An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A form of creatine kinase found in the BRAIN.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A form of creatine kinase found in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.
Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
2-(2,2-Dicyclohexylethyl)piperidine. Coronary vasodilator used especially for angina of effort. It may cause neuropathy and hepatitis.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.
Freedom from activity.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.

Myocardial oxygenation during high work states in hearts with postinfarction remodeling. (1/1198)

BACKGROUND: Postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is associated with reductions in myocardial high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels, which are more severe in animals that develop overt congestive heart failure (CHF). During high work states, further HEP loss occurs, which suggests demand-induced ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that inadequate myocyte oxygen availability is the basis for these HEP abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation in swine. Studies were performed in 20 normal animals, 14 animals with compensated LVR, and 9 animals with CHF. Phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP was determined with 31P NMR and deoxymyoglobin (Mb-delta) with 1H NMR in myocardium remote from the infarct. Basal PCr/ATP tended to be decreased in postinfarct hearts, and this was significant in animals with CHF. Infusion of dobutamine (20 microg x kg-1 x min-1 IV) caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in both normal and LVR hearts and resulted in comparable significant decreases of PCr/ATP in both groups. This decrease in PCr/ATP was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. In CHF hearts, rate-pressure product increased only 40% in response to dobutamine; this attenuated response also was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the decrease of PCr/ATP during dobutamine infusion is not the result of insufficient myocardial oxygen availability. Furthermore, in CHF hearts, the low basal PCr/ATP and the attenuated response to dobutamine occurred in the absence of myocardial hypoxia, indicating that the HEP and contractile abnormalities were not the result of insufficient oxygen availability.  (+info)

Preservation of canine myocardial high-energy phosphates during low-flow ischemia with modification of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity. (2/1198)

Conventional approaches for the treatment of myocardial ischemia increase coronary blood flow or reduce myocardial demand. To determine whether a rightward shift in the hemoglobin-oxygen saturation curve would reduce the metabolic and contractile effects of a myocardial oxygen-supply imbalance, we studied the impact of a potent synthetic allosteric modifier of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity, a 2-[4-[[(3,5-disubstituted anilino)carbonyl]methyl] phenoxy] -2-methylproprionic acid derivative (RSR13), during low-flow ischemia. Changes in myocardial high-energy phosphate levels and pH were studied by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 12 open-chest dogs randomized to receive RSR13 or vehicle control during a reversible reduction of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery blood flow. Changes in cardiac metabolites and regional ventricular function studied by pressure segment-length relations were also investigated in additional animals before and after RSR13 administration during low-flow LAD ischemia. The intravenous administration of RSR13 before ischemia resulted in a substantial increase in the mean hemoglobin p50 and attenuated the decline in cardiac creatine phosphate/adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP), percent PCr, and pH during ischemia without a change in regional myocardial blood flow, heart rate, or systolic blood pressure. RSR13 given after the onset of low-flow ischemia also improved cardiac PCr/ATP ratios and regional function as measured by fractional shortening and regional work. Thus, synthetic allosteric reduction in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity may be a new and important therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the metabolic and functional consequences of cardiac ischemia.  (+info)

Absolute quantification of brain metabolites by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis patients. (3/1198)

The aim of this research was to obtain an absolute quantification of the N-acetyl-aspartate, choline, creatine and phosphocreatine levels in normal-appearing white matter by means of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a group of multiple sclerosis patients (27 with the relapsing-remitting form and 13 with the secondary progressive form). These values were compared with those of a group of 12 age-matched healthy control subjects. A significant decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration was found in normal-appearing white matter of frontal and parietal brain areas in multiple sclerosis patients compared with the same areas in control subjects. This reduction was more evident in progressive patients. The decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration in normal-appearing white matter significantly correlated with the Expanded Disability Status and the lesional load. No significant change was found in the concentration of creatine or choline. This finding concurs with previous evidence of heterogeneity in the multiple sclerosis pathological process which is not confined to the lesions and involves not only myelin, but also axons, even in white matter which appears normal on MRI.  (+info)

Human muscle performance and PCr hydrolysis with varied inspired oxygen fractions: a 31P-MRS study. (4/1198)

The purpose of this study was to use 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine the relationships among muscle PCr hydrolysis, intracellular H+ concentration accumulation, and muscle performance during incremental exercise during the inspiration of gas mixtures containing different fractions of inspired O2 (FIO2). We hypothesized that lower FIO2 would result in a greater disruption of intracellular homeostasis at submaximal workloads and thereby initiate an earlier onset of fatigue. Six subjects performed plantar flexion exercise on three separate occasions with the only variable altered for each exercise bout being the FIO2 (either 0.1, 0.21, or 1.00 O2 in balance N2). Work rate was increased (1-W increments starting at 0 W) every 2 min until exhaustion. Time to exhaustion (and thereby workload achieved) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater as FIO2 was increased. Muscle phosphocreatine (PCr) concentration, Pi concentration, and pH at exhaustion were not significantly different among the three FIO2 conditions. However, muscle PCr concentration and pH were significantly reduced at identical submaximal workloads (and thereby equivalent rates of respiration) above 4-5 W during the lowest FIO2 condition compared with the other two FIO2 conditions. These results demonstrate that exhaustion during all FIO2 occurred when a particular intracellular environment was achieved and suggest that during the lowest FIO2 condition, the greater PCr hydrolysis and intracellular acidosis at submaximal workloads may have contributed to the significantly earlier time to exhaustion.  (+info)

Effect of long-term caloric restriction and exercise on muscle bioenergetics and force development in rats. (5/1198)

We evaluated the hypothesis that long-term caloric restriction and exercise would have beneficial effects on muscle bioenergetics and performance in the rat. By themselves, each of these interventions is known to increase longevity, and bioenergetic improvements are thought to be important in this phenomenon. Accordingly, we investigated rats that underwent long-term caloric restriction and were sedentary, ad libitum-fed rats permitted to exercise by daily spontaneous wheel running (AE), and the combination of the dietary and exercise interventions (RE). Ad libitum-fed, sedentary rats comprised the control group. 31P NMR spectra of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) were collected in vivo at rest and during two periods of electrical stimulation. Neither caloric restriction nor exercise affected the ratio of phosphocreatine to ATP or pH at rest. During the first stimulation and after recovery, the RE group had a significantly smaller decline in pH than did the other groups (P < 0.05). During the second period of stimulation, the decrease in pH was much smaller in all groups than during the first stimulation, with no differences observed among the groups. The combination of caloric restriction and exercise resulted in a significant attenuation in the decline in developed force during the second period of stimulation (P < 0.05). A biochemical correlate of this was a significantly higher concentration of citrate synthase in the GM samples from the RE rats (32.7 +/- 5.4 micromol. min-1. g-1) compared with the AE rats (17.6 +/- 5.7 micromol. min-1. g-1; P < 0.05). Our experiments thus demonstrated a synergistic effect of long-term caloric restriction and free exercise on muscle bioenergetics during electrical stimulation.  (+info)

Relation of impaired energy metabolism to apoptosis and necrosis following transient cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia. (6/1198)

This study investigated whether both mild and severe hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) caused significant numbers of cells to die by apoptosis in the developing brain in vivo. Newborn piglets were subjected to transient global HI and the fraction of all cells in the cingulate gyrus that were apoptotic or necrotic counted 48 h after resuscitation. The mean (S.D.) proportion of apoptotic cells was 11.9% (6.7%) (sham operated controls 4.1% (2.7%)), while 11.4% (8.4%) were necrotic (controls 0.7% (1.3%)) (P<0.05). Apoptotic and necrotic cell counts were both linearly related to the severity of impaired cerebral energy metabolism measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P<0.05), as shown by: (1) the decline in the ratio of nucleotide triphosphates to the exchangeable phosphate pool during HI; (2) the fall in the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate 8 - 48 h after HI; and (3) an increased ratio of lactate to total creatine at both these times. Thus both apoptosis and necrosis occurred in the cingulate gyrus after both severe and mild HI in vivo in proportion to the severity of the insult.  (+info)

Temporal differences in actions of calcium channel blockers on K+ accumulation, cardiac function, and high-energy phosphate levels in ischemic guinea pig hearts. (7/1198)

We investigated temporal differences in the protective action of three types of Ca2+ channel blockers in myocardial ischemia, focusing particularly on the blocking ability under depolarizing conditions. The effects of diltiazem, verapamil, and nifedipine on extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]e), acidosis, and level of metabolic markers were examined during 30-min global ischemia and postischemic left ventricular (LV) function in isolated guinea pig hearts. Diltiazem and verapamil, but not nifedipine, inhibited the late phase (15-30 min) of [K+]e elevation, whereas all three blockers delayed the onset of the early phase (0-8 min) of [K+]e elevation. Diltiazem and verapamil inhibited ischemic contracture and improved postischemic LV function to a greater extent. These differences appeared to be linked to preservation of ATP and creatine phosphate and delay of cessation of anaerobic glycolytic activity. Maneuvers to preserve energy sources during ischemia (decrease in external Ca2+ concentration or pacing at a lower frequency) attenuated the late phase of [K+]e elevation. Inhibition of LV pressure was potentiated 12- and 8.2-fold by diltiazem and verapamil, respectively, at 8.9 mM K+ as compared with 2.9 mM K+, whereas that by nifedipine was unchanged. These results indicate that the differential cardioprotection of Ca2+ channel blockers in the late period of ischemia correlates with preservation of high-energy phosphates as a result of different Ca2+ channel blocking abilities under high [K+]e conditions.  (+info)

An improved capillary electrophoresis method for measuring tissue metabolites associated with cellular energy state. (8/1198)

