closely similar, and it is concluded that this phosphotransferase activity regulates the overall utilization of glucose, in which hexokinase plays no essential role. The hexokinase activity was subject to regulation by the availability of phosphorus, but this did not affect the glucose phosphotransferase activity. tlactose-grown organisms (including strain N.C.I.B. 8258) had no glucose phosphotransferase activity, but more than adequate hexokinase activity to phosphorylate the intracellularly liberated glucose. ...
Addition of glucose or fructose to cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on a nonfermentable carbon source triggers within a few minutes post-translational activation of trehalase, repression of the CTT1 (catalase) and SSA3 (Hsp70) genes, and induction of the ribosomal protein genes RPL1, RPL25 and RPS33. By using appropriate sugar kinase mutants, it was shown that rapid glucose- or fructose-induced activation of trehalase requires phosphorylation of the sugar. On the other hand, partial induction of RPL1, RPL25 and RPS33 as well as partial repression of CTT1 and SSA3 were observed in the absence of sugar phosphorylation. In glucose-grown nitrogen-starved yeast cells re-addition of a nitrogen source triggers activation of trehalase in a glucose- or fructose-dependent way, but with no apparent requirement for phosphorylation of the sugar. Repression of CTT1 and SSA3 under the same conditions was also largely dependent on the presence of the sugar and also in these cases there was a strong
The growth and activity of some Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains are stimulated by the presence of nondigestible fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are selectively fermented by specific intestinal bacteria. Consumption of FOS, therefore, enriches for those bacteria that possess metabolic pathways necessary for FOS metabolism. In this study, a DNA microarray consisting of 7,680 random genomic library fragments of Lactobacillus paracasei 1195 was used to examine genes involved in the utilization of FOS in this organism. Differential expression profiles between cells grown on FOS and those grown on glucose provided a basis for identifying genes specifically induced by FOS. Several of the FOS-induced genes shared sequence identity with genes encoding β-fructosidases and components of phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTS). These genes were organized in a putative operon, designated the fos operon, that may play an essential role in FOS utilization. The complete 7,631-bp
Abstract: A glucose-responsive closed-loop insulin delivery system represents the ideal treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we develop uniform injectable microgels for controlled glucose-responsive release of insulin. Monodisperse microgels (256 +/= 18 ?m), consisting of a pH-responsive chitosan matrix, enzyme nanocapsules, and recombinant human insulin, were fabricated through a one-step electrospray procedure. Glucose-specific enzymes were covalently encapsulated into the nanocapsules to improve enzymatic stability by protecting from denaturation and immunogenicity as well as to minimize loss due to diffusion from the matrix. The microgel system swelled when subjected to hyperglycemic conditions, as a result of the enzymatic conversion of glucose into gluconic acid and protonation of the chitosan network. Acting as a self-regulating valve system, microgels were adjusted to release insulin at basal release rates under normoglycemic conditions and at higher rates under ...
Nancy Roseman is Former President at Dickinson College. See Nancy A Rosemans compensation, career history, education, & memberships.
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View Notes - bis_104_pq_29_ans_ss_i_2009 from BIS BIS 104 at UC Davis. Increased numbers of GLUT-4 receptors transport glucose from blood into the ell where it is rapidly phosphorylated to maintain
Manx Are there cats with no tales, well the answer to that is YES, and its called the Manx. There are cats with short tails or no tails, but the Manx
The research in our group focuses on the structural biochemistry and biophysics of membrane proteins. Membrane proteins perform most of the important processes in all living cells. For example, respiration, photosynthesis, cell communication, cell import/export, cell growth and recognition are catalyzed and regulated by membrane proteins. These proteins do not act in an isolated way; they rather perform communication within the cell by binding and releasing of cofactors and soluble signal-transducing proteins. Membrane proteins are also key player in infectious diseases as they mediate entry of viral and bacterial pathogens into the host cell and also play an important role in the cell defense against the pathogens.. The main step for the elucidation of the complex in whole living cells is the understanding of the structure, dynamics and function of the membrane proteins that play the key role in these processes. Our research field is of a very interdisciplinary nature and includes biochemical ...
Letters refer to COG functional categories. C - Energy production and conversion; D - Cell division and chromosome partitioning; E - Amino acid transport and metabolism; F - Nucleotide transport and metabolism; G - Carbohydrate transport and metabolism; H - Coenzyme metabolism; I - Lipid metabolism; J - Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; K - Transcription; L - DNA replication, recombination and repair; M - Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane; O - Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; P - Inorganic ion transport and metabolism; R - General function prediction only; S - COG of unknown function. See the BacMap help page for a description of how proteins were classified into COG categories. ...
Letters refer to COG functional categories. C - Energy production and conversion; D - Cell division and chromosome partitioning; E - Amino acid transport and metabolism; F - Nucleotide transport and metabolism; G - Carbohydrate transport and metabolism; H - Coenzyme metabolism; I - Lipid metabolism; J - Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis; K - Transcription; L - DNA replication, recombination and repair; M - Cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane; O - Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones; P - Inorganic ion transport and metabolism; R - General function prediction only; S - COG of unknown function. See the BacMap help page for a description of how proteins were classified into COG categories. ...
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
If you wish to connect to or divert an existing sewer you can find out what is involved on this page. You can also find out more about how Manx Utilities can adopt sewer.
General Information: This is a Gram positive, nonmotile, nonsporeforming bacterium isolated from dry sausages. Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. carnosus TM300 is used as a meat starter culture and classified as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) organism. ...
TRPT1 - TRPT1 (untagged)-Human tRNA phosphotransferase 1 (TRPT1) transcript variant 6 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
"Topological predictions for integral membrane permeases of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system". Journal of ... Some bacteria have many PTS transport systems belonging to different families. For example, the solventogenic Clostridium ... suggesting that the two regions come together to execute sugar phosphotransfer. Nguyen, Thai X.; Yen, Ming-Ren; Barabote, Ravi ... "The Structure of a Sugar Transporter of the Glucose EIIC Superfamily Provides Insight into the Elevator Mechanism of Membrane ...
"Topological predictions for integral membrane permeases of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system". Journal of ...
