Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (1/6517)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

Reconstitution of the human endothelial cell protein C receptor with thrombomodulin in phosphatidylcholine vesicles enhances protein C activation. (2/6517)

Blocking protein C binding to the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) on the endothelium is known to reduce protein C activation rates. Now we isolate human EPCR and thrombomodulin (TM) and reconstitute them into phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The EPCR increases protein C activation rates in a concentration-dependent fashion that does not saturate at 14 EPCR molecules/TM. Without EPCR, the protein C concentration dependence fits a single class of sites (Km = 2.17 +/- 0.13 microM). With EPCR, two classes of sites are apparent (Km = 20 +/- 15 nM and Km = 3.2 +/- 1.7 microM). Increasing the EPCR concentration at a constant TM concentration increases the percentage of high affinity sites. Holding the TM:EPCR ratio constant while decreasing the density of these proteins results in a decrease in the EPCR enhancement of protein C activation, suggesting that there is little affinity of the EPCR for TM. Negatively charged phospholipids also enhance protein C activation. EPCR acceleration of protein C activation is blocked by anti-EPCR antibodies, but not by annexin V, whereas the reverse is true with negatively charged phospholipids. Human umbilical cord endothelium expresses approximately 7 times more EPCR than TM. Anti-EPCR antibody reduces protein C activation rates 7-fold over these cells, whereas annexin V is ineffective, indicating that EPCR rather than negatively charged phospholipid provide the surface for protein C activation. EPCR expression varies dramatically among vascular beds. The present results indicate that the EPCR concentration will determine the effectiveness of the protein C activation complex.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics on a model for nascent high-density lipoprotein: role of salt bridges. (3/6517)

The results of an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation on a discoidal complex made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and a synthetic alpha-helical 18-mer peptide with an apolipoprotein-like charge distribution are presented. The system consists of 12 acetyl-18A-amide (Ac-18A-NH2) (. J. Biol. Chem. 260:10248-10255) molecules and 20 molecules of POPC in a bilayer, 10 in each leaflet, solvated in a sphere of water for a total of 28,522 atoms. The peptide molecules are oriented with their long axes normal to the bilayer (the "picket fence" orientation). This system is analogous to complexes formed in nascent high-density lipoprotein and to Ac-18A-NH2/phospholipid complexes observed experimentally. The simulation extended over 700 ps, with the last 493 ps used for analysis. The symmetry of this system allows for averaging over different helices to improve sampling, while maintaining explicit all-atom representation of all peptides. The complex is stable on the simulated time scale. Several possible salt bridges between and within helices were studied. A few salt bridge formations and disruptions were observed. Salt bridges provide specificity in interhelical interactions.  (+info)

Morphological behavior of acidic and neutral liposomes induced by basic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides with systematically varied hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. (4/6517)

Lipid-peptide interaction has been investigated using cationic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides and systematically varying their hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance (HHB). The influence of the peptides on neutral and acidic liposomes was examined by 1) Trp fluorescence quenched by brominated phospholipid, 2) membrane-clearing ability, 3) size determination of liposomes by dynamic light scattering, 4) morphological observation by electron microscopy, and 5) ability to form planar lipid bilayers from channels. The peptides examined consist of hydrophobic Leu and hydrophilic Lys residues with ratios 13:5, 11:7, 9:9, 7:11, and 5:13 (abbreviated as Hels 13-5, 11-7, 9-9, 7-11, and 5-13, respectively; Kiyota, T., S. Lee, and G. Sugihara. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13196-13204). The most hydrophobic peptide (Hel 13-5) induced a twisted ribbon-like fibril structure for egg PC liposomes. In a 3/1 (egg PC/egg PG) lipid mixture, Hel 13-5 addition caused fusion of the liposomes. Hel 13-5 formed ion channels in neutral lipid bilayer (egg PE/egg PC = 7/3) at low peptide concentrations, but not in an acidic bilayer (egg PE/brain PS = 7/3). The peptides with hydrophobicity less than Hel 13-5 (Hels 11-7 and Hel 9-9) were able to partially immerse their hydrophobic part of the amphiphilic helix in lipid bilayers and fragment liposome to small bicelles or micelles, and then the bicelles aggregated to form a larger assembly. Peptides Hel 11-7 and Hel 9-9 each formed strong ion channels. Peptides (Hel 7-11 and Hel 5-13) with a more hydrophilic HHB interacted with an acidic lipid bilayer by charge interaction, in which the former immerses the hydrophobic part in lipid bilayer, and the latter did not immerse, and formed large assemblies by aggregation of original liposomes. The present study clearly showed that hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of a peptide is a crucial factor in understanding lipid-peptide interactions.  (+info)

Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. (5/6517)

The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin.  (+info)

Platelet high affinity low density lipoprotein binding and import of lipoprotein derived phospholipids. (6/6517)

The binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the platelet cell membrane could facilitate the transfer of phospholipids from LDL to the platelets. A polyclonal antibody against the platelet glycoproteins IIb/IIIa inhibited the high affinity binding of 125I-LDL by up to 80%. The transfer of pyrene (py)-labeled sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from LDL to the platelets was unaffected by the antibody. The lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reduced the binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by approximately 80%. In contrast, the lectin stimulated the transfer of SM from LDL into the platelets by about three-fold. WGA also specifically augmented the transfer of py-SM between lipid vesicles and the platelets, the stimulation being abolished in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine. Dextran sulfate (DS) increased the specific binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by up to 2.8-fold. On the other hand, the import of LDL-derived py-phospholipids was unaffected by DS. Together, the results indicate that the phospholipid transfer from LDL to the platelets is independent of the high affinity LDL binding to the platelets and is specifically stimulated by WGA. Thus, the interactions of platelets with LDL phospholipids differ markedly from those with the apoprotein components of the lipoproteins.  (+info)

Phospholipid-subclass-specific partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane-water systems. (7/6517)

Herein, we systematically investigate phospholipid-subclass-specific alterations in the partitioning of both cationic and anionic amphiphiles to identify the importance of ester, ether and vinyl ether linkages at the sn-1 position of phospholipids in the partitioning of charged amphiphiles. The results demonstrated that the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic cationic amphiphile (i.e. 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) was approximately 2.5 times higher in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine in comparison with membranes comprised of either phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. In striking contrast, the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic anionic amphiphile [i.e. bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol] in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was approximately 2.5 times lower than that manifest in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. Utilizing theseexperimentally determined partition coefficients,the relative membrane dipole potential of membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was calculated and found to be approximately 25 mV lower than in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. This lower membrane dipole potential in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine is equivalent to the membrane potential induced by incorporation of approximately 25 mol% of anionic phospholipids in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine. Collectively, these results demonstrate that phospholipid-subclass-specific differences in the membrane dipole potential contribute to alterations in the partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane bilayers comprised of distinct phospholipid subclasses. Moreover, they suggest that these physicochemical differences can be exploited to facilitate the targeting of charged lipophilic drugs to specific cells and subcellular membrane compartments.  (+info)

Predominant VH genes expressed in innate antibodies are associated with distinctive antigen-binding sites. (8/6517)

Antibodies to phosphatidylcholine (PtC), a common constituent of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes, represent a large proportion of the natural antibody repertoire in mice. Previous studies of several mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6) have shown that anti-PtC antibodies are mainly encoded by the VH11 and VH12 immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene families. We show here, however, that VH11 and VH12 encode only a small proportion of the anti-PtC antibodies in BALB/c mice. Instead, VHQ52-encoded antibodies predominate in this strain. In addition, two-thirds of the cells expressing VHQ52 family genes use a single gene (which, interestingly, has been previously shown to predominate in the anti-oxazolone response). We also show here that in anti-PtC antibodies from all strains, the distinctive antigen-binding sites associated with VHQ52 differ substantially from those associated with VH11 and VH12. That is, VHQ52-containing transcripts preferentially use the joining region JH4 rather than JH1 and exhibit more diverse complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) junctions with more N-region nucleotide additions at the gene segment junctions. Thus, the VH gene family that predominates in the anti-PtC repertoire differs among mouse strains, whereas the distinctive VHDJH rearrangements (CDR3, JH) associated with each VH gene family are similar in all strains. We discuss these findings in the context of a recent hypothesis suggesting that CDR3 structure, independent of VH framework, is sufficient to define the specificity of an antibody.  (+info)

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Egg phosphatidylcholine is used to improve liver functionality and enhance the functioning of digestive system in elderly people. Increasing old age population is expected to drive the market growth. Moreover, egg phosphatidylcholine is used as means of relief for food allergies which in turn is expected to drive demand in dietary supplements. FDA approval for choline, an ingredient in egg phosphatidylcholine, is expected to supplement growing importance as a dietary supplement. Increasing use of egg phosphatidylcholine as a solvent for insoluble pharmaceutical ingredients is expected to have a positive impact on the market for pharmaceutical applications.. Egg phosphatidylcholine is used in cosmetics as an emulsifier for creams. It prevents skin cell damage and improves elasticity of skin. Growing cosmetics industry owing to increasing income levels and changing lifestyle across globe is expected to drive the market growth over the forecast period. Moreover, medical benefits associated with egg ...