An improved method for the measurement of tissue metabolites associated with cellular energetic state by capillary electrophoresis is described. This method allows 17 compounds present in a mixture of standards to be determined simultaneously within 43 min with good reproducibility. ATP, ADP, AMP, UTP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine, creatine, phosphocreatine, UDP-galactose, NAD and NADH were detected in samples of either rat heart tissue or rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. This method can detect compounds at concentrations of 5 microm in samples. Recoveries for ATP and phosphocreatine added to cardiomyocyte samples were 99.4 +/- 2.1% and 103.1 +/- 3.3%, respectively (mean +/- SEM, n = 3). Our method has been comprehensively validated and is capable of measuring a wider range of tissue metabolites important in assessing cellular energy status than existing methods.  (+info)

Phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis rate following intense anoxic contraction can be used as a sensitive index of in vivo mitochondrial function. We examined the effect of a diet-induced increase in uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression on postexercise PCr resynthesis in skeletal muscle. Nine healthy male volunteers undertook 20 one-legged maximal voluntary contractions with limb blood flow occluded to deplete muscle PCr stores. Exercise was performed following 7 days consumption of low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets. Immediately following exercise, blood flow was reinstated, and muscle was sampled after 20, 60, and 120 seconds of recovery. Mitochondrial coupling was assessed by determining the rate of PCr resynthesis during recovery. The HF diet increased UCP3 protein content by approximately 44% compared with the LF diet. However, this HF diet-induced increase in UCP3 expression was not associated with any changes in the rate of muscle PCr resynthesis during conditions of maximal flux through ...
It has been thought that intramuscular ADP and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations are important regulators of mitochondorial respiration. There is a threshold work rate or metabolic rate for cellular acidosis, and the decrease in muscle PCr is accelerated with drop in pH during incremental exercise. We tested the hypothesis that increase in muscle oxygen consumption ( o2mus) is accelerated with rapid decrease in PCr (concomitant increase in ADP) in muscles with drop in pH occurs during incremental plantar flexion exercise. Five male subjects performed a repetitive intermittent isometric plantar flexion exercise (6-s contraction/4-s relaxation). Exercise intensity was raised every 1 min by 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), starting at 10% MVC until exhaustion. The measurement site was at the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Changes in muscle PCr, inorganic phosphate (Pi), ADP, and pH were measured by 31P
TY - JOUR. T1 - Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine depletion depresses myocellular energy status during sepsis. AU - Lara, Tirso M.. AU - Wong, Michael S. AU - Rounds, Jan. AU - Robinson, Malcolm K.. AU - Wilmore, Douglas W.. AU - Jacobs, Danny O.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Objective: To determine the effects of phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion on myocellular energetics. Design: Randomized controlled study. Setting: University laboratory. Materials: Thirty-eight adult male Wistar rats (110121 g). Methods: The poorly metabolized creatine analogue β-guanidinopropionic acid, (β-GPA, 2% of a gel diet) was fed to the rats for 14 days to replace (75%) endogenous PCr stores before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were randomized to receive sham operation and gel diet (sham-gel group [n = 10]), sham operation and βGPA diet (sham-β-GPA group [n = 9]), CLP and gel diet (CLP-gel group [n = 101), and CLP and β-GPA diet (CLPβ-GPA group [n=9]). On day 14, all animals underwent operation. Twenty-four ...
Changes in the major parameters of central and intracardiac hemodynamics and bodys oxygen supply were examined in 93 patients with massive myocardial infarction in the in-hospital period of the disease. Traditional therapy was given to 71 patients; in addition, phosphocreatine infusions (a course dose being 30 g) were used in 22 patients in acute myocardial infarction. Phosphocreatine therapy failed to substantially affect cardiac pump function, but prevented left ventricular dilation and development of congestive heart failure. The patients receiving phosphocreatine showed an increase in bodys oxygen consumption due to its elevated tissue extraction. No adverse effects of phosphocreatine were found.
A reduced myocardial phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP) ratio is linked to both diastolic dysfunction and heart failure. Although obesity is well known to cause diastolic dysfunction a link to impaired cardiac energetics has only recently been established. We assessed whether or not long-term weight loss in obesity, which is known to reduce mortality, is accompanied by both improved cardiac energetics and diastolic function. Normal weight (BMI 22 ± 2; n = 18) and obese subjects (BMI 34 ± 4; n = 13) underwent cine-MRI (1.5 Tesla) to determine left ventricular diastolic function using volume-time curve analysis, and 31P-MR spectroscopy (3 Tesla) to assess cardiac energetics (PCr/ATP ratio). Obese subjects (n = 13) underwent repeat assessment after 1 year of supervised weight loss. Obesity, in the absence of identifiable cardiovascular risk factors, was associated with significantly impaired myocardial high energy phosphate metabolism (PCr/ATP ratio, normal; 2.03 ± 0.27 vs. obese; 1.58 ±
In order to determine the relation between depression of myocardial function and the myocardial high energy phosphate stores during acute hypoxia, a technique for serial evaluation of these stores was developed. Acute hypoxia was induced in 18 anesthetized dogs and serial determinations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) were made while myocardial function was continuously measured. Myocardial concentrations of ATP were maintained even in the presence of severe hypoxia and myocardial failure. There was a small depression of the average myocardial CP concentration during early heart failure. However, in more than one-third of the dogs there was no significant depression of CP concentration at this time. It is concluded that hypoxic depression of myocardial function is not initiated by a decrease in the total myocardial high energy phosphate stores. The possibility could not be excluded that a particular fraction of the high energy phosphate store is decreased when ...
It was shown that older adults initially had a 13 percent lower muscle phosphocreatine content and a 28 percent lower rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis than the younger individuals. Following supplementation, the resting phosphocreatine increased 15 percent in the younger individuals while the older adults showed a 30 percent increase.. Creatine supplementation also restored phosphocreatine resynthesis to the same levels as the younger participants. During exercise, both the young and older subjects showed a 31 percent increase in time to exhaustion during exercise. These results demonstrate that older people not only experience increased exercise performance with creatine supplementation, but they actually benefit more. One of the problems that affect older people is a loss of muscle strength and an ability to do work. Creatine supplementation for older people may help restore muscle metabolism, increase strength and improve the quality of life.. Recommendation: Older athletes should add ...
BACKGROUND: The failing myocardium is characterized by reductions of phosphocreatine (PCr) and free creatine content and by decreases of energy reserve via creatine kinase (CK), ie, CK reaction velocity (Flux(CK)). It has remained unclear whether these changes contribute directly to contractile dysfunction. In the present study, myocardial PCr stores in a heart failure model were further depleted by feeding of the PCr analogue beta-guanidinopropionate (GP). Functional and metabolic consequences were studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats were subjected to sham operation or left coronary artery ligation (MI). Surviving rats were assigned to 4 groups and fed with 0% (n=7, Sham; n=5, MI) or 1% (n=7 Sham+GP, n=8 MI+GP) GP. Two additional groups were fed GP for 2 or 4 weeks before MI. After 8 weeks, hearts were isolated and perfused, and left ventricular pressure-volume curves were obtained. High-energy phosphate metabolism was determined with (31)P NMR spectroscopy. After GP feeding or MI, left ventricular
Barak, A J.; Allison, T B.; and Sorrell, M F., Relationship of selenium to high energy phosphate compounds in muscle of dystrophic mice. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2353 ...
A system has been developed for performing 31P-n.m.r. studies on cerebral tissues superfused in vitro, and gives results comparable with those reported from studies in vivo. Under optimal superfusion conditions [10 mM-glucose and O2/CO2 (19:1)] the tissue concentrations of phosphocreatine and ATP were calculated to be approx. 3.1 and 1.3 mumol/g respectively. When the glucose of the superfusing medium was lowered to 0.5 mM, slightly decreased sugar phosphate peaks were observed, but there was no detectable change in [ATP] or [phosphocreatine]. At 0.2 mM-glucose, significantly decreased concentrations of phosphocreatine and ATP were observed. Substitution of pyruvate plus malate for glucose did not decrease levels of phosphocreatine and ATP. When the superfusing medium was gassed with air/CO2 (19:1; mild hypoxia), there was an appreciable fall in sugar phosphates and phosphocreatine with no detectable effect on ATP. In the presence of N2/CO2 (19:1; severe hypoxia, since O2 was not completely ...
Metabolite channeling: a phosphorylcreatine shuttle to mediate high energy phosphate transport between sperm mitochondrion and tail.: Energy utilization by the
Specific studies include: Phosphorus MR studies of myocardial energy metabolism in human heart: We have used spatially localized phosphorus MR spectroscopy (MRS) to noninvasively measure high-energy phosphate metabolites such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and phosphocreatine (PCr) in the heart. The PCr/ATP ratio can change during stress-induced ischemia, and a protocol for stress-testing in the MR system has been developed which can detect the changes noninvasively in the anterior wall. Additionally, weve developed methods for noninvasively measuring the creatine kinase (CK) ATP energy supply and used it to measure the CK ATP energy supply in the healthy heart at rest and exercise, in human myocardial infarction, and in ...human heart failure ...
Specific studies include: Phosphorus MR studies of myocardial energy metabolism in human heart: We have used spatially localized phosphorus MR spectroscopy (MRS) to noninvasively measure high-energy phosphate metabolites such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and phosphocreatine (PCr) in the heart. The PCr/ATP ratio can change during stress-induced ischemia, and a protocol for stress-testing in the MR system has been developed which can detect the changes noninvasively in the anterior wall. Additionally, weve developed methods for noninvasively measuring the creatine kinase (CK) ATP energy supply and used it to measure the CK ATP energy supply in the healthy heart at rest and exercise, in human myocardial infarction, and in ...human heart failure ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphocreatine Interacts with Phospholipids, Affects Membrane Properties and Exerts Membrane-Protective Effects. AU - Tokarska-Schlattner, Malgorzata. AU - Epand, Raquel F.. AU - Meiler, Flurina. AU - Zandomeneghi, Giorgia. AU - Neumann, Dietbert. AU - Widmer, Hans R.. AU - Meier, Beat H.. AU - Epand, Richard M.. AU - Saks, Valdur. AU - Wallimann, Theo. AU - Schlattner, Uwe. PY - 2012/8/17. Y1 - 2012/8/17. U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0043178. DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0043178. M3 - Article. C2 - 22912820. VL - 7. JO - PLOS ONE. JF - PLOS ONE. SN - 1932-6203. IS - 8. M1 - e43178. ER - ...