The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) transports and phosphorylates its sugar substrates in a ... "Topological predictions for integral membrane permeases of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system". Journal of ... The phosphotransferases system (PTS-GFL) superfamily is a superfamily of phosphotransferase enzymes that facilitate the ... Family Phosphotransferases system "TCDB - PTS-GFL Superfamily". www.tcdb.org. Chang, Abraham B.; Lin, Ron; Keith Studley, W.; ...
"Topological predictions for integral membrane permeases of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system". Journal of ...
The system was discovered by Saul Roseman in 1964. The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) ... Phosphoenolpyruvate+Sugar+Phosphotransferase+System at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... "Sequence homologies between proteins of bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems: ... The phosphotransferase system is involved in transporting many sugars into bacteria, including glucose, mannose, fructose and ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major carbohydrate transport system in bacteria. ... protein is a small cytoplasmic protein that is a component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system ... Meadow ND, Fox DK, Roseman S (1990). "The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: glycose phosphotransferase system". Annu. Rev. Biochem ... Postma PW, Lengeler JW, Jacobson GR (1993). "Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of bacteria". ...
The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a multi-protein system involved in the regulation ... sugar phosphotransferase system". Journal of Bacteriology. 174 (5): 1433-8. doi:10.1128/jb.174.5.1433-1438.1992. PMC 206537. ... The general mechanism of the PTS is the following: a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred to enzyme-I ... The PTS catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitant with their translocation across the cell ...
... sugar phosphotransferase system". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 38 (10): 515-530. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2013.08.003. PMC 3831880 ... dynamics and biophysics of the cytoplasmic protein-protein complexes of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: ... Clore's work on complexes of all the cytoplasmic components of the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) led to significant ... structures of biological macromolecules and has consistently extended the frontiers of NMR to ever more complex systems. His ...
"Sequence homologies between proteins of bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems: ... it is one of the two known Thermotogales to have an operon in its genome that encodes for a phosphotransferase system sugar ... It is used by bacteria for active transport to intake sugar using phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) as the source of energy. The only ... 2000), these two species are more phylogenetically related than any other Thermotoga species due to sugar use, elemental sulfur ...
Kaback, H. R. (1968). "The role of the phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system in the transport of sugars by isolated ... Bazzone, A; Madej, MG; Kaback, HR; Fendler, K (2016). "pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases". ... he developed a cell-free membrane system to study active transport. The system consisted of osmotically sealed membrane ... Smirnova, I.; Kasho, V.; Choe, J.-Y.; Altenbach, C.; Hubbell, W. L.; Kaback, H.R. (2007). "Sugar binding induces an outward ...
... enzyme I of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system and other PEP-utilizing enzymes. Identification ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:pyruvate, phosphate phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include ... PPDK catalyses the conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), consuming 1 molecule of ATP, and producing one molecule ... Phosphorylated PPDK binds to pyruvate, producing phosphoenolpyruvate, and regenerating PPDK. The reaction is similar to the ...
In bacteria, histidine phosphorylation occurs in the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs), which are ... involved in the process of internalization as well as the phosphorylation of sugars. Protein phosphorylation by protein kinase ... The arginine phosphorylation system, which is widely distributed across Gram-positive bacteria, appears to be functionally ... Chang C; Stewart RC (July 1998). "The Two-Component System. Regulation of Diverse Signaling Pathways in Prokaryotes and ...
... phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system MeSH D08.811.600.710 - photosynthetic reaction center complex proteins MeSH ... phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.680 - polynucleotide 5'-hydroxyl-kinase MeSH ... phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (atp) MeSH D08.811.520.224.125.550 - phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (gtp) MeSH D08.811. ... sugar alcohol dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.075 - aldehyde reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150.700.237 - d- ...
UniProt Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System in Ancalomicrobium adetum Journal of Bacteriology, Aug. 1977, P. ...
... phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system MeSH D05.500.562.492 - photosystem i protein complex MeSH D05.500.562.496 ...
Phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system. *Polyketide synthase. *Sucrase-isomaltase complex. *Tryptophan synthase. * ... "Network organization of the human autophagy system". Nature. 466 (7302): 68-76. doi:10.1038/nature09204. PMC 2901998. PMID ...
Phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system. *Polyketide synthase. *Sucrase-isomaltase complex. *Tryptophan synthase. * ...
Phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system. *Polyketide synthase. *Sucrase-isomaltase complex. *Tryptophan synthase. ...
Phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system. *Polyketide synthase. *Sucrase-isomaltase complex. *Tryptophan synthase. * ... "The tryptophan synthase-encoding trpB gene of Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by the cross-pathway control system". Mol Gen ...
Phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase system. *Polyketide synthase. *Sucrase-isomaltase complex. *Tryptophan synthase. * ... the FAS I system produces palmitic acid, and cooperates with the FAS II system to produce a greater diversity of lipid products ... Type I systems utilise a single large, multifunctional polypeptide and are common to both mammals and fungi (although the ... Wronkowski Z (1976). "[Cancer diagnosis of the respiratory system]". Pielȩgniarka i połozna (12): 7-8. PMID 1044453.. ...
The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) transports and phosphorylates its sugar substrates in a ... "Topological predictions for integral membrane permeases of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system". Journal of ... Permease of phosphotransferase system (or PTS-AG superfamily according to TCDB) is a superfamily of phosphotransferase enzymes ... Family Phosphotransferases system Chen JS, Reddy V, Chen JH, Shlykov MA, Zheng WH, Cho J, Yen MR, Saier MH (2012-01-01). " ...
Postma, P.W.; Roseman, S. (1976). "The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ... PEP-dependent phosphotransferase enzyme II, PEP-sugar phosphotransferase enzyme II, phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar ... sucrose phosphotransferase system II, and protein-Npi-phosphohistidine:sugar N-pros-phosphotransferase. This enzyme ... sugar Npi-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include glucose permease, PTS permease, phosphotransferase, ...
Postma PW, Roseman S (December 1976). "The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system". Biochimica et ... phosphopyruvate-protein phosphotransferase, sugar-PEP phosphotransferase enzyme I, and phosphoenolpyruvate:protein-L-histidine ... protein-L-histidine Npi-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase ... This enzyme participates in phosphotransferase system (pts). The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate: ...