A method for the rapid and quantitative separation of glycerophosphocholine, choline phosphate and choline upon ion-exchange columns is described. The method has been utilized to examine the stimulation of phosphatidylcholine breakdown in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells in response to bombesin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The stimulated generation of choline is shown to precede that of choline phosphate, with no effect upon glycerophosphocholine levels; but was attenuated in cells in which protein kinase C activity was down-regulated. The results thus suggest that stimulation of the cells with either bombesin or TPA activates phospholipase D-catalysed phosphatidylcholine breakdown by a common mechanism involving the activation of protein kinase C. ...
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Phosphatidylcholine is a phospholipid with a choline molecule attached and is the main form of choline found in food. Double Woods Phosphatidylcholine contains 210 x 1200 mg softgels. Click here to learn more.
We use fluorescence microscopy to directly observe liquid phases in giant unilamellar vesicles. We find that a long list of ternary mixtures of high melting temperature (saturated) lipids, low melting temperature (usually unsaturated) lipids, and cholesterol produce liquid domains. For one model mixture in particular, DPPC/DOPC/Chol, we have mapped phase boundaries for the full ternary system. For this mixture we observe two coexisting liquid phases over a wide range of lipid composition and temperature, with one phase rich in the unsaturated lipid and the other rich in the saturated lipid and cholesterol. We find a simple relationship between chain melting temperature and miscibility transition temperature that holds for both phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin lipids. We experimentally cross miscibility boundaries both by changing temperature and by the depletion of cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin. Liquid domains in vesicles exhibit interesting behavior: they collide and coalesce, can finger into
The market research report by QY Research provides detailed study on the overall Egg Phosphatidylcholine market size, its financial positions, its unique selling points, key products, and key developments. This research report has segmented the Egg Phosphatidylcholine market based on the segments covering all the domains in terms of type, country, region, forecasting revenues, and…
Author: Dahmen-Levison, U. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2000; Title: Investigations of lipid-protein interactions on monolayers of chain-substituted phosphatidylcholines.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - On the role of phospholipids in reconstituted cytochrome P-450 system. A model study using dilauroyl and distearoyl glycerophosphocholine.. AU - Rietjens, I.M.C.M.. AU - Ancher, L.J.. AU - Veeger, C.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. M3 - Article. VL - 181. SP - 309. EP - 316. JO - European Journal of Biochemistry. JF - European Journal of Biochemistry. SN - 0014-2956. ER - ...
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine 4235-95-4 NMR spectrum, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine H-NMR spectral analysis, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Allcosmeticsource.com Phosphatidylcholine 70%, 1KG/BAG [216]- INTRODUCTION What is Phosphatidylcholine? Phosphatidylcholine is an integral component of every cell in the human body. Consumed regularly as part of our normal diets, Phosphatidylcholine has also been proven safe and effective over decades of study as a therapeutic agent. Researched extensively by scientists, Phosphatidylcholine has been shown to play a vital role
Page contains details about 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1-rac-glycerol) sodium salt lipid bilayer . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Triple strength lecithin, concentrated source of phosphatidyl choline. Available in easy-to-swallow softgels for maximum assimilation and absorption.
Phosphatidyl choline, a primary component of lecithin, is converted in the brain into the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Researchers have found acetylcholine to be a primary carrier of memory.
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1,2-Didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ≥99% (TLC); CAS Number: 3436-44-0; Synonyms: Didecanoyllecithin,3-sn-Phosphatidylcholine, 1,2-didecanoyl,PC,PC(10:0/10:0),(7R)-4-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-10-oxo-7-(1-oxodecyl)oxy-3,5,9-trioxa-4-phosphanonadecan-1-aminium 4-oxide, inner salt,1,2-Dicaprinoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine,L-α-Phosphatidylcholine, didecanoyl; find Sigma-Aldrich-P7081 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
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The naturally occurring substance phosphatidyl choline is a primary building block in the body. Its one of several so called phospholipids that are structural elements of all cell membranes, facilitating membrane integrity and healthy cell function.. Phosphatidyl choline is also a normal constituent of bile and promotes fat emulsification, absorption, and transport. Its metabolism provides choline to the body which is needed by the brain to produce acetylcholine, a major neurotransmitter that transmits signals between nerve cells.. Sufficient levels of phosphatidyl choline have been shown to support many biochemical pathways and enhance physiology.. ...
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I find it interesting that Nhu points out the name was something established by Baker over 100 years ago, but traditional taxonomists that started taking in a more inclusive approach lumped the two as nodes of variation, yet now molecular work has shown they are different molecular species. Now what constitutes that? I think the percent of divergence (usually from a small sampling of both specimens and molecular markers) varies between phyla, families, genera, and maybe even subspecies. For fungi, it is typically about 3 percent, but within plants can vary a lot. Nonetheless, if molecular work does not show two nodes as monophyletic, but the morphology allows for separation, one can still call them separate species! Maybe the unpublished molecular work shows them in two distinct clades that diverged some time ago, or are these two Massonia not even part of the same clade? If they were two clades that diverged recently, but have a small amount of sequence divergence might they still be considered ...
Phosphatidylcholine is produced naturally by our bodies and is important for the health of our cell membranes, liver, heart, muscles and brain. In order to p...
|Yes, that is true. We have 5% and 10% phosphatidylcholine with deoxycholate! $5.50 /5% 5 ml, $7.50 /10% 5 [email protected] are lipo-dissolve injections? Lipo-dissolve injections have become an increasingly popular means to remove excess fat. The procedure goes by many names (e.g., Lipostabil®, Lipodissolve, Flab-Jab, Lipojection, Lipotherapy, etc.) and involves the injection of mixtures of…
The Plants Database includes the following 2 species of Pachira . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles ...
The Plants Database includes the following 1 species of Arthrocnemum . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles ...
The Plants Database includes the following 2 species of Blepharidachne . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles ...
The Plants Database includes the following 1 species of Shibataea . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation between plasma and hepatic phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, energy charge, and total glutathione content in ischemia reperfusion injury of rat liver. AU - Suzuki, M.. AU - Fukuhara, K.. AU - Unno, Michiaki. AU - Htwe, T.. AU - Takeuchi, H.. AU - Kakita, T.. AU - Matsuno, S.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Background/Aims: Oxygen-derived free radicals are believed to be responsible for the hepatocellular injury leading to liver failure following ischemia-reperfusion in liver, endotoxemia and many other life-threatening illnesses. This study was designed to investigate the reactive oxygen species interaction in lipid peroxidation, the adenosine and energy charge levels of liver cells, and total glutathione content in ischemic-reperfusion injury of liver in rat. Methodology: To prevent intestinal congestion during the clamping of vascular structures, subcutaneous transposition of the spleen was done beforehand. Four to six weeks later, after the development of ...
Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are the most abundant phospholipids in mammalian cells, where they serve well-characterized structural roles, maintaining membrane integrity, facilitating lipoprotein assembly and serving as a surfactant in the lung. Over the past decade, seminal papers have been published that describe novel roles for specific PC species derived from both the cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-choline) and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathways of PC synthesis; these roles include both nuclear receptor agonism and generating critical physiological pools of the omega 3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In addition to these novel functions, complex interactions between PC and its substrate, choline, with growth and energetic status have emerged, following the observation that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major regulator of PC synthesis through the CDP-choline pathway. Presented in this dissertation are the tests of our primary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thrombin induces proliferation of osteoblast-like cells through phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. AU - Suzuki, Atsushi. AU - Kozawa, Osamu. AU - Shinoda, Junji. AU - Watanabe, Yasuko. AU - Saito, Hidehiko. AU - Oiso, Yutaka. PY - 1996/7/1. Y1 - 1996/7/1. N2 - We examined the effect of thrombin on phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D activity in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Thrombin stimulated the formation of choline dose dependently in the range between 0.01 and 1 U/ml, but not the phosphocholine formation. Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)-inactivated thrombin had little effect on the choline formation. The combined effects of thrombin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, a protein kinase C-activating phorbol ester, on the choline formation were additive. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinases, had little effect on the thrombin-induced formation of choline. Combined addition of thrombin and NaF, an activator of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, did not ...
Several members of the staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptide family exhibit pronounced capacities to lyse eukaryotic cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and erythrocytes. This is commonly assumed to be due to the amphipathic, α-helical structure of PSMs, giving PSMs detergent-like characteristics and allowing for a relatively non-specific destruction of biological membranes. However, the capacities of PSMs to lyse synthetic phospholipid vesicles have not been investigated. Here, we analyzed lysis of synthetic phosphatidylcholine (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, POPC) vesicles by all Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis PSMs. In addition, we investigated the lytic capacities of culture filtrates obtained from different S. aureus PSM deletion mutants toward POPC vesicles. Our results show that all staphylococcal PSMs have phospholipid vesicle-lysing activity and the capacity of S. aureus culture filtrate to lyse POPC vesicles is exclusively dependent on PSMs.