noun: in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy ...
Literature References: Phosphorylated form of creatine, q.v. Occurs primarily in skeletal muscle; also found in heart and brain. Involved in the transfer of high energy phosphate to ADP. Isoln from frog muscle: Eggleton, Biochem. J. 21, 190 (1927); from cat muscle: Fiske, Subbarow, J. Biol. Chem. 81, 629 (1929). Synthesis by phosphorylation of creatine: Zeile, Fawaz, Z. Physiol. Chem. 256, 193 (1938); Ennor, Stocken, Biochem. J. 43, 190 (1948). Enzymic determn in skeletal muscle: K. Yoshikawa et al., Anal. Biochem. 159, 303 (1986). HPLC determn in cardiac muscle: T. Teerlink et al., Anal. Biochem. 214, 278 (1993). Clinical trial as cardioprotective: M. L. Semenovsky et al., J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 94, 762 (1987); as antiarrhythmic: M. Y. Ruda et al., Am. Heart J. 116, 393 (1988). Review of role in energy metabolism: S. P. Bessman, C. L. Carpenter, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 54, 831-862 (1985). ...
CAS Number:922-32-7 Name:Glycine,N-[imino(phosphonoamino)methyl]-N-methyl-, sodium salt (1:2) Formula:C4H8N3Na2O5P Molecular Weight:255.08 Synonyms:Glycine,N-[imino(phosphonoamino)methyl]-N-methyl-, disodium salt...
If this is a question about HIV infection, then PCR levels refer to HIV viral load in the blood. PCR is a technique that quantifies HIV. That level would be considered very...
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Compared with healthy controls, blood lactate concentration starts to rise at lower absolute work rates in COPD patients (12, 58, 88). This phenomenon is accounted for by the lactate produced in the legs, but not by that produced in the respiratory muscles (19), and is regarded as a consequence of a low-energy status in the skeletal muscle fibers of the lower limbs of these patients (12, 58, 88). In vivo assessments of the energy status of skeletal muscle fiber of the limbs can be obtained by the measurement of the phosphocreatine-to-inorganic phosphate ratio (PCr/Pi), which is closely related to the ratio of ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (65), using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Soon after initiating exercise at the same absolute work rate, the intracellular PCr/Pi and pH of the calf and thigh decrease to lower levels in COPD patients than in age-matched controls (35, 99, 112). Low-energy status, however, does not necessarily imply intrinsic impairment of oxidative ...
Creactor rapidly enhances your muscle cells ability to regenerate adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is your primary source of anaerobic energy, so you can recovery faster between sets. During high-intensity training, ATP from muscle stores is utilized first. Once this store has been diminished, you need to start generating your own ATP. At high intensities of exercise, this ATP production occurs with the breakdown of phosphocreatine in your muscles.. As we only have a set amount of creatine in our muscles, this method of ATP production runs out rather fast too - and results in fatigue and, eventually, muscle failure. Thats where Creactor comes into play. The powerful creatine molecules in Creactor are changed into a molecule called phosphocreatine, which serves as a storage reservoir for regenerating ATP. With higher ATP levels, youll be able to train harder and recover faster, and that means bigger and stronger gains!. ...
SynthesisCreactor™ rapidly enhances your muscle cells ability to regenerate Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). ATP is your primary source of anaerobic energy, so you can recovery faster between sets. During high intensity training, ATP from muscle stores is utilized first. Once this store has been diminished, you need to start generating your own ATP. At high intensities of exercise, this ATP production occurs with the breakdown of phosphocreatine in your muscles.As we only have a set amount of creatine in our muscles, this method of ATP production runs out rather fast too - and results in fatigue and eventually muscle failure. Thats where Creactor™ comes into play. The powerful creatine molecules in Creactor™ are changed into a molecule called phosphocreatine which serves as a storage reservoir for regenerating ATP. With higher ATP levels, youll be able to train harder and recover faster and that means bigger and stronger gains ...
Outmuscling major depression with creatine - Science Daily, 8/7/12 - women with major depressive disorder (MDD) who augmented their daily antidepressant with 5 grams of creatine responded twice as fast and experienced remission of the illness at twice the rate of women who took the antidepressant alone ... Creatine is an amino acid made in the human liver, kidneys, and pancreas. It also is found in meat and fish. Inside the body it is converted into phosphocreatine and stored in muscle. During high-intensity exercise, phosphocreatine is converted into ATP, an important energy source for cells. For this reason, creatine has become a popular supplement among bodybuilders and athletes who are trying to add muscle mass or improve athletic ability ... The group that received creatine showed significantly higher improvement rates on the HDRS at two and four weeks (32 percent and 68 percent) compared to the placebo group (3.7 percent and 29 percent). At the end of eight weeks, half of those in the ...
Phase transition reducing the value of heff/h=n as a basic step in bio-catalysis Hydrogen atom allows also large heff/h=n variants with n,6 with the scale of energy spectrum behaving as (6/n)2 if the n=4 holds true for visible matter. The reduction of n as the flux tube contracts would reduce n and liberate binding energy, which could be used to promote the catalysis. The notion of high energy phosphate bond is somewhat mysterious concept. There are claims that there is no such bond. I have spent considerable amount of time to ponder this problem. Could phosphate contain (dark) hydrogen atom able to go to the a state with a smaller value of heff/h and liberate the excess binding energy? Could the phosphorylation of acceptor molecule transfer this dark atom associated with the phosphate of ATP to the acceptor molecule? Could the mysterious high energy phosphate bond correspond to the dark atom state. Metabolic energy would be needed to transform ADP to ATP and would generate dark atom. Could ...
LVDD is common in diabetes and is associated with increased mortality (14). However, few studies have investigated potential therapies. In type 2 diabetic subjects with LVDD, 6 months treatment with candesartan improved one index of diastolic filling (E/A), but not another (DT) (15). In hypertensive patients with LVDD, 12% of whom had diabetes, BP reduction over 38 weeks improved myocardial relaxation (E′) irrespective of the agent used, but the independent effect of diabetes was not assessed (16). No trials have previously examined fenofibrates effect on cardiac failure or LVDD. Small trials in heart failure patients collectively suggest a modest benefit of CoQ on systolic function (10), but no studies have investigated its effect on LVDD.. In type 2 diabetes, LVDD is associated with abnormal high-energy phosphate metabolism (17), and we anticipated that fenofibrate and CoQ would improve LVDD in type 2 diabetes by reducing lipotoxicity and oxidative stress and improving endothelial function ...
Diabetic patients were well-matched with controls (Figure 1). Myocardial energetics were disturbed (PCr/ATP ratio: 1.44 ± 0.35 vs. 1.98 ± 0.18, p , 0.001) and myocardial triglyceride content increased (1.06 ± 0.61 vs. 0.48 ± 0.24%, p = 0.01), despite the relatively short disease duration. Peak systolic circumferential strain was reduced, indicating subtle regional LV dysfunction. However, left ventricular volumes, mass and ejection fraction, as well as echocardiographic indices of diastolic function were similar in both groups. Furthermore, despite the metabolic abnormalities observed in diabetics, there was no difference in native T1 values (as a measure of myocardial fibrosis) between diabetic patients and controls (1181 ± 28 ms vs. 1195 ± 33 ms, p = 0.30 ...
In skeletal muscle, PCr concentrations may well attain twenty-35 mM or maybe more. Furthermore, for most muscles, the ATP regeneration capacity of CK is rather high and is also therefore not a limiting issue. Even though the cellular concentrations of ATP are tiny, modifications are tough to detect because ATP is consistently and effectively replenished from the big swimming pools of PCr and CK.[13] Creatine has the opportunity to increase muscle retailers of PCr, likely growing the muscles capability to resynthesize ATP from ADP to satisfy amplified Power needs.[fourteen][fifteen][sixteen ...
High-Energy Foods for Men. Men have basic nutrition requirements similar to those of women, but the average man needs more calories per day than the average woman. You might need to focus on high-energy foods if you are underweight or if you have an active lifestyle. High-energy foods are calorie-dense, and the most ...
Here is the basic issue. Approximately two weeks ago I was doing a quick 5k jog/run (about 8 min/mi) on a combination of road and grass. With about a mile to go, the tibialis anterior started burning in both legs almost at the same time. I assumed that they were just a product of running head into the wind for the last mile, but when I stopped they completely locked up. The bottoms of each muscle were pulsing and protruding and hurt quite bad to the point where I couldnt walk for about 5 minutes. I had been a little dehydrated that day and overtired so I assumed the increased difficulty was the issue. I did some stretching and also some dorsi and plantar flexion exercises to help loosen them up. Heres the issue, they are still hurting from time to time two weeks later and I have done 0 running. Im on my feet all week, but I would assume they shouldve healed by now. In addition, they are also feeling almost like there are nerve firings/ electrical heat in them fairly regularly. I have never ...
PART 1 Definitions of some important words common in chemistry, physical changes and chemical changes, particle pictures of elements, compounds and mixtures, what are atoms, molecules, particle pictures-diagrams-images of elements, compounds, mixtures, symbols, formula, pure substance, impure substance, purification, evidence for a physical change or a chemical change, what is a chemical reaction? Iron and sulfur reaction
There are a number of benefits to Anvarol but they start with the increase of phosphocreatine synthesis, which helps to increase the levels of ATP that your body contains, which then helps you to increase your energy levels. Increasing those energy levels means that you are able to workout even harder and put in more time and more reps.. Youre going to be able to decrease the amount of fat in your body with this product as well because its designed to burn fat continuously. Rather than just burning fat while you work out, Anvarol makes sure that you can burn fat no matter what youre doing. Youre also going to get an increase in the level of strength that you have. Thats because youre going to have more of that energy and youre going to be more prepared to put in the effort. You can continue to workout for a whole lot longer than you would be able to without this product. That lean muscle mass that you already have is important and you want to make sure that your metabolism is under ...