... activator and small RNA in post-transcriptional regulation of the glucose phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system". ... SgrS (sugar transport-related sRNA, previously named ryaA) is a 227 nucleotide small RNA that is activated by SgrR in ... Papenfort K, Sun Y, Miyakoshi M, Vanderpool CK, Vogel J (April 2013). "Small RNA-mediated activation of sugar phosphatase mRNA ... Rice JB, Vanderpool CK (May 2011). "The small RNA SgrS controls sugar-phosphate accumulation by regulating multiple PTS genes ...
Postma, P. W.; Lengeler, J. W.; Jacobson, G. R. (1993). "Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of ... media The PEP-dependent sugar transporting phosphotransferase system transports and simultaneously phosphorylates its sugar ... Erni, B.; Zanolari, B. (1985). "The mannose-permease of the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Gene cloning and purification ... "Structure of the mannose transporter of the bacterial phosphotransferase system". Cell Research. 29 (8): 680-682. doi:10.1038/ ...
... , a sugar alcohol containing 5 carbon-polyol is metabolized via the phospho-enolpyruvate-phospho-transferase pathway ( ... Due to the adverse laxative effect that all polyols have on the digestive system in high doses, xylitol is banned from soft ... Sugar rationing during World War II led to an interest in sugar substitutes. Interest in xylitol and other polyols became ... Xylitol is used as a food additive and sugar substitute. Its European Union code number is E967. Replacing sugar with xylitol ...
Glucose is transported into the cell by the PEP-dependent phosphotransferase system. The phosphate group of phosphoenolpyruvate ... In this case, when lactose is required as a sugar source for the bacterium, the three genes of the lac operon can be expressed ... phosphotransferase system) proteins HPr and EIA and the glucose-specific PTS proteins EIIAGlc and EIIBGlc, the cytoplasmic ... A working system requires both a ground transmitter and a receiver in the airplane. Now, suppose that the usual transmitter is ...
The addition of PPDK to the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate (typically catalyzed solely by pyruvate kinase) has a ... In G. intestinalis (an anaerobic unicellular eukaryote) this pathway produces eight times more ATP than sugar metabolism, and a ... The genus has replaced the iron-sulphur cluster assembly pathway with a cytosolic sulphur mobilization system, likely acquired ... Four alternative glycolytic enzymes include pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate phosphotransferase (PFP), fructose-bisphosphate ...
It is as a signal for insulin release that glucokinase exerts the largest effect on blood sugar levels and overall direction of ... Alternative names for this enzyme are: human hexokinase IV, hexokinase D, and ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.1 ( ... Enterocytes of the small intestine This is the least-understood of the glucokinase sensor systems. It seems likely that ... is also involved in regulation of transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate ...
Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System/genetics. *Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System/metabolism* ... The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system is involved in sensitivity to the glucosylated bacteriocin sublancin.. ... The Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System Is Involved in Sensitivity to the Glucosylated Bacteriocin Sublancin ... The Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System Is Involved in Sensitivity to the Glucosylated Bacteriocin Sublancin ...
Regulated high-level expression of the mannitol permease of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system ... Regulated high-level expression of the mannitol permease of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system ... Regulated high-level expression of the mannitol permease of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system ... Regulated high-level expression of the mannitol permease of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system ...
Signaling sugar translocation: Structure of phosphorylated Enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system ... Bacteria evolved a unique mechanism to import many carbohydrates, the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS ... Structure of the full-length enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. J. Biol. Chem. 27, ... Retrieved from "http://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Enzyme_I_of_the_Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar_Phosphotransferase_System" ...
Crystal Structure of the Phosphoenolpyruvate-binding Enzyme I-Domain from the Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis PEP: Sugar ... Enzyme I (EI), the first component of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), consists of an N- ... Enzyme I (EI), the first component of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP):sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), consists of an N- ... Sugar Phosphotransferase System (Pts). Oberholzer, A.E., Bumann, M., Schneider, P., Baechler, C., Siebold, C., Baumann, U., ...
... sugar Phosphotransferase System in Streptomyces: Possible Involvement in the Regulation of Antibiotic Production ... Proteins of the Phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar Phosphotransferase System in Streptomyces: Possible Involvement in the Regulation of ...
... sugar phosphotransferase system. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Microbiology and Molecular ... phosphorylation and allosteric control of inducer exclusion and catabolite repression by the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: ... The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) functions in a variety of regulatory capacities. One of the best characterized of ... phosphorylation and allosteric control of inducer exclusion and catabolite repression by the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: ...
The Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System Is Involved in Sensitivity to the Glucosylated Bacteriocin Sublancin. C ... The Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System Is Involved in Sensitivity to the Glucosylated Bacteriocin Sublancin ... The Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System Is Involved in Sensitivity to the Glucosylated Bacteriocin Sublancin ... The Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System Is Involved in Sensitivity to the Glucosylated Bacteriocin Sublancin ...
... and sucrose in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The ... Regulation of expression of general components of the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) by the ... Identification of a second beta-glucoside phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system in Corynebacterium ... sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Gaigalat L, Schlüter J-P, Hartmann M, Mormann S, Tauch A, ...
Phosphoenolpyruvate-Glycose Phosphotransferase System*Phosphoenolpyruvate-Glycose Phosphotransferase System. * ... "Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System" by people in this website by year, and whether "Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar ... Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) [D08.811.913.696.620]. *Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System [ ... Phosphoenolpyruvate Hexose Phosphotransferases*Phosphoenolpyruvate Hexose Phosphotransferases. *Hexose Phosphotransferases, ...
SP/I/1/77065/10 by the strategic scientific research and experimental development program: SYNAT - "Interdisciplinary System ... Phosphoenolpyruvate: Sugar Phosphotransferase System from the Hyperthermophilic Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis Vera Navdaeva ...
... is responsible for the transport and phosphorylation of sugars, such as glucose. PTS activity has a crucial role in the global ... signaling system that controls the preferential consumption of glucose over other c … ... Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System / genetics * Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System / ... In Escherichia coli, the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is responsible for the transport and ...