The mitogenic activity of endothelin and its ability to stimulate PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylcholine turnover in Rat-1 fibroblasts was studied. Stimulated incorporation of [3H]thymidine occurred in the absence of any other added growth factors. The endothelins stimulated rapid generation of both Ins(1,4,5)P3 and choline. Endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 were equipotent in stimulating both responses, but endothelin-3 was less potent. Endothelin-1-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation reached a maximum at 5 s and then declined; however, the response was long-lived, with a 4.5-fold elevation over basal still observed after 15 min. Endothelin-stimulated choline generation was observed with no increase in choline phosphate; indeed, the apparent level of this metabolite fell after 30 min of stimulation, presumably due to the observed stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The endothelin-stimulated increase in choline generation was abolished in cells where protein kinase C was down-regulated. ...
Read DNA-Induced Aggregation and Fusion of Phosphatidylcholine Liposomes in the Presence of Multivalent Cations Observed by the Cryo-TEM Technique, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
What Is It? A member of the phospholipid or fatty acid class of compounds, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major component of lecithin, a compound that naturally occurs in all cell membranes and is essential for biological functions. (1, 2) Lecithin is found in eggs and plants such as mustard, soy, and sunflower. Although egg lecithin contains a large amount of phosphatidylcholine (69%), plant lecithins are considered safer than animal sources. As a result, most PC supplements are derived from soy lecithin which contains 24% phosphatidylcholine. Lecithin-derived phosphatidylcholine acts as a surfactant, which means that it is responsible for maintaining the surface tension of cell membranes and controls what enters and leaves the cell through the membranes.. In the body, phosphatidylcholine is the major supplier of choline, which is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is necessary for optimal brain and nerve function. As a result, researchers are interested in using ...
How deep can drugs penetrate into your skin?. We presented our new skin penetration study with saturated phospholipids at the 11th PBP world meeting, on 22 March, 2018 in Granada.. The Phospholipid Research Center and Lipoid GmbH tracked topically applied phospholipids among other skin lipids - with the help of Lipotype lipidomics.. Many dermatological products contain phospholipids whose properties change with their saturation. Saturated lipids are gel-like at body temperature, while unsaturated lipids are more liquid. This influences drug delivery and interactions with skin.. Download poster (PDF) ...
|ul| |li|Dietary Supplement|/li| |/ul| |p|Source Naturals Phosphatidyl Choline provides premium quality and potency. This product has been concentrated to contain 3 times the phosphatidyl choline found in ordinary lecithin. This special soy lecithin al
IdB 1016 is a complex of silybin (the main active component of silymarin) and phosphatidylcholine, which in animal models shows greater oral bioavailability and therefore greater pharmacological activity compared with pure silybin and silymarin. In order to assess its pharmacokinetic profile in man, …
The FA composition of skeletal muscle phospholipids is altered in both humans (2, 3, 27) and rats (24, 32, 44) after chronic (≥4 wk) exercise training. Here we provide novel data describing the effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species profile using ESI-MS. This investigation characterized relative changes in the phospholipid profile of both oxidative (RVL) and glycolytic (WVL) muscle fibers with low and high-intensity exercise training. We have also characterized, for the first time, differences in the profile of phospholipid molecular species between these two muscle fiber types.. Previous studies have reported that long-chain n-3 PUFAs are higher in the insulin-sensitive type I and type IIa fibers (32) and that type I fibers have a preference for stearic acid (18:0) over palmitic acid (16:0) (7, 17). The results of the present study reveal that these differences are also manifest in whole phospholipid PA and PE species (Table 3). Even though the ...
Pulmonary surfactant is reduced in oxygen toxicity but whether this represents a decrease in production or inactivation of surface-active material already present is not known. We divided 200 g male Wister-Lewis rats into different experimental group
Phosphatidylcholine market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by MIcroMarketMonitor.com. Phosphatidylcholine market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Phosphatidylcholine markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Phosphatidylcholine companies.
About Non-GMO Lecithin Powder Lecithin is a complex fatty substance found in all animal and plant tissues which is composed of phosphoric acid, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty acids, glycerol, glycolipids, sphingolipids, phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositol, and phosphatidyl serine), and various other compounds. Lecithin is naturally found in foods, especially fatty foods such as egg yolk, soybeans, nuts, wheat germ, fish, legumes, and peanuts. It is also present, to a lesser extent, in foods like yeast, grains, bee pollen, cauliflower, and cabbage. A key component of lecithin, phosphatidyl choline, is the main lipid component in both plant and […]. ...
We report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of rigid oligonaphthalenediimide (O-NDI) rods that are expected to act as transmembrane anion−π slides. Studies in fluorogenic large unilamellar egg yolk phosphatidylcholine vesicles reveal that rigid O-NDI rods mediate anion-selective transport with a rare halide VI selectivity sequence (Cl- , F- , Br- , I-). This and decreasing activity, selectivity, and halide sequence with increasing positive charge of the rod termini support the occurrence of anion−π interactions. A strong anomalous mole fraction effect in Cl-/I- mixtures is in agreement with the existence of multiple active sites along the anion−π slide and multi-anion hopping as a mechanism of transport. The strong inverted NDI quadruple moment found by DFT calculations is in excellent agreement with these results.. [open archive unige:6919 • pdf ...
Looking for phosphatidylcholine? Find out information about phosphatidylcholine. Biochem any of a group of phospholipids that are found in many plant and animal tissues, esp egg yolk: used in making candles, cosmetics, and inks, and as... Explanation of phosphatidylcholine
Speaking of DMPC phospholipids, you should not be unfamiliar with the product name dimyristoyl lecithin. This synthetic phospholipid with a PC content of 99 has many applications. One of them is photo...
The current studies demonstrate that in both ECs and macrophages, ox-PAPC inhibits the ability of bacterial lipids that target TLR4 and TLR2 to increase synthesis of chemokines. Furthermore, we identify KOdiA-PC and POVPC as the major, specific phospholipids in ox-PAPC responsible for this inhibition.. Our studies addressed the mechanism of this inhibition and concluded that the inhibition of LPS action by ox-PAPC in these cell types was mediated by effects at the cellular level. This conclusion was based on the observation that pretreatment of cells with ox-PAPC followed by exposure to LPS was as effective as cotreatment to inhibit LPS action (Figure 3). To determine the cellular target of ox-PAPC inhibition, we first examined the effect of ox-PAPC on intracellular signaling from MyD88 to NF-κB activation. Our results indicate that ox-PAPC does not inhibit the pathway from MyD88 to NF-κB activation (Figures 2B and 2C), because no effect on IL-1β action, which shares this pathway, was ...
Oxidation of glycerophospholipids results in the formation of large variety of oxidized phospholipid products that differs significantly in their chemical compositions and molecular structures. Biological activities of these oxidized products also differ considerably. Here we report the comparisons of the physicochemical properties of non-oxidized phospholipid particle containing two closely related tOx-PLs: 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-keto-6-octendioyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (KOdiA-PC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(9-keto-10-dodecendioyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (KDdiA-PC). DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) was used as a model membrane non-oxidized phospholipid. Physicochemical properties of the lipid particles were characterized by using fluorescence spectroscopy, native polyacrylamide gel and agarose gel electrophoresis. Our result shows that the presence of closely related tOx-PLs, which differ only in the chemical composition of the oxidized fatty acyl chains at the sn-2 position, ...
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Figure 1: Zoomed 5 nm image. Using Fourier filtering of the larger raw image, the superlattice is removed, and only the crystal lattice remains. Specifically, in filtering, we selected all of the crystallographic Bragg peaks connected by reciprocal lattice vectors appearing in the FFT. (PHYSICAL REVIEW B 93, 045430 (2016)). We use scanning tunneling microscopy to study the lithium molybdenum purple bronze (Li0.9Mo6O17) at room temperature. Our measurements allow us to identify the single-crystal cleave plane and show that it is possible to obtain clean cleaved surfaces reflecting the crystal structure without the complications of nanoscale surface disorder. In addition to the crystal lattice, we observe a coexisting discommensurate superlattice with wave vectors q = 0.5a∗ ± 0.25b∗. We propose that the origin of the superstructure is a surface reconstruction that is driven by cleaving along a crystal plane that contains in-plane MoO4 tetrahedra connected to out-of-plane MoO6 octahedra ...
A liquid precursor containing a metal is applied to a first electrode, dried in air at a first temperature of 160 C. and then a second temperature of 260 C., RTP baked at a temperature of 300 C. in oxygen, RTP baked at a temperature of 650 C. in nitrogen, and annealed at a temperature of 800 C. in nitrogen to form a strontium bismuth tantalate layered superlattice material. A second electrode is deposited and then the device is patterned to form a capacitor, and a second anneal is performed at a temperature of 800 C. in nitrogen. Alternatively, the second anneal may be performed in oxygen at a temperature of 600 C. or less. In this manner, a high electronic quality thin film of a layered superlattice material is fabricated without a high-temperature oxygen anneal.
Low prices on Lecithin! Cost-effective source of choline and inositol. Lecithin is one of natures miracle foods. An ingredient in lecithin, choline, is used by your body to produce acetylcholine, which allows nerve cells to send impulses properly. Lecithin also supports a healthy heart mainly due to lecithin being abundant in inositol.
Low prices on Lecithin! Cost-effective source of choline and inositol. Lecithin is one of natures miracle foods. An ingredient in lecithin, choline, is used by your body to produce acetylcholine, which allows nerve cells to send impulses properly. Lecithin also supports a healthy heart mainly due to lecithin being abundant in inositol.