Li H, Tang Z, Chu P, Song Y, Yang Y, Sun B, Niu M, Qaed E, Shopit A, Han G, Ma X, Peng J, Hu M, Tang Z (2018) Neuroprotective effect of phosphocreatine on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo: Involvement of dual PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways. Free Radic Biol Med 120:228-38 ...
Alterations to the electron-based ionic or covalent bonds between ions or atoms happen during a chemical change. Such changes result in one or more new substances with different physical and chemical...
Cooking can be both a physical and chemical change. For example, mashing up potatoes is a physical change, but baking a cake is a chemical...
Experiment 1: Observations of Chemical Changes Purpose: To observe the macroscopic changes that occur in chemical reactions and attempt to interpret the
Change is happening all around us all of the time. Just as chemists have classified elements and compounds, they have also classified types of changes. Changes are either classified as physical or …
Heres an experiment that will have your child experimenting with cake ingredients to learn about the chemical reactions that happen when a cakes in the oven.
Enzymes are complex organic substances produced in living cells and capable of causing certain chemical changes in other biological materials by acting as catal
PURPOSE: Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) affords unique insight into cardiac energetics but has a low intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in humans. Theory predicts an increased (31)P-MRS SNR at 7T, offering exciting possibilities to better investigate cardiac metabolism. We therefore compare the performance of human cardiac (31)P-MRS at 7T to 3T, and measure T1s for (31)P metabolites at 7T. METHODS: Matched (31)P-MRS data were acquired at 3T and 7T, on nine normal volunteers. A novel Look-Locker CSI acquisition and fitting approach was used to measure T1s on six normal volunteers. RESULTS: T1s in the heart at 7T were: phosphocreatine (PCr) 3.05 ± 0.41s, γ-ATP 1.82 ± 0.09s, α-ATP 1.39 ± 0.09s, β-ATP 1.02 ± 0.17s and 2,3-DPG (2,3-diphosphoglycerate) 3.05 ± 0.41s (N = 6). In the field comparison (N = 9), PCr SNR increased 2.8× at 7T relative to 3T, the Cramer-Ráo uncertainty (CRLB) in PCr concentration decreased 2.4×, the mean CRLB in PCr/ATP decreased 2.7× and the PCr
1. The role of phosphorylcreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration was investigated in permeabilised fibre bundles prepared from human vastus lateralis muscle. 2. Fibre respiration was measured in the absence of ADP (V(0)) and after sequential additions of submaximal ADP (0.1 mM ADP, V(submax)), PCr (or Cr) and saturating [ADP] (V(max)). 3. V(submax) increased by 55 % after addition of saturating creatine (P , 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 5 mM [Cr]. In contrast, V(submax) decreased by 54 % after addition of saturating phosphorylcreatine (P , 0.01; n = 8) and half the maximal effect was obtained at 1 mM [PCr]. V(max) was not affected by Cr or PCr. 4. V(submax) was similar when PCr and Cr were added simultaneously at concentrations similar to those in muscle at rest (PCr/Cr = 2) and at low-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.5). At conditions mimicking high-intensity exercise (PCr/Cr = 0.1), V(submax) increased to 60 % of V(max) (P , ...
We postulated that changes in cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism may underlie the myocardial dysfunction caused by hypobaric hypoxia. Healthy volunteers (n=14) were studied immediately before, and within 4 d of return from, a 17-d trek to Mt. Everest Base Camp (5300 m). (31)P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy was used to measure cardiac phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP, and MR imaging and echocardiography were used to assess cardiac volumes, mass, and function. Immediately after returning from Mt. Everest, total body weight had fallen by 3% (P|0.05), but left ventricular mass, adjusted for changes in body surface area, had disproportionately decreased by 11% (P|0.05). Alterations in diastolic function were also observed, with a reduction in peak left ventricular filling rates and mitral inflow E/A, by 17% (P|0.05) and 24% (P|0.01), respectively, with no change in hydration status. Compared with pretrek, cardiac PCr/ATP ratio had decreased by 18% (P|0.01). Whether the abnormalities were even greater at
TY - JOUR. T1 - Response of myocardial metabolites to graded regional ischemia. T2 - 31P NMR spectroscopy of porcine myocardium in vivo. AU - Schaefer, Saul. AU - Camacho, S. A.. AU - Gober, J.. AU - Obregon, R. G.. AU - DeGroot, M. A.. AU - Botvinick, E. H.. AU - Massie, B.. AU - Weiner, M. W.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The changes in myocardial high energy phosphates and pH during regional ischemia, and their potential role in mediating functional abnormalities, is unclear. To determine the degree of regional blood flow reduction required to induce changes in high energy phosphates and pH, and to correlate these metabolic changes with alterations in blood flow, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was employed in an in vivo porcine model of graded coronary stenosis. Simultaneous measurements of regional blood flow and phosphate compounds were made during various steady-state degrees of regional ischemia in which subendocardial blood was reduced by as much as 80%. ATP did not fall over ...
Muscle biopsies taken from the musculus quadriceps femoris of man were analysed for pH, ATP, ADP, AMP, creatine phosphate, creatine, lactate and pyruvate. Biopsies were taken at rest, after circulatory occlusion and after isometric contraction. Muscle pH decreased from 7.09 at rest to 6.56 after isometric exercise to fatigue. Decrease in muscle pH was linearly related to accumulation of lactate plus pyruvate. An increase of 22μmol of lactate plus pyruvate per g of muscle resulted in a fall of 0.5pH unit. The apparent equilibrium constant of the creatine kinase reaction (apparent KCK) increased after isometric contraction and a linear relationship between log(apparent KCK) and muscle pH was obtained. The low content of creatine phosphate in muscle after contraction as analysed from needle-biopsy samples is believed to be a consequence of an altered equilibrium state of the creatine kinase reaction. This in turn is attributed mainly to a change in intracellular pH. ...
We tested the proposition that muscle cell types have different contents of phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, and Pi by 31P NMR spectroscopy and HPLC analyses of adult rat and mouse muscles containing various volume fractions of different fiber types. There was a 2-fold difference in the PCr content between muscles with a high volume fraction of fiber types 1 and 2x versus those with fast-twitch (types 2a and 2b) fiber types. Pi content was low, and PCr and ATP contents were high in muscles with large contents of type 2b and 2a fibers; the reverse was true in muscles with a large volume fraction of type 1 and 2x fibers. There is a large range in the Pi/PCr ratios in normal resting muscles, from less than 0.05 in type 2 to 0.51 in type 1 fibers, depending upon the distribution of their component fiber types. In all muscles, the peak area resulting from the beta phosphate of ATP constituted approximately 13% of the sum of all peak areas observable in the 31P spectrum. Fiber types 2a and 2b were not ...
Muscle glycogen resynthesis rate in humans after supplementation of drinks containing carbohydrates with low and high molecular masses ...
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Heart transplantation remains the treatment of choice for severe heart failure and end-stage cardiac disease. In a context of organ shortage and increasing inclusion of marginal donors, it is important to safely use the available grafts but without overestimating myocardial injury, which could result in discarding viable grafts. The development of biomarkers to assess cardiac graft viability before transplantation is thus of major interest. An important indicator of graft quality is given by high-energy phosphate compound concentrations that can be assessed noninvasively using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This method is also of use in assessing graft viability after transplantation when cardiac allograft vasculopathy can develop, which is associated with diffuse perfusion defects that potentially affect energy metabolism.
Increasing the extracellular pH over the range pH 7.4-8.9 stimulated protein synthesis by about 60% in the rat heart preparation anterogradely perfused in vitro. Protein degradation was inhibited by this pH increase. The magnitudes of the effects at pH 8.9 on protein synthesis and degradation were similar to those of high concentrations of insulin. Cardiac outputs were increased, as were cardiac phosphocreatine contents, indicating that the alterations in extracellular pH did not adversely affect the physiological viability of the preparation. ATP contents were unaltered. The creatine kinase equilibrium was used to assess the magnitude of the change in intracellular pH induced by these treatments. The increase in intracellular pH was about 0.2 for a 1-unit increase in extracellular pH. Thus small changes in intracellular pH have dramatic effects on cardiac protein turnover. ...
The primary role of creatine is recharging ATP, by donating a phosphate ion to the ADP molecule. Muscle fibres generate tension by cutting off a phosphate group from ATP (charged form), turning it into ADP (uncharged from).. Three energy systems provide energy to recharge ADP back into ATP: the ATP-phosphocreatine system, the lactic acid system and the aerobic system. The percentage each energy system contributes depends on the intensity and duration of the activity.. The ATP-phosphocreatine system is the major energy provider for high-intense, explosive actions. This system is limited however by the amount of phosphocreatine that is stored in the muscles. After approximately 10 seconds of high-intense activity all the phosphocreatine is depleted and the ATP-phosphocreatine system can no longer contribute to energy production (recharging ADP into ATP) until it is replenished (approximately 3 minutes of rest). The power output drops when phosphocreatine levels in the muscle cells gets depleted, ...
Energy metabolism in the Wistar rat brain was studied by means of in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy after heating. The 31P-spectra were recorded at 10 minutes after heating the brain to 44 or 45℃ (cortical temperature) for 30 minutes on 6 rats in each group. Thereafter, the 31P-spectra were repeatedly recorded until 1 hour after heating. The 31P-spectra showed no significant changes of pH and high-energy phosphate levels occurred for 1 hour after heating of the brain to 44℃ for 30 minutes. However, those determined 10 minutes after heating the brain to 45℃ for 30 minutes showed a statistically significant reduction of the PCr/Pi ratio without accompaning a pH shift and change in ATP concentration. No further changes occurred thereafter for 1 hour after heating of the brain. The heat-induced PCr/Pi ratio reduction observed in this study reflected mitochondrial dysfunction and not a decline in cerebral blood flow. The present study has demonstrated at least part of the ...