... component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS). This major carbohydrate active- ... transport system catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the ... Enzyme I transfers the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to the phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr). ... General (non sugar-specific) component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS). This ...
... and sucrose in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The ... Beside F-1-P, other sugar-phosphates like fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P) and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) also negatively ... and associated genes encoding sugar-specific functions (ptsF, ptsG, ptsS). ... gene cluster is observed during growth on acetate and transcription is derepressed in the presence of the PTS sugars glucose ...
GO:0009401 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system Molecular Function. GO:0008982 protein-N(PI)- ... sugar phosphotransferase system.. J. Bacteriol. 174 1433-8 1992. Saier MH Jr, Reizer J. The bacterial phosphotransferase system ... The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) [PMID: 8246840, PMID: 2197982] is a major carbohydrate ... sugar phosphotransferase system.. J. Bacteriol. 174 1433-8 1992. Postma PW, Lengeler JW, Jacobson GR. Phosphoenolpyruvate: ...
GO:0009401 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system Molecular Function. No terms assigned in this category ... sugar phosphotransferase system.. J. Bacteriol. 174 1433-8 1992. Saier MH Jr, Reizer J. The bacterial phosphotransferase system ... The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) [PMID: 8246840, PMID: 2197982] is a major carbohydrate ... sugar phosphotransferase system.. J. Bacteriol. 174 1433-8 1992. Postma PW, Lengeler JW, Jacobson GR. Phosphoenolpyruvate: ...
Postma, P.W.; Roseman, S. (1976). "The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ... PEP-dependent phosphotransferase enzyme II, PEP-sugar phosphotransferase enzyme II, phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar ... sucrose phosphotransferase system II, and protein-Npi-phosphohistidine:sugar N-pros-phosphotransferase. This enzyme ... sugar Npi-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include glucose permease, PTS permease, phosphotransferase, ...
Postma PW, Roseman S (December 1976). "The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system". Biochimica et ... phosphopyruvate-protein phosphotransferase, sugar-PEP phosphotransferase enzyme I, and phosphoenolpyruvate:protein-L-histidine ... protein-L-histidine Npi-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase ... This enzyme participates in phosphotransferase system (pts). The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate: ...
Energy transformation in biological systems.. [Fritz Lipmann; G E W Wolstenholme; David W FitzSimons; Ciba Foundation.;] ... The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate : sugar phosphotransferase system / Saul Roseman --. The active transport of carbohydrates by ... The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate : sugar phosphotransferase system / Saul Roseman -- The active transport of carbohydrates by ... Symposium on Energy Transformation in Biological Systems (1974 : London, England).. Energy transformation in biological systems ...
Phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system enzyme I, PTS system. 3.813. 8.10E−06. 1.6. 0.014. F-GCAGTAGATACCCTTGGTGAAG ... Phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system HPr. 3.066. 0.0007686. 1.7. 0.01. F-CATGCACGCCCAGCTACTTTG, R- ... sugar phosphotransferase system (also belongs to energy metabolism); hyp, hypothetical protein; ABC, ABC transporters; CI met, ... PTS system, sorbitol phosphotransferase enzyme IIBC. 6.326. 4.50E−06. 10. 0.07. F-TCGCTCTGGCTATTGTTGACTG, R- ...
DR GO; GO:0009401; P:phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system; IEA:InterPro. DR Gene3D; 3.40.930.10; -; 1 ... DR GO; GO:0008982; F:protein-N(PI)-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase activity; IEA:InterPro. ...
... sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active transport system, catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates ... This system is involved in D-mannitol transport (PubMed:368051, PubMed:6427236, PubMed:2123863). Also able to use D-mannonic ... The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (sugar PTS), a major carbohydrate active transport system, ... phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system Source: EcoCycInferred from direct assayi*. "Mannitol-specific ...
GO:0009401: phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system biological_process. Author. Haft DH. ... This enzyme generates phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) from pyruvate, hydrolyzing ATP to AMP and releasing inorganic phosphate in the ... This enzyme may provide PEP for gluconeogenesis, for PTS-type carbohydrate transport systems, or for other processes. ...
... evidence for carbon catabolite repression by a non-phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system sugar. J Bacteriol ... Rao, S.P., Camacho, L., Huat Tan, B., Boon, C., Russel, D.G., Dick, T. and Pethe, K. (2008) Recombinase-based reporter system ... Gardan, R., Besset, C., Guillot, A., Gitton, C. and Monnet, V. (2009) The oligopeptide transport system is essential for the ... VU University Amsterdam, Systems Bioinformatics, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands ...
HMPREF0837_11858 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system HMPREF0837_11856 phosphotransferase system ... 10032 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system HMPREF0837_10033 PTS system HMPREF0837_10132 PTS system ... 11301 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system HMPREF0837_10934 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar ... HMPREF0837_11616 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system HMPREF0837_11857 PTS system HMPREF0837_10774 ...
Control of Transposon-Mediated Directed Mutation by the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar Phosphotransferase System. ... The phosphocarrier protein HPr of the bacterial phosphotransferase system globally regulates energy metabolism by directly ... The complexity, challenges and benefits of comparing two transporter classification systems in TCDB and Pfam. ... Protein:Protein interactions in the cytoplasmic membrane apparently influencing sugar transport and phosphorylation activities ...
2001) Carbohydrate transporters of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: Sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) FEBS Lett 504:104- ... A novel enzyme of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system exhibiting strict specificity for its phosphoryl ... 1995) Novel proteins of the phosphotransferase system encoded within the rpoN operon of Escherichia coli. Enzyme IIANtr affects ... 2006) How phosphotransferase system-related protein phosphorylation regulates carbohydrate metabolism in bacteria. Microbiol ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system of oral streptococci and its role in the control of sugar metabolism. ... The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the major carbohydrate transport system in oral streptococci. ... The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the major carbohydrate transport system in oral streptococci, ... Binding of enzyme IIAGlc, a component of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system, to the Escherichia coli ...
Regulation of sugar transport by the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: glucose phosphotransferase system Biochem Soc Trans (April ... PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate, PGA, 3-d-phosphoglyceric acid, RuP2, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate ...