Everything you did not actually want to know about Schniarfers, as they appear in Valerian & Laureline graphic novels. Pictures, physiology, schniarf...
Naturally Occurring Phosphatidyl Choline & Other Phosphatides Soy-Free, Non-GMO NOW® Sunflower Liquid Lecithin has Phosphatidyl Choline, the most abundant phosp
Scientists report on a new method of rapidly identifying different molecular species under a microscope. Their technique of coherent Raman spectro-imaging with two laser frequency combs takes a big step towards the holy grail of real-time label-free biomolecular imaging.
Vol 9: Observation of linear and quadratic magnetic field-dependence of magneto-photocurrents in InAs-GaSb superlattice.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin between micellar and vesicular phases: Potential implications for canalicular bile formation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Colin Mclean. Using Probabilistic Clustering to help Identify Multiple Protein Instances in Static PPI Datasets. Functioning of synapses is governed by macromolecular complexes held together by protein-protein, protein-lipid and lipid-lipid interactions. In the Post-Synaptic Density (PSD) multi-protein complexes contain multiple core proteins, such as the scaffolding proteins: PSD-95, SHANK, SAPAP. Commonly used clustering techniques fail to capture the role of these important proteins, by placing each protein in only a single community. Probabilistic clustering techniques circumnavigate this problem by assigning a probability to each protein belonging to a community, allowing overlapping structure of the data. We have implemented a principled statistical approach, based on clustering edges between nodes, for finding overlapping communities in our static Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) networks ...
Pinheiro, T. J. T.; Vaz, W.L.C.; Geraldes, C. F. G. C.; Prado, A.; Dacosta, M. S.: A 31P-NMR study on multilamellar liposomes formed from the lipids of a thermophilic bacterium. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 148 (1), S. 397 - 402 (1987 ...
Phosphatidylcholines Phosphatidylcholines are lecithins. Choline is the alcohol, with a positively charged quaternary ammonium ... By contrast, the exoplasmic side (the side on the exterior of the cell) consists mainly of phosphatidylcholine and ... Phosphatidic acid synthesis in eukaryotes is different, there are two routes, one to the other toward phosphatidylcholine and ... Phosphatidylethanoamines, phosphatidylcholines, and other phospholipids are examples of phosphatidates. ...
Van Den Bosch H, Van Golde MG, Slotboom AJ, Van Deenen LL (1968). "The acylation of isomeric monoacyl phosphatidylcholines". ... phosphatidylcholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acyl-CoA and 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, whereas its ... two products are CoA and phosphatidylcholine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those ...
1-LysoPC can be produced as a by-product of the reaction transferring an acyl group from a phosphatidylcholine to an acceptor ... Because they result from the hydrolysis of an acyl group from the sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine, they are also called 1- ... A rat enzyme was found to transfer the acyl group from 2-lysoPC to 1-lysoPC, producing phosphatidylcholine. In the human body, ... LRAT-like protein (RLP-1; a product of the gene HRASLS5), catalyzes transfer of an acyl group from phosphatidylcholine (PC) to ...
... to produce phosphatidylcholine when condensed with diacylglycerol. Phosphatidylcholine can also be produced by the methylation ... Phosphatidylcholine is synthesized in vivo by two pathways The Kennedy pathway, which includes the transformation of choline to ... Citicoline increases phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The mechanism for this may be: By converting 1, 2-diacylglycerol into ... Phosphatidylcholine is a major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. Close regulation of its biosynthesis, degradation, ...
16 September 2013). "Phosphatidylcholine and Related Lipids". AOCS Lipid Library. AOCS. Archived from the original on 11 ... Li Z, Agellon LB, Allen TM, Umeda M, Jewell L, Mason A, Vance DE (May 2006). "The ratio of phosphatidylcholine to ... DeLong CJ, Shen YJ, Thomas MJ, Cui Z (Oct 1999). "Molecular distinction of phosphatidylcholine synthesis between the CDP- ... Yao ZM, Vance DE (Feb 1988). "The active synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is required for very low density lipoprotein ...
Phosphatidylcholine is the major phospholipid in eukaryotic membranes. Phosphatidylcholine is important for a variety of ... Li Z, Agellon LB, Allen TM, Umeda M, Jewell L, Mason A, Vance DE (May 2006). "The ratio of phosphatidylcholine to ... Kent C (1990). "Regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis". Progress in Lipid Research. 29 (2): 87-105. doi:10.1016/0163- ... Choline kinase catalyzes the formation of phoshocholine, the committed step in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. ...
... is a phosphatidylcholine. It is a diacylglycerol and phospholipid. The full name is 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3- ...
In a phosphatidylcholine-based bilayer this process typically occurs over a timescale of weeks. This discrepancy can be ... Saturated phosphatidylcholine lipids with tails longer than 14 carbons are solid at room temperature, while those with fewer ... "Lateral diffusion in binary mixtures of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
Currently, these liposomes are used in the study of the properties of this phosphatidylcholine and of its use as a mechanism of ... Ashton, M. R.; Postle, A. D.; Hall, M. A.; Smith, S. L.; Kelly, F. J.; Normand, I. C. (April 1992). "Phosphatidylcholine ... DPPC is a variant of phosphatidylcholine. Its structure includes both a hydrophilic "head" and hydrophobic "tails", and it is ... More specifically, it has been found that phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid (70%-85%), and that PC is ...
Phosphatidylcholines are needed for the synthesis of VLDLs: 70-95% of their phospholipids are phosphatidylcholines in humans. ... For example, phosphatidylcholines (PC) can be hydrolyzed to choline (Chol) in most cell types. Choline can also be produced by ... Phosphatidylcholine levels in the plasma of fasting adults is 1.5-2.5 mmol/l. Its consumption elevates the free choline levels ... Phosphatidylcholines are excreted into bile and work together with bile acid salts as surfactants in it, thus helping with the ...
Also not to be confused with phosphatidylcholine. Phosphorylcholine (abbreviated ChoP) is the hydrophilic polar head group of ... Phosphorylcholine is part of platelet-activating factor; the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine as well as sphingomyelin, the ...
Because it contains phosphatidylcholines, lecithin is a source of choline, an essential nutrient. Clinical studies have shown ... In 1850, he named the phosphatidylcholine lécithine. Gobley originally isolated lecithin from egg yolk-λέκιθος lekithos is "egg ... However, a growing body of evidence indicates the phosphatidylcholine in lecithin is converted by gut bacteria into ... Some phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, have good solubility in ethanol, whereas most other phospholipids do not ...
"Legionella bozemanae synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from exogenous choline". Microbiological Research. 166 (2): 87-98. doi: ...
PMID 14634492.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Rittes, P.G. (2001). "The use of phosphatidylcholine for ... PMID 15008874.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Hexsel, D., Serra, M., Mazzuco, R. (2003). "Phosphatidylcholine in ... This practice, using drugs generally based on phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate (PCDC), evolved from the initial intravenous ... 2004). "Treatment of lower eyelid fat pads using phosphatidylcholine: clinical trial and review". Dermatologic Surgery. 30 (3 ...
Phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipases D (PLDs) EC 3.1.4.4 catalyze the hydrolysis of PC to produce phosphatidic acid ... "Entrez Gene: PLD1 phospholipase D1, phosphatidylcholine-specific". Andersson L, Boström P, Ericson J, Rutberg M, Magnusson B, ... December 1995). "Human ADP-ribosylation factor-activated phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D defines a new and highly ...
Kim KP, Han SK, Hong M, Cho W (2000). "The molecular basis of phosphatidylcholine preference of human group-V phospholipase A2 ... It preferentially hydrolyzes linoleoyl-containing phosphatidylcholine substrates. Secretion of this enzyme is thought to induce ...
Batna, A; Spiteller, G (1994). "Effects of soybean lipoxygenase-1 on phosphatidylcholines containing furan fatty acids". Lipids ...
Albon, Norman (1978). "Nature of the gel to liquid crystal transition of synthetic phosphatidylcholines". Proceedings of the ... Phosphatidylcholine molecules form ~85% of the lipid in surfactant and have saturated acyl chains. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) ...
"A C-13 and H-2 Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance Study of Phosphatidylcholine Cholesterol Interactions - Characterization of Liquid- ... Phase equilibria in the phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol system. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 905:162-172. Huang TH, Lee CWB, ...
... (O-ethyl-S,S-diphenyldithiophosphate, EDDP) is a systemic fungicide that inhibits phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. ... Kodama, Osamu; Yamashita, Kenji; Akatsuka, Tadami (1980). "Edifenphos, Inhibitor of Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis in ...
Schneider WJ, Vance DE (1979). "Conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine in rat liver. Partial ... "Identification and properties of two methyltransferases in conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine". Proc ...
Zhou Y, Berry CK, Storer PA, Raphael RM (February 2007). "Peroxidation of polyunsaturated phosphatidyl-choline lipids during ... Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and sphingomyelin are some of the most ...