Objective: Areas of intramyocardial late enhancement (LE) at delayed enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) and reduction of myocardial phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP-ratio at phosphorous MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS), are both reported in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and indicate areas of increased interstitial myocardial space with fibrosis and impairment of myocardial energy metabolism, respectively. We sought to ascertain whether in HCM patients the abnormal features of left ventricular (LV) interstitial space revealed by DE-MRI correlated with impaired LV energy metabolism shown at 31P-MRS.. Design and patients: 19 patients with HCM proved by histological analysis of multiple endomyocardial biopsies and with normal coronary arteries, underwent cardiac Magnetic Resonance imaging including DE-MRI and 31P-MRS. DE-MRI for detection and quantification of Late Enahncement (LE) and 31P-MRS to assess the myocardial PCr/ATP-ratio were performed by means of a 1.5T magnet. 19 healthy subjects ...
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The chronic administration of the β-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol (IsoP) is used in animals to study the mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy and failure associated with a sustained increase in circulating catecholamines. Time-dependent changes in myocardial blood flow (MBF), morphological and functional parameters were assessed in rats in vivo using multimodal cardiac MRI. Energy metabolism, oxidative stress and the nitric oxide (NO) pathway were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts following 7 days of treatment. Male Wistar rats were infused for 7 days with IsoP or vehicle using osmotic pumps. Cine-MRI and arterial spin labeling were used to determine left ventricular morphology, function and MBF at days 1, 2 and 7 after pump implantation. Isolated hearts were then perfused, and high-energy phosphate compounds and intracellular pH were followed using ³¹P MRS with simultaneous measurement of contractile function. Total creatine and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were measured by high
The utilization of isocratic, reverse-phase, ion-paired high-performance liquid chromatography for analysis of creatine phosphate allows for rapid quantification of multiple samples. Cryogenic sample handling and the addition of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N-tetraacetic acid as a Ca2+ sequestering agent during perchloric acid extraction enhance maximal recovery of creatine phosphate from brain samples. Peak identification is supported by a complete enzymatic shift with a phosphocreatine kinase, hexokinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase system.
Methods-We measured tissue pH and phospholipid as well as cell energy markers, including creatine, phosphocreatine, and N-acetyl-aspartate in subacute stroke with combined 1H and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We included 19 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (mean time after stroke, 6 days). We then compared metabolite concentrations in the ischemic tissue to contralateral (healthy) tissue using multivariate ANOVA to assess significant differences in metabolite levels between both tissue compartments.. ...
The purpose of the present investigation was to study the relation between energy metabolism and contractile function in the isovolumic guinea pig heart. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure changes in the intracellular levels of creatine phosphate, ATP, inorganic phosphate, and pH during 2.43 min total global ischemia and 2.43 min reperfusion, with a time resolution of 9.7 s. From these data, cytosolic changes in the phosphorylation potential, [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio, free-energy change of ATP hydrolysis, and concentration of free ADP were estimated. The simultaneous monitoring of functional and biochemical parameters allowed them to be directly correlated with respect to time and with respect to each other. No significant changes in ATP were detected at any time, but changes in all other biochemical data were highly correlated with changes in contractile function. Kinetic analysis, using a nonlinear least-squares fit of the experimental points, revealed that the changes in most
We examined a possible mechanism of action of an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener, YM934, for the improvement of energy metabolism in hearts subjected to 35-min ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. The treatment with 30 nM YM934 for the final 15 min of preischemia enhanced postischemic recovery of left ventricular developed pressure, attenuated the postischemic rise in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and suppressed the release of creatine kinase and ATP metabolites during reperfusion. The treatment also restored myocardial ATP and creatine phosphate contents and attenuated the decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate during reperfusion. The higher mitochondrial function was also seen in YM934-treated hearts at the end of ischemia. In another set of experiments, myocardial skinned bundles were incubated for 30 min under hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of YM934, and then mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was determined. Hypoxia decreased the ...
In individuals with HIV infection, as well as those with other chronic diseases, it is important to improve muscle mass to preserve muscle trophism and functional status. Sakkas et al. conducted a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle size, strength, and function in HIV-infected individuals. The study enrolled 40 HIV-infected males in a 14-week study (20 receiving creatine and 20 placebo). Treatment began with a loading dose of 20 g/day (or an equivalent number of placebo capsules) for 5 days, followed by maintenance dosing of 4.8 g/day. All subjects underwent three times-weekly supervised resistance exercise beginning at week 2 until week 14 while continuing on the assigned study medication. It was found that after 14 weeks, 1-repetition maximum strength increased in all muscle groups and that the magnitude of this increase was not greater with creatine supplementation; in the two groups phosphocreatine recovery following ...
However, use of statins turned out to be disappointing in a recent small study of 68 patients with mild-to-moderate symptomatic PAD. They were studied at baseline and annually for 2 years after beginning simvastatin 40 mg, simvastatin 40 mg/ezetimibe 10 mg if statin-naïve, or ezetimibe 10 mg if already on a statin.4 Phosphocreatine recovery time, calf perfusion, and 6-minute walk distance were measured.. Despite effective low-density lipoprotein (LDL) reduction, tissue perfusion, metabolism, and exercise parameters did not improve, although rest ankle-brachial index improved. This small, non-placebo-controlled trial suggests that LDL-lowering does not improve calf muscle physiology or functional capacity in PAD. Thus, the authors concluded that the primary indication for lipid-lowering therapy in PAD remains the reduction of cardiovascular events and not specifically the improvement of calf muscle physiology, energetics, or walking performance.. In an accompanying editorial in JACC, Mitchell ...
where Λ is the ratio of muscle length to the optimal length at which maximal isometric tension is produced, and α(Λ) is a function numerically equal to the ratio of the tetanic isometric force to its maximum value. The single dimensionless constant in this relation, B, can be calculated from model parameters characterizing muscle dynamics at the optimum length, and has a value near unity for frog sartorius at 0°C. The predicted behavior is shown to agree reasonably well with experimental measurements of heat production and phosphocreatine (PCr) hydrolysis. The model relates the isometric energy rates to PCr hydrolysis in (1) cross-bridge interactions, and (2) calcium pumping into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.. ...
High-energy phosphates and related adenine nucleotides.Metabolites were measured by HPLC in Control, SHF and DHF hearts. A-C. Chromatograms of extracts from ven
Results: Using progressive saturation of γ-ATP, the intrinsic T1 relaxation times of phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) at 3 T were measured to be 5.1±0.8 s and 3.0±1.4 s, respectively. Using steady-state saturation of γ-ATP, a significant 24±14% and 11±7% increase in the forward creatine kinase (CK) pseudo-first-order reaction rate constant, k₁, was observed upon visual stimulation in the first and second cycles respectively of a paradigm consisting of 10min-rest followed by 10min-stimulation, with the measured baseline k₁ being 0.35±0.04 s⁻¹. No significant changes in forward ATP synthase (ATPase) reaction rate, PCr/γ- ATP, Pi/γ-ATP, and NAD(H)/γ-ATP ratios, or intracellular pH were detected upon stimulation ...
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins. . ...
We hypothesized that unexplained increases in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) observed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after treatment of tumours by DNA-damaging agents were related to chemotherapy-induced ...
academy acquisitions active addition adds aimed alongside although anatomy apps array background beyond biomedical black blood bore bound cardiac cardiomyopathy cardiovascular channel characteristics chemical clinical cohort compensated computed concentrations consequence contrast control controls correlation currently defined defining demonstrating depressed despite determination determined detrimental dilated direct disease early ejection energy estimation examine excitation exertion failing failure falls fellowship finding flux fraction free function funding genetics hampered harnessing healthy heart hence homeostasis human hydrolysis hypertrophied hypertrophy idiopathic impair impaired included interleaved journal kinase kingdom limited loop magnitude make mark marker matched matrix measure mechanisms medical medicine metabolism myocardial obscured offered overlapping oxford pair patients phosphate phosphorylation physiology potential pressure previous proceed proceedings product properties ...
In order to determine the causal factors in the development of the cardiomyopathy of the Syrian hamster, observations were made of myocardial histology, oxidative phosphorylation, high energy phosphate content, metabolism and mechanical activity of five age groups, ranging from 5 weeks to 10 months. Histological changes as well as biochemical abnormalities were present in the hearts of hamsters 5 weeks of age. With exception of a prolonged t-PH (time to peak height of contraction) period of the myopathic hearts of group I, tension development and contractility were normal up to 3 months of age. However, there was other evidence of disturbed function at 5 weeks of age, as shown by the length-tension curves. The significance and interrelationship of these findings are discussed. © 1970.. ...
In this pilot study, brain high energy phosphate and membrane phospholipid metabolism were investigated in the dorsal prefrontal cortex of 11 high-functioning autistic adolescent and young adult men (the age range is 12-36 years) and 11 age-, gender-, IQ, race- and socioeconomic status-matched norma …
Metabolic Recovery is specially designed for active recovery. It contains Lactium to improve sleep quality and alleviates stress, speed up the recovery process.