... of the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar phosphotransferase system can accept and donate a phosphoryl group. ...
PhosphoenolpyruvateSugar Phosphotransferase System (PTS) 34. Microbe of the Week. Salmonella typhi Gram-negative, motile, ... Group translocation sugars including glucose and other sugars such as fructose, mannose, maltose and sucrose. ... Thus in a closed system free enzyme availability limits the rate of the reaction in the presence of saturating amounts of ... light reaction is used to fix CO2 to sugar.. 84. Bacterial Photosynthesis*Blue green algae perform eucaryotic like ...
  • The PTS catalyses the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates and coupled with translocation across the cell membrane, makes the PTS a link between the uptake and metabolism of sugars. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This enzyme participates in 7 metabolic pathways: glycolysis / gluconeogenesis, fructose and mannose metabolism, galactose metabolism, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, aminosugars metabolism, and phosphotransferase system (pts). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of EII Glc and EIIAB Man in sugar metabolism, gene regulation, biofilm formation, and competence. (asm.org)
  • The results demonstrate that the inactivation of ptsG , encoding a putative EII Glc , did not lead to major changes in sugar metabolism or affect the phenotypes of interest. (asm.org)
  • Our previous study indicated that perturbation of the central carbon metabolism by diminishing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity could lead to sugar phosphate stress when P. fluorescens was cultivated on fructose. (asm.org)
  • Unlike the majority of homofermentative Lactobacilli , L. sanfranciscensis uses heterofermentative metabolism, processing sugars into either lactic acid or alcohol. (kenyon.edu)
  • Such systems, able to perform metabolism and replication of macromolecules, existed long before the first cells. (springer.com)
  • We have investigated the general case of transport and metabolism as inspired by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) for glucose importation and by glycolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes involved in central carbon metabolism (including several TCA cycle genes) and amino acid biosynthesis, as well as genes encoding nutrient transport systems are among those whose transcript levels are most significantly affected by CRP* expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: glycose phosphotransferase system. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Protein phosphorylation and allosteric control of inducer exclusion and catabolite repression by the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system. (asm.org)
  • When the cell is exposed to carbohydrate mixtures, the PTS prevents the expression of catabolic genes and activity of non-PTS sugars transport systems by carbon catabolite repression (CCR). (nih.gov)
  • This transfer led to extensive changes in the metabolic and regulatory networks of these bacteria including the development of a novel carbon catabolite repression system. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Escherichia coli exhibits diauxic growth in sugar mixtures due to CRP-mediated catabolite repression and inducer exclusion related to phosphotransferase system enzyme activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replacement of the native crp gene with a catabolite repression mutant (referred to as crp *) enables co-utilization of glucose and other sugars in E. coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is due to CRP-mediated catabolite repression and inducer exclusion related to phosphotransferase system enzyme activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From HPr, the phosphoryl group is transferred to various sugar-specific membrane associated transporters (EnzII), each comprising two cytoplasmic domains, EIIA and EIIB, and an integral membrane domain EIIC. (proteopedia.org)
  • Within EII, EIIA accepts the phosphoryl group from HPr and donates it to EIIB, whereupon EIIC mediates sugar translocation with EIIB providing the phosphoryl group. (proteopedia.org)
  • The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. (uchicago.edu)
  • Enzyme I transfers the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to the phosphoryl carrier protein (HPr). (uniprot.org)
  • The general mechanism of the PTS is the following: a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is transferred via a signal transduction pathway, to enzyme I (EI) which in turn transfers it to a phosphoryl carrier, the histidine protein (HPr). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phospho-HPr then transfers the phosphoryl group to a sugar-specific permease, a membrane-bound complex known as enzyme 2 (EII), which transports the sugar to the cell. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Finally, the phosphoryl group is transferred from the IIB domain to the sugar substrate concomitantly with the sugar uptake processed by the IIC domain. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The aspartyl replacement of the active site histidine in histidine-containing protein, HPr, of the Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate:Sugar phosphotransferase system can accept and donate a phosphoryl group. (rcsb.org)
  • The corresponding EIIB (white circles) transfers the phosphoryl group from P-EIIA to the sugar bound to the membrane-spanning EIIC (black ovals) or, in the case of the Lev-PTS, EIIC/EIID complex (black and checkerboard ovals). (asmscience.org)
  • The unique features of this phosphotransferase system (PTS) included the use of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) as the phosphoryl donor for sugar phosphorylation and the presence of three essential catalytic entities, termed Enzyme I, Enzyme II and HPr (heat-stable, histidinephosphorylatable protein). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The PTS couples solute transport to its phosphorylation at the expense of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and it consists of general cytoplasmic phosphoryl transfer proteins and specific enzyme II complexes which catalyze the uptake and phosphorylation of solutes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Its permease members exhibit broad specificity for a range of sugars, rather than being specific for just one or a few sugars. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In a PTS pathway, the sugar is translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane and concomitantly phosphorylated by a sugar-specific permease, i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also known as Fructose-like permease IIC component (PTS system fructose-like EIIC component). (mybiosource.com)
  • FrwCBD PtsA, a putative PTS permease, belongs to the functional superfamily of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent, sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS). (mybiosource.com)
  • This derepression of the fructose-PTS gene cluster is mainly modulated by the negative effector F-1-P, but reduced sensitivity to the other effectors, F-1,6-P or G-6-P might cause differential transcriptional regulation of genes of the general part of the PTS (ptsI, ptsH) and associated genes encoding sugar-specific functions (ptsF, ptsG, ptsS). (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In this review, we summarize the importance of the PTS in controlling and influencing both PTS and non-PTS sugar transport processes as well as the mechanisms of transcriptional control involved in the expression of catabolic genes of non-PTS sugars in E. coli. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report that Salmonella can avoid the hyperactivation of SPI-2 genes by using ptsN -encoded EIIA Ntr , a component of the nitrogen-metabolic phosphotransferase system. (pnas.org)