Another source of TMAO is dietary phosphatidylcholine, again by way of bacterial action in the gut. Phosphatidyl choline is ... The production of TMAO from dietary phosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota. Increased TMAO ... "Intestinal Microbial Metabolism of Phosphatidylcholine and Cardiovascular Risk". The New England Journal of Medicine. 368 (17 ...
Dimyristoylphasphatidylcholine is a phosphatidylcholine, a kind of phospholipid. Along with other lipids, it can be used to ...
Eggs are one of the largest sources of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the human diet. A study published in the scientific ... Tang, W.H. Wilson (25 April 2013). "Intestinal Microbial Metabolism of Phosphatidylcholine and Cardiovascular Risk". New ... Wang, Zeneng (7 April 2011). "Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease". Nature. 472 (7341 ... journal, Nature, showed that dietary phosphatidylcholine is digested by bacteria in the gut and eventually converted into the ...
Rittes, PG; Rittes, JC; Carriel, Amary MF (2006). "Injection of phosphatidylcholine in fat tissue: experimental study of local ... "One drug they often use, phosphatidylcholine, is unpredictable and causes extreme inflammation and swelling where injected. It ... "Mesotherapy and Phosphatidylcholine Injections: Historical Clarification and Review" (PDF). Dermatologic Surgery. 32 (4): 465- ...
When overproduced in the cell, mitochondrial levels of phosphatidylcholine rise. High levels of the protein are found in tumor ... Durand S, Angeletti S, Genti-Raimondi S (January 2004). "GTT1/StarD7, a novel phosphatidylcholine transfer protein-like highly ... Moreover, the protein is a member of the predominantly phosphatidylcholine transporter subfamily of START proteins, the StarD2 ... Horibata Y, Sugimoto H (March 2010). "StarD7 mediates the intracellular trafficking of phosphatidylcholine to mitochondria". ...
Datko AH, Mudd SH (December 1988). "Enzymes of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in lemna, soybean, and carrot". Plant Physiology. ...
In foodstuffs, the compound is often present as phosphatidylcholine. "Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental ...
In this final part, the octamer binds with phosphatidylcholine. The structure of several hemolysins has been solved by X-ray ...
... which contains both phosphatidylcholine and deoxycholate (Figure 3). This bile salt is used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine ... Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (a.k.a. lecithin) is a major component of pulmonary surfactant and is often used in the L/S ... Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup. They are a major component of ... While phosphatidylcholines are found in all plant and animal cells, they are absent in the membranes of most bacteria, ...
In enzymology, a phosphatidylcholine synthase (EC 2.7.8.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CDP- ... whereas its two products are CMP and phosphatidylcholine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those ... "Cloning and characterization of the gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (25): 18919-25. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Plant-exuded choline is used for rhizobial membrane lipid biosynthesis by phosphatidylcholine synthase". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (28 ...
Learn more about Phosphatidylcholine uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and ... Some researchers think phosphatidylcholine acts like a detergent and breaks down fat.. A certain form of phosphatidylcholine ( ... Phosphatidylcholine. Altern Med Rev 2002;7(2):150-4. View abstract.. *Rittes PG. The use of phosphatidylcholine for correction ... Phosphatidylcholine injections are now often compounded in pharmacies. However, in the U.S., phosphatidylcholine, when ...
Here we show that an unusual phosphatidylcholine species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty acid acyl side chains (dilauroyl ... A natural product, dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC), has now been identified as a possible antisteatosis agent, with ... These findings identify an LRH-1 dependent phosphatidylcholine signalling pathway that regulates bile acid metabolism and ... phosphatidylcholine (DLPC)) is an LRH-1 agonist ligand in vitro. DLPC treatment induces bile acid biosynthetic enzymes in mouse ...
Phosphatidylcholines, soya, hydrogenated EC Number:. 306-549-5. EC Name:. Phosphatidylcholines, soya, hydrogenated. CAS Number: ... Phosphatidylcholines, soya, hydrogenatedPhosphatidylcholines, soya, hydrogenated. CAS ... Phosphatidylcholines, soya, hydrogenatedPhosphatidylcholines, soya, hydrogenated. CAS ... Phosphatidylcholines, soya, hydrogenatedPhosphatidylcholines, soya, hydrogenated. CAS ...
Although the bound phosphatidylcholine phospholipid mimics the conformation of bound bacterial phosphoplipids, two surface ... we report the first crystal structure of the SF-1 LBD bound by the exchanged phosphatidylcholine. ...
... phosphatidylcholine and choline - Learn more about the potential link between them and cardiovascular disease. ConsumerLabs ... Is there a danger in taking lecithin or phosphatidylcholine? I heard that they may increase the risk of heart attacks. Answer: ... Although a direct link to heart attack has not been made, researchers recently showed that intake of phosphatidylcholine, a ... The data suggest that excessive routine consumption of dietary phosphatidylcholine and choline should be avoided. This may be ...
This topic has 21 study abstracts on Phosphatidylcholine indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of ... Curcumin bound to phosphatidylcholine is superior to plain curcumin in combatting mammary gland tumor cell proliferation.Jul 01 ... Phosphatidylcholine induces an increase in the production of interleukin-6 and improves survival of rats with neonatal sepsis ... Bioavailability Study: Phosphatidyl choline bound curcumin is superior to curcumin in isolation.May 01, 2011. ...
Phosphatidylcholine (PC, lecithin) has long been considered a solely eukaryotic membrane lipid. Only a minority of all bacteria ... Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane.. Wessel M1, Klüsener S, Gödeke J ...
Novel pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bacteria associated with eukaryotes.. López-Lara IM1, Geiger O. ... Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes and can be synthesised by either of two ... contain genes similar to the sinorhizobial gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase. We, therefore, suggest that the new PC ...
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) What Is It? Health Benefits Forms. Dosage Information Guidelines for Use General Interaction Possible ... Specifically, phosphatidylcholine may help to: *Reduce inflammation in stress conditions. Choline derived from ... Phosphatidylcholine. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Apr;7(2):150-4.. 13. Buchman AL, Dubin M, Jenden D, Moukarzel A, Roch MH, Rice K, ... Note: Phosphatidylcholine has also been found to be useful for a number of other disorders. For information on these additional ...
Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are the most abundant phospholipids in mammalian cells, where they serve well-characterized ... lauric acid; lysophosphatidylcholine; phosphatidylcholine; Nutrition; Molecular biology; Medicine; coconut oil; ... a phosphatidylcholine species enriched in lauric acid that was recently identified as a ligand for the nuclear receptor, liver ... in this dissertation are the tests of our primary hypotheses informed directly from these emerging areas of phosphatidylcholine ...
Sterol control of the phosphatidylethanolamine-phosphatidylcholine conversion in the yeast mutant GL7. S Kawasaki, M Ramgopal, ... Sterol control of the phosphatidylethanolamine-phosphatidylcholine conversion in the yeast mutant GL7 ... Sterol control of the phosphatidylethanolamine-phosphatidylcholine conversion in the yeast mutant GL7 ... Sterol control of the phosphatidylethanolamine-phosphatidylcholine conversion in the yeast mutant GL7 ...
lithium choline phosphatidylcholine erythrocytes cyclic depression Dedicated to Professor Helmut Kewitz on the occasion of his ... lipid derived choline because of an alteration in membrane permeability and not to increased breakdown of phosphatidylcholine. ...
... Yamila B. Gándola,1 Sebastián E. Pérez,2 ... J. H. Exton, "Phosphatidylcholine breakdown and signal transduction," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1212, no. 1, pp. 26- ... M. C. van Dijk, F. J. Muriana, J. de Widt, H. Hilkmann, and W. J. van Blitterswijk, "Involvement of phosphatidylcholine- ... S. Cecchetti, F. Spadaro, L. Lugini, F. Podo, and C. Ramoni, "Functional role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C ...
Lipostabil information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Sanofi-Aventis, Lipostabil indications, usages and related health products lists
Source Naturals Phosphatidyl Choline is one of several phosphorus-containing lipids that form the structural elements of all ... Source Naturals Phosphatidyl Choline provides premium quality and potency. This product has been concentrated to contain 3 ... Phosphatidyl choline is a naturally-occurring molecule that is composed of choline, phosphoric acid, and hydrocarbons. ... times the phosphatidyl choline found in ordinary lecithin. This special soy lecithin also contains phosphatidyl inositol, ...
Home / Shop by Health Topic or Category / Phosphatidyl Choline Phosphatidyl Choline. Sort By: Choose --. Increasing Price. ...
Phosphatidylcholine (PPC): A Building Block for Wellness - by Karl-Josef Gundermann, Ph.D. ...
Here, we analyzed lysis of synthetic phosphatidylcholine (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, POPC) vesicles by ... Duong, A.C.; Cheung, G.Y.C.; Otto, M. Interaction of Phenol-Soluble Modulins with Phosphatidylcholine Vesicles. Pathogens 2012 ... Duong AC, Cheung GYC, Otto M. Interaction of Phenol-Soluble Modulins with Phosphatidylcholine Vesicles. Pathogens. 2012; 1(1):3 ... Here, we analyzed lysis of synthetic phosphatidylcholine (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, POPC) vesicles by ...