As the starting pistol fired, Bolt and Kipchoge began to use creatine phosphate, an energy-rich molecule stored in muscle tissue, to generate the energy-carrying molecule ATP. In a few seconds, however, both athletes stores of creatine phosphate were depleted, forcing their bodies to break down glucose to provide ATP to contracting muscle cells for a few more minutes ...
ii. They are produced in very minute quantity. iii. They are biologically very active and their action is very rapid.. iv. They act only on target organs or cells located usually away from their sources.. v. They regulate the physiological process of the body by bringing about chemical changes. Thus, they bring about metabolic regulation in the body.. vi. They are destroyed soon after their action and thus not stored in the body.. ...
Another name for a chemical change is a(n) (1) . Such a change can be represented by means of a written statement called a(n) (2) The symbol for the word yields in such a statement is a(n) (3) . Any substance written to the left of this symbol is called a(n) (4) . Any substance written to the right of this symbol is called a(n) (5) . A number written just to the left of a formula is called a(n) (6) . ...
Phosphocreatine is formed naturally within the body, with over 95% of the compound stored within the muscle cells. The body ... The substance was found to be neoton (phosphocreatine), which is used in cardiac surgery to protect the heart during periods of ... "Phosphocreatine". Faqs.org. Retrieved 7 June 2010. "Cannavaro injection video troubles Italian sports executive". Yahoo! Sports ...
This makes conversion of creatine to phosphocreatine a highly favored reaction. Phosphocreatine is a very-high-energy compound ... Thus, phosphocreatine breaks down to creatine, giving its inorganic phosphate for ATP formation. This is done by the enzyme ... This is part of phosphocreatine metabolism. In mitochondria, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels are very high as a result of ... At the onset of exercise phosphocreatine is broken down to provide ATP for muscle contraction. ATP hydrolysis results in ...
The discovery of phosphocreatine was reported in 1927. In the 1960s, creatine kinase (CK) was shown to phosphorylate ADP using ... Most of the human body's total creatine and phosphocreatine stores are found in skeletal muscle (95%), while the remainder is ... The average amount of total creatine (creatine and phosphocreatine) stored in the body is approximately 120 mmol/kg of dry ... Creatine itself can be phosphorylated by creatine kinase to form phosphocreatine, which is used as an energy buffer in skeletal ...
... it becomes the high-energy compound phosphocreatine. Creatine conversion to phosphocreatine is catalyzed by creatine kinase; ... Creatinine itself is produced via a biological system involving creatine, phosphocreatine (also known as creatine phosphate), ...
Another was Otto Folin, an American chemist who discovered Phosphocreatine. In 1923, Kossel was honored by being named ...
Mora B.; Narasimhan P.T.; Ross B.D.; Allman J.; Barker P. B. (1991). "P Saturation Transfer and Phosphocreatine Imaging in the ...
Kekelidze T, Khait I, Togliatti A, Benzecry JM, Wieringa B, Holtzman D (December 2001). "Altered brain phosphocreatine and ATP ...
Bogdanis, GC; Nevill, ME; Boobis, LH; Lakomy, HK (1 March 1996). "Contribution of phosphocreatine and aerobic metabolism to ... Possible physiological advantages from RSH include compensatory vasodilation and regeneration of phosphocreatine (PCr). The ...
The functions of these isoenzymes are to convert creatine, using ATP, into phosphocreatine expelling ADP. Mini columns were ...
The quick energy sources consist of the phosphocreatine (PCr) system, fast glycolysis, and adenylate kinase. All of these ... This enzyme catalyzes a reaction that combines phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and creatine. This ... resource is short lasting because oxygen is required for the resynthesis of phosphocreatine via mitochondrial creatine kinase. ...
Creatine and phosphocreatine: with its major peak at 3.0 ppm, creatine marks metabolism of brain energy. Gradual loss of ...
"The Determination of Phosphorus and the Discovery of Phosphocreatine and ATP: the Work of Fiske and SubbaRow". Journal of ...
... not to be confused with phosphocreatine. v t e. ...
... responsible for elucidating the role of phosphocreatine in energy production in muscles. Member Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Joseph ...
Generally, there are two types of phosphagens in animals, phosphoarginine (PA) in invertebrates and phosphocreatine (PC) in ...
... which facilitates the reaction of ADP and phosphocreatine into ATP and creatine. The interaction between actin and myosin ...
... catalyses the interconversion of phospho creatine to creatine . CPK exists in 3 isoenzymes. Each isoenzymes is a dimer of 2 ...
... (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed ... CK catalyses the conversion of creatine and uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to create phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine ... While mitochondrial creatine kinase is directly involved in formation of phospho-creatine from mitochondrial ATP, cytosolic CK ... where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. ...
Two examples of natural phosphoramidates are phosphocreatine and the phosphoramidate formed when histidine residues in ...
... whereas the other depends upon a chemical compound called phosphocreatine. The energy released from any of these three series ...
The encoded protein reversibly catalyzes the transfer of "energy-rich" phosphate between ATP and creatine and between phospho-creatine ...
Downregulation of genes encoding for mitochondrial subunits, decreased concentration of phosphocreatine, decreased brain pH, ...
Ingesting creatine can increase the level of phosphocreatine in the muscles up to 20%. Creatine has no significant effect on ... Exploring the role of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system in human muscle". Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 26 ...
... and is responsible for transferring a phosphate group from ATP to create a phosphocreatine molecule. BCAA supplementation has ...
... generating phosphocreatine and ADP. Creatine kinase plays an important role in energy metabolism of vertebrates. There are at ...
... phosphocreatine, lactate, and tissue pH in relation to reduced cerebral blood flow following experimental acute middle cerebral ...
He discovered the role of phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in muscular activity, which earned him an entry into ...
... of the enzyme phosphocreatine kinase. In some locations, the test has been superseded by the troponin test. However, recently, ...
... muscular contraction continued for a short period using phosphocreatine as a source of energy. Kalckar referred to this process ...
It allows for the highest levels of exercise intensity, but intramuscular stores of phosphocreatine are very limited and can ...
creatine phosphate (*phosphocreatine*)* A high-energy, phosphorylated, nitrogenous compound that acts as an energy store in ... Phosphocreatine World of Sports Science COPYRIGHT 2007 Thomson Gale. Phosphocreatine. Phosphocreatine is a substance that, in ... When phosphocreatine in the muscle breaks down, it is not reprocessed into a working form. Phosphocreatine metabolizes into a ... The body can readily produce the necessary phosphocreatine once the creatine has been ingested; phosphocreatine is manufactured ...
The cells ability to generate phosphocreatine from excess ATP during rest, as well as its use of phosphocreatine for quick ... Once inside the cells it is transformed into phosphocreatine by the enzyme complex creatine kinase. Phosphocreatine is able to ... Phosphocreatine can be broken down into creatinine, which is then excreted in the urine. A 70 kg man contains around 120 g of ... Phosphocreatine can anaerobically donate a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP during the first five to eight seconds of a ...
2 Market Profile of Phosphocreatine in China. 3 Survey on Sales Status of Phosphocreatine in China, 2010-2014. 4 Survey on ... 5 Survey on Dosage Forms of Phosphocreatine in China, 2010-2014. 6 Reference Price of Phosphocreatine in Chinese Hospitals in ... 7 Major Manufacturers of Phosphocreatine in the Chinese Market, 2010-2014. 8 Market Outlook of Phosphocreatine in China, 2015- ... Phosphocreatine, developed by Alfa Wassermann in 1997, has the largest market share compared with other cardiovascular drugs. ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance, instead of having the information ...
Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi.. M J Kushmerick, T S Moerland, and ... We tested the proposition that muscle cell types have different contents of phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, and Pi by 31P NMR ... Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi. ... Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi. ...
... Ling-Hua Tang, Zhong-Yuan Xia ... Phosphocreatine (PCr) is an endogenous compound containing high-energy phosphate bonds. It has been confirmed that PCr is ...
Phosphocreatine (PCr) is an endogenous compound containing high-energy phosphate bonds. It acts as an energy reserve, and it is ... Phosphocreatine Preconditioning Attenuates Apoptosis in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Rat Brain. Ling-Hua Tang, Zhong-Yuan Xia ... Phosphocreatine (PCr) is an endogenous compound containing high-energy phosphate bonds. It has been confirmed that PCr is ... If cerebral blood flow is blocked for more than 5 min, permanent brain damage is inevitable [1]. Phosphocreatine (PCr) has been ...
What is Phosphocreatine kinase? Meaning of Phosphocreatine kinase medical term. What does Phosphocreatine kinase mean? ... Looking for online definition of Phosphocreatine kinase in the Medical Dictionary? Phosphocreatine kinase explanation free. ... redirected from Phosphocreatine kinase). Also found in: Dictionary, Acronyms, Encyclopedia. creatine. [kre´ah-tin] a nonprotein ... cre·a·tine ki·nase/ (ki´nās) an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of creatine by ATP to form phosphocreatine. It occurs ...
154 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Phosphocreatine Market Professional Survey Report 2016 report by QYResearch ... 5.1 USA Phosphocreatine Market Analysis 5.1.1 USA Phosphocreatine Market Overview 5.1.2 USA 2011-2016E Phosphocreatine Local ... 5.3 UK Phosphocreatine Market Analysis 5.3.1 UK Phosphocreatine Market Overview 5.3.2 UK 2011-2016E Phosphocreatine Local ... 5.2 China Phosphocreatine Market Analysis 5.2.1 China Phosphocreatine Market Overview 5.2.2 China 2011-2016E Phosphocreatine ...
The report generally describes phosphocreatine, sodium salt, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Phosphocreatine, ... Phosphocreatine, sodium salt prices in other regions. 7. PHOSPHOCREATINE, SODIUM SALT END-USE SECTOR 7.1. Phosphocreatine, ... Phosphocreatine, sodium salt market forecast. 6. PHOSPHOCREATINE, SODIUM SALT MARKET PRICES. 6.1. Phosphocreatine, sodium salt ... 3. PHOSPHOCREATINE, SODIUM SALT MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4. PHOSPHOCREATINE, SODIUM SALT PATENTS. Abstract. Description. Summary ...
The determination and distribution of phosphocreatine in animal tissues. A. H. Ennor, H. Rosenberg ... The determination and distribution of phosphocreatine in animal tissues Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
CAS Number:922-32-7 Name:Glycine,N-[imino(phosphonoamino)methyl]-N-methyl-, sodium salt (1:2) Formula:C4H8N3Na2O5P Molecular Weight:255.08 Synonyms:Glycine,N-[imino(phosphonoamino)methyl]-N-methyl-, disodium salt...