  • The first system is encoded by genes clustered in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and translocates SPI-1-encoded effector proteins to mediate invasion into host cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Among them, the SsrA/SsrB two-component system, which is encoded by the ssrA and ssrB genes located within SPI-2, seems to have the most direct effect on SPI-2 expression. (pnas.org)
  • 1] "The ptsH, ptsI, and crr genes of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system: a complex operon with several modes of transcription. (tcdb.org)
  • What we have learned in the past 50 years, since its discovery, is that in addition to these primary functions, the PTS serves as a complex protein kinase system that regulates a wide variety of transport, metabolic and mutagenic processes as well as the expression of numerous genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • DNA affinity purification allowed us to identify SugR, a global repressor of genes involved in sugar uptake and glycolysis, as a protein binding to the ldhA promoter region. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the regulation of the mtl genes in order to identify the elements needed to construct a strong mannitol inducible expression system in B. subtilis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under osmotic stressed conditions, genes encoding diverse sugar transporters, which should be down-regulated in the presence of high osmotic pressure, were derepressed in the rpoB mutant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Escherichia coli, the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is responsible for the transport and phosphorylation of sugars, such as glucose. (nih.gov)
  • Histidine phosphorylation in bacteria also takes place in the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems (PTSs), 1 which are involved in internalization and phosphorylation of sugars ( 7 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Pflüger-Grau K, Chavarría M, de Lorenzo V . Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is endowed with a variant of the phosphoenolpyruvate-carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr)), which is not related to sugar transport but. (csic.es)
  • The structural gene (mtlA) of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannitol-transport protein (EIImtl) and its upstream promoter region (Pmtl) were subcloned approximately 150 base pairs downstream of a lambda PR promoter on a multicopy mutagenesis/expression vector and used to transform a mutant (MtlA-) E. coli strain. (pnas.org)
  • The system in Escherichia coli consists of a IIA protein, and a IIBC protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The complete phosphotranferase system in Escherichia coli. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Protein:Protein interactions in the cytoplasmic membrane apparently influencing sugar transport and phosphorylation activities of the e. coli phosphotransferase system. (nih.gov)
  • The hypothesis was that the introduction and manipulation of a protein surface translocation system from pathogenic E. coli would result in stable expression levels of Salmonella subunit antigens on the surface of laboratory E. coli . (diva-portal.org)
  • Amplification of CO 2 -fixing anaplerotic pathways catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase ( 18 ), malic enzyme ( 12 , 27 , 28 ), and pyruvate carboxylase ( 9 , 31 ) have resulted in the enhancement of succinic acid production in E. coli . (asm.org)
  • Unlike Escherichia coli , which utilizes the phosphotransferase system type G (PtsG) as the major glucose transporter ( 4 ), most pseudomonads import glucose through an active transport system ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • 9] "Novel proteins of the phosphotransferase system encoded within the rpoN operon of Escherichia coli. (tcdb.org)
  • 10] "The first step in sugar transport: crystal structure of the amino terminal domain of enzyme I of the E. coli PEP: sugar phosphotransferase system and a model of the phosphotransfer complex with HPr. (tcdb.org)
  • 11] "Solution structure of the 30 kDa N-terminal domain of enzyme I of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system by multidimensional NMR. (tcdb.org)
  • 12] "Tautomeric state and pKa of the phosphorylated active site histidine in the N-terminal domain of enzyme I of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. (tcdb.org)
  • Adler J, Epstein W (1974) Phosphotransferase system enzymes as chemoreceptors for certain sugars in Escherichia coli Chemotaxis. (springer.com)
  • Expression systems based on Bacillus promoters for xylose, maltose, and mannose utilization, as well as on the heterologous E. coli lactose promoter, have been successfully constructed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and (iii) (p)ppGpp impacts the DmpR/Po system to a greater extent than the XylR/Pu system in both the native Pseudomonas putida and a heterologous Escherichia coli host. (diva-portal.org)
  • Sugars such as glucose are transported into Escherichia coli by a coupled phosphorylation mechanism (the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system, PTS). (meta.org)
  • Physiological and transcriptional characterization of Escherichia coli strains lacking interconversion of phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate when glucose and acetate are coutilized Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 111, 1150-1160. (unam.mx)
  • The D654Y single amino acid substitution in RpoB rendered E. coli cells resistant to osmotic stress, probably due to improved cell growth and viability via enhanced sugar uptake under stressed conditions, and activated a potential "pre-defense" mechanism under non-stressed conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • E. coli growing in a mixture of sugars exhibits diauxic growth characteristics, whereby glucose is preferentially assimilated before other sugars. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After comparisons with the metabolic flux analysis (MFA) results computed from the wet experimental data of the three kinds of E. coli, three potential improvement target sites, the glucose phosphotransferase transport system, the pyruvate carboxylase, and the glyoxylate shunt, were identified and selected for the genetic modifications. (springernature.com)
  • Escherichia coli is an efficient biocatalyst that can use all the monomeric sugars in lignocellulose, and recombinant derivatives of E. coli have been engineered to produce ethanol as the major fermentation product. (ufl.edu)
  • The two soluble proteins from together with the general proteins of the phosphotransferase system, enzyme I and HPr, a protein phosphorylation chain which serves to phosphorylate fructose transported by LevF and LevG. (pasteur.fr)
  • This major carbohydrate active-transport system catalyzes the phosphorylation of incoming sugar substrates concomitantly with their translocation across the cell membrane. (uniprot.org)
  • The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) [ PMID: 8246840 , PMID: 2197982 ] is a major carbohydrate transport system in bacteria. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems of bacteria. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This enzyme may provide PEP for gluconeogenesis, for PTS-type carbohydrate transport systems, or for other processes. (jcvi.org)
  • The phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the major carbohydrate transport system in oral streptococci. (asm.org)
  • The carbohydrate transport systems operative in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are very similar and most likely developed early in evolution. (asmscience.org)
  • The Vibrio cholerae phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a well-conserved, multicomponent phosphotransfer cascade that coordinates the bacterial response to carbohydrate availability through direct interactions of its components with protein targets. (asm.org)
  • The PTS synchronizes the transport and phosphorylation of the sugar (group translocation), engaging several proteins in a five steps phosphorylation cascade. (proteopedia.org)
  • In addition to controlling sugar translocation, the phosphorylation state of PTS proteins is also associated with regulation of metabolic pathways and signaling in bacterial cells. (proteopedia.org)