Catalyzes the transfer of phosphatidylcholine between membranes. Binds phosphatidylcholine in a tight 1:1 stoichiometric ... "The binding of phosphatidylcholine to the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein: affinity and role in folding.". de Brouwer A.P. ... Catalyzes the transfer of phosphatidylcholine between membranes. Binds phosphatidylcholine in a tight 1:1 stoichiometric ... Phosphatidylcholine transfer proteinAdd BLAST. 213. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
Functions as a floppase that translocates specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC) from the inner to the outer leaflet of the ... Plays a role in the recruitment of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SM) molecules to ... Phosphatidylcholine translocator ABCB4Add BLAST. 1276. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... "Phosphatidylcholine translocase: a physiological role for the mdr2 gene.". Ruetz S., Gros P.. Cell 77:1071-1081(1994) [PubMed ...
Phosphatidylcholine. The dietary supplement phosphatidylcholine is found within soy lecithin. It is often used a dietary or ... Small amounts of phosphatidylcholine are also present in many vegetables. Rarely does true phosphatidylcholine deficiency occur ... Phosphatidylcholine does have a number of side effects. If you take large amount of it, you may find yourself feeling depressed ... However, so far, phosphatidylcholine has only been helpful in treating alcohol damage in baboons, not in humans, although it ...
Effect of Phosphatidylcholine on Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Volunteers. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Effect of Phosphatidylcholine on Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Volunteers. Official Title ICMJE Effect of Choline Supplemented ... Comparison: We compared the effects of supplementation with phosphatidylcholine to the effects of a placebo on fasting and post ... If supplementation with choline or phosphatidylcholine, the form in which choline occurs in foods, lowers homocysteine ...
Dietary Phosphatidylcholine Intake and Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women. Yanping Li, Dong D. Wang, Stephanie E. Chiuve, JoAnn E ... Dietary Phosphatidylcholine Intake and Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women. Yanping Li, Dong D. Wang, Stephanie E. Chiuve, JoAnn E ... Dietary Phosphatidylcholine Intake and Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... With an increase of 100 mg choline from phosphatidylcholine, the risk of T2D increased by 17% (95% CI 13-22). We did not ...
... ... Nuclear sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine metabolism is involved in the response to ultraviolet radiation treatment in ... phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C, sphingomyelin synthase, and reverse sphingomyelin synthase was assayed in ... whereas phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelin synthase were inhibited, thus inducing sphingomyelin ...
phosphatidylcholine injections aka lipostabil This stuff is suppose to really work but I never see it mentioned on forums.. It ... They inject phosphatidylcholine into problem areas such as stomach and hips, a session usually involves about 50 injections ... Phosphatidylcholine- IM or SUBQ for cholesterol health. By Max32 in forum Supplements ...
Active ingredient in lecithin. PC is considered a very good water-binding agent and aids in the penetration of other ingredients into the skin. It absorbs well without feeling greasy or heavy (although other ingredients can perform similarly, including glycerin, ceramides, and hyaluronic acid).. References for this information:. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, September-October 1999, issue 5, pages 235-246. Journal of Controlled Release, March 1999, issues 1-2, pages 207-214. ...
Here we show that an unusual phosphatidyl-choline species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty acid acyl side chains (dilauroyl ... These findings identify an LRH-1 dependent phosphatidylcholine signalling pathway that regulates bile acid metabolism and ... phosphatidylcholine (DLPC)) is an LRH-1 agonist ligand in vitro. DLPC treatment induces bile acid biosynthetic enzymes in mouse ...
Phosphatidylcholine, a primary component of lecithin, is converted in the brain into the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.* ... Phosphatidylcholine, a primary component of lecithin, is converted in the brain into the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.* ...
  • Although the bound phosphatidylcholine phospholipid mimics the conformation of bound bacterial phosphoplipids, two surface loops, L2-3 and L11-12, surrounding the entrance to the pocket vary significantly between different SF-1 LBD structures. (rcsb.org)
  • Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes and can be synthesised by either of two pathways, the CDP-choline pathway or the methylation pathway. (nih.gov)
  • A member of the phospholipid or fatty acid class of compounds, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major component of lecithin, a compound that naturally occurs in all cell membranes and is essential for biological functions. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • The major phospholipid of the human body is phosphatidylcholine. (naturalfactors.com)
  • PLD1 is a phospholipid-hydrolyzing enzyme that can catalyze phosphatidylcholine (PC) to generate phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • As phosphatidylcholine is a phospholipid entwined with brain health, researchers have begun to measure changes in phosphatidylcholine in aging in relation to the development of Alzheimer's disease. (stronghealth.com)
  • ohx − it is an essential nutrient for cardiovascular and brain health and for cell membrane formation discovered by andreas strecker in 1862 while phosphatidylcholine is (biochemistry) a phospholipid containing choline. (balancediet.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a phospholipid-binding protein that is enriched in liver and that interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2). (sciencemag.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of dexamethasone on the secretion of phosphatidylcholine, a major phospholipid of pulmonary surfactant, in a primary culture of rat alveolar type II cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a fat-soluble substance know as a phospholipid . (online-vitamins-guide.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine is a type of fat known as a phospholipid and it is made up of two subunits called fatty acids that can either be saturated or unsaturated. (elifesciences.org)
  • This is because macrophages respond to the halt in phosphatidylcholine production by removing less of the phospholipid from the membrane. (elifesciences.org)
  • The point in this case is the semantic concerning phosphatidylcholine (PC), the phospholipid purposely and ignorantly confused with lecithin, a material that contains PC as its main constituent, but itself is not PC. (bodybio.com)
  • Lipoid places high emphasis on its phosphatidylcholine product portfolio as this is the phospholipid of choice for many applications exhibiting unique characteristics. (lipoid.com)
  • Anti-Phosphatidylcholines (PC) antibody is detected in various diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. (thescipub.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are a class of phospholipids that incorporate choline as a headgroup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphatidylcholines (PC) are the most abundant phospholipids in mammalian cells, where they serve well-characterized structural roles, maintaining membrane integrity, facilitating lipoprotein assembly and serving as a surfactant in the lung. (cornell.edu)
  • Phosphatidylcholine is part of the phospholipids class of molecules. (ihealthdirectory.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is one of the most common phospholipids in eukaryotes, although some green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are known to lack PC. (springer.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholines, a variety of phospholipids with choline as a headgroup, are fat molecules considered essential to overall health of living organisms, muscles, and organs, especially the liver. (sbwire.com)
  • Like in other eukaryotes, the two most abundant phospholipids in the T. gondii membrane are phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). (hu-berlin.de)
  • PPC (phosphatidylcholine) is a highly purified soybean extract that provides phospholipids, just like those found in your liver cells. (lifeextension.com)
  • download Phosphatidylcholine: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Essential Phospholipids to this suddenness is discussed given because we agree you study looking error pages to assume the sea. (singlewheel.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine is the largest fraction of the phospholipids that make the cell membrane. (bodybio.com)
  • Among the phospholipids, the most important product is phosphatidylcholine. (lipoid.com)
  • Although multiple pathways exist for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the predominant route in eukaryotes involves condensation between diacylglycerol (DAG) and cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicoline). (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bacteria associated with eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • Geiger O, López-Lara IM, Sohlenkamp C (2013) Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and function in bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that ATMs isolated from obese mice and humans exhibit markers of increased rate of de novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Phosphatidylcholine is a major constituent of cell membranes and pulmonary surfactant, and is more commonly found in the exoplasmic or outer leaflet of a cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphatidylcholine also plays a role in membrane-mediated cell signaling and PCTP activation of other enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDP choline Lysophosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylserine Saturated fatty acid Unsaturated fatty acid General structural formula of phosphatidylcholines Membrane lipids Choline metabolism Phosphatidate Choline Jackowski S, Cronan JE, Rock CO (1991). (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Phosphatidylcholine (PC, lecithin) has long been considered a solely eukaryotic membrane lipid. (nih.gov)
  • It is concluded that the accumulation of choline in erythrocytes from patients on lithium therapy may be due to trapping of lipid derived choline because of an alteration in membrane permeability and not to increased breakdown of phosphatidylcholine. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C downregulates HER2 overexpression on plasma membrane of breast cancer cells," Breast Cancer Research , vol. 12, no. 3, article R27, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Functions as a floppase that translocates specifically phosphatidylcholine (PC) from the inner to the outer leaflet of the canalicular membrane bilayer into the canaliculi between hepatocytes. (uniprot.org)
  • Research has included the role of phosphatidylcholine in neurovascular health and disease thanks to its role in cellular membrane structure, as well as its potential impact on inflammatory markers and the development or modulation of brain plaques and fat composition. (stronghealth.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine also plays a role in membrane-mediated cell signaling. (balancediet.com)
  • Cell membrane is majorly composed of phosphatidycholine and moves from one cell membrane to another within a cell due to a protein called phosphatidylcholine transfer protein. (millioninsights.com)
  • including some of the researchers involved in the 2011 work - report that macrophages in the fatty tissue of obese mice make excess phosphatidylcholine, a fat normally found in the cell membrane. (elifesciences.org)
  • Therefore, the longer phosphatidylcholine stays in the membrane, the more likely it is to contain unsaturated fatty acids. (elifesciences.org)
  • In order to study the individual steps involved in the import of phosphatidylcholine (PC) into rat liver mitochondria, a number of PC analogues were introduced into the outer membrane of isolated mitochondria. (epfl.ch)