Measurement of Phosphocreatine to Adenosine Triphosphate Ratio in Normal Human Heart by 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. M. ... Measurement of Phosphocreatine to Adenosine Triphosphate Ratio in Normal Human Heart by 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ... Measurement of Phosphocreatine to Adenosine Triphosphate Ratio in Normal Human Heart by 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ... Measurement of Phosphocreatine to Adenosine Triphosphate Ratio in Normal Human Heart by 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ...
NOTE: The term phosphagen, originally a synonym for phosphocreatine, has since been used to describe any naturally occurring ...
... phosphocreatine circuit for cellular energy homeostasis. T Wallimann, M Wyss, D Brdiczka, K Nicolay, H M Eppenberger ...
Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine depletion depresses myocellular energy status during sepsis. Tirso M. Lara, Michael S Wong, Jan ... Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine depletion depresses myocellular energy status during sepsis. / Lara, Tirso M.; Wong, Michael S ... Lara, T. M., Wong, M. S., Rounds, J., Robinson, M. K., Wilmore, D. W., & Jacobs, D. O. (1998). Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine ... Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine depletion depresses myocellular energy status during sepsis. Archives of Surgery. 1998;133(12): ...
... and phosphocreatine (PCr) to be fast-acting antidepressants in the depressed-animal model. ATP and PCr have already been widely ... H44023293, 100 mg, 10 ml) or sodium phosphocreatine (Harbin Laiboten pharmaceutical corporation, SFDA approval No. H20054352, 1 ... Intravenous administration of adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine combined with fluoxetine in major depressive disorder ... and phosphocreatine (PCr) to be fast-acting antidepressants in the depressed-animal model. ATP and PCr have already been widely ...
... C4H8N3O5PNa2.4H2O If you need bigger quantities than indicated on the web site, ... Phosphocreatine disodium salt tetrahydrate. Phosphocreatine disodium salt tetrahydrate C4H8N3O5PNa2.4H2O ...
TCA intermediates, phosphocreatine and creatine. A 3-8 mg portion of lyophylized muscle was extracted into 0.5 m perchloric ... TCA intermediates, phosphocreatine and creatine. The concentration of each of the three TCA cycle intermediates (Table 4) and ... Table 4. Concentrations of muscle TCA cycle intermediates, phosphocreatine and creatine (mmol (kg dry wt)−1). Group. ... 1) increased similarly for each of the groups following exercise (P , 0.001). Resting phosphocreatine (PCr) and creatine (Cr) ...
Phosphocreatine is part of the human energy production system, fueling explosive muscle contractions in the first 10 seconds of ... How Phosphocreatine Works The phosphocreatine energy system refers to the mechanism by which phosphocreatine facilitates muscle ... Benefits of Phosphocreatine in Athletics Can supplementation build muscle mass and strength? By Paul Rogers ... Phosphocreatine is important because helps produce a chemical in muscles known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is often ...
Hida, K., Kwee, I., & Nakada, T. (1992). T1 values of phosphomonoester and phosphocreatine of brain show no significant change ... Hida K, Kwee I, Nakada T. T1 values of phosphomonoester and phosphocreatine of brain show no significant change during ... Hida, K. ; Kwee, Ingrid ; Nakada, T. / T1 values of phosphomonoester and phosphocreatine of brain show no significant change ... Hida, K, Kwee, I & Nakada, T 1992, T1 values of phosphomonoester and phosphocreatine of brain show no significant change ...
Phosphocreatine plays an important role in the energy mechanism of muscle contraction. ... Phosphocreatine plays an important role in the energy mechanism of muscle contraction. It is a reserve of energy in the cells ... Lack of phosphocreatine leads to a decrease in the strength of myocardial contraction and its ability to functional recovery. ... Phosphocreatine - is found in high concentration in the myocardium, skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, retina, nerve tissue ...
... improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to ... improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to ... Rate of Phosphocreatine Resynthesis. Phosphocreatine degradation provides the most immediate and faster source of ATP ... Karatzaferi, C., de Haan, A., Ferguson, R. A., van Mechelen, W., and Sargeant, A. J. (2001a). Phosphocreatine and ATP content ...
Changes in phosphocreatine and pyruvate/lactate levels may constitute one of the early signs of mitochondrial respiratory chain ... 1 is the increase in high-energy compounds, namely ATP and phosphocreatine; the latter constitutes a reservoir for rapid ATP ... Measurement of adenine nucleotides, phosphocreatine, and adenosine.. Neurons were extracted with 0.6 mol/l perchloric acid, ... These samples were also used to determine intracellular phosphocreatine, at 340 nm, according to a previously described method ...
Phosphocreatine changes in skeletal muscle during 2 s duration ankle dorsiflexion contractions were measured by gating ... Gated 31P Chemical Shift Imaging of Phosphocreatine Changes During Single Muscle Contractions. Meyer R, Slade J, Towse T, ...
Phosphocreatine Interacts with Phospholipids, Affects Membrane Properties and Exerts Membrane-Protective Effects. In: PLOS ONE ... Phosphocreatine Interacts with Phospholipids, Affects Membrane Properties and Exerts Membrane-Protective Effects. PLOS ONE. ... Phosphocreatine Interacts with Phospholipids, Affects Membrane Properties and Exerts Membrane-Protective Effects. / Tokarska- ... Phosphocreatine Interacts with Phospholipids, Affects Membrane Properties and Exerts Membrane-Protective Effects. Malgorzata ...
View our 22 Miscellaneous Compounds products for your research including Miscellaneous Compounds Small Molecules and Miscellaneous Compounds Peptides.
31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the Sherpa heart: a phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate signature of metabolic ... a 31P MRS-detectable reduction in the phosphocreatine (PCr) to gamma adenosine triphosphate (γATP) ratio was not observed at ...
Intersubject differences in the effect of acidosis on phosphocreatine recovery kinetics after exercise. Nicolay K, De Feyter H ... resonance spectroscopy can be used to measure oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle by determining the rate of phosphocreatine ...
ATP + creatine --, ADP +phosphocreatine CREATINE KINASE. 7.4. Glycolysis - Very fast, Anaerobic or Aerobic. 7.4.1. Glucose + 2 ...
  • Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy monitors muscle energy metabolism by recording the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate at rest, during exercise, and during recovery from exercise. (nih.gov)
  • Low phosphocreatine-inorganic phosphate ratios at rest are not disease-specific, but can be increased by drug therapy in several myopathies. (nih.gov)
  • The FTO rs9939609 A-allele was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin, hepatic insulin resistance and shorter recovery halftimes of phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) after exercise in a primarily type I muscle. (ku.dk)
  • Previous studies have revealed that the decrease of bio-energetic metabolism may contribute to the occurrence of depression, while our team has found adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) to be fast-acting antidepressants in the depressed-animal model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neoton (phosphocreatine) is a drug that improves myocardial and muscle tissue metabolism. (epohgh.com)
  • On oxidative stress, insulin stimulates neuronal glucose uptake and subsequent metabolism into pyruvate, restoring intracellular ATP and phosphocreatine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • ATP, phosphocreatine (PCr), glycogen, and glucose concentrations were measured to investigate energy metabolism homeostasis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We tested this prediction by measuring aerobic metabolism (oxygen consumption rates) and anaerobic metabolism (concentrations of the anaerobic metabolite tauropine and the energy-storage molecule phosphocreatine) of C. moorei . (biologists.org)
  • After about 20 seconds, your phosphocreatine start to run low, and anaerobic glycolysis would predominate. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • During the transition period, you're relying on "borrowed energy" from phosphocreatine stores and anaerobic processes. (runnersworld.com)
  • Phosphocreatine, also known as creatine phosphate (CP) or PCr (Pcr), is a phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle, myocardium and the brain to recycle adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphocreatine is able to donate its phosphate group to convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate to creatine, producing adenosine diphosphate and phosphocreatine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • n an enzyme in muscle, brain, and other tissues that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate to creatine, producing adenosine diphosphate and phosphocreatine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phosphocreatine is important because helps produce a chemical in muscles known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (verywellfit.com)
  • In spite of a chronically reduced ADC, typically associated with ischaemia-induced energy failure, a 31 P MRS-detectable reduction in the phosphocreatine (PCr) to gamma adenosine triphosphate (γATP) ratio was not observed at any time point in either age group, suggesting dissociation of tissue water diffusion and metabolic changes within the ET-1-induced lesion. (springer.com)
  • To measure phosphorus metabolites in human parotid glands by 31 P-MRS using three-dimensional chemical-shift imaging (3D-CSI), and ascertain whether this method can capture changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels due to saliva secretion. (scirp.org)
  • Numerous previous studies have reported phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels measured by MRS in the excised glands of animals and in human parotid glands [9] - [15]. (scirp.org)
  • Mammalian skeletal muscle fibers distinguished by contents of phosphocreatine, ATP, and Pi. (pnas.org)
  • Jacobs, Danny O. / Skeletal muscle phosphocreatine depletion depresses myocellular energy status during sepsis . (elsevier.com)
  • Phosphocreatine changes in skeletal muscle during 2 s duration ankle dorsiflexion contractions were measured by gating phosphorus 2D chemical shift imaging acquisitions to times before and after contractions performed at 15 s intervals. (ismrm.org)
  • 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to measure oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle by determining the rate of phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery after exercise. (ismrm.org)
  • Petrovsky JSFitch CD Contractile characteristics of skeletal muscle depleted of phosphocreatine. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Lack of phosphocreatine leads to a decrease in the strength of myocardial contraction and its ability to functional recovery. (epohgh.com)
  • reduces the degradation of ATP and phosphocreatine in myocardial cells, preserves the structure of mitochondria and sarcolemma, improves the process of functional recovery of the myocardium after cardiac arrest caused by the administration of a large dose of potassium, and reduces the frequency of reperfusion arrhythmia. (epohgh.com)