  • Signaling sugar translocation: Structure of phosphorylated Enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. (proteopedia.org)
  • Group translocation sugars including glucose and other sugars such as fructose, mannose, maltose and sucrose. (powershow.com)
  • 14] "Structure of phosphorylated enzyme I, the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system sugar translocation signal protein. (tcdb.org)
  • The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of adenylate cyclase. (uchicago.edu)
  • By altering the regulation of sugar assimilation, it was hypothesized that simultaneous uptake of the sugars present in lignocellulose hydrolyzates could be achieved, thereby improving the yield and productivity of important bio-based chemicals. (diva-portal.org)
  • Integration of global regulation of two aromatic-responsive sigma(54)-dependent systems : a common phenotype by different mechanisms. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we comparatively assess the contribution of (p)ppGpp, the FtsH protease, and a component of an alternative phosphoenolpyruvate-sugar phosphotransferase system, which have been independently implicated in mediating this level of regulation. (diva-portal.org)
  • The phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays a major role in sugar transport and in the regulation of essential physiological processes in many bacteria. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Background: The major uptake system responsible for the transport of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Beside F-1-P, other sugar-phosphates like fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P) and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) also negatively affect SugR-binding, but in millimolar concentrations. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Transcriptional repression of the fructose-PTS gene cluster is observed during growth on acetate and transcription is derepressed in the presence of the PTS sugars glucose and fructose. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that PFLU2693, annotated as a haloacid dehalogenase-like enzyme, is a new sugar phosphate phosphatase, now designated Spp, which is able to dephosphorylate a range of phosphate substrates, including glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, in vitro . (asm.org)
  • Spp utilizes glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, and ribose 5-phosphate as substrates, and overexpression of the gene had a positive effect on growth in P. fluorescens mutants experiencing sugar phosphate stress. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, fructose transport is mediated by the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system in these organisms. (asm.org)
  • The proteins encoded by the fructose-inducible lev operon of Bacillus subtilis are components of a phosphotransferase system. (pasteur.fr)
  • They transport fructose by a mechanism which couples sugar uptake and phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphorylation. (pasteur.fr)
  • It was also found that the sugar specificity pattern corresponds to an EII(super Man)-type of transporter and that fructose is not transported by the system. (readabstracts.com)
  • Research shows that the synthesis of the high affinity EII(Fru) is regulated by the low affinity fructose specific transferase system EII(Man) instead of the transcriptional regulator CcpA. (readabstracts.com)
  • Here we show that in the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, sensing of exogenous AI-2 is dependent on FruA, a fructose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system that is highly conserved in Gram-positive pathogens. (edu.au)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups (phosphotransferases) with a nitrogenous group as acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report phosphorylation sites on almost all glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, several kinases, and members of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. (mcponline.org)
  • The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). (kegg.jp)
  • In enzymology, a phosphoenolpyruvate-protein phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction phosphoenolpyruvate + protein histidine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } pyruvate + protein Npi-phospho-L-histidine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are phosphoenolpyruvate and protein histidine, whereas its two products are pyruvate and protein Npi-phospho-L-histidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a protein-Npi-phosphohistidine-sugar phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.1.69) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction protein Npi-phospho-L-histidine + sugar ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } protein histidine + sugar phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are protein Npi-phospho-L-histidine and sugar, whereas its two products are protein histidine and sugar phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • These changes provide an estimation of glycolytic flux via pyruvate kinase as opposed to cycling of PEP through the phosphotransferase system. (go.jp)
  • Inactivation of Pyruvate Kinase or the Phosphoenolpyruvate: Sugar Phosphotransferase System Increases Shikimic and Dehydroshikimic Acid Yields from Glucose in Bacillus subtilis Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24, 37-45. (unam.mx)
  • The Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum co-metabolizes most carbon sources such as the phosphotransferase system (PTS) sugar glucose and the non-PTS sugar maltose. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Surprisingly, growth of C. glutamicum strains lacking the general PTS components EI or HPr was strongly impaired on the non-PTS sugar maltose. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The EII complexes are composed of three domains, A, B, and C, which can exist in a single polypeptide or as separate proteins, depending on the organism and cognate sugar ( 22 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • In the current study of one glycocin, sublancin, we identified the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Bacillus species as a key player in bacterial sensitivity. (nih.gov)
  • Several vector systems have been developed to express any gene desired to be studied in Bacillus subtilis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Physiologic Consequences of Glucose Transport and Phosphoenolpyruvate Node Modifications in Bacillus subtilis 168 Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 22, 177-197. (unam.mx)
  • The phosphorylated sugar is subsequently released into the cytoplasm. (asmscience.org)
  • The system, which is found only in prokaryotes, simultaneously transports its substrate from the periplasm or extracellular space into the cytoplasm and phosphorylates it. (genome.jp)
  • Thus, we set out to assess the pneumococcal response to sugars found in glycans and the influence of glucose (Glc) on this response at the transcriptional, physiological, and metabolic levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glc added to cells actively metabolizing other sugar(s) was readily consumed and elicited a metabolic shift toward a homolactic profile. (frontiersin.org)
  • This contributes to the approximative nature of models for metabolic networks implying that the quantitative characterization of biochemical systems still remains an open problem. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • PTS activity has a crucial role in the global signaling system that controls the preferential consumption of glucose over other carbon sources. (nih.gov)
  • One of the main causes of osmotic stress is a high initial sugar concentration in the medium, which is beneficial for simplifying the carbon source feeding process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Small Protein SgrT Controls Transport Activity of the Glucose-Specific Phosphotransferase System. (uchicago.edu)