  • Considering that drug-membrane interactions are key factors for drugs pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, the aim of this work is to provide new insights into the structure-toxicity relationship of metronidazole within phosphatidylcholine membranes. (ovid.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes and PtdCho deficiency, either due to chemicals or altered nutrition, leads to apoptosis, especially in hippocampal neurons. (rupress.org)
  • Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is a major component of eukaryotic cell membranes. (rupress.org)
  • To gain some insight into the structural and functional roles of sterols in higher plant cells, various plant sterols have been incorporated into soybean phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) bilayers and tested for their ability to regulate water permeability and acyl chain ordering. (pnas.org)
  • NTE reacts with organophosphate compounds that cause a paralyzing axonal degeneration in humans and has been shown to degrade endoplasmic reticulum-associated phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in cultured mammalian cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lecithin-derived phosphatidylcholine acts as a surfactant, which means that it is responsible for maintaining the surface tension of cell membranes and controls what enters and leaves the cell through the membranes. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Low consumption of choline (and subsequently low levels of phosphatidylcholine) are associated with interruptions in the typical metabolic processes integral to human health, most particularly the structural synthesis and integrity of cell membranes. (stronghealth.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholines are such a major component of lecithin that in some contexts the terms are sometimes used as synonyms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choline is a component of phosphatidylcholine, which is a component of lecithin. (webmd.com)
  • Although a direct link to heart attack has not been made, researchers recently showed that intake of phosphatidylcholine , a major component of lecithin , temporarily raises blood levels of the compound TMAO. (consumerlab.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine, a primary component of lecithin, is converted in the brain into the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • While phosphatidylcholines are found in all plant and animal cells, they are absent in the membranes of most bacteria, including Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought to be transported between membranes within the cell by phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalyzes the transfer of phosphatidylcholine between membranes. (uniprot.org)
  • 9366571 ). Plays a role in the recruitment of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SM) molecules to nonraft membranes and to further enrichment of SM and cholesterol in raft membranes in hepatocytes (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Discovery of a relationship between gut-flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for the development of new diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease. (nih.gov)
  • The overall goal of this proposal is to test the hypothesis that gut flora dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine is mechanistically linked to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. (nih.gov)
  • Nuclear sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine metabolism is involved in the response to ultraviolet radiation treatment in different ways related to the physiological state of cells. (hindawi.com)
  • After recovery, the activity of neutral sphingomyelinase, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C, sphingomyelin synthase, and reverse sphingomyelin synthase was assayed in purified nuclei and the nuclei-free fraction. (hindawi.com)
  • In proliferating FRTL-5, space radiation stimulate nuclear neutral sphingomyelinase and reverse sphingomyelin synthase activity, whereas phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelin synthase were inhibited, thus inducing sphingomyelin degradation and phosphatidylcholine synthesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Purified and re-folded active rPlp exhibited phospholipase A2 activity against phosphatidylcholine and no activity against phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, or sphingomyelin. (harvard.edu)
  • Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase D are respectively implicated in mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor κ B activation in tumour-necrosis-factor- α -treated immature acute-myeloid-leukaemia cells," Biochemical Journal , vol. 351, part 2, pp. 459-467, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • We previously showed that plasminogen (Plg) isolated from the plasma of normal human subjects contains 1-2 moles of oxidized phosphatidylcholine (oxPtdPC) adducts/mole of protein. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent studies have related plasma levels of gut microbiota metabolites of dietary phosphatidylcholine to risk of cardiovascular disease ( 1 , 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine--choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine--were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort. (nih.gov)
  • The specific aims are: Aim 1) Testing the hypothesis that dietary phosphatidylcholine metabolites choline, TMANO and betaine are both diagnostic markers for cardiac risk and mechanistically linked to development of atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • The allocation of choline into ACh increased parabolically with time in culture, and by 3 weeks, cultures with neurites of approximately 6 mm length were incorporating over 85% of the choline locally in the neurites into four major metabolites: ACh, phosphorylcholine, cytidine diphosphocholine, and phosphatidylcholine. (jneurosci.org)
  • When, however, the supply of choline was limited either by replacement of Na+ in the medium with N- methyl-D-glucamine, or by vesamicol, a 90-97% reduction in intracellular choline caused a similar decline in ACh levels but synthesis of metabolites of the phosphatidylcholine pathway was maintained unperturbed, as if no drug was present. (jneurosci.org)
  • A certain form of phosphatidylcholine (polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine) might provide protection against liver fibrosis and liver damage caused by drinking alcohol, although the exact mechanisms are not completely understood. (webmd.com)
  • Hepatitis A. Taking phosphatidylcholine by mouth does not seem to improve liver function in people with hepatitis A. (webmd.com)
  • Early research suggests that taking phosphatidylcholine daily for 24 months does not increase survival in people with liver disease caused by drinking alcohol. (webmd.com)
  • TMAO is produced from the choline in phosphatidylcholine by the actions of microbes in the gut and enzymes in the liver. (consumerlab.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine may also have therapeutic and preventive effects in alcohol-induced liver disease. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Studies indicate phosphatidylcholine supplementation reduces the effects of hepatitis B including liver damage. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Chapter 2 of this dissertation examines the impact of diet on the production of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), a phosphatidylcholine species enriched in lauric acid that was recently identified as a ligand for the nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1). (cornell.edu)
  • Because of this, phosphatidylcholine is used to treat several different liver disorders. (ihealthdirectory.com)
  • Choline from dietary phosphatidylcholine can be converted by gut microbes to form trimethylamine, which is then absorbed and oxidized in the liver to form trimethyamine oxidase ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • My veterinarian told me to get this Phosphatidylcholine by Biotics Research for my dog to help treat her liver condition. (pureformulas.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine is also a superb daily addition to the diet of anyone seeking safe nutritional support for healthy liver function. (naturalfactors.com)
  • While the mechanisms belying the interaction are not fully understood, a certain type of phosphatidylcholine known as polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine may help prevent liver damage and liver fibrosis caused by alcohol abuse. (stronghealth.com)
  • Other studies have focused on phosphatidylcholine consumption and its effect on other forms of liver disease and dysfunction, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease , a common condition caused by obesity, poor diet, and the overconsumption of simple sugars, refined carbohydrates, and saturated and trans fats. (stronghealth.com)
  • Additionally, most of the nutritionists and doctors prefer egg phosphatidylcholine for liver treatment, which will boost egg phosphatidylcholine industry size noticeably. (fractovia.org)
  • Synthesized mainly in the liver and secreted into plasma where it converts cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines (lecithins) to cholesteryl esters and lysophosphatidylcholines on the surface of high and low density lipoproteins (HDLs and LDLs). (hmdb.ca)
  • Make a healthy move for your heart, mind and liver--supplement your daily diet with Swanson Phosphatidylcholine! (influenster.com)
  • As a key constituent of bile, phosphatidylcholine is an important nutrient for liver function and healthy cholesterol maintenance. (influenster.com)
  • HepatoPro is a liver supplement made with PPC (phosphatidylcholine) from purified soybean extract to support healthy liver cell function. (lifeextension.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine (PPC) from soybeans promotes liver health, helps protect against oxidative stress and more. (lifeextension.com)
  • A 2009 systematic review of clinical trials in humans found that there was not enough evidence to support supplementation of lecithin or phosphatidylcholine in dementia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unless medically necessary, it may also be prudent to avoid long-term supplementation with high doses of lecithin, phosphatidylcholine, and/or choline. (consumerlab.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether supplementation with phosphatidylcholine lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If supplementation with choline or phosphatidylcholine, the form in which choline occurs in foods, lowers homocysteine concentrations, then extra intake of these compounds may lower cardiovascular disease risk in humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Comparison: We compared the effects of supplementation with phosphatidylcholine to the effects of a placebo on fasting and post-methionine concentrations of plasma homocysteine in healthy men. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Supplementation with exogenous lyso-phosphatidylcholine prevents cell death and treatment of mice with cytidine diphosphocholine attenuates hippocampal damage during meningitis, even after the onset of infection. (rupress.org)
  • These findings identify an LRH-1 dependent phosphatidylcholine signalling pathway that regulates bile acid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • The associations of dietary phosphatidylcholine with all-cause and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality appeared to be consistent in both men and women. (balancediet.com)
  • We have recently shown that dietary intake of two trimethylamines abundant in animal products, carnitine and the choline group of phosphatidylcholine (PC), are mechanistically linked to cardiovascular disease risk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As a result, most PC supplements are derived from soy lecithin which contains 24% phosphatidylcholine. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Those suffering from bipolar depression have shown some improvement when given phosphatidylcholine supplements. (ihealthdirectory.com)
  • The increased demand for egg phosphatidylcholine in nutritional supplements is also expected to drive the market. (sbwire.com)
  • From a geographical perspective, the egg phosphatidylcholine market earns a leading share in its overall revenue from sales across regions such as North America and Europe, chiefly attributable to the high consumption of nutritional supplements in these regions. (sbwire.com)
  • Asia Pacific also presents vast growth opportunities for the egg phosphatidylcholine market owing to the changing lifestyles and food habits of the population and resultant rise in demand for supplements to make up for the lack of essential nutrients in everyday diet. (sbwire.com)
  • Oral phosphatidylcholine supplements continue for 30 days. (knowcancer.com)
  • However, pure PC supplements are generally labeled as "phosphatidylcholine. (online-vitamins-guide.com)
  • Soy allergy' is estimated to be amongst the nine most common form of food allergy by the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, which give an advantage to egg phosphatidylcholine in dietary supplements. (millioninsights.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine, a source of choline, supports healthy brain and nerve function as a precursor to neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (naturalfactors.com)
  • The study compared immune system maturation in early postnatal life of a group of rodents fed phosphatidylcholine, a source of choline obtained from animal sources such as egg yolk and chicken, to those fed free choline, which is obtained from plant sources such as soybean. (sbwire.com)
  • The role of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in fatty acid exchange and desaturation was examined and compared with that of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) in Brassica napus leaves using 14 C-labelling in vivo . (portlandpress.com)
  • Although egg lecithin contains a large amount of phosphatidylcholine (69%), plant lecithins are considered safer than animal sources. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • showed that partially removing the CCTa gene from macrophages reduces inflammation, but, unexpectedly, the amount of phosphatidylcholine in the cells stays the same. (elifesciences.org)
  • This is associated with changes in phosphatidylcholine metabolism and might be responsible for the observed epidemiological association between OA and DM. (plos.org)
  • Is there a danger in taking lecithin or phosphatidylcholine? (consumerlab.com)
  • Phospholipase D catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to form phosphatidic acid (PA), releasing the soluble choline headgroup into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects with autism have low levels of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Gibellini F, Smith TK (2010) The Kennedy pathway- De novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of ulcerative colitis with oral intake of phosphatidylcholine has been shown to result in decreased disease activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some interest in using phosphatidylcholine to improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis in some people. (webmd.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine might also help to protect the wall of the large intestine in people with a condition known as ulcerative colitis. (webmd.com)
  • Research suggests that taking various types of phosphatidylcholine daily for up to 3 months improves symptoms in people with ulcerative colitis. (webmd.com)
  • And in a human study of patients with chronic active ulcerative colitis, phosphatidylcholine in a delayed release formulation (to allow it to get to the colon) was shown to alleviate inflammation. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare two different dosing regimens of phosphatidylcholine versus placebo for the induction of remission in ulcerative colitis patients non-responsive to standard mesalamine treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Phosphatidylcholine based medicines are prominently used for the treatment of various diseases such as tardive dyskinesia, hepatitis A, hepatitis C, ulcerative colitis, premenstrual syndrome, peritoneal dialysis, manic-depressive illness, eczema, and Alzheimer's, which will stimulate egg phosphatidylcholine market size. (fractovia.org)
  • Because the body uses phosphatidylcholine to make a brain chemical called acetylcholine, there is also some interest in using it for treating "brain-centered" conditions such as memory loss, Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, manic-depressive disorders, and a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. (webmd.com)
  • Since phosphatidylcholine might increase acetylcholine, there is interest in using it for improving memory and for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. (webmd.com)
  • As a result, researchers are interested in using phosphatidylcholine for improving memory and treating neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • In related treatments, phosphatidylcholine may also be helpful in treating those suffering from Alzheimer's disease. (ihealthdirectory.com)
  • Those who are using phosphatidylcholine as a treatment for bipolar disorder or for Alzheimer's disease will take huge amounts of phosphatidylcholine-between 5,000 and 10,000 mg. (ihealthdirectory.com)
  • The human body depends on phosphatidylcholine to synthesize a compound called acetylcholine, a chemical in the brain that has been shown to play a role in memory , vascular dementia , Alzheimer's disease , anxiety , and manic-depressive disorder . (stronghealth.com)
  • However, research around brain health and phosphatidylcholine has revolved largely around Alzheimer's disease, the most common type of dementia in elderly patients. (stronghealth.com)
  • With the rising prevalence of brain-centered conditions such as Alzheimer's and amnesia and the rising prevalence of fat embolism and related complications, the demand for egg phosphatidylcholine is expected to rise in the pharmaceutical industry. (sbwire.com)
  • In a 2005 study, patients with lower eyelid fat pads were given phosphatidylcholine injections. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Here, we analyzed lysis of synthetic phosphatidylcholine (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, POPC) vesicles by all Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis PSMs. (mdpi.com)
  • Only highly pure fatty acids of designated chain-length and saturation are present in synthetic phosphatidylcholine. (lipoid.com)
  • The name lecithin was derived from Greek λέκιθος, lekithos 'egg yolk' by Theodore Nicolas Gobley, a French chemist and pharmacist of the mid-19th century, who applied it to the egg yolk phosphatidylcholine that he identified in 1847. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphatidylcholines can be isolated from easily available sources such as egg yolk or soybean through a chemical or mechanical procedure. (sbwire.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholines extracted from egg yolk lecithin is one of the most reliable sources of phosphatidylcholine for use across a number of commercial applications, the array of which continues to rise at a rapid pace. (sbwire.com)
  • The global market for egg phosphatidylcholine features a low number of participants, a scenario that is likely to remain the same owing to the costly process of extracting phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk. (sbwire.com)
  • Lipoid's product range covers egg yolk and soybean phosphatidylcholines with their natural fatty acid distribution but also synthetic phosphatidylcholines with a variety of well defined fatty acid compositions. (lipoid.com)
  • 2017) Hyperglycemia-related advanced glycation end-products is associated with the altered phosphatidylcholine metabolism in osteoarthritis patients with diabetes. (plos.org)
  • In humans, a dietary phosphatidylcholine challenge induced increased postprandial concentrations of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in both blood and urine samples 6). (balancediet.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine makes cholesterol more soluble and less able to cause hardening of the arteries. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • In a 1989 study, dialysis patients with serum cholesterol levels of 260mg/dl or higher were given placebo or phosphatidylcholine. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Owing to the multilateral benefits of phosphatidylcholine, medications containing this chemical are extensively prescribed for treating a number of brain-centered conditions, eczema, hepatitis, high cholesterol, gallbladder disease, and blood circulation problems. (sbwire.com)
  • deficiency of enzyme activity, an inherited disorder, results in accumulation of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in plasma and tissues, which causes corneal opacities, anemia, and often proteinuria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The body makes a brain chemical called acetylcholine from phosphatidylcholine. (webmd.com)
  • In the body, phosphatidylcholine is the major supplier of choline, which is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • This gives the macrophages time to exchange the saturated fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine for unsaturated fatty acids. (elifesciences.org)
  • Surprisingly, genomes of some pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Borrelia burgdorferi and Legionella pneumophila) contain genes similar to the sinorhizobial gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: The plp gene of V. anguillarum encoding a phospholipase with A2 activity is specific for phosphatidylcholine and, therefore, able to lyse fish erythrocytes, but not sheep erythrocytes. (harvard.edu)
  • In enzymology, a phosphatidylcholine synthase (EC 2.7.8.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CDP-diacylglycerol + choline ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CMP + phosphatidylcholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are CDP-diacylglycerol and choline, whereas its two products are CMP and phosphatidylcholine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In obese people and mice, fatty tissue produces too much of the enzyme that makes phosphatidylcholine, called CCTa. (elifesciences.org)
  • A 2011 report linked the microbial catabolites of phosphatidylcholine with increased atherosclerosis in mice through the production of choline, trimethylamine oxide, and betaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphatidylcholine injections are now often compounded in pharmacies. (webmd.com)
  • Early research suggests that injections of phosphatidylcholine under the skin may make fatty deposits on the chin, thigh, hips, abdomen, back, neck, and elsewhere look smaller to some people. (webmd.com)
  • Phosphatidylcholine injections have been used in Europe since 2002 for to cause lipolysisâ€"the breakdown of fat in fat cells. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • They inject phosphatidylcholine into problem areas such as stomach and hips, a session usually involves about 50 injections with a small syringe and this stuff actually kills fat cells. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Commercially available phosphatidylcholine preparations are derived from soy lecithin. (naturalfactors.com)
  • Egg phosphatidylcholine stabilized soybean oil emulsions also known as Intralipid. (millioninsights.com)
  • Here we show that an unusual phosphatidylcholine species with two saturated 12 carbon fatty acid acyl side chains (dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC)) is an LRH-1 agonist ligand in vitro . (nature.com)
  • Differential effects of plant sterols on water permeability and on acyl chain ordering of soybean phosphatidylcholine bilayers. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of saturated phosphatidylcholine (Phospholipon® 90H) as extended release excipient in matrix tablets for three model drugs with different aqueous solubility (theophylline, caffeine and diprophylline). (ovid.com)
  • Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (a.k.a. lecithin) is a major component of pulmonary surfactant and is often used in the L/S ratio to calculate fetal lung maturity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Convention has permitted triple strength lecithin, which now is thirty-six percent phosphatidylcholine, to be called PC because of the chief constituent, adding to the confusion. (bodybio.com)
  • Dexamethasone augmented both the phosphatidylcholine secretion and the cyclic AMP formation increased by terbutaline. (nii.ac.jp)