  • Phosphocreatine in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarct: effects on hemodynamics and oxygen supply]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • in addition, phosphocreatine infusions (a course dose being 30 g) were used in 22 patients in acute myocardial infarction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Myocardial Phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratio is a predictor of mortality in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, 1987, Circulation, Vol. 96, pages 2190-9196, ABSTRACT ONLY. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Chronic phosphocreatine depletion by the creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionate is associated with increased mortality and loss of ATP in rats after myocardial infarction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MRS is ideal for the evaluation of heart failure, as it allows quantification of the primary energy source for all myocardial cellular functions (ATP), the energy reserve phosphocreatine (PCr), and the creatine kinase reaction, which maintains cellular energy equilibrium. (bioscience.org)
  • CM ingestion resulted in a significant reduction in the sensation of fatigue, a 34% increase in the rate of oxidative ATP production during exercise, and a 20% increase in the rate of phosphocreatine recovery after exercise, indicating a larger contribution of oxidative ATP synthesis to energy production. (bmj.com)
  • Phosphocreatine, also known as creatine phosphate, is a naturally occurring organic compound that facilitates muscle contractions. (verywellfit.com)
  • Phosphocreatine, also known as creatine phosphate, is in an organic molecule that enables the expression in the muscles of explosive power lasting no longer than about 8 seconds. (studystack.com)
  • Concentration of muscle creatine and phosphocreatine increase and performance improved, but creatine loading did not improve the resynthesis process. (readabstracts.com)
  • Protective effects of creatine and phosphocreatine were demonstrated. (europa.eu)
  • Phosphocreatine therapy failed to substantially affect cardiac pump function, but prevented left ventricular dilation and development of congestive heart failure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interestingly we identified a few protein functional networks that had not been shown previously to be regulated by Trx1, including the creatine-phosphocreatine shuttle, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex, and the cardiac contractile apparatus. (mcponline.org)
  • High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K + , H + , and lactate ions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Objective: To determine the effects of phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion on myocellular energetics. (elsevier.com)
  • With the depletion of phosphocreatine stores, the cell loses its ability to contract even if there is a sufficient amount of ATP. (epohgh.com)
  • creatine phosphate ( phosphocreatine ) A high-energy, phosphorylated, nitrogenous compound that acts as an energy store in muscles and helps to maintain a relatively constant level of ATP in the muscle during contraction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Phosphocreatine plays a particularly important role in tissues that have high, fluctuating energy demands such as muscle and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphocreatine (PCr) is an endogenous compound containing high-energy phosphate bonds. (hindawi.com)
  • Creatine readily combines with phosphate to form phosphocreatine, or creatine phosphate, which is present in muscle, where it serves as the storage form of high-energy phosphate necessary for muscle contraction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 4 In summary, complete and partial muscle AMPD deficiency did not affect TCA cycle anaplerosis, phosphocreatine hydrolysis, energy charge or exercise performance. (wiley.com)
  • Unlike aerobic contractions, which utilize oxygen to produce energy, phosphocreatine triggers energy without oxygen. (verywellfit.com)
  • At this level, your oxygen needs will exceed your oxygen supply, and your body will turn to alternative sources of energy, like phosphocreatine, to fuel explosive contractions. (verywellfit.com)
  • The phosphocreatine energy system refers to the mechanism by which phosphocreatine facilitates muscle contractions. (verywellfit.com)
  • Phosphocreatine plays an important role in the energy mechanism of muscle contraction. (epohgh.com)
  • That's because you're using a high-intensity energy source known as phosphocreatine. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • When ATP levels are low, energy from phosphocreatine is transferred to ADP molecules, which are quickly converted to ATP. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The increase in AMPK α2 activity was likely due to a change in muscle energy status because ATP and phosphocreatine concentrations were lower after metformin treatment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • During high-intensity exercise, phosphocreatine is converted into ATP, an important energy source for cells. (prohealth.com)
  • the phosphocreatine energy system. (coursera.org)
  • Phosphocreatine Metabolite is a phosphorylated creatine molecule that plays a role in the production of the energy in the body. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Phosphocreatine can anaerobically donate a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP during the first five to eight seconds of a maximal muscular effort. (wikipedia.org)
  • creatine kinase an enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphocreatine to ATP. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The dietary intake and endogenous production of Cr matches the spontaneous degradation of phosphocreatine (PCr) and Cr to creatinine at a rate of 2.6% and 1.1% per day, respectively ( Walker, 1979 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • cre·a·tine ki·nase/ ( ki´nās ) an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of creatine by ATP to form phosphocreatine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • AMPK works as an intracellular fuel gauge that becomes activated by decreases in the ATP/ADP and phosphocreatine (PCr)/creatine ratios through mechanisms involving phosphorylation by one or more upstream AMPK kinases, allosteric activation, and a decrease in the inhibitory action of phosphatases ( 9 , 12 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phosphocreatine (PCr) metabolite was quantified by calculating the ratio of PCr over total phosphorus resonance from 31-Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We tested the proposition that muscle cell types have different contents of phosphocreatine (PCr), ATP, and Pi by 31P NMR spectroscopy and HPLC analyses of adult rat and mouse muscles containing various volume fractions of different fiber types. (pnas.org)
  • An enzyme present in muscle, brain, and other tissues of vertebrates that catalyzes the reversible conversion of ADP and phosphocreatine into ATP and creatine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The muscle biopsies were analysed for AMPD activity, purine nucleotides/nucleosides and bases, creatine, phosphocreatine, amino acids, and the TCA cycle intermediates malate, citrate and fumarate. (wiley.com)
  • Can Phosphocreatine Build Muscle Mass and Strength? (verywellfit.com)
  • Muscles use phosphocreatine during the first few seconds of an intense muscle contraction, such as during powerlifting or sprinting. (verywellfit.com)
  • Inside the body it is converted into phosphocreatine and stored in muscle. (prohealth.com)
  • A new study from researchers at the University of Utah, published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise , takes another look at this question using magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess oxygen and phosphocreatine levels right inside the muscle cells during exercise. (runnersworld.com)
  • Phosphocreatine-to-Pi and Pi-to-beta-ATP ratios changed during hypercapnia and returned to base line after withdrawal of CO2. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The primary outcome was post-exercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery rate measured using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the calf. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Around 95 percent of the creatine will be absorbed by lean muscles and quickly converted into phosphocreatine. (verywellfit.com)
  • Although red meat is a natural source of creatine, it isn't concentrated enough to boost phosphocreatine levels in muscles. (verywellfit.com)
  • The cell's ability to generate phosphocreatine from excess ATP during rest, as well as its use of phosphocreatine for quick regeneration of ATP during intense activity, provides a spatial and temporal buffer of ATP concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the cells it is transformed into phosphocreatine by the enzyme complex creatine kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphocreatine is used intravenously in hospitals in some parts of the world for cardiovascular problems under the name Neoton, and also used by some professional athletes, as it is not a controlled substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • How creatine works against depression is not precisely known, but Dr. Renshaw and his colleagues suggest that the pro-energetic effect of creatine supplementation, including the making of more phosphocreatine, may contribute to the earlier and greater response to antidepressants. (prohealth.com)
  • 05]. Conclusions Phosphocreatine could improve left ventricular function and decrease plasma NT-proBNP level in elderly patients with chronic heart failure . (bvsalud.org)
  • Phosphocreatine (PCr) has been used as cardioplegic and cardioprotective agents during cardiopulmonary bypass and also ischemic events [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Phosphocreatine can be broken down into creatinine, which is then excreted in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is presumed that by providing your body with the building blocks of phosphocreatine, you can speed the replenishment of ATP and, in turn, the duration of high-intensity workouts. (verywellfit.com)
  • During intense exercise, ATP is used up within seconds and needs to be replenished using phosphocreatine. (verywellfit.com)
  • Objective To observe the clinical effects of phosphocreatine treatment on left ventricular function and on amino-terminal pro- brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level in elderly patients with chronic heart failure . (bvsalud.org)
  • The patients receiving phosphocreatine showed an increase in body's oxygen consumption due to its elevated tissue extraction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To observe the efficacy of phosphocreatine pre- administration ( PCr -PA) on X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the second mitochondia-derived activator of caspase (Smac) and apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra of rats with focal cerebral ischemia - reperfusion injury (CIRI). (bvsalud.org)
  • When supplemented with exogenous creatine, intramuscular and cerebral stores of creatine and its phosphorylated form, phosphocreatine, become elevated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Hida, K , Kwee, I & Nakada, T 1992, ' T 1 values of phosphomonoester and phosphocreatine of brain show no significant change during development ', Magnetic Resonance in Medicine , vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 179-182. (elsevier.com)