  • Four different B. subtilis sugar-specific transport systems representing the four PTS classes (see Fig. 2 ) are shown. (asmscience.org)
  • 2] "Sugar transport by the bacterial phosphotransferase system. (tcdb.org)
  • In 1964, Kundig, Ghosh and Roseman reported the discovery of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), which they subsequently proposed might catalyze sugar transport as well as sugar phosphorylation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Phosphotransfer through the PTS proceeds in the absence of the EIIA Glc AH, while PTS-dependent sugar transport is blocked. (asm.org)
  • This demonstrates that the AH couples phosphotransfer to sugar transport and refutes the paradigm of EIIA Glc as a simple phosphotransfer component in PTS-dependent transport. (asm.org)
  • Ames FL G (1984) The histidine transport system of Salmonella typhimurium. (springer.com)
  • Ames FL G (1986) Bacterial periplasmic transport systems: structure, mechanism, and evolution. (springer.com)
  • Ames FL G, Spudich EN (1976) Protein-protein interaction in transport: Periplasmic histidine-binding protein J interacts with P protein. (springer.com)
  • The complex transport system consists of two integral membrane proteins (LevF and LevG) and two soluble, hydrophilic proteins (LevD and LevE). (pasteur.fr)
  • Transport of sugars through the PTS results in inhibition of adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] activity by a mechanism involving a change in the state of phosphorylation of PTS proteins. (meta.org)
  • We show here that uptake of sugars through the lactose transport system results in inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity if the proton symport mechanism is also active. (meta.org)
  • A phosphoenolpyruvate:mannose phosphotransferase system (mannose-PTS) was found to be involved in glucose and mannose transport in Lactobacillus curvatus. (readabstracts.com)
  • A study was conducted to characterize the cloning of the xylT gene encoding the proton motive force-linked to D-xylose transport system of Lactobacillus brevis and its expression in L. plantarum 80 using a Lactobacillus expression system. (readabstracts.com)
  • Bacteria evolved a unique mechanism to import many carbohydrates, the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). (proteopedia.org)
  • The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS) is essential in the coupled transportation and phosphorylation of various types of carbohydrates. (csgid.org)
  • B. subtilis utilizes many carbohydrates via the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. (kegg.jp)
  • The PtxA protein from Yersinia pestis CO92 are sequentially similar to the mannitol-specific cryptic phosphotransferase MtlA. (csgid.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate:protein-L-histidine Npi-phosphotransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include phosphoenolpyruvate sugar phosphotransferase enzyme I, phosphopyruvate-protein factor phosphotransferase, phosphopyruvate-protein phosphotransferase, sugar-PEP phosphotransferase enzyme I, and phosphoenolpyruvate:protein-L-histidine N-pros-phosphotransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial studies have revealed that bacteria use histidine/aspartate phosphorylation, mainly in their two-component systems, which represent a paradigm of bacterial signal transduction ( 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • This enzyme participates in phosphotransferase system (pts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Oscar Kuipers is hoogleraar Moleculaire genetica van prokaryoten aan de RUG en verbonden aan de vakgroep Moleculaire genetica van het Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute. (rug.nl)
  • IMPORTANCE In enteric bacteria, the sugar phosphate phosphatase YigL is known to play an important role in combating stress caused by sugar phosphate accumulation. (asm.org)
  • Presence of mrr- and mcr-like restriction systems in coryneform bacteria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria sense and respond to AI-2 via the Lsr ABC transporter system or by the LuxP/LuxQ phosphorelay system. (edu.au)
  • However, homologues of these systems are absent from Gram-positive bacteria and the AI-2 receptor is unknown. (edu.au)
  • Unlike other classes of bacteriocins for which the PTS is involved in their mechanism of action, we show that the addition of PTS-requiring sugars leads to increased resistance rather than increased sensitivity, suggesting that sublancin has a distinct mechanism of action. (nih.gov)
  • Other sugars (e.g., lactose) are transported without modification by a mechanism involving proton cotransport, which requires a proton motive force across the cell membrane. (meta.org)
  • and (3) enhancement of Crp (crp+) in mgsA, pgi, and ptsG mutants, resulting in derivative strains that abolished CCR, allowing the simultaneous consumption of mixtures of sugars with low acetate production. (nih.gov)
  • This enzyme generates phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) from pyruvate, hydrolyzing ATP to AMP and releasing inorganic phosphate in the process. (jcvi.org)
  • The results obtained suggested that sugar phosphate accumulation caused diminished growth in some of the mutant strains, since this was partially relieved by spp overexpression. (asm.org)
  • This indicates that Spp is essential for relieving the cells of sugar phosphate stress in P. fluorescen s actively producing alginate. (asm.org)
  • The phosphate donor, which is shared among the different systems, is a phospho-carrier protein of low molecular mass that has been phosphorylated by EC 2.7.3.9 (phosphoenolpyruvate---protein phosphotransferase). (genome.jp)
  • The phosphate is provided by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which is synthesized during glycolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phosphate transfer from PEP to sugar is catalyzed by PTS Enzyme I, phosphocarrier protein HPr, and EIICBA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Changes in the concentration of inorganic phosphate (P i ) sugar phosphate, phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP), the adenylate charge and pH were followed by 31 P-NMR and assay of cell extract during glucose fermentation in Brochothrix thermosphacta . (go.jp)
  • In addition, various sugar-specific permeases, known as enzyme II (EII) complexes, are responsible for the concomitant phosphorylation and internalization of many different sugars. (asm.org)
  • SsrA/SsrB is a primary two-component system that mediates the survival and replication of Salmonella within host cells. (pnas.org)
  • During systemic infection of mammalian hosts, Salmonella employs two distinct type III secretion systems (TTSSs) to modify the host cell response. (pnas.org)
  • We have previously reported the use of the AIDA-I autotransport system to express the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis proteins SefA and H: gm. (diva-portal.org)
  • The sugar donors, GDP-mannose and UDP-GlcNAc, must first be transported from the cytosol, their site of synthesis, via specific Golgi membrane transporters into the lumen where they are substrates in the biosynthesis of these mannoproteins. (umassmed.edu)
  • These properties and the low costs of the inducers, i.e. mannitol and glucitol, make the promoter ideal for designing regulated expression systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This enzyme is a component (known as enzyme II) of a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent, sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS). (genome.jp)
  • Our data show that AI-2 signaling via FruA promotes the transition of the pneumococcus from colonization to invasion by facilitating the utilization of galactose, the principal sugar available in the upper respiratory tract. (edu.au)
  • The generated strains were evaluated in cultures with glucose, xylose or arabinose, as well as a simulated lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of these three sugars plus acetate. (biomedcentral.